Download Chapter 10 Energy PowerPoint

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Potential energy wikipedia, lookup

William Flynn Martin wikipedia, lookup

Open energy system models wikipedia, lookup

Kinetic energy wikipedia, lookup

Energy subsidies wikipedia, lookup

100% renewable energy wikipedia, lookup

Dark energy wikipedia, lookup

Energy storage wikipedia, lookup

Public schemes for energy efficient refurbishment wikipedia, lookup

Regenerative brake wikipedia, lookup

Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program wikipedia, lookup

Energy Charter Treaty wikipedia, lookup

Zero-energy building wikipedia, lookup

World energy consumption wikipedia, lookup

Low-carbon economy wikipedia, lookup

International Energy Agency wikipedia, lookup

Alternative energy wikipedia, lookup

Life-cycle greenhouse-gas emissions of energy sources wikipedia, lookup

Energy efficiency in transport wikipedia, lookup

Energy returned on energy invested wikipedia, lookup

Energy policy of the United Kingdom wikipedia, lookup

Energy harvesting wikipedia, lookup

Energy policy of Finland wikipedia, lookup

Distributed generation wikipedia, lookup

Otto cycle wikipedia, lookup

Internal energy wikipedia, lookup

Negawatt power wikipedia, lookup

Gibbs free energy wikipedia, lookup

Energy policy of the European Union wikipedia, lookup

Energy in the United Kingdom wikipedia, lookup

Conservation of energy wikipedia, lookup

Energy efficiency in British housing wikipedia, lookup

United States energy law wikipedia, lookup

Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 wikipedia, lookup

Energy applications of nanotechnology wikipedia, lookup

Energy: ability to do work
Potential energy: stored energy
Kinetic energy: energy due to motion KE = ½ mv2
Law of conservation of energy: Energy can
neither be created or destroyed.
Work: Force acting over a distance
State function: A property of a system that
changes independently of its pathway. Energy
change is a state function whereas heat and work
are not.
Temperature: Average kinetic energy
Heat: Flow of energy due to a temperature
difference. It is the total kinetic energy.
System: Part of the universe you are observing.
Surroundings include everything else in the
Exothermic: energy flows out of the system
Endothermic: energy is absorbed from the
In any exothermic reaction, some of the potential
energy stored in the chemical bonds is converted
to thermal energy as heat.
Heat flow into the surroundings (exothermic)
LOWERS the potential energy.
What does an endothermic process do to the
potential energy of a system?
Internal energy: sum of the P.E. and the K.E. of a
system. ΔE = q + w where q = heat and w = work
A calorie is the amount of energy it takes to raise 1
gram of a substance 1.0oC.
1 calorie = 4.184 J
Specific heat capacity is the amount of energy
needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a
substance 1 degree Celsius. S.H. for liquid water is
4.184 J/g oC.
Q = m· c· ΔT
J = g · ΔT · S.H.
Enthalpy: The amount of energy that is produced
or absorbed in a given reaction. ΔH
Calorimeter: A device used to determine the heat
associated with a chemical reaction.
Hess’s Law: In going from a particular set of
reactants to a particular set of products, the
change in enthalpy is the same whether the
reaction takes place in one step or in a series of
Entropy: a measure of disorder or randomness.
Law of Conservation of Energy: Energy can neither be created or
When we use energy, we degrade its usefulness and the quality of
that energy is lowered.
Concentrated energy (like gasoline) used to do work becomes energy
that is spread out throughout the universe.
Energy concerns are based on the quality, not the quantity of energy.
The concept of the “heat death” of the universe addresses the
eventuality that at some point in time all the energy will be spread
evenly throughout the universe and thus will be at the same
temperature. At this point, it would no longer to do any work and the
universe will be “dead”.
Sources of energy in our world include:
Petroleum: made of hydrocarbons
Gasoline, kerosene, diesel, heating oil, asphalt
Natural gas: primarily made of methane
Hydro: water