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Communication Disorders
Analysis Assignment
Chapter 4
• The activity about analyzing the pre-practicum observations will be
done in your small groups.
• You are to compare what each of you observed for each of the guided
questions, and make some observations and comparisons across your
• For example, are students with the same types of disabilities served in
each of their classrooms? Why or why not? (eg., often one will find
that more students with emotional and behavioral disabilities are served
within general education classrooms in larger urban settings in
communities where more students receive free lunch.) If this is what
you found, why do you think this is so?
• RE: Application of disability law--do general education teachers have
access to IEPs? (eg., Sometimes smaller schools in smaller towns or
districts might have easier access to knowing which students within
their inclusive classrooms have IEPs, and can more easily gain access
to them. If this is so, why do you think so. If this is not so, why do you
think so?)
• For cultural diversity, in which schools (based upon location--rural,
suburban, urban--, or size,) is it more likely that the students and
teachers will be from a similar racial, ethnic or linguistic background
that also matches the local community surrounding the school. Why?
Communication Disorders
Chapter 4
Defining Communication
How Do You Recognize Students
with Communication Disorders?
How Do You Recognize Students with Communication Disorders?
Communication entails receiving, understanding, and expressing
information, feelings, and ideas.
Communication and language include both the content and the medium
Speech and language disorders (often associated with other disorders)
– Speech disorder refers to difficulty in producing sounds (cleft palate).
– Language disorder refers to difficulty in receiving, understanding, and
formulating ideas and information.
Cultural diversity
– Difference does not always mean disorder.
– Dialects are various forms of language.
Describing the Characteristics
How Do You Recognize Students
with Communication Disorders?
Typical speech development
– Follows a typical and predictable pattern and time table
– By the age of 8, children can produce nearly all the consonants and vowels that make up the native
– There is variation among children in the time of acquisition.
Speech disorders
– Articulation: production of individual or sequenced sounds
• Substitutions, omissions, additions, and distortions
• If these problems interfere with peer interactions or educational performance: REFER
– Apraxia of speech: motor speech disorder affecting the planning of speech
• Difficulty with the voluntary, purposeful movement of speech (stroke, tumor, head injury, developmental)
• Can produce individual sounds but cannot produce them in longer words or sentences
– Voice disorders: pitch, duration, intensity, resonance, and vocal quality
– Fluency disorders: interruptions in the flow of speaking
• Stuttering: frequent repetition and/or prolongation of words or sounds
Describing the Characteristics
How Do You Recognize Students
with Communication Disorders?
Typical language development
– Language development is complex
– Depends on biological preparation, successful nurturance, sensorimotor
experiences, and linguistic experiences
Five components of language
– Phonology: the use of sounds to make meaningful syllables and words
• Phonemes: individual speech sounds
– Morphology: the structure of words
• Morphemes: the smallest meaningful unit of speech (e.g., s)
– Syntax: the rules for putting together a series of words to form sentences
– Semantics: word and sentence meanings for what is spoken
– Pragmatics: social use of language
Describing the Characteristics
How Do You Recognize Students
with Communication Disorders?
Characteristics of language impairments
– Language disorders may be receptive, expressive, or both.
– Language disorders may be related to another disability or may be a
specific language impairment.
• Phonological disorders – difficulty in discriminating differences in speech
sounds or sound segments
• Morphological difficulties – problem using the structure of words to get or give
information (e.g., proper tenses)
• Syntactical errors – problem with the correct word order in sentences that
meaning is lost for listeners
• Semantic disorders – problems using words singly or together in sentences
• Pragmatic disorders – problems in the social use of language (e.g., eye
contact, body language, organization)
Identifying the Causes and
How Do You Recognize Students
with Communication Disorders?
Two types of speech and language disorders
– Organic: caused by an identifiable problem in the neuromuscular
mechanism of the person (hereditary malformations, prenatal injuries,
toxic disturbances, tumors, traumas, seizures, infectious diseases,
muscular diseases)
– Functional: those with no identifiable origin
Speech and language disorders can also be classified according to when
the disorder began.
– Congenital: present at birth
– Acquired: occurs well after birth
Determining the Presence
How Do You Evaluate Students with
Communication Disorders?
How Do You Evaluate Students with Communication Disorders?
Speech assessment: speech pathologist uses a standardized articulation test to
measure articulation, voice, and fluency problems.
Voice evaluations: includes both quantitative and qualitative measures (interviews and
case history)
Fluency assessments: evaluated through a conversation with the student and
interview with parents
Three areas to be assessed relative to language interactions in the classroom:
– The student’s ability to use language effectively by speaking and listening tasks
– The teacher’s language
– The language requirements of the lessons and textbooks
Assessments for students who are bilingual or multilingual
Evaluation teams need to take a holistic view of the student’s communication skills
using ecological assessments.
Determining the Presence
How Do You Evaluate Students with
Communication Disorders?
Including Students
How Do You Assure Progress in the
General Curriculum?
Describe how students with communication disorders are supported in the general education curriculum.
Planning Universally
Designed Learning
How Do You Assure Progress in the
General Curriculum?
Adapting Instruction
– Ask varied types of questions to encourage students’ self-expression
– Expand student utterances by using modeling more elaborate language
– Augment or alter classroom language by providing statements that explain a
student’s nonverbal behaviors
– Allow students opportunity to practice public verbalizations
– Keep in mind the need of some students for AAC systems
Augmenting Instruction
– Repetition of the curriculum
– Visual supports: graphic organizers, photographs, gestures, sign language
– Direct instruction in social skills
Reflect on how communication disorders can be accommodated in the general curriculum.
Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC)
AAC systems are an integrated group of components that supplement the communication abilities
of individuals who cannot meet their communication needs through gestures, speaking, and/or
An AAC device is a physical object that transmits or receives messages.
Types of AAC: communication books, communication boards, communication charts,
mechanical/electrical voice output, computers, etc.
Using the AAC devices:
– Using eyes to look at the symbol
– Touching the symbols with fingers
– Using a laser beam attached to the head
– Scanning
– Encoding
• Introduction to Boardmaker
• – Boardmaker Templates – Adapted Storybooks - Boardmaker Materials
• Go to computer Lab - Wheatley 2nd Floor and in pairs complete
the introduction to Boardmaker assignment.