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Transcript
Operating Systems (A) (Honor Track)
Lecture 21: I/O and File Systems in
Linux & Windows
Tao Wang
School of Electronics Engineering and Computer Science
http://ceca.pku.edu.cn/wangtao
Fall 2013
Acknowledgements: Prof. Xiangqun Chen at PKU and Prof. Yuanyuan Zhou at UCSD
1
Review
I/O and Disk
2
Categories of
I/O Devices
• Difficult area of OS design
– Difficult to develop a consistent solution due
to a wide variety of devices and applications
• Three Categories:
– Human readable
– Machine readable
– Communications
Differences in
I/O Devices
• Devices differ in a number of areas
– Data Rate
– Application
– Complexity of Control
– Unit of Transfer
– Data Representation
– Error Conditions
Techniques for
performing I/O
• Programmed I/O
• Interrupt-driven I/O
• Direct memory access (DMA)
Hierarchical design
• A hierarchical philosophy leads to
organizing an OS into layers
• Each layer relies on the next lower layer to
perform more primitive functions
• It provides services to the next higher
layer.
• Changes in one layer should not require
changes in other layers
I/O Buffering
• Processes must wait for I/O to complete
before proceeding
– To avoid deadlock certain pages must remain
in main memory during I/O
• It may be more efficient to perform input
transfers in advance of requests being
made and to perform output transfers
some time after the request is made.
Buffer Limitations
• Buffering smoothes out peaks in I/O
demand.
– But with enough demand eventually all buffers
become full and their advantage is lost
• However, when there is a variety of I/O
and process activities to service, buffering
can increase the efficiency of the OS and
the performance of individual processes.
Disk Performance
Parameters
• Access Time is the sum of:
– Seek time: The time it takes to position the
head at the desired track
– Rotational delay or rotational latency: The
time its takes for the beginning of the sector to
reach the head
• Transfer Time is the time taken to transfer
the data.
Disk Scheduling
Algorithms
RAID
• Redundant Array of Independent Disks
• Set of physical disk drives viewed by the
operating system as a single logical drive
• Data are distributed across the physical
drives of an array
• Redundant disk capacity is used to store
parity information which provides
recoverability from disk failure
RAID 0 - Stripped
• Not a true RAID – no redundancy
• Disk failure is catastrophic
• Very fast due to parallel read/write
RAID 1 - Mirrored
• Redundancy through duplication instead of
parity.
• Read requests can made in parallel.
• Simple recovery from disk failure
RAID 5
Block-level Distributed parity
• Similar to RAID-4 but distributing the parity
bits across all drives
Disk Cache
• Buffer in main memory for disk sectors
• Contains a copy of some of the sectors on
the disk
• When an I/O request is made for a
particular sector,
– a check is made to determine if the sector is
in the disk cache.
• A number of ways exist to populate the
cache
Buzz Words
Programmed I/O
Directed memory
access (DMA)
Buffer
Seek time
Rotational delay
Transfer time
RAID
Disk cache
16
This Lecture
I/O and File Systems in
Linux & Windows
The following foils are mainly from
William Stallings, “Operating Systems: Internals and Design Principles, 6/E”
17
Roadmap
• UNIX SVR4 I/O
•
•
•
•
•
LINUX I/O
Windows I/O
Unix File Management
Linux Virtual File System
Windows File System
Devices are Files
• Each I/O device is associated with a
special file
– Managed by the file system
– Provides a clean uniform interface to users
and processes.
• To access a device, read and write
requests are made for the special file
associated with the device.
UNIX SVR4 I/O
• Each individual device is associated with a
special file
• Two types of I/O
– Buffered
– Unbuffered
Buffer Cache
• Three lists are
maintained
– Free List
– Device List
– Driver I/O Queue
Character Queue
• Used by character oriented devices
– E.g. terminals and printers
• Either written by the I/O device and read
by the process or vice versa
– Producer/consumer model used
Unbuffered I/O
• Unbuffered I/O is simply DMA between
device and process
– Fastest method
– Process is locked in main memory and can’t
be swapped out
– Device is tied to process and unavailable for
other processes
I/O for Device Types
Roadmap
• UNIX SVR4 I/O
• LINUX I/O
•
•
•
•
Windows I/O
Unix File Management
Linux Virtual File System
Windows File System
Linux/Unix Similarities
• Linux and Unix (e.g. SVR4) are very
similar in I/O terms
– The Linux kernel associates a special file with
each I/O device driver.
– Block, character, and network devices are
recognized.
The Elevator Scheduler
• Maintains a single queue for disk read and
write requests
• Keeps list of requests sorted by block
number
• Drive moves in a single direction to satisfy
each request
Deadline Scheduler
– Uses three queues
• Incoming requests
• Read requests go to
the tail of a FIFO
queue
• Write requests go to
the tail of a FIFO
queue
– Each request has
an expiration time
Anticipatory
I/O scheduler
• Elevator and deadline scheduling can be
counterproductive if there are numerous
synchronous read requests.
• Delay a short period of time after satisfying
a read request to see if a new nearby
request can be made
Linux Page Cache
• Linux 2.4 and later, a single unified page
cache for all traffic between disk and main
memory
• Benefits:
– Dirty pages can be collected and written out
efficiently
– Pages in the page cache are likely to be
referenced again due to temporal locality
Roadmap
•
•
•
•
•
•
UNIX SVR4 I/O
LINUX I/O
Windows I/O
Unix File Management
Linux Virtual File System
Windows File System
Windows I/O Manager
• The I/O manager is
responsible for all I/O
for the operating
system
• It provides a uniform
interface that all types
of drivers can call.
Windows I/O
• The I/O manager works closely with:
– Cache manager – handles all file caching
– File system drivers - routes I/O requests for
file system volumes to the appropriate
software driver for that volume.
– Network drivers - implemented as software
drivers rather than part of the Windows
Executive.
– Hardware device drivers
Asynchronous and
Synchronous I/O
• Windows offers two modes of I/O
operation:
– asynchronous and synchronous.
• Asynchronous mode is used whenever
possible to optimize application
performance.
Software RAID
• Windows implements RAID functionality
as part of the operating system and can be
used with any set of multiple disks.
• RAID 0, 1 and RAID 5 are supported.
• In the case of RAID 1 (disk mirroring), the
two disks containing the primary and
mirrored partitions may be on the same
disk controller or different disk controllers.
Volume Shadow Copies
• Shadow copies are implemented by a
software driver that makes copies of data
on the volume before it is overwritten.
• Designed as an efficient way of making
consistent snapshots of volumes to that
they can be backed up.
– Also useful for archiving files on a per-volume
basis
Roadmap
• UNIX SVR4 I/O
• LINUX I/O
• Windows I/O
• Unix File Management
• Linux Virtual File System
• Windows File System
UNIX File Management
• Six types of files
– Regular, or ordinary
– Directory
– Special
– Named pipes
– Links
– Symbolic links
Inodes
• Index node
• Control structure that contains key
information for a particular file.
• Several filenames may be associated with
a single inode
– But an active inode is associated with only
one file, and
– Each file is controlled by only one inode
Free BSD
Inodes include:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The type and access mode of the file
The file’s owner and group-access identifiers
Creation time, last read/write time
File size
Sequence of block pointers
Number of blocks and Number of directory entries
Blocksize of the data blocks
Kernel and user setable flags
Generation number for the file
Size of Extended attribute information
Zero or more extended attribute entries
FreeBSD Inode and
File Structure
File Allocation
• File allocation is done on a block basis.
• Allocation is dynamic
– Blocks may not be contiguous
• Index method keeps track of files
– Part of index stored in the file inode.
• Inode includes a number of direct pointers
– And three indirect pointers
UNIX Directories
and Inodes
• Directories are files
containing:
– a list of filenames
– Pointers to inodes
UNIX File Access Control
• Files are
associated with
permissions for:
– User ID
– Group ID
– Everyone else
UNIX File
Access Control
Roadmap
•
•
•
•
•
•
UNIX SVR4 I/O
LINUX I/O
Windows I/O
Unix File Management
Linux Virtual File System
Windows File System
Linux
Virtual File System
• Uniform file system interface to user
processes
• Represents any conceivable file system’s
general feature and behavior
• Assumes files are objects that share basic
properties regardless of the target file
system
Key ingredients of
VFS Strategy
• A user process issues
a file system call (e.g.,
read) using the VFS
file scheme.
– The VFS converts this
into an internal file
system call
– The new call is passed
to a mapping function
for a specific file
system
The role of VFS
within the Kernel
Primary Objects in VFS
• Superblock object
– a specific mounted file system
• Inode object
– a specific file
• Dentry object
– a specific directory entry
• File object
– an open file associated with a process
Roadmap
•
•
•
•
•
UNIX SVR4 I/O
LINUX I/O
Windows I/O
Unix File Management
Linux Virtual File System
• Windows File System
Windows File System
• Key features of NTFS
– Recoverability
– Security
– Large disks and large files
– Multiple data streams
– Journaling
– Compression and Encryption
NTFS Volume and File
Structure
• Sector
– The smallest physical storage unit on the disk
– Almost always 512 bytes
• Cluster
– One or more contiguous sectors
• Volume
– Logical partition on a disk
Efficient with
Large Files
Volume Size
Sectors per Cluster Cluster Size
512Mbyte
512Mbyte – 1 Gbyte
1–2 Gbyte
2–4 Gbyte
4–8 Gbyte
8–16 Gbyte
16–32 Gbyte
>32Gbyte
1
2
4
8
16
32
64
128
512bytes
1K
2K
4K
8K
16K
32K
64K
NTFS Volume Layout
• Every element on a volume is a file, and
every file consists of a collection of
attributes.
– Even the data contents of a file is treated as
an attribute.
Windows NTFS
Components
Summary
UNIX SVR4 I/O
LINUX I/O
Windows I/O
Unix File Management
Linux Virtual File System
Windows File System
Next lecture: More Details on FAT and NTFS
57