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 Born in 1807 in Genoa, Italy.
 Member of Carbonari (Secret Society).
 Exiled in 1831 for attempting to spark revolts in Liguria.
 Created Young Italy in Marseilles and Young Europe in
Berne (secret societies).
 Believed that God had intended nations to group
together like people and form nation-states based on
 Pushed for Italian unification and liberal nationalism
and was thus Metternich’s least favorite person.
 Chief Minister of Sardinia-Piedmont.
 Spoke French better than Italian due to his status as a
rich and aristocratic family member.
 Signed an important alliance with France which
caused the two to be able to force Austria out of
Northern Italy for the price of Savoy.
 Occurred after hundreds of years of Ottoman
occupation when the Ottoman empire started to
 Western countries gave support to the cause because
of their cultural links to Ancient Greece and the
propaganda created by Greek expatriates, painters like
Eugene Delacroix, and generous supporters like the
poet Lord Byron
 Gained their independence in 1832 with the Treaty of
Constantinople of 1832.
 Assembly of middle class professionals who advocated
German-Prussian unification.
Gathered in The Church of St. Paul in Frankfurt,
Pushed for a unifying Constitution.
Movement squashed by King Friedrich Wilhelm IV
with the support of the aristocracy and the military.
It also lost some of its favor before being disbanded
due to internal bickering between the middle class and
the artisans.
 Women were considered second-class citizens before,
during, and after revolutions and movements from the
French Revolution to the Unification of Italy and Germany.
 Women stormed the Palace of Versailles yet were not
granted equality in France.
 Women were only allowed to view the Parliament from the
visitor’s gallery.
 Women began creating their own newspapers, political
organizations, protest movements, and novels in order to
gain equal rights. Ex. Louise Otto-Peters who started a
women’s journal and a feminist political association.
 Create the nationalist tri-color flag.
 Encourage Parisian French as the common language.
 Eliminated the barriers to trade and customs.
 National hymns and oaths were created including the
national anthem, Les Marseilles.
 The National Assembly was created after the renaming
of the Estates General.
 Allegories created (Marianne) to help idealize the
abstract ideas of the new republic.
 Marianne and Germania were the allegorical women of
France and Germany respectively.
 They represented the abstract ideas that their countries
viewed as national values.
 Marianne’s red cap represented their idea of liberty, the
tricolor represented the values of the flag and republic, and
the cockade (tricolor) represented that she identified her
political side as French and not one party.
 Germania represented heroism, strength, and is usually
portrayed in a sense of military strength which were
important ideals to the eventual German unification.
 1848- Frankfurt Parliament helped start the ideals of
unification on a grander scale despite its failure.
 Otto Von Bismarck pushed three wars over 7 years up
until 1871 (France, Denmark, Austria) and won them
all to claim a decent amount of territory.
 1871- Wilhelm I became Kaiser Wilhelm I (William) at
a coronation in Versailles.
 New economic and bureaucratic models influence
remaining half of the German and Prussian states to
join voluntarily. (1867~)
 Napoleonic Code, i.e. Civil Code of 1804, influenced
the changes.
Simplified administrative divisions
Abolished feudal systems and freed peasants and serfs.
Guild restrictions removed.
Transport and communication systems were improved.
Middle class artisans and businessmen found new
freedoms due to lack of restrictions but also because of
standardization of currency, customs, weights and
measures, and uniform laws.
 Response to the 3 decade long conservative control
following the Treaty of Vienna.
France pushed out its monarch and created the
Second Republic.
Many workers demanded nationalist unification
based on liberal ideas similar to Mazzini’s.
Demanded a constitution, freedom of the press, and
freedom of association.
Germany’s Frankfurt Parliament was a major event of
this 1848 revolution.
Most revolutions did not succeed.
 Economic- better wages, more unified system of
customs and duties, improved and unified system of
measures and weights, and the right to work.
 Social- suffrage for males above 21 (though women
disagreed with the limits on this), freedom of the
press, freedom of association, a fair representation in
 Political- A proper constitutional government and a
constitution that guarantees the rights of all people.
 German romanticist ideal of das volk. These were the use of folk
songs, folk poetry, and folk dances to capture the true spirit
(volkgeist) of the people to create a common bond.
 Poland- Russian occupation threatened to eradicate the Polish
language and rebellions for independence were crushed.
Religious gatherings, folk dances, and the use of Polish songs
and language were symbols of resistance to Russian oppression.
 Grimm Brothers- fairy (folk) tales were instrumental in the idea
of das volk. They also published a dictionary on the German
language the helped unify the country based on common
language ideals.
 Generally- Romanticism through art, poetry and music glorified
nationalist feelings and expression while criticizing reason and
 Mazzini’s attempts at unification were fruitless but
King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia-Piedmont
pushed for military action to unify the Italian states.
Cavour engineered the defeat of Austrian states in the
north with a diplomatic alliance with France.
Giuseppe Garibaldi and his Red Shirts and pushed out
the Spanish controlled southern Sicilian states.
Finally, after French withdrawal from the Papal States,
an agreement was made to give the Vatican autonomy
and the rest to Italy.
 1688- British Parliament gained power in the Glorious
1707 Act of Union brought Scotland and England into
a bonding form called the United Kingdom of Great
1801- Ireland was forcibly brought into the United
Kingdom (now Northern Ireland)
Union Jack (flag), national anthem, and English
language were promoted to encourage unity.
Special because was done without sudden changes or
 The decline of the Ottoman empire and the success of
Greek independence started the nationalist fervor.
 European powers and the spread of romanticism
increased the nationalist ideas of the Balkan peoples.
 European powers pushed different groups towards
independence in hopes of maintaining influence over
regions of the Balkans.