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Pre-notes across the bottom of home screen: Energy makes all movement and change possible. It exists in many forms. Your body gives off heat energy. Land and the oceans are warmed by solar energy. Electrical energy flows through wires. This app explores several forms of energy with videos and fun facts. We will explore the major types of energy: potential energy and kinetic energy. Potential energy is stored energy that is ready to use. Kinetic energy is energy of motion. It is not just ready; it’s already on the move. We will also look at energy transformation or energy change. Energy is never destroyed, but it can change form. For example, electrical energy that enters a television is changed into sound, light, and heat energy. Open the EnergyHD app Select Potential EnergySelect Read and Learn: All energy is either (1)________________________ or (2)___________________________. Potential energy is stored. It’s called potential energy because it has the potential to do (3)____________. In contrast, kinetic energy is already working. Potential energy takes many forms. A few examples are (4)__________________, (5)__________________, and nuclear. Potential mechanical depends on where an object is. One type of potential mechanical energy is (6)_____________. When a rubber band is stretched out, it has the greatest potential elastic mechanical energy. The potential energy weakens as the rubber band (7) _______________. At the same time, the kinetic energy grows. The other type of potential mechanical energy works with (8)__________________. One example is a wrecking ball. When it’s swung back into an elevated position, it has great gravitational potential energy, but it doesn’t have the same power as when at rest. Similarly, water stored at the opening of a hydroelectric dam has immense gravitational potential energy. Meanwhile, water sitting in a puddle has very little potential energy. A second type of potential energy is chemical. Chemical potential energy is ready to be released in a (9)___________________ (10)__________________________. The energy could be released as atoms and molecules combine or as molecules break apart. This chemical potential energy takes the form of heat, light or both. One example is a burning match. The match’s chemical energy becomes heat and light. Finally, a third type of potential energy, nuclear, is similar to potential chemical energy. It is released when bonds (11)_____________in an atom’s nucleus or center. When atomic particles break, their potential nuclear energy is released as heat or radiation. This is called nuclear fission. The energy that the Sun emits into space is produced by nuclear reactions that happen in its core due to the collision of hydrogen nuclei and the formation of helium nuclei. This is called nuclear fusion. Did you KNOW: (Scroll through the facts at the bottom of the screen.) Gravity is a (12)__________________________________ source of potential energy. Scientists are trying to create gravity-powered automobiles. The higher up you are the (13)________________ gravitational potential energy you have. About (14)______________ of the energy used worldwide is nonrenewable. It is released when people burn fossil fuels such as petroleum and coal. Food provides chemical energy. When you digest food, your body breaks down (15)__________________ bonds to help you move and grow. Light bulbs are(16)___________________. Most of their energy is released as heat, not light. Here’s an interesting alternative to light bulbs: plants crossed with firefly DNA. Wind produces about (17)______________ of the world’s electricity, but it is becoming more popular every year. Energy is usually measured in units called (18)_______________________. Tap the left arrow at the top of the screen. Select Touch and Learn Conversion of potential energy to kinetic energy: Touch the glowing spots on the left silver ball that is pulled away from the rest. Named after Sir Isaac Newton, the (1)_________________ ___________________ demonstrates the Law of Conservation of Energy and Momentum. Energy is converted from potential energy to kinetic energy and vice versa, but the total energy remains the (2)___________________.The device consists of a series of pendulums (57 steel balls suspended by a wire) that line up in a row. When one of the balls at the end is pulled away, it (3) ____________ gravitational potential energy. This potential energy is converted into kinetic energy when it is released. As the end ball strikes the other balls, it transfers the (4)______________________________ to the other balls and finally to the ball at the opposite end. As the end ball at the opposite side swings, its (5)_______________ energy is converted to (6)_____________________ energy. Touch the glowing spot between the third and fourth silver ball. Watch the video. (7)Describe what happens in the video. Slide your finger left to right to advance to the next screen. Water behind a dam has an immense (8)_______________________________ potential energy. Touch the blinking yellow dot on the left side of the screen. Water behind a dam has a lot of potential energy. Both the (9) ___________________ of the water and the (10) ___________________ difference (or the head) between where the water enters and leaves the dam, determine the power that can be extracted from the water. Touch the blinking yellow dot near the center of the screen. When the water is held behind a dam is released, the (11) ______________ of the water drives the (12)________________ of a turbine, which is connected to a generator that produces electricity. The water is then released into the river on the other side of the dam. Ignore the blinking yellow dot near the bottom of the screen. You can’t watch the video.—The video does not exist. Slide your finger left to right to advance to the next screen. A battery has (13)____________________ potential energy. Touch the yellow dot near the center of the screen. Batteries store chemical energy and convert it into electricity when connected to a (14)_____________________. A battery is made up of multiple electrochemical cells or galvanic cells. Each electrochemical cell has a positive terminal called a (15)______________________, a negative terminal called the (16)________________________, and the medium or the electrolyte. When connected to a circuit, chemical reactions occur at both the anode and the cathode that (17)_______________ chemical energy into electrical energy. Touch the blinking yellow dot on the left side of the screen. Watch the video (18) Who invented the battery? (19) What do batteries need to work? (20) What is the source of the current? (21) What is the flow of electrons called? (22) Why does the frog’s leg jump? Slide your finger left to right to advance to the next screen. Wood has (23)_________________ chemical energy Touch the blinking yellow dot on bottom left side of the screen. Potential energy is stored energy. Potential chemical energy is stored in the (24) _______________ ___________. The most common examples of chemical energy include fuels, food, wood, natural gas, etc. Chemical energy is released as (25)________________ or (26) ________________ when atoms or molecules combine or break apart. Chemical reactions that release energy are called (27)_______________________, while ones that absorb energy are called (28)_______________________________. Touch the blinking yellow dot on the right side of the screen. When wood is burned, the chemical energy in the wood is converted to (29)______________________. Chemical potential energy is ready to be released in a chemical reaction. The energy could be released when atoms and molecules (30) _______________________ or when they (31) _______________ __________. If atoms or molecules combine, the chemical energy is stored in the bonds that make up the (32) ______________________. If atoms or molecules break apart, then the chemical energy is released as heat and light. Slide your finger left to right to advance to the next screen. Food contains (33)__________________________ energy. Touch the blinking yellow dot on the left side of the screen. Another form of potential chemical energy is in the food we eat. The amount of energy in the food varies depending on the type of food. The energy stored in food is measured in (34)________________________________. One calorie is the amount of heat or energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius. The chemical energy stored in the food is used by (35)______________________ for a wide range of functions that include providing energy for the brain and muscles, maintaining body temperature, and providing energy for growing and reproducing. Touch the blinking yellow dot on the right side of the screen. Watch the video. (36) Which food type had the most energy? Why? Tap the left arrow at the top of the screen. Select See and Learn ACROSS 5 The _______________ is an example of a nuclear reactor. 6 When you dive into a pool, you lose potential energy, but you _____________ kinetic energy (the energy of motion). 7 Nuclear energy is released when chemical bonds _________________. 10 Potential nuclear energy is stored in the bonds inside an ______________. 11 A wrecking ball has the most potential energy just ________________________ it swings. 12 When a rubber band is stretched, it gains _____________________________ energy. 13 The world’s largest ___________________________ powers approximately 5000 homes in Europe. 14 Every minute, enough sunlight reaches Earth’s surface to satisfy humans’ energy demands for a ___________! 15 Chemical potential energy is stored in _______ ________. (two words) 16 In Einstein’s famous equation, E=MC2, the E stands for _______________________. It’s related to mass and speed of light. 17 If you dropped a penny from the top of a skyscraper, it would exert about a _________________ of energy when it landed! 18 The chemical energy in a match becomes both heat and ____________________. 19 The first _______________ ____________________ was invented in the 1880’s. (two words) DOWN 1 Solar radiation ___________________ the oceans and helps plants grow. 2 Energy can’t be destroyed, but it can _________________________ from one type to another. 3 Geothermal energy is produced ___________________________ the Earth. 4 Lightning is created by the _______________________________ of potential energy in rainclouds. 6 Water stored at the opening of a hydroelectric dam has immense _______________________________ potential energy. 8 The world’s largest _____________________________________ dam is the Three Gorges Dam in China. 9 Potential energy is energy that’s ____________________ in an object. 13 Kinetic energy is already _____________________________. Tap the left arrow at the top of the screen. Select Watch and Learn. *Solar Radiation and the Sun’s Path Chapter 1 (4:47) Home consumes energy in many ways: What percent of consumed energy is used on each of the following: (1) cooling and heating of space_____________ (2) water heating________________ (3) Lighting _____________ (4) What changes the amount of solar energy gained through the seasons? (5) What is the name for the angle related to the southerly direction of solar energy called? *How Geothermal Energy Works (4:54) (6) Where are the hottest granites on Earth at reasonable drilling depth? *Introduction to Wind Power (7) What where the first windmills produced to do? (8) When did large wind farms first appear and wind produced energy become commercially available? (9) What are the parts of a wind turbine? *Lightning Science from the University of Arizona (5:35) (10) What are the two types of lightning? (11) Describe why/how lightning works. (12) How hot is the heat energy of the return stroke? (13) What kind of lightning flashes tend to have a greater probability for starting fires and damaging electrical power lines? *Where Energy Comes From (3:52) (14) What are the three types of fossil fuels produced from organic remains of prehistoric plants and animals? (15) What type of charge does the nucleus have? (16) What type of charge do electrons have? (17) What is the flow of electrons called? (18) Name three kinds of renewable, cleaner energy forms. *Kinetic & Potential Energy (4:07) (19) What type of energy did the rock have when it was falling? (20) True or False. The faster moving rock has less kinetic energy than the slower moving rock. *Potential Energy: Wile E. Coyote & Roadrunner (1:22) (21) The elastic potential of the torsional spring in the giant mouse trap had ___________________ energy that was converted to _________________ energy. (22)The elastic potential of the compressional spring converted to kinetic energy that converted to ______________________________ potential energy that converted to kinetic energy. *Physics: Kinetic and Potential Energy in a Roll (1:47) (23) The basic underlying principals start with what? (24) The ability to do work is called what? (25) Moving something with force through a distance is known as what? *DNA Animations: What is Potential Energy? (:30) (26) Stored energy is called what? (27) True or False. To build potential energy you can raise an object against gravity. Tap the left arrow at the top of the screen. Select Quiz and Learn Potential Energy 1. Which could cause energy to appear as light? A. atoms combining B. molecules combining C. molecules breaking apart D. all of the above 2. Which of the following is most responsible for movement? A. energy B. molecules C. chemicals D. scientists don’t know 3. According to the lesson, what type of energy does your body produce? A. light B. heat C. nuclear D. all of the above 4. Which of the following is true? A. Energy cannot be stored. B. Kinetic energy is stored energy. C. Potential energy is stored energy. D. None of the above. 5. What are the two main types of energy mentioned in the lesson? A. chemical and nuclear B. potential and kinetic C. light and heat D. mechanical and elastic 6. Which type of energy relies most heavily on an object’s position? A. chemical B. gravitational C. nuclear D. electrical 7. Which of the following is true? A. Most objects do not contain potential energy. B. Without burning fossil fuels, we could never meet energy demands. C. Enough solar energy is available to power all current human activities. D. Water is an outdated source of power. 8. How is chemical energy similar to nuclear energy? A. They are both examples of gravitational energy. B. They are both examples of mechanical energy. C. They both happen when bonds break or form. D. They are both risk-free sources of power. 9. Why is it more dangerous to drop a stone from higher up? A. Chemical reactions are more powerful in a thin atmosphere. B. Nuclear reactions are more powerful with height. C. Energy increases with speed. D. All of the above. 10. How is kinetic energy different from potential energy? A. Only kinetic energy can be stored. B. Kinetic energy is in motion. C. Kinetic energy can be destroyed. D. Only kinetic energy can be increased. 11. Your teacher is about to dive off of a board. How could your teacher make a more powerful splash? A. Stand on a lower board. B. Stand on a higher board. C. Wear heavy clothes. D. Both stand on higher a board and wear heavy clothes. 12. If two objects have the same mass, what could explain their different potentials for energy? A. different lengths B. different heights C. different lengths and heights D. none, they both have the same potential. 13. Which object has greater potential energy? A. a rubber band resting on the ground B. a hunting bow resting on the ground C. a rubber band that is stretched D. a rubber band that is not stretched 14. Gravity is weaker on the Moon than on Earth. If cats were astronauts, how would their potential energy change on the moon? A. The cat’s potential energy would not change. B. The cat’s weights must be known. C. Cats would have more potential energy on the Moon than on the Earth. D. Cats would have less potential energy on the Moon than on Earth. 15. If you bounced a ball, at what point would it have more potential energy? A. before it left your hands B. immediately after leaving your hands C. when it hit the ground D. when it started to bounce up from the ground. Select the back button twice to the home page. Select Kinetic Energy. Select Read and Learn Energy is either potential or kinetic. Potential energy is stored and waiting to work, by kinetic energy is already working. When one type of energy rises, the other falls. For example, your stored energy decreases when your physical activity level increases. Energy is never destroyed but it can take different forms. Kinetic energy can take five forms: (1) _________________________________ results when molecules vibrate. For example, the higher the temperature inside a stove, the faster the molecules inside it are moving. (2)__________________ kinetic energy is the movement of electrons. Electrons move around the nucleus of an atom. Electric kinetic energy is different from electricity. Electric kinetic energy is the movement of electrons within an atom. Electricity is the flow of an electric charge. (3) ___________________ kinetic energy is the movement of objects or substances from one place to another. A ship moving across the ocean has mechanical kinetic energy. A Frisbee in flight also has mechanical kinetic energy. Wind and humans are examples of possible sources of mechanical kinetic energy. Kinetic (4) _________________ energy moves through substances such as air. It takes the shape of waves. Your voice, a bee’s buzz, and a teapot’s whistle are all sound energy. Finally (5)_____________________ energy also travels in waves. Radiant energy is electromagnetic. Some examples are sunlight, X-rays, radio waves, and heat from incandescent light bulbs. Did you KNOW: (Scroll through the facts at the bottom of the screen.) The total amount of energy in an object is its potential energy (6)________________ its kinetic energy. The word “kinetic” comes from the Greek word (7)____________________, which means “motion”. If you double the (8) ______________ of an object, you double its kinetic mechanical energy. When two objects travel at the (9) _________ speed, the heavier one has more kinetic mechanical energy. Kinetic energy depends on mass and (10) ____________________, which is the speed of something in a given direction. Radiant energy emitted by the Earth is called (11) ____________________________radiation. Sound energy travels through the (12)__________ at about 340 meters per second. About half the radiation you experience is from (13)______________________ sources: the Earth, the Sun, and processes with your own body! Kinetic energy is (14)______________________________ by multiplying half the object’s mass by its velocity squared. Faster vibrations create (15)_________________________________ sounds. Some measures for (16)______________________ _______________ are the joule, the Newton-meter (Nm), and the kilogram meter squared over seconds squared (kg m2/s2). If you double the speed of an object, you (17)_________________________ its kinetic mechanical energy. The word “energy” is from the Greek word (18)_________________________. Solar (19)_________________________ contains infrared light, visible light, and ultraviolet light. A diet of (20)__________________ calories per day is equivalent to about 8,368 joules! Terrestrial radiation is 100% (21)________________________. Tap the left arrow at the top of the screen. Select Touch and Learn A swing has both kinetic and potential energy. Touch the blinking yellow dot on the center of the screen. Press play on the video. Pulling the bowling ball back from the middle, it gave it potential energy. When we let go of it, it had kinetic energy. The kinetic energy will (1)_________________________be bigger than the potential energy. It’s only going to have as much energy as we gave it. Energy can be changed from one form to another. Electricity is a form of energy. A lot of it comes from the heat released from burning (2)__________________. Slide your finger left to right to advance to the next screen. A moving car has kinetic energy. Touch the blinking yellow dot on the center of the screen. Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. The word “kinetic” comes from the Greek word for kinesis, which means “motion.” Kinetic energy is calculated by multiplying half of an object’s mass by its velocity squared. So in the case of a car, its kinetic energy is half of the mass of the car (approx.2000-3000 pounds depending on the size of the car) times the velocity of the car squared. Did you know that the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) estimates that for every 100 pounds taken off of a vehicle, its fuel economy is (3)___________________ by 1-2 percent? Touch the blinking yellow dot on the left side of the screen. Just like human bodies need air, water, and food, cars need gasoline, electricity, and air. Inside a gasoline engine (an internal combustion engine), the right amount of fuel and air are mixed and ignited by a (4)_______________. These controlled explosions inside the engine block generate power. This pushes the piston which turns the crankshaft and driveshaft to deliver power to the wheels. Thus, the chemical energy in the fuel is converted to mechanical kinetic energy. Slide your finger left to right to advance to the next screen. Flowing water has kinetic energy. Touch the blinking yellow dot on the left side of the screen. A fire hydrant is a source of water is used by firefighters to extinguish a fire. Before the invention of the fire hydrant by George Smith in 1817, some cities had (5)________________ brigades. These were a group of volunteer firefighters who would carry buckets of water from the water source to the site of the fire. Touch the blinking yellow dot just right of the center of the screen. When water is not moving, it has (6)_____________________ energy. This potential energy causes static pressure to build up in a system. When a firefighter opens a hydrant, some of the potential energy of the water that is not moving is converted into kinetic energy of the moving water. Some of the potential energy is used to overcome friction in the pipe and the rest is converted into kinetic energy. Slide your finger left to right to advance to the next screen. A bicycle (7)__________________ converts kinetic energy to thermal energy. Touch the blinking yellow dot near the bottom of the screen. A bicycle brake converts the kinetic energy of the bike into thermal energy or heat using friction. When the brake is applied, the pads on the brake come into contact with the rim of the rotating wheel of the bicycle. The (8) _________________________________between the pads and the rim converts the kinetic energy into thermal energy, which is dissipated. As the bicycle loses its kinetic energy, it slows down or stops. Touch the blinking yellow dot just above the middle of the screen. While there are many different types of brakes, all of them rely on friction between (9)_____________ surfaces to reduce kinetic energy by converting it into thermal. The earliest brake, the spoon brake consisted of a pad that was pressed on top of the front tire. The newer rim brakes use pads to press against the rims of the rotating wheel. Slide your finger left to right to advance to the next screen. Sound energy is a form of kinetic energy. Touch the blinking yellow dot just below the middle of the screen. Kinetic sound energy moves though (10)_____________________________ such as air. Sound energy travels through the air at about 340 meters per second. It takes the shape of waves. Your voice, a bee’s buzz, a teapot’s whistle are all sound energy. Sound energy is created by vibrations, such as vibrations in a drum or your vocal chords. Touch the blinking yellow dot near the center of the screen. Press play on the video. Sound can be considered to be composed from three areas: noise, language, and musical tone. Noise is a random type of oscillation. The point of no vibration is called a (11) ___________________. The point of maximum vibration is known as the antinode. From node to node is the wave length. it is the wavelength that that determines the frequency or pitch of the sound we hear. The (12)__________________________ shows no vibration at the node of the pipe. As the microphone moves towards the middle of the pipe, it finds the antinode. When a string is plucked we can hear its fundamental pitch. A string can vibrate at several frequencies at once. A pure pitch has one frequency on the spectrum analyzer known as the (13)_________________________. Every instrument has its own unique sound created out of its overtone structure. Tap the left arrow at the top of the screen. Select See and Learn DOWN 2 Electrical kinetic energy is the movement of electrons. Electrons move around the _____________ of an atom. 3 When two objects travel at the same speed, the __________ one has more mechanical kinetic energy. 5 Waves of kinetic energy move through ____ and other substances. 7 You can ___________________ kinetic energy by increasing mass. 9 Radiant energy from the Earth is 100% ____________. 10 When potential energy _________________________, kinetic energy increases. 11 Radiant energy from the Sun contains infrared light, visible light, and ___________ light. 12 Mechanical kinetic energy is the ________________________ of objects or substances from one place to another. 16 You can increase kinetic energy by increasing ________. 18 Radiant energy such as radio signals and sunlight also travels in _____________________________. ACROSS 1 A Frisbee in flight has mechanical __________energy. 4 A whale’s sounds can _________ several hundreds of kilometers underwater. 6 Thermal energy results when molecules ___________________________. 8 When potential energy is ________________, kinetic energy is lowest. 13 Medical X-rays are a major source of human-made _________. 14 Sailboats get their ____________________________ kinetic energy from wind pushing the sails. 15 Kinetic energy is ________ energy. 17 This type of energy created by vibrations, such as vibrations in your vocal chords. 19 Because of geothermal energy, for every 100 meters you dig into the Earth, the______________________ increases by about three degrees Celsius. Tap the left arrow at the top of the screen. Select Watch and Learn *The Electromagnetic Spectrum (2:56) (1) Deep inside the Sun’s core, immense gravitational pressure convert hydrogen to ____________ releasing energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation. (2) The reactions inside the Sun create energy called ___________ that travel to the surface of Earth in the form of waves. (3) The distance between one crest to another is called a wavelength. The shorter wavelength means that there is ________ energy. *Sound, Energy, and Wave Motion (2:29) (4)Sound waves are ______________ waves in a medium that are converted to electrical signals and sent by the auditory nerve to the brain where it is interpreted to sound. (5) Sound waves have frequency and amplitude. On a sign-wave, the movement of the a molecule from the axis to as far above the axis to as far below the axis and back to the axis is known as one vibration or ________. (6) The number of sound waves there are per second the sound wave produces through the medium it is traveling through is known as its ______________. *Bill Nye-The Science Guy on Heat (2:05) (7)The molecules is cold things move more ________ than the molecules in hot things. (8) A hot burning match has less heat energy than the ice sculpture because the ice sculpture has more ___________. *Geothermal power: how does it work? (2:09) (9) The subterranean heat resources are more accessible at the frontiers of __________ where volcanic activity is common. (10) Geothermal power is called a ______ _______ power source, operating 24 hours seven days a week, making it an appealing renewable energy resource. *Real World: Work, Force, Energy, and Motion (8:50) (11) The use of force to move an object a certain distance is known as ___________. (12) To be counted as work, the applied force has to be in the same direction as the _________ of the object. (13) Work = ___________________ times _________________________. (14) Force is measured in Newtons and distance is measured in meters. A Newton-meter is known as a ________, or a standard unit used to measure work. (15) Lifting an apple is an example of a ______________ of energy. (16) Stored energy is known as ______________ energy. (17) Potential energy based on the height of an object is known as __________________ potential energy (GPE). It depends on mass, acceleration, and height. (18) The unit for measuring gravitational potential energy is the ___________________. (19) The kinetic energy of an object depends on its mass and _________________. *Physics for Kids Rutgers- Energy of Motion (5:17) (20) To keep something in rotational motion, a gravitational pull towards the __________ of the circle is necessary. *Electromagnetic Spectrum: Radio waves (3:57) (21) The longest waves that contain the least amount of any electromagnetic energy are known as____________________. (22) Radio waves are electromagnetic have been used to discover quasars, pulsars, and plasma clouds. NASA’s Stereo Satellite can monitor radio waves from the Sun’s ____________. *This is Science “Sound” Experiment (6:02) (23) In the experiment, friction causes vibration and the cup amplifies the sound. The __________ and ____________ of the container changes the sound that is created when a damp cloth is dragged along the string attached. Tap the left arrow at the top of the screen. Kinetic Energy Select Quiz and Learn 1.. What is electrical kinetic energy? A. The destruction of electrons. B. The combining of electrons. C. The separation of electrons. D. The movement of electrons. 2. Kinetic energy is best described as A. waiting. B. working. C. always increasing. D. always decreasing. 3. How many major types of kinetic energy were named in the lesson? A. two B. Three C. Four D. Five 4. X-rays are a type of __________. A. Thermal energy B. Sound energy C. Radiant energy D. Radiant terrestrial energy 5. How is kinetic energy related to potential energy? A. When potential energy decreases, kinetic energy increases. B. When potential energy decreases, kinetic energy decreases. C. Both depend on mass and velocity. D. Both move objects from one place to another. 6. Which of the following is true? A. Only living things can have kinetic energy. B. Only living things can have potential energy. C. Only moving objects have energy. D. None of the above. 7. Where would molecule be vibrating the fastest? A. In a glacier B. In a cup of water C. In a baker’s oven D. At the Sun’s surface 8. Which is the best example of mechanical kinetic energy? A. A baseball in flight B. A bird’s whistle C. Ultraviolet light D. Heat from a light bulb. 9. Fill in the blank. When an apple starts to fall from a tree, ___________________. A. Its potential energy becomes kinetic energy. B. Its potential energy becomes potential energy. C. Its potential energy and kinetic energy increase. D. Its potential energy and kinetic energy decrease. 10. Which is an example of kinetic energy? A. Gallons of airplane fuel intended for burning. B. An airplane waiting to take off. C. An airplane circling to land. D. All of the above. 11. A car with one passenger is traveling don the highway. Which action would decrease the car’s kinetic energy? A. Add a passenger or heavy luggage. B. Increase the car’s speed. C. Slow the car down. D. You cannot change kinetic energy. 12. When a ball drops and bounces a few times, why does it lose height with each bounce? A. Its kinetic energy increases. B. Some of its kinetic energy is lost. C. The ball absorbs terrestrial energy. D. Some of its potential energy becomes 13. A 75-pound boy and his 150 pound father jog together at five miles per hour. Who has more kinetic energy? A. the boy B. the father C. neither D. more information is needed. 14. Which of three identical toys will have the most kinetic energy when it falls to the floor? A. A toy set on the floor. B. A toy left on a coffee table. C. A toy hidden on top of a refrigerator. D. The toys have identical amounts of kinetic energy. 15. If you throw a ball up into the air and catch it, at what point does it have the most kinetic energy? A. Before it leaves your hands. B. When you release it. C. When it turns to fall down. D. When you catch it. Select the back button twice to the home page. Select Energy Transformation Select Read and Learn Energy falls into two main categories. One is potential energy such as calories stored in a sandwich. The other is kinetic energy or working energy. An example of kinetic energy is your movement down a street. Both types of energy can change form. For example, the chemical energy in food can become (1)_________________________ energy that powers your body. We call this energy (2)_____________________________. An object can have potential energy and kinetic energy at the same time. When one increases, the other one decreases. The law of conservation of energy states that energy cannot be created or destroyed. Although energy can’t be created or destroyed, some types of energy transformation are more (3)___________________ than others. That is, sometimes energy changes into forms we can’t easily recapture. For instance, some energy is always lost as heat. Let’s look at cars as an example. Most vehicles today (4)_________________ by transforming chemical energy. Henry Ford’s first cars transformed chemical energy stored in biomass such as tomato plants. Many cars today use gasoline. Either way, car engines transform chemical energy into mechanical energy. Some of the energy transformed inside a car’s engine is lost as heat or thermal energy. The more friction there is, the more thermal energy is created. Electric cars run on rechargeable batteries and pollute much (5)__________________ than traditional cars. Still, they lose some of their battery power to heat. Did you KNOW: (Scroll through the facts at the bottom of the screen.) Windmills were first used in (6)____________________ around the year 200 BC. California’s Mojave Desert is home to the world’s largest (7)____________________ project. The loss of useable energy as heat is called (8)____________________. Nuclear waste is stored underground in tanks. It will remain (9)_______________________________ for tens of thousands of years. In the 1880’s, Thomas Edison created a reliable long-lasting light bulb after about 1,000 tries. Solar and wind energy are (10)__________________________ and non-polluting. Architects have designed soundscrapers. These look like skyscrapers, but they transform a city’s sounds into useable energy. By screaming for about eight years, you could create enough (11)__________________energy to heat a cup of tea. People have long used solar kinetic energy to heat water, cook food, remove salt from seawater, and dry clothes. In addition to heat energy, nuclear reactions create nuclear (12)____________________. The Mojave Desert solar power plants help prevent tons of fossil fuel (13)______________ such as carbon dioxide from polluting our atmosphere. Tap the left arrow at the top of the screen. Select Touch and Learn Plants convert solar energy into chemical energy. Touch the blinking yellow dot just above and to the right of center of the screen. The leaves of a plant contain a green pigment call (1)__________________________, which absorbs the Sun’s energy. This energy is used by the plant to convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and carbohydrates. Thus energy from the Sun is transformed into chemical energy stored in the (2)_______________________. The plant uses this chemical energy to grow, and produce flowers and seeds. Touch the blinking yellow dot just below the center of the screen. Press play on the video. Proteins, fats, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates are synthesized by light energy in the cells. Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll. (3)_____________________________ are hollow disks within chloroplasts. The molecules of life are synthesized in the stroma of a plant. Glucose is converted into (4)_________________ by plants to use for energy. Slide your finger left to right to advance to the next screen. Energy is transformed during a typical lightning strike. Touch the blinking yellow dot just above and to the left of center of the screen. During a lightning strike, the (5)______________________________ potential energy created by the charge in the clouds is transformed into light energy, sound energy, and thermal energy. About 1 billion to 10 billion joules of energy is associated with an average three mile long lightning strike. Touch the blinking yellow dot just above and to the right of center of the screen. Press play on the video. The lightning flash that you see is referred to as the return stroke. Flash is what you can see, a lightning stroke are individual pulses of current separated by hundredths of a second. A lightning strike hits the ground. Thunderstorms develop when the atmosphere is (5)________________________ and warm air tries to rise up and pushes up cooler air. Slide your finger left to right to advance to the next screen. A windmill transforms the kinetic energy of the (6)________________ into mechanical or electrical energy. Touch the blinking yellow dot on the center of the windmill blades. A windmill converts the kinetic energy of the wind into (7)_________________________________ mechanical energy. Unlike a wind turbine, that was developed to generate electricity, windmills were primarily used for industrial purposes such as milling grains, pumping water, etc. Touch the blinking yellow dot just above and to the left of center of the screen. Uneven heating of the Earth’s (8)_______________________________ by the Sun and the Earth’s rotation cause differences in atmospheric pressure that result in winds. Wind energy is the kinetic energy of the air in motion. Slide your finger left to right to advance to the next screen. (9)___________________ _______________ transform radiant solar energy into electrical energy. Touch the blinking yellow dot just below and to the left of center of the screen. When sunlight hits a solar panel, its energy is absorbed by the semiconducting material in the panel and is used to form charge carriers. In the presence of an (10)_________________ ________________________, these charges separated forming the electric current. This is known as the Photovoltaic effect. Touch the blinking yellow dot just above and to the right of center of the screen. Press play on the video. Solar cells convert sunlight into electricity. Sand is processed into purified (11)____________________________ and doped with trace amounts of boron and phosphorus, creating a P-N junction. A permanent electric field is created within the crystal. When sunlight strikes a solar cell, electrons ejected from atoms and are steered to the N-type side. If a wire is connected to both sides of the cell, electric current can flow whenever sunlight strikes the solar cell. Slide your finger left to right to advance to the next screen. A (12)_________________________ heating wire transforms electrical energy into thermal energy. Touch the blinking yellow dot on the left side of the screen. The ratio of the output energy to the input energy is known as the energy (13)________________________ efficiency. Combustion engines, such as those in a car, have energy conversion efficiencies less than 50% Our muscles energy conversion efficiency is between 15% - 25%. Wind turbines can have up to (14)________________, while solar cells can have conversion efficiencies up to 40%. Electric space heaters can have up to 100% energy conversion efficiency. Touch the blinking yellow dot just below and to the right of center of the screen. Ceramic heaters have a (15)____________________________________ heating wire that is embedded in a ceramic material. When it is turned on, the resistance wire inside the heater transforms the electrical energy into thermal energy. This thermal energy is then transformed to the ceramic material, which then radiates the heat. The (16)_____________ inside the heater blows the heated air. Tap the left arrow at the top of the screen. Select See and Learn ACROSS 2 Nuclear power plants harness potential energy from bonds inside _______. 4 Sometimes energy changes into forms we can’t easily _______. 7 Light from plants is called chlorophyll _____________. 11 Potential energy in _______ is often measured in calories. 13 Nuclear waste is stored _________ in tanks. 15 Wind is the kinetic energy of air. Turbines transform wind into ______________ energy. 16 Henry Ford’s first cars transformed energy from _______. 19 A television transforms __________ energy into light energy, sound energy, and heat energy. 20 You can power a television, a bus, or any machine by transforming humans’ ________ energy. DOWN 1 Kinetic energy is sometimes called ___________________ energy. 3 Sir Joseph Swan invented the first electric _________ in 1878. (two words) 5 With ________________, plants transform solar energy into chemical energy. 6 A substance’s ___________ is a measure of its molecules’ average kinetic energy. 8 Combustion _______________in most cars transform chemical energy into mechanical energy. 9 Energy changes _____. 10 Solar cells convert _________ energy from the sun into electrical energy. 12 Spacecraft use solar panels to _______________power. 14 In a campfire, the potential chemical energy stored in _______ becomes thermal energy and light energy. 17 Some energy is ____ as heat. 18 Polluting/Solar energy is everlasting and ___________. (include the hyphen) Tap the left arrow at the top of the screen. Select Watch and Learn *Energy: Bill Nye on Energy Part 1 (8:50) (1) Sound, heat, falling things, moving muscles, electricity are forms of ________________. (2) Baking soda and vinegar caused a chemical reaction that builds up pressure so the top of the bottle comes off because __________ energy changes into __________ energy. *Energy: Bill Nye on Energy Part 2 (6:06 ) (3) Nuclear power comes from ________________. (4) Water spins the propellers on a ____________. This spinning turbine turns a generator that then creates electricity. (5) A laser converts ___________________ energy into___________________ energy by causing gas molecules to vibrate at same speed as heat waves. *Energy: Bill Nye on Energy Part 3 (8:02) (6) Oil is a _______ _________ and is one of the major forms of energy that we use. (7) Energy changes form in your body as food is broken down into _______________. Some of that energy is changed into heat. (8) Energy we get from food began as _______ energy from the Sun. *The Simple Story of Photosynthesis and Food (4:00) (9) Sixty percent of the foods you eat are ______________ that contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. (10) The high energy rays of the Sun help a plant break apart a water molecule to be used during the process of _________________. (11)Glucose is turned into ATP in the ______________ of cells which provide the energy our bodies need. *Batteries of the Future: chap. 5 (3:48) (12)Lithium-ion batteries that are used in cell phones, laptops, etc. have three parts known as what? (13)In a Lithium-ion battery, high concentrations of lithium atoms start in the anode and move to the cathode in a __________ process. In a charging process the atoms move in the opposite direction. *Forms of Energy (excerpt) (1:21 ) (14) Heavier objects have_________ kinetic energy than lighter objects moving at the same speed. Tap the left arrow at the top of the screen. Transformation 1. Most car engines transform __________________ into _______________. A. chemical energy, mechanical energy B. mechanical energy, chemical energy C. thermal energy, mechanical energy D. kinetic energy, potential energy 2. The law of conservation of energy states that A. energy is constantly created B. energy is constantly destroyed C. energy is renewable D. energy cannot be created or destroyed 3. Which phase describes the energy of a burning log? A. potential energy B. light energy C. thermal energy D. all of the above 4. A plant converts ___________ into ________________. A. thermal energy, chemical energy B. chemical energy, solar energy C. solar energy, mechanical energy D. solar energy, chemical energy 5. Wind is a type of ______________. A. chemical energy B. kinetic energy C. geothermal energy D. nonrenewable energy 6. Which type of energy transformation is newest to humans? A. solar B. wind C. chemical D. nuclear 7. Which of the following transforms sound energy into electrical energy and then back into sound energy? A. a car motor B. a television C. a telephone D. all of the above 8. Which of the following is true? A. Cars rely on potential chemical energy. B. Plant energy is not useful. C. Electric cars are 100% efficient. D. all of the above Select Quiz and Learn 9. An old-fashioned light bulb converts electricity into heat and light. The loss of energy is called: A. fossil fuel transformation B. entropy C. 100% efficiency D. fluorescence 10. When energy changes form, _____________________________ A. the change is always permanent. B. a portion of it is destroyed. C. it can take more than one new form. D. it can take only one new form. 11. What is meant by “a more fuel-efficient” car? A. The car uses biomass as fuel. B. The car’s top speed is above average. C. The car doesn’t experience friction. D. The car loses less energy as heat. 12. A spaceship without fuel could move in outer space. What explains this best? A. The Law of Energy Conservation B. The ship is moved by powerful winds. C. The ship is powered by the Sun. D. The ship is powered by space energy. 13. Which of the following could possibly power a light bulb? A. a person jogging B. sound waves from a music concert C. energy from chemical bonds D. all of the above 14. How would an energy-efficient light bulb best compare with a standard bulb? A. It would produce less heat and more light. B. It would produce less light and more heat. C. It would produce more heat and more light. D. It would produce less heat and more light. 15. Compare the potential energy of ice molecules with the potential energy of liquid water molecules. A. Ice molecules have more potential energy. B. Ice molecules have less potential energy. C. The potential energy of ice and water is equal. D. More information is needed.