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Foxborough Regional Charter School
MATHEMATICS
High School Geometry
2015 – 2016 Curriculum Map
Introduction
The purpose of curriculum is to focus instruction in a grade level content / skill area.
The development of this curriculum map is a result of months of research, collaboration and hard work on the part of the entire Teaching &
Learning Division. The document itself is a living document; it is meant to be revisited on an annual basis by all those who use it: teachers,
paraprofessionals, special educators and other staff.
This particular model is a ‘back to basics’ approach to curriculum. The FRCS curriculum model is focused on standards based, measureable
learning objectives for all students. Our curriculum outlines the core knowledge base in a grade level; what a student should know and be able to do
by the end of a given year in a specific subject or skill area.
The FRCS curriculum model does not subscribe to any one boxed program or canned curriculum. Rather, FRCS develops its own curriculum and
employs a variety of instructional materials and learning experiences to facilitate student achievement of our learning objectives. Our curriculum is
thoughtfully designed to identify the core skills and knowledge that students need to be successful in each subsequent grade at FRCS and beyond!
The enclosed document includes a complete subject area curriculum for one grade level as well as an overview of a vertical curriculum articulation.
The vertical articulation provides the context for this grade level curriculum; outlining what a student should have mastered prior to entering this
grade and what he or she will master upon promotion to the next grade level.
Vertical Curriculum Articulation
What is vertical articulation?
Vertical curriculum articulation is education-jargon for a map of standards that students will learn at each grade level in a particular content or skill
area. It is organized in a variety of forms, but the simplest (and easiest to read) is just a chart of standards and the years in which students should
master each standard in that subject.
What is the purpose of vertical curriculum articulation?
Vertical articulation gives curriculum direction and purpose. And in terms of this single grade level curriculum, it provides the context for the
learning objectives outlined in this map. It outlines what students have learned in the past and what they will be expected to learn long after
completing this grade level. ‘Backward design’ (another great education-jargon term for the 21st century)
How is this applicable for my classroom?
No matter which grade you teach, you are but one point in a child’s learning experience. The vertical curriculum articulation found on the next page
outlines where your role lays in the entire progression of students’ learning in this subject. As students arrive in your class this year and you begin
your pre-assessments, this vertical articulation will help you identify which concepts and skills your students still need and which
MATHEMATICS: VERTICAL ARTICULATION OF K-4 DOMAINS
GRADE LEVEL
DOMAIN
K
1
2
3
4
Counting and Cardinality
K.CC.1-7
Operations and Algebraic Thinking
K.OA.1-5
1.OA.1-8; MA.9
2.OA.1-4
3.OA.1-9
4.OA.1-5
Number and Operations in Base Ten
K.NBT.1
1.NBT.1-6
2.NBT.1-9
3.NBT.1-3
4.NBT.1-6
3.NF.1-3
4.NF.1-4
Number and Operations - Fractions
Number System
Ratios and Proportional Relationships
Expressions and Equations
Functions
Measurement and Data
K.MD.1-3
1.MD.1-4;
MA.5
2.MD.1-10
3.MD.1-8
4.MD.1-7
Geometry
K.G.1-6
1.G.1-3
2.G.1-3
3.G.1-2
4.G.1-3
Statistics and Probability
MATHEMATICS: VERTICAL ARTICULATION OF 5-8 DOMAINS
GRADE LEVEL
DOMAIN
5
6
7
8
Counting and Cardinality
Operations and Algebraic Thinking
5.OA.1-2
5.OA.3 (UA)
Number and Operations in Base Ten
5.NBT.1-7
Number and Operations - Fractions
5.NF.1, 3, 4, 6
5.NF.2,5,7
Number System
5.NS.MA.1
6.NS.1-8
7.NS.1-3
8.NS.1-2
8.NS.1
Ratios and Proportional Relationships
6.RP.1-3
7.RP.1-3
Expressions and Equations
6.EE.1-9
7.EE.1-4; MA.4c
8.EE.1-8
8.EE.2
8.F.1-5
Functions
Measurement and Data
5.MD.1,3,4
5.MD.2,5
Geometry
5.G.1-4
6.G.1-4
6.SP.1-5
7.G.1,2,4,5,6, MA.7
8.G.1-4,6-8
8.G.1-3,6-9
G.GPE.5
7.G.3
8.G.5,9
7.SP.1-8
8.SP.1-4
Statistics and Probability
MATHEMATICS: VERTICAL ARTICULATION OF HIGH SCHOOL DOMAINS (Grades 9 & 10)
DOMAIN
Number and Quantity
Geometry
Geometry
Algebra 2
N.Q.2-3
N.CN.1,2,7-9
MA.3a
N.VM.1,3,6,8,12
G.CO.1, 6-11
G.SRT.1-8
G.C.1-5
G.GPE. 5-7
G.CO.2-5; 12-13
G.SRT.9-11
G.GPE.1,2,4
G.GMD.1-4
G.MG.1-3; MA.4
Statistics and Probability
S.CP.1-9
S.ID.4
S.MD.6-7
S.IC.1-6
S.MD.6,7
Algebra
A.SSE.1,2,4
A.APR.1-7
A.CED.1-4
A.REI.2,11
Functions
F.IF.4-7
F.BF.1,3,4
F.LE.4
F.TF.1,2,5,8
F.IF.8,9
Curriculum Map Overview: How to read your grade level Curriculum Map
Organization of Map
 The scope and sequence of this curriculum is organized into 3 terms. Each term is organized into units of instruction
 Each unit has the following elements and each element is described on the following pages
 Teachers develop unit plans to articulate the EXPERIENCES they will facilitate for students to achieve learning objectives within the
curriculum
State Standard:
Each unit of curriculum identifies the state standards mandated by the state of Massachusetts at each grade level range for that subject area.
Measurable Student Learning Objective: (“The Students Will Be Able To”):
For each state standard, FRCS curriculum identifies measureable student objectives that chunk the standards into lesson sized, teachable objectives.
The objectives should drive every lesson plan and should drive the instruction each day. These are the objectives that an instructor should
communicate to students each day prior to the start of a lesson.
Each student objective is a measurable learning goal that focuses lesson planning and instruction. The learning objectives are your: TSWBAT (the
student will be able to) list; they are your lesson objectives. These learning objectives should drive both instruction and assessment. If we focus
instruction on a specific learning objective and develop formative assessments to assess that objective, we create a seamless transition between our
expectations for learning and actual student learning experiences. Essentially, these objectives help focus our instruction on our students’ core
understanding. They identify what students need to know to be successful this year and beyond. Please note that these objectives are the minimum
expectation for students and that by no means does this limit your ability to add additional content, activities and experiences for your students.
However, before going beyond or deeper into content areas, please ensure that your students have mastered the basic learning objectives for a given
standard first.
The learning objectives in our curriculum should also drive your assessments. Each objective is purposefully designed to be inherently measurable.
Upon completing a lesson, the objectives lend themselves to formative assessments. For example, if you do a lesson with the objective: TSWBAT:
“Compare and contrast the Igneous and Metamorphic rocks”, then your formative assessment (ie: exit slip) at the end of that lesson can be as simple
as the open response question: “Compare and contrast the Igneous and Metamorphic rocks.” If a student can do or demonstrate the learning
objectives for a specific standard, then the student demonstrates understanding of the objective. When a student demonstrates understanding of ALL
of the associated objectives with a given standard, the student demonstrates understanding of the standard itself! At that point, if time permits,
students can explore the topic greater depth through enrichment learning.
To help you create formative assessments for these objectives, we have included a list of all of the measurable action verbs that were used in
development of this curriculum. They are the same words that are used in each of the measurable learning objectives so that as a school system, we
use the same vocabulary to talk about teaching and learning. These definitions (and formative assessment suggestions) can be found at the end of this
curriculum in Appendix A: “Assessing Student Objectives”. Please take some time to review this and see your IL with follow up questions.
Measurable learning objectives are the singular most important element of any curriculum; without it, we are just teaching activities.
As departments develop objectives based benchmark assessments, the same vocabulary of measurable action verbs will be used to consistently
communicate the depth of learning and the assessment expectations for students at each benchmark point. For example, if the learning objective
indicates that a student should be able to simply “identify” some set of concepts, the depth of learning is really only recognition and thus lends itself
to a multiple choice assessment of that understanding. However, if the objective indicates that a student should be able to compare and contrast two
major concepts, the expected depth of learning is significantly greater. Thus the expectation of the assessment is also greater; perhaps an open
response or Venn Diagram explaining the two concepts.
With the entire district speaking the same language when it comes to what students will learn, how deep their learning will be and how they will be
assessed for understanding, we are able to create a comprehensive, cogent curriculum that develops a students’ knowledge right up Bloom’s
Taxonomy. As a result, we will be able to better educate our students grade to grade and check for understanding with confidence, quickly
identifying any learning gaps and addressing them so that every student successfully assesses our curriculum!
Learning Plan: Resources, Activities and Experiences
This is where the great instruction happens! For every student objective, our curriculum identifies and suggests resources, activities and experiences
that will help your students master it. Instruction is more than a textbook and this section of the FRCS curriculum provides instructors with resources
and suggested lessons beyond the textbook. While the text is a resource, it is only one of many.
The resources and ideas in this section have been developed by veteran instructors, colleagues and instructional leaders. They are in our curriculum
map because they’ve been tried and they work for kids. This element of the curriculum map is an excellent resource to differentiate an instructional
approach to reach different populations of your students. .
The Instructional strategies and lesson suggestions are open ended so that you may modify them to meet the needs of your students and classroom.
If after reviewing your curriculum map and your ancillary resources, you are still looking for creative ways to help your students achieve a learning
objective, please don’t hesitate to contact your instructional leader! Your IL can provide additional resources, strategies, ideas or even model a lesson
for you or co-teach the lesson with you. This element of the curriculum is designed to be periodically updated and improved so please feel free to
contribute your strategies and ideas and support your colleagues by emailing them to your instructional leader any time!
Vital Vocabulary:
These are the words students must know in order to understand each objective. Students should be able to use these words appropriately and within
the correct context, not necessarily recite textbook definitions. To be able to use vocabulary appropriately is more valuable than memorizing a
definition. This list is not exhaustive, so please feel free to add vocabulary to meet your students’ needs. However, mastery of these words and the
underlying concepts is critical for students to understand and master the learning objective.
Essential Question(s):
This acts as the starting point (pre-assessment) as well as a summative assessment for each unit. At the beginning of each unit of instruction, this
question acts as the activator and initiates the discussion of the topic. At the end of the unit, students should be able to answer the essential
question(s) and demonstrate they have achieved understanding the learning goals/objectives. How you assess this question is left to you as the
classroom instructor, be it a written essay, oral, a report or a classroom discussion. You may also consider restating the essential question as an open
response question at the end of each unit.
Term 1
Chapter 1: Points, Lines, Planes, and Angles
Essential Questions: Why is it important to master basic concepts of Euclidean geometry?
How does basic geometry relate to real-world situations and problems?
Common Core
Standard
G.CO.1.
N-Q.3
Student Learning objective(s)
1. Identify points, lines, and planes in a figure
2. Apply basic concepts of Euclidean geometry to
describe real-world objects
1. Calculate the measure of line segments
2. Draw figures to visualize questions.
G-GPE.6
1. Calculate the distance and midpoint of a line
segment on the coordinate plane.
G-CO.1
1. Name angles and parts of angles
2. Find the measure of an angle
1. Identify relationships among angles that share a
plane
2. Construct two-dimensional geometric figures
G-CO.1
1. Categorize polygons, and non-examples of
polygons
2. Calculate measures sides and perimeters of
polygons
Required vocabulary
-Euclidean Geometry
-Undefined Term
-Precision
-Midpoint
-Segment Bisector
-Opposite Rays
-Adjacent, Vertical,
commentary, and
supplementary angles
-Linear pair
-Concave
-Convex
-Regular Polygon
Learning Plan
Suggested Activities, Resources, & Experiences
1.1 Points Lines, Planes
Use a combination of geometric figures and real
world examples for identifying parts.
1.2 Linear Measure
1.3 Distance and Midpoint
Students have an abundance of prior knowledge of
the coordinate plane, so assess what skills students
already possess to gauge speed and depth.
1.4 Angle Measure
Compass construction page 31
1.5 Angle Relationships
Compass construction page 44
1.6 Polygons
Since students have abundant prior knowledge of
polygons, guide them to their own definitions for
characteristics and categories of polygons
Term 1
Chapter 2: Reasoning And Proof
Essential Questions: What is the difference between a postulate and a theorem?
Why is it important to prove a theorem?
How do you write a complete proof for a geometric theorem?
Common Core
Standard
G-CO.9
G-CO.9
G-CO.9
G-CO.9
Student Learning objective(s)
Required vocabulary
1. Collect and understand postulates as the
foundation for proofs
Postulate
Proof
1. Write a two-column proof for solving an algebraic
equation
1. Complete two column proofs for theorems
involving line segments
1. Complete two column proofs for theorems
involving angle relationships
Two-Column Proof
Learning Plan
Suggested Activities, Resources, & Experiences
2.5 Postulates & Paragraph Proofs
If students don’t already have a reference section in
their notebooks, have them start one
2.6 Algebraic Proofs
2.7 Proving Segment Relationships
Group activity constructing proofs
2.8 Proving Angle Relationships
Term 1
Chapter 3: Parallel and Perpendicular Lines
Essential Questions: What are the angle relationships that occur with parallel lines and a transversal?
How can linear equations be used to model/solve real-world problems?
Common Core
Standard
G-GPE.5
G-GPE.5
G-CO.9
G-CO.9
G-CO.9
Student Learning objective(s)
1. Calculate the slope between two points on the
coordinate plane.
2. Determine the difference between “slope” and
“rate of change”
1. Describe the similarities and differences between
point-slope form and slope-intercept form.
2. Given two pieces of necessary information, write
an equation for a line in both forms
1. Identify the relationships between pairs of angles
formed by lines and a transversal
2. Identify relationships among lines in a 3-D
geometric figure
1. Identify pairs of angles formed by parallel lines
and a transversal as congruent or supplementary
2. Calculate measures of angles using concepts of
parallel lines and transversals
1. Show lines are parallel by confirming that a pair of
angles in the figure are either congruent or
supplementary.
Required vocabulary
-Slope-Intercept Form
-Point-Slope Form
-Skew lines
-Parallel lines
-transversal
-alternate interior,
alternate exterior,
consecutive interior, and
corresponding angles.
Learning Plan
Suggested Activities, Resources, & Experiences
3.3 Slopes of Lines
-Make sure to review how to recognize zero,
undefined, positive, and negative slopes.
3.4 Equations of Lines
-Two-column algebraic proof that both forms for the
line are mathematically equivalent
-Students write word problems that involve linear
equations
3.1 Parallel Lines and Transversals
-3-D figure drawing lab/activity
-Find angle measure of “bent” transversal
3.2 Angles & Parallel Lines
-Teach 3.2 and 3.5 as one section
-Suggest to students to trace the lines on lined paper
to construct figures in notebook
3.5 Proving Lines Parallel
-Teach 3.2 and 3.5 as one section
Term 2
Chapter 4: Congruent Triangles
Essential Questions: What are all the types of triangles, and what are their characteristics?
Why can you only prove congruence of two (non-right) triangles through SSS, SAS, ASA, and AAS?
Common Core
Standard
G-CO.10
G-CO.10
G-CO.10
G-CO.7
G-CO.9
G-CO.9
Student Learning objective(s)
1. Classify triangles by angles and/or by sides.
2. Solve equations using known side congruencies in
different types of triangles.
1. Calculate the missing angle measures in a triangle.
2. Calculate the exterior angle or remote interior
angle of a triangle.
1. Identify congruent sides and angles in isosceles
triangles.
2. Calculate measures of sides and angles in isosceles
triangles.
1. Order the letters naming two congruent triangles
to correspond with the congruent vertices.
1. Write two column proofs that two triangles are
congruent by SSS or SAS
1. Write two column proofs that two triangles are
congruent by ASA or AAS
Required vocabulary
Right Triangle
Isosceles Triangle
Equilateral Triangle
Corollary
Exterior Angle
Remote Interior Angle
Vertex Angle
Base Angles
Learning Plan
Suggested Activities, Resources, & Experiences
4.1 Classifying Triangles
4.2 Angles of Triangles
Proof Activities for Angle Sum Theorem (examples
on page 184)
4.6 Isosceles Triangles
4.3 Congruent Triangles
Included Angle
4.4 SSS, SAS
Included Side
4.5 ASA, AAS
Compass Construction page 207
Term 2
Chapter 5: Relationships of Triangles
Essential Questions: How do relationships of triangles help solve real-world problems?
Common Core
Standard
G-CO.9
G-CO.10
G-CO.10
G-CO.10
Student Learning objective(s)
1. Name the types of concurrent segments in
triangles and their points of concurrency.
2. Solve for a variable in a labeled figure using the
relative distances between points of concurrency and
parts of the triangle.
1. Identify the longest/shortest side given the angle
measures
2. Identify the largest/smallest angle given the side
measures.
1. Solve for the range of possible side measures for
the third side of a triangle.
2. Determine if a set of side measures could create a
triangle
Required vocabulary
-Concurrent Lines
-Points of Concurrency:
Circumcenter, Incenter,
Centriod, and
Orthocenter
Learning Plan
Suggested Activities, Resources, & Experiences
5.1 Bisectors, Medians, & Altitudes
Compass construction page 236-237
5.2 Inequalities and Triangles
5.4 The Triangle Inequality
Term 2
Chapter 6: Proportions and Similarity
Essential Questions: How are ratios and proportions relevant to similar polygons?
Why are similar polygons important to people like architects and sculptors?
Common Core
Standard
G-SRT.1
G-SRT.2
G-SRT.2
G-SRT.3
G-SRT.4
G-SRT.5
Student Learning objective(s)
1. Describe the difference between a ratio and a
proportion.
2. Solve proportions
3. Calculate the lengths of sides of a triangle given
perimeter and the sides’ proportions.
1. Order the letters naming two similar polygons to
correspond with the congruent vertices.
2. Given two similar polygons, find the measures of
the missing sides and the scale factor.
1. Determine if two given triangles are similar
2. Prove two triangles are similar using AA, SSS, or
SAS similarity.
1. Solve for the lengths of sides and/or variables using
Triangle Proportionality Theorem
1. Solve for segment measures using proportions in
similar triangles.
Required vocabulary
Scale Factor
Learning Plan
Suggested Activities, Resources, & Experiences
6.1 Proportions
6.2 Similar Polygons
6.3 Similar Triangles
Midsegment
6.4 Parallel Lines & Proportional Parts
Compass Construction page 311
6.5 Parts of Similar Triangles
Term 2
Chapter 7: Right Triangles and Trigonometry
Essential Questions: Why is the right triangle an essential element to solving geometric problems?
In what kinds of situations do we use trigonometry?
Common Core
Standard
G-SRT.6
G-SRT.6
G-SRT.8
G-SRT.7
G-SRT.8
Student Learning objective(s)
Required vocabulary
1. Solve for the lengths of sides and/or altitudes of
right triangles.
Geometric Mean
1. Solve for the length of a side in a right triangle
given the lengths of the other two sides.
2. Identify a Pythagorean Triple
Pythagorean Triple
1. Label a 45-45-90 and a 30-60-90 right triangle.
2. Calculate the length of a side of a special right
triangle.
1. Explain the acronym SOH CAH TOA
2. Calculate the lengths of sides and/or measures of
angles using trigonometry.
1. Identify whether a given situation is considered an
angle of elevation or depression
2. Calculate the angle of elevation or depression
3. Measure the distance between two distant objects
using trigonometry.
Sine, Cosine, Tangent
Angle of Elevation
Angle of Depression
Learning Plan
Suggested Activities, Resources, & Experiences
7.1 Geometric Mean
-Review the basics of exponents and roots
(particularly squares and square roots)
-Reduce radicals
7.2 The Pythagorean Theorem and its Converse
History of the Pythagorean Theorem
Proofs for Pythagorean Theorem (examples on page
349)
Point out how the distance formula is an application
of the Pythagorean Theorem.
7.3 Special Right Triangles
Show how special right triangles are merely “shortcuts” for the Pythagorean Theorem
7.4 Trigonometry
Calculator “lab” for using sin, cos, and tan
Trigonometric Ration activity page 365
7.5 Angles of Elevation & Depression
Students write their own word problems
Term 3
Chapter 10: Circles
Essential Questions: What is pi (π)?
How can we find the measure of a segment that is not a straight line?
Common Core
Standard
G-C.1
G-C.2
G-C.2
G-C.2
G-SRT.3
G-C.2
G-C.5
G-C.2
G-C.3
G-C.2
Student Learning objective(s)
Required vocabulary
Learning Plan
Suggested Activities, Resources, & Experiences
10.1 Circles & Circumference
Prove that all circles are similar (G-C.1)
1. Identify parts and types of line segments in circles.
2. Explain what pi (π) is.
3. Calculate the measure of a radius, diameter, and
circumference.
1. Calculate the measure of a central angle
2. Calculate the arc length and arc measure
intercepted by central angles.
1. Calculate the length of chords.
2. Calculate the length of arcs intercepted by chords.
1. Calculate the measure of an inscribed angle.
Pi (understood as the
ratio of the
circumference to the
diameter)
-central angle
-minor and major arcs
-inscribed
-circumscribed
10.3 Arcs and Chords
Paper folding activity page 538
10.4 Inscribed Angles
1. Calculate the length of a segment tangent to a
circle.
2. Calculate the distance between the center of a
circle to a point on a line tangent to the circle.
1. Calculate the angles of two intersecting secants that
are inside a circle.
2. Calculate the angle between a tangent and a secant
line outside the circle
3. Calculate the measure of arcs intercepted by
secants and/or arcs
-tangent
-point of tangency
10.5 Tangents
Compass Construction page 559
-Secant
10.6 Secants, Tangents, and Angle Measures
10.2 Angles and Arcs
** Try to reach this unit around March 14th (pi day) **
Term 3
Chapter 8: Quadrilaterals
Essential Questions: What are the similarities and differences among the quadrilaterals?
Common Core
Standard
MA.3.a
G-CO.11
G-CO.11
G-GPE.7
G-CO.11
G-CO.11
G-CO.11
Student Learning objective(s)
Required vocabulary
1. Calculate the sum of the measures of any polygon.
2. Calculate the measure of an interior and exterior
angle of any regular polygon.
1. Describe the properties of a parallelogram
2. Solve algebraic problems and find the length of a
side or the measure of an angle in a parallelogram.
1. Determine if a quadrilateral is a parallelogram
2. Solve algebraic problems and find the length of a
side or the measure of an angle in a parallelogram.
1. Describe the properties of a rectangle
2. Solve algebraic problems and find the length of a
side or the measure of an angle in a rectangle.
1. Describe the properties of a rhombus and a
square.
2. Solve algebraic problems and find the length of a
side or the measure of an angle in a rhombus and a
square.
1. Describe the properties of a trapezoid
2. Solve algebraic problems and find the length of a
side, median, or the measure of an angle in a
trapezoid.
-Interior/Exterior Angles
-Parallel
Learning Plan
Suggested Activities, Resources, & Experiences
8.1 Angles of Polygons
Have students make a table and use patterns to
discover the Interior Angle Sum Theorem
8.2 Parallelograms
8.3 Tests for Parallelograms
8.4 Rectangles
8.5 Rhombi and Squares
Compass Construction page 433
-Isosceles trapezoid
-Median
8.6 Trapezoids
Compass Construction page 441
Term 3
Chapter 11: Areas of Polygons and Circles
Essential Questions: How can we find the area of any polygon, circle, or region?
What is the probability that a point chosen at random lies in an indicated region?
Common Core
Standard
G-SRT.8
G-C.3
Student Learning objective(s)
1. Calculate the area of a parallelogram
2. Calculate the area of triangles, trapezoids, and
rhombi
1. Find the area of regular polygons
2. use trigonometry and special right triangles to find
perimeter or apothem of regular polygons
1. Find the probability that a point chosen at random
lies in an indicated region.
Required vocabulary
Learning Plan
Suggested Activities, Resources, & Experiences
11.1 & 11.2 Areas of Triangles and Quadrilaterals
– review activity for special right triangles
11.3 Areas of Regular Polygons and Circles
– review activity for trigonometry
Sector of a Circle
11.5 Geometric Probability
Appendix A:
Assessing Student Learning
Measurable Action Words & Formative Assessment Types
As educators, it is vital that we are consistent and transparent with our learning expectations. This section provides us with a common set of
terminology associated with student learning objectives and assessment. It will help you design your unit and lesson plans with the end in mind;
developing assessments for student objectives and then developing lessons and units to help your students achieve these objectives. We don’t want to
teach to a test, but we do want to ensure that we assess our students’ learning of the core skills and knowledge outlined by the state. This section
standardizes the vocabulary that we all use to identify not only what our students should know, but the depth of knowledge they should attain and the
means through which we assess their understanding.
Objectives and assessments:
Each standard has at least one associated student objective. These objectives should act as your lesson objectives and should be the learning goal of
your students. In order to assess student learning of these objectives, it is important that we are using common terminology. A list of measurable
action verbs used in this document as well as a description of what level of understanding students should be able to demonstrate to achieve such
objectives is located on the next page. In addition, recommendations for developing your own formative assessments to check for understanding of
each objective are included. These definitions are broad so that you may apply them to your own assessments as needed.
Developing formative and other classroom assessments:
 Less is more: While essay assessments take more time to correct, they provide more insight into your students’ depth of understanding. You
don’t need to give nearly as many questions and students are required to really show what they know.
 Assess the objectives as the core knowledge and leave the ‘nice-to-knows’ off the formal assessments
 Teach to the objective and standard, not the text. Text and text assessments are not specific to MA and thus don’t always assess what DESE
identified standards. This doesn’t mean you can’t assess knowledge outside of them, but assessment should focus on the standards and
objectives
 Assess each day: a quick 1 question exit slip gives you a good idea if a student grasps the concept.
Reading the chart below:
 Each heading indicates a depth/level of understanding aligned with Bloom’s Taxonomy
 “Skill definition” is the action verb for a given objective. It’s what the student should be able to do
 “Assessment format expectations and suggestions” are just that: the kind of formative assessment you can use to see if a student can
demonstrate the particular level or depth of understanding
Analytical & Evaluative Skills
Skills Definition
Analyze: Given or collect information or data to support a
conclusion.
Categorize / Rank: Students are given or collect a set of
examples or specimens and must sort them into appropriate
groups or classes based on their characteristics.
Compare & Contrast: Identify and explain the similarities and
differences of two or more concepts
Differentiate Between: Students describe the differences
between two or more concepts, specimen, examples or items.
Simplify: Summarize
Evaluate: Determine the significance
Assessment format expectations and suggestions
Expectations for analysis are some form of explanation based on given or collected data.
Written assessments are usually in the form of a lab report (ie: conclusions section)
Students usually test the examples or specimen to determine their characteristics. Students
organize their categorization in a table and support with data and written or oral explanation.
Expectations for this skill focuses on writing about science concepts: essay or graphic
organizer form (ie: Venn Diagram)
This can be done using a ‘T-chart’ or other graphic organizer. This can also be incorporated
into a written response
Written or oral explanation of a concept in students’ own words
Usually assessed in written form. Students support their evaluation with data or background
knowledge
Synthesis & Application Skills
Skills Definition
Determine: Decide upon or identify
Diagram / Illustrate: Students create a drawing that includes
labels and written explanation.
Solve / Calculate: find the answer or solution (usually
mathematically)
Design / Create / Develop / Construct: Make or build
Demonstrate: show
Assessment format expectations and suggestions
Pick out the correct term or concept from a group. Provide and fill in the correct term or
concept.
Expectations are that students can generate scientific diagrams or illustrations. Labels and
explanation should be included.
Given some data set, students find the answer or solution. Include work and units. Formulas
are provided by instructor
This is very broad, but the expectation is that a performance assessment of some kind is given
The expectation for this is that students physically show a skill or demonstrate an
understanding in written form.
Comprehension Skills
Skills Definition
Classify: Arrange and assign to a category
Describe: Students’ written or oral description
Explain: Written explanation, usually with a diagram
Predict: Forecast or hypothesize an outcome based on
supporting data or background knowledge
Summarize: Paraphrase content into simpler terms
Distinguish Between: Determine differences between
Assessment format expectations and suggestions
The assessment expectation is that students can arrange examples into appropriate categories. This
may be matching or listing and may or may not include a brief explanation
Expectations are that students can describe (orally or written) a concept in their own words.
‘Describe’ objectives focus more on broad comprehension than explanation of detailed
mechanisms
Students should be able to explain a concept in detail and provide supporting fact and/or data;
diagrams often accompany this in sci.
This is usually done as the hypothesis for a lab or sci fair project. The expectation is that students
support hypotheses with ‘why’.
Summaries are usually written and often act as follow up assessments to a passage that is read.
The expectation is that students can accomplish ½ of the compare-contrast essay by identifying key
differences between two (usually similar) concepts or ideas. Usually written.
Recall Skills
Skills Definition
Define: Provide a definition.
Label / Name: Provide or choose a name for an item,
object or concept.
Recognize: pick out from a variety of possible choices
Sequence: Place the concepts or items in a specific,
relevant order
Identify Select or list (usually characteristics) label, list or
identify
Organize / List: Put associated concepts in order
Assessment format expectations and suggestions
Assessing this skill is more effective if put in the student’s own words or description. Matching or
student generated definitions
The expectation is either to match or write in a label for a given diagram or fill in the blank
Multiple choice is the most common recognition skill assessment
Expectations are that students can either select or write a series of concepts in an appropriate and
accurate sequence
Students should be able to select or write in the appropriate concept or vocabulary word
Students create an order that may or may not be based on a standard criterion. This can be written,
oral or physically done
Appendix B:
FRCS Unit Plan Template
FRCS Unit Plan
Teacher
__________________________
Unit Title
___________
Essential Question(s): _________________________________________________________________
Student Learning Outcomes/Objectives (SWBAT):
Assessments:
Learning Experiences:
Reflection:
Grade Level
Length of Unit
_______________
______________
Appendix C:
Content Specific Terminology Glossary
(as applicable)