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Born in 1807 in Genoa, Italy. Member of Carbonari (Secret Society). Exiled in 1831 for attempting to spark revolts in Liguria. Created Young Italy in Marseilles and Young Europe in Berne (secret societies). Believed that God had intended nations to group together like people and form nation-states based on similarities. Pushed for Italian unification and liberal nationalism and was thus Metternich’s least favorite person. Chief Minister of Sardinia-Piedmont. Spoke French better than Italian due to his status as a rich and aristocratic family member. Signed an important alliance with France which caused the two to be able to force Austria out of Northern Italy for the price of Savoy. Occurred after hundreds of years of Ottoman occupation when the Ottoman empire started to decline. Western countries gave support to the cause because of their cultural links to Ancient Greece and the propaganda created by Greek expatriates, painters like Eugene Delacroix, and generous supporters like the poet Lord Byron Gained their independence in 1832 with the Treaty of Constantinople of 1832. Assembly of middle class professionals who advocated German-Prussian unification. Gathered in The Church of St. Paul in Frankfurt, Germany. Pushed for a unifying Constitution. Movement squashed by King Friedrich Wilhelm IV with the support of the aristocracy and the military. It also lost some of its favor before being disbanded due to internal bickering between the middle class and the artisans. Women were considered second-class citizens before, during, and after revolutions and movements from the French Revolution to the Unification of Italy and Germany. Women stormed the Palace of Versailles yet were not granted equality in France. Women were only allowed to view the Parliament from the visitor’s gallery. Women began creating their own newspapers, political organizations, protest movements, and novels in order to gain equal rights. Ex. Louise Otto-Peters who started a women’s journal and a feminist political association. Create the nationalist tri-color flag. Encourage Parisian French as the common language. Eliminated the barriers to trade and customs. National hymns and oaths were created including the national anthem, Les Marseilles. The National Assembly was created after the renaming of the Estates General. Allegories created (Marianne) to help idealize the abstract ideas of the new republic. Marianne and Germania were the allegorical women of France and Germany respectively. They represented the abstract ideas that their countries viewed as national values. Marianne’s red cap represented their idea of liberty, the tricolor represented the values of the flag and republic, and the cockade (tricolor) represented that she identified her political side as French and not one party. Germania represented heroism, strength, and is usually portrayed in a sense of military strength which were important ideals to the eventual German unification. 1848- Frankfurt Parliament helped start the ideals of unification on a grander scale despite its failure. Otto Von Bismarck pushed three wars over 7 years up until 1871 (France, Denmark, Austria) and won them all to claim a decent amount of territory. 1871- Wilhelm I became Kaiser Wilhelm I (William) at a coronation in Versailles. New economic and bureaucratic models influence remaining half of the German and Prussian states to join voluntarily. (1867~) Napoleonic Code, i.e. Civil Code of 1804, influenced the changes. Simplified administrative divisions Abolished feudal systems and freed peasants and serfs. Guild restrictions removed. Transport and communication systems were improved. Middle class artisans and businessmen found new freedoms due to lack of restrictions but also because of standardization of currency, customs, weights and measures, and uniform laws. Response to the 3 decade long conservative control following the Treaty of Vienna. France pushed out its monarch and created the Second Republic. Many workers demanded nationalist unification based on liberal ideas similar to Mazzini’s. Demanded a constitution, freedom of the press, and freedom of association. Germany’s Frankfurt Parliament was a major event of this 1848 revolution. Most revolutions did not succeed. Economic- better wages, more unified system of customs and duties, improved and unified system of measures and weights, and the right to work. Social- suffrage for males above 21 (though women disagreed with the limits on this), freedom of the press, freedom of association, a fair representation in government. Political- A proper constitutional government and a constitution that guarantees the rights of all people. German romanticist ideal of das volk. These were the use of folk songs, folk poetry, and folk dances to capture the true spirit (volkgeist) of the people to create a common bond. Poland- Russian occupation threatened to eradicate the Polish language and rebellions for independence were crushed. Religious gatherings, folk dances, and the use of Polish songs and language were symbols of resistance to Russian oppression. Grimm Brothers- fairy (folk) tales were instrumental in the idea of das volk. They also published a dictionary on the German language the helped unify the country based on common language ideals. Generally- Romanticism through art, poetry and music glorified nationalist feelings and expression while criticizing reason and science. Mazzini’s attempts at unification were fruitless but influential. King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia-Piedmont pushed for military action to unify the Italian states. Cavour engineered the defeat of Austrian states in the north with a diplomatic alliance with France. Giuseppe Garibaldi and his Red Shirts and pushed out the Spanish controlled southern Sicilian states. Finally, after French withdrawal from the Papal States, an agreement was made to give the Vatican autonomy and the rest to Italy. 1688- British Parliament gained power in the Glorious Revolution. 1707 Act of Union brought Scotland and England into a bonding form called the United Kingdom of Great Britain. 1801- Ireland was forcibly brought into the United Kingdom (now Northern Ireland) Union Jack (flag), national anthem, and English language were promoted to encourage unity. Special because was done without sudden changes or upheaval. The decline of the Ottoman empire and the success of Greek independence started the nationalist fervor. European powers and the spread of romanticism increased the nationalist ideas of the Balkan peoples. European powers pushed different groups towards independence in hopes of maintaining influence over regions of the Balkans.