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Abdomen and Pelvis 1. The rectus abdominis muscle is a flexor of the lumbar spine. 2. Direct inguinal hernias pass through the deep inguinal ring. 3. The stomach lies posterior to the lesser sac of the peritoneal cavity. 4. The liver is attached to the diaphragm and the anterior abdominal wall by the lesser omentum. 5. Bile is drained from the liver through left and right bile ducts. 6. The colon receives its entire blood supply from the inferior mesenteric artery. 7. The pancreas is an anterior relation of the left kidney. 8. Pain of gastric origin is usually perceived in the region of the inferior part of the sternum. 9. The greater omentum is a mesenteric fold attached to the greater curvature of the stomach. 10. The muscles of the anterior abdominal wall are supplied mainly by the lower thoracic spinal nerves. 11. The superficial inguinal ring lies lateral to the pubic tubercle. 12. The ascending colon is a retroperitoneal organ. 13. The spleen lies within the ventral mesentery of the foregut. 14. The portal vein reaches the hilum of the liver by running in the free edge of the lesser omentum. 15. The gall bladder lies close to the point at which the mid-clavicular line cuts the right costal margin. 16. The entire stomach is supplied with blood from the coeliac axis. 17. The duodenum is an anterior relation of the right kidney. 18. Pain from an inflamed appendix is usually perceived in the right iliac fossa. Upper Limb 1. Stability of the shoulder joint is mainly dependent on the capsular ligaments. 2. A lower root (C8 & T1) injury of the brachial plexus may cause loss of precision movements of the fingers and thumb. 3. As well as being an elbow flexor, biceps is also a powerful pronator of the forearm. 4. The brachial pulse may be found deep to biceps on the lateral aspect of the arm. 5. The radial and ulnar arteries anastomose freely with each other within the hand. 6. The main bones participating in the wrist joint are the radius, the ulna and the scaphoid. 7. The thenar muscles are supplied by the median nerve. 8. The ulnar nerve passes through the carpal tunnel. 9. The deltoid muscle is responsible for raising the hand above the head. 10. A radial nerve injury in the spiral groove of the humerus may lead to weakness of the power grip. 11. The muscles in the anterior compartment of the forearm are supplied by the musculocutaneous nerve. 12. The radial pulse is usually palpated lateral to the tendon of flexor carpi radialis. 13. The cephalic vein passes from superficial to deep through the delto-pectoral triangle. 14. The wrist joint allows flexion, extension, adduction, abduction and rotation. 15. The ulnar nerve supplies the majority of the small muscles of the hand. 16. Fractures of the scaphoid are usually readily detected in X-rays.