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The Cold War Expands
Angela Brown
Chapter 16 Section 3
The Korean War
•1945 Allies divide
Korea into SovietOccupied northern
zone and an
American –
Occupied Southern
•Occupying forces
withdrew from both
zones in 1948-1949.
Korean War
• June 1950, the Korean War broke
out when North Korean troops
streamed across the 38th parallel,
the latitude dividing the two
nations, aiming to reunite Korea by
• The USSR was boycotting the
Security Council protesting the
exclusion of Communist China, the
UN was able to act to defend South
Douglas MacArthur
•Hero of two World
Wars – strong anticommunist Truman’s
choice to lead UN
forces in Korea
•Graduated from
U.S. military
academy at West
Point in 1903
• Cited 7 times for bravery in WWI and by
1918 at age 38 he attained rank of
• 1930 Army Chief of Staff
• WWII – Commander of American forces
in Asia
• Virtual dictator of Japan during postwar
– responsible for establishing Western
Democracy – creating new democratic
• Less successful in implementing
democracy in South Korea –
supported South Korean President
Syngman Rhee
• Hero to troops and American Public
• Disliked as overly ambitious by
political leaders
• MacArthur had little respect for
both Roosevelt and Truman.
• He viewed them as soft on
• He had contempt for anyone with
authority over him; it undermined
his otherwise brilliant career.
The Korean War
• Excellent military strategist, MacArthur,
developed a bold plan to drive the
invaders from South Korea.
• South Korea overtaken in just a few
weeks – except small part near port city
of Pusan.
• Guessed that swift advance had left
supply lines stretched thin.
• Sept 1950 attacked enemy supply lines
from behind and sent forces to defend
Korean War
• His strategy worked . The North
Koreans fled back across 38th
• UN troops pursued them Northward
and began boasting of reuniting
Korea under South Korean
• Chinese joined North Koreans and
pushed UN forces back into South
Korea; a stalemate developed.
• MacArthur favored opening a
second front by bringing Chinese
opposition from Taiwan under
Jiang Jieshi to fight communist
• Truman opposed; he feared
widespread war in Asia.
MacArthur Fired
• MacArthur sent letter to House
minority leader Joseph Marlin in
March 1951 attacking the
President’s policy.
• Martin made letter public; on April
11 Truman fired MacArthur for
• The struggle dragged on for two
more years.
• 1953 truce signed; left Korea
divided by the 38th parallel as
• Americans wondered why 55,000
soldiers had been killed and 103,000
wounded for limited results.
• Was the U.S. serious about
stopping communism?
The Cold War in the 1950s
• 1953 Eisenhower succeeded
• New phase of Cold War policy
• Sec of State John Foster Dulles
called for a policy to roll back
• Eisenhower recognized risk of
confronting Soviets did not
intervene in revolts in Eastern
Germany, Poland and Hungary in
• Policy of containment continued.
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Southeast Asia
• July 1953 fulfilled campaign
promise to end Korean War – aided
by death of Stalin in March.
• Conflict developed in Vietnam –
French colony
• 1945 Ho Chi Minh, head of
Vietnamese Communist Party
declared independence.
Ho Chi Minh
Domino theory
• France sent troops to reassert
authority = war
• Eisenhower believed in Domino
• If one country fell to communists
its neighbors would soon follow.
• By 1954 U.S. providing military aid
to support France in Vietnam.
• May 1954, major defeat = France
withdrew forces
• International conference divided
Vietnam like Korea.
• U.S. provided aid to South Vietnam
but resisted greater involvement.
The Middle East
• British controlled Palestine – region
on Med. Coast and biblical home of
Jewish people
• 1930s many Jews sought safety in
Palestine – called for a Jewish state
• 1947 British turned over to UN –
created two states one Jewish and
one Arab
Israel - Iran
• May 1948 Jews in Palestine proclaimed
new nation of Israel.
• Arab nations opposed – backed by
• U.S. worked to prevent oil-rich Arab
nations from falling to Soviets.
• 1952 nationalist leader gained control in
• U.S. (CIA) organized overthrow –
returned power to pro-American Shah of
Suez Crisis
• Suez Crisis in 1956 – Egypt’s ruler, Nasser,
sought Soviet support
• U.S./GB stopped aid.
• Nasser seized the Suez Canal a vital
waterway through Egypt allowing Middle
East oil to reach Europe.
• 1956 British and French attack Egypt.
• Eisenhower persuaded NATO allies to
withdraw from Egypt.
Suez Canal
Eisenhower Doctrine
• 1957 announced Eisenhower Doctrine
• The U.S. would use force to
safeguard independent countries in
Middle East requesting aid against
• Used Doctrine in 1958 to put down
revolt against Lebanese
Latin America
• 1947 Rio Pact – a regional defense
alliance with 18 other nations in
the Western Hemisphere.
• 1948 formed organization of
American States (OAS) to increase
cooperation among nations of
Latin America
• 1954 CIA helped overthrow
government of Guatemala.
• Leaders were sympathetic to
radical causes.
• Restored property of United Fruit
company seized by Guatemalan
government from American
• 1958 Fidel Castro overthrew corrupt
Cuban dictator Batista. (ties to U.S.
organized crime)
• Eisenhower would not support Castro;
CIA reported infiltration of movement by
• Castro seized U.S. property in Cuba;
Eisenhower cut diplomatic ties and
halted exports to Island.
• Castro turned to Soviets for economic
and military aid.
Leadership Change
Republic of Cuba
The Arms Race
• Arms Race – struggle to gain
weapons superiority The Growth of
Nuclear Arsenals
• 1953 one year after U.S test of
thermonuclear device, Soviets
tested hydrogen device.
• 1953 Eisenhower announced atoms
for Peace Plan at UN.
First Hydrogen Test
• World’s nations work together
under UN supervision to find
peaceful uses for nuclear
technology; Soviets refused to
• Eisenhower stepped up American
weapons development program.
• First hydrogen test in March 1954;
750 times more powerful than
bomb dropped on Nagaski.
• Japanese fisherman 90 miles away
radiation burns-Island 200 miles
away evacuated
• Test revealed nuclear war
threatened entire world with
radioactive contamination.
• 1956 Secretary of State Dulles
stated U.S. prepared to risk war to
protect national interest.
• Brinkmanship – ability to get to verge
without getting into war
Cold War in the Skies
• U.S. Airforce to carry hydrogen
bombs to targets; Soviets could not
match strength.
• Developed ICBM’s – long-range rockets
known as intercontinental ballistic
missiles as primary delivery system
• U.S worked to develop ICBM’s
lagged behind Soviet’s in missile
development due to dependence on
conventional air power.
ICBM launch
• Technological gap startling in
1957; Soviets used one of rockets
to launch Sputnik – first artificial
satellite to orbit Earth.
• Americans mortified – rocket could
carry hydrogen bomb to U.S.
• U.S. satellite rushed to launch
before ready; crashed.
U-2 incident
• U-2 incident – Soviets shot down
U.S. spy plane over Soviet Union
with guided missile.
• It flew 15 miles high; we assumed
it was immune to attack.
Gary Powers
• Francis Gary Powers: Imprisoned
Powers spent almost 21 months in prison
in the Soviet Union.
• During that time, he openly kept a diary
of his daily activities.
• In November 1960 he began secretly
writing a journal, which opens with a
detailed recounting of the downing of his
• When released, Powers hid the diary and
journal in a rug he had embroidered
while in prison and carried them out of
the Soviet Union.