ICCS e-Newsletter CSI Spring 2013 David A Westerman, MBBS FRACP FRCPA Department of Pathology Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre Melbourne, Australia e-CSI - Clinical History: • A 52 year Caucasian man presents with pancytopenia for investigation, and a previous history of “T cell lymphoma”. e-CSI - Peripheral Blood: • CBC – – – – – – – – – WBC: RBC: Hgb: Hct: MCV: MCH: MCHC: RDW: Plts: Normal Range 0.5 x 109/l 2.86 x 1012/l 9.0 g/dl 27.0 % 95.0 fl 32.0 pg 32.9 g/dl 17.2% 25 x 109/l (4.0 – 11.0) (4.5 – 6.5) (13.0 – 18.0) (40.0 – 54.0) (80.0 – 96.0) (27.0 – 32.0) (31.0 – 35.0) (11.7 – 15.7) (150 – 400) e-CSI - Peripheral Blood: • CBC Differential – Granulocytes: – Lymphocytes: – Monocytes: – Eosinophils: 75% 9% 11% 2% e-CSI - Clinical History: • Bone marrow aspirate and trephine biopsy were performed. • Flow cytometric immunophenotyping was performed on the bone marrow aspirate and the results from selected 8-color tubes are provided for review. e-CSI - Flow Cytometric Studies: • Acquired FACS Canto II, analyzed with Kaluza e-CSI - Flow Cytometric Studies: Initial gating strategies excluded doublets and debris Further gating to include WBC’s and then a more “targeted” gated population based on an unusual CD45 vs SSC plot, in this case – “mononuclear gate” e-CSI - Flow Cytometric Studies: 56% of mononuclear cells gated are CD2+, while T cells account for only 4% An expanded monocytic population is also identified with weak (but normal) CD4 expression (green) e-CSI - Flow Cytometric Studies: CD2 vs CD3 allows separation of the NK cell population (black) and monocytes (green) in this case. Normal CD4+ and 8+ T cells can also be seen (mustard colour and blue) e-CSI - Flow Cytometric Studies: CD2+ and 16/56+ NK cells (black), monocytes in green, residual T cells in mustard and light blue e-CSI - Flow Cytometric Studies: NK cells are CD94+bright, 26+bright, 4-, 27+ Normal T cells e-CSI - Flow Cytometric Studies: • Normal NK plot expressions Normal expression of pooled normal donors NK cells are in black, CD4+T cells mustard, CD8+ T cells in blue e-CSI - Flow Cytometric Conclusion: 1. NK cells 56% of mononuclear gate expressing: CD2+, 3-, 4-, 5 partial, 7-, 8-, 16/56+, 26+ bright, 27-, 94+ bright, TCR αβ- & γδ2. Monocytes –normal expression compared to controls with this panel of markers but expanded in number e-CSI – cont. • Correlation with morphology and subsequently immunohistochemistry was performed e-CSI – morphology The aspirate quality was poor. A trephine touch is depicted showing numerous large, immature haematopoietic precursors e-CSI – morphology H & E section x 40 magnification e-CSI – morphology H & E section x 200 magnification; Effacement by an undifferentiated population of large blast-like cells e-CSI – morphology CD2 demonstrates a dominant positive population, including mitotic figures e-CSI – morphology CD3 shows cytoplasmic staining, in keeping with staining of CD3 epsilon chains of NK cells e-CSI – morphology TIA shows a significant positive population, while some granzyme positivity was also seen (not shown), in keeping with the cytotoxic function of NK cells e-CSI – morphology • EBV ISH is not a validated in our mercuric chloride fixed trephines, so was not tested • TP53 IHC (not shown) showed positivity in about 20% of cells • Insufficient material was available for cytogenetics • TCR gene rearrangement studies were polyclonal e-CSI – Diagnosis • Aggressive NK-cell leukaemia • Reactive monocytosis e-CSI – Aggressive NK-cell leukaemia • This is a rare disorder with a preponderance in Asian and South American populations, and young to middle aged • There is a strong association with EBV • Patients present with fever, cytopenias, constitutional symptoms, leukaemic cells, DIC, or haemophagocytic syndrome. Skin involvement is uncommon e-CSI – Aggressive NK-cell leukaemia • Morphologically: NK cells in this disorder vary from typical large granular lymphocyte morphology to atypical forms with folded nuclei, and nucleoli to frank blasts • The typical phenotype is CD2+ CD3- CD3ε+ CD56+ CD57- CD16+ CD11b+ • FAS ligand (CD95) is found on neoplastic cells, and also in the serum • T cell receptor genes are germline e-CSI – Aggressive NK-cell leukaemia • >90% cases are EBV positive • Karyotypic anomalies vary and include 11q, 6q, 17p deletions • The prognosis is poor and median survival measureable in just a few months • Typically the disease is refractory to aggressive chemotherapy e-CSI – References • Chan JKC, Jaffe ES, Ralfkiaer E et al. WHO Classification of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues. 4TH edition, pp276-277. • Dearden CE, Johnson R, Pettengell R et al. Guidelines for the management of mature T-cell and NK-cell neoplasms (excluding cutaneous T-cell lymphoma). Br J Haematol 2011; 153, 451–485. • Kawa-Ha K, Ishihara S, Ninomiya T et al. CD3-negative lymphoproliferative disease of granular lymphocytes containing Epstein-Barr viral DNA. J Clin Inves 1989; 84: 51-55. • Kwong YL, The Diagnosis & management of extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma, nasal-type and aggreesive NK-cell leukemia. J Clin Exp Hematopath. 2011; 51: 21-27. • Suzuki R, Suzumiya J, Nakamura S et al. Aggressive natural killer-cell leukemia revisited: large granular lymphocyte leukemia of cytotoxic NK cells. Leukemia 2004; 18: 763–770.