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[Image source:
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/]
The growing power of the United
States brought it increasingly into
conflict with other nations.
[Image source: http://www.humboldt.edu/~jcb10/spanwar.shtml]
Cuban guerillas brought pressure on the
United States government by attacking
American business interests in Cuba.
[Image source: http://www.4thcorp.com/camaguey/Glimpse/Brigadier.jpg]
Newspapers
competing for
readers printed
false and
exaggerated
stories
regarding
Spanish
atrocities in
Cuba.
[Image source: http://www.humboldt.edu/~jcb10/spanwar.shtml]
W. R. Hearst
promoted
yellow
journalism
that whipped
up public
sentiment in
favor of the
Cuban rebels.
[Image source: http://www.humboldt.edu/~jcb10/spanwar.shtml]
Yellow
journalism
is a form of
newspaper
reporting
relying on
sensational
headlines
and lurid
stories to sell
papers.
[Source: http://www.pbs.org/crucible/frames/_journalism.html]
“Butcher” Weyler herded the Cuban
people into reconcentration camps,
where an estimated 200,000 died.
[Image source: http://www.zpub.com/cpp/caw1.jpg]
The burst of national pride and a desire
for an aggressive foreign policy that
resulted was known as jingoism.
[Source: http://www.pbs.org/crucible/frames/_journalism.html]
[Image source: http://history.sandiego.edu/gen/USPics12/21922v.jpg]
Mob riots in early-1898 resulted
in the dispatch of the U. S. S.
Maine to Havana to protect
American citizens and property.
[Image source: http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/events/spanam/events/maineskg.htm]
More than 250
American
sailors were
killed when the
U.S.S. Maine
blew up and
sank in Havana
Harbor 15th
February 1898.
[Image source:
http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/events/spanam/events/maineskg.htm]
The Spanish were blamed for the
explosion that sank the Maine.
[Image source: http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/events/spanam/events/maineskg.htm]
Newspapers
speculated as
to the cause of
the explosion
that destroyed
the Maine, . . .
[http://www.pbs.org/crucible/frames/_journalism.html]
. . . which
resulted in
a strong antiSpanish
sentiment
among many
Americans.
[http://www.pbs.org/crucible/frames/_journalism.html]
[Image source: http://www.humboldt.edu/~jcb10/spanwar.shtml]
[Image source: http://www.cartoonstock.com/vintage/directory/s/spanish_american_war.asp]
The result was
a jingoistic
clamour for a
declaration of
war from many
Americans,
including
members of
Congress.
[http://www.humboldt.edu/~jcb10/spanwar.shtml]
President
McKinley
initially
resisted
public
opinion, but
ultimately
succumbed
to “war
fever.”
[http://www.pbs.org/crucible/frames/_journalism.html]
Patriotic
Americans
responded
to the
call-to-arms,
enlisting
in large
numbers.
[http://www.pbs.org/crucible/frames/_journalism.html]
Theodore
Roosevelt saw
the Philippine
rebellion as an
opportunity to
acquire a base
to protect
United States
trade in Asian.
[Source:
http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/events/spana
m/people/pers-nat/pers-nat.htm]
Roosevelt
dispatched the
U. S. Asiatic
squadron to
the Philippines
to attack the
Spanish fleet
stationed at
Manila.
[Image Source: America - Pathways to the
Present (Prentice-Hall), p. 522]
[http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/events/spanam/p
eople/pers-nat/pers-nat.htm]
President
McKinley
rescinded all
of Roosevelt’s
telegrams
except the one to
the commander
of the Asiatic
squadron,
Commodore
Dewey.
McKinley issued a series of demands
to the Spanish government:
• compensation for the
U.S.S. Maine
• end of the use of
reconcentration
camps in Cuba
• a truce in Cuba
• Cuban Independence
[Image source: http://www3.eou.edu/hist06/images/cartoon3_000.gif]
[http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/events/spanam/peo
ple/pers-adm/pers-adm.htm]
When these
demands were
rebuffed,
Commodore
George Dewey
was ordered
to attack the
Spanish fleet
at anchor in
Manila Bay,
the Philippines.
Admiral Dewey’s attack of 1st May 1898
caught the Spanish entirely by surprise.
[Source: http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/events/spanam/events/man-bay1.htm]
The action
commenced
when Admiral
Dewey told the
captain of his
flagship “You
may fire when
ready, Gridley.”
[http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/events/sp
anam/events/man-bay1.htm]
Captain
Charles V.
“Steve”
Gridley
[http://www.spanamwar.com/Gridley.htm]
The anchored Spanish warships
proved easy targets for the
powerful American squadron, . . .
[Image source: http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/events/spanam/events/man-bay1.htm]
. . . while the swift-moving
American vessels proved to be
difficult targets to hit.
[Source: http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/events/spanam/events/man-bay1.htm]
The entire Spanish squadron was
either destroyed or captured.
[Image source: http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/events/spanam/events/man-bay1.htm]
[Image source:
http://www.smplanet.com/imperialism/dewey.html]
The Battle of
Manila Bay was
the first great
victory by the
U. S. Navy over
a foreign navy
since the Battle of
Lake Champlain
during the
War of 1812.
Commodore
Dewey
instantly
became
a national
hero, . . .
. . . and
Congress
promoted
him to the
rank of
admiral.
[http://www.smplanet.com/imperialism/newspaper.html]
Celebrity
endorsements
and
appearances
on Leno and
Letterman
soon followed.
American troops were quickly
dispatched to occupy the Philippines.
[Image source: http://www.zpub.com/cpp/caw3.jpg]
After a short,
choreographed
battle, the
Spanish forces
around Manila
capitulated.
[Image source: http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/31/32716/figures/DIVI441.jpg]
Future-president
William Howard
Taft served
ably as the
Americanappointed
governor for
the Philippines.
[Image source: http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/books/sw-sa/TaftWH.jpg]
The U. S. quickly became embroiled
in suppressing a rebellion.
[Image Source: America - Pathways to the Present (Prentice-Hall), p. 523]
American forces killed an estimated 16,000 Filipino
rebels during the three-year insurrection.
[Image source: http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/art/P-P/USAIA/Moros.jpg]
The U. S. S. Oregon made an epic
voyage around South America to
reinforce the Atlantic fleet.
[http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/events/spanam/events/us-prep/us-prep.htm]
The U. S. S. Oregon broke all records,
making the trip in an astounding 23 days.
[http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/events/spanam/events/us-prep/us-prep.htm]
Initial
efforts to
force the
Spanish
fleet into
a decisive
battle
met with
failure.
[America - Pathways to the Present, p. 522]
The United States moved quickly to blockade
Cuba and force the Spanish fleet to do battle.
Rear-Admiral
William Thomas
Sampson’s naval
blockade allowed
the United States to
dispatch an army
to Cuba to fight
the Spanish.
[http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/events/spanam/people/pers-adm/pers-adm.htm]
[Image source: http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/historical/greater_antilles_1898.jpg]
Teddie Roosevelt raised a regiment of volunteer
cavalry that became known as the “Rough Riders.”
[Image Source: America - Pathways to the Present (Prentice-Hall), p. 537]
Roosevelt’s charge up Kettle and San Juan
hills made him a national hero overnight.
[http://www.rose-hulman.edu/~delacova/1898/rough-riders.gif]
Soldiers of the 10th U.S. Cavalry, commanded
by Captain John J. “Black Jack” Pershing,
participated in the attack.
[Image source: http://www3.eou.edu/hist06/images/image001.jpg]
With control of the heights commanding
Santiago Harbor in American hands, the
Spanish squadron was forced to flee.
[Image source: http://www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/1898/img/santiagohar.jpg]
The Spanish squadron fled westward along
the coast pursued by American warships.
[Image source: http://www.mainlesson.com/books/fraser/seafights/zpage274.gif]
The two squadrons
were mismatched,
and the Spanish
ships were easily
destroyed.
[Image source:
http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Rhodes/3991/SantiagoS.jpg]
The victory 3rd July set-off wild
Independence Day celebrations
throughout the United States.
[Image source: http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/images/h01000/h01132.jpg]
[http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/events/spanam/peo
ple/pers-adm/pers-adm.htm]
Rear-Admiral
Winfield Scott
Schley was
in tactical
command at
the time that
the Spanish
squadron was
destroyed.
Eventually controversy
would surround who
deserved the credit for
sinking the Spanish fleet.
Following their victory, the United States
sent an army of occupation to Havana, Cuba.
[http://www.zpub.com/cpp/caw4.jpg]
In the Treaty of Paris (1898), Spain
recognized Cuba’s independence.
[Image source: http://www.newmedialab.cuny.edu/PSM/images/photo10a.JPG]
In exchange for $20 million, Spain also
relinquished control over Puerto Rico,
Guam, and the Philippines.
[Image source: http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/historical/ward_1912/west_indies_philippines_1898.jpg]
“Hurrah! The Country is saved again!
[Image source: Hawaii State Archives]
Only 400 of the 2,500 American
fatalities were a result of combat.
[Image source: http://www.lausd.k12.ca.us/Belmont_HS/tkm/Pics/SpanishAmerican%20War%20Soildiers/spamwar.gif]
The Teller
Amendment to
Congress’s 1898
war resolution had
promised Spain that
the United States
would not annex
Cuba.
[Image source: http://www2.chass.ncsu.edu/slatta/hi453/images/teller.gif]
President McKinley
installed a military
government under
General Leonard
Wood, who
organized a school
system and restored
economic stability.
[Image source:
http://jssgallery.org/Paintings/Portrait_of_Major_General.jpg]
Major Walter
Reed of the Army
Medical Corps
served on a
commission that
found a cure for
yellow fever.
[http://www.med.virginia.edu/hslibrary/historical/yelfev/pan6.html]
Platt Amendment
Cuba had to do the
following:
• could not enter into
agreements with other
nations without U.S.
approval
• had to allow the U.S.
to establish two naval
bases on the island
• U.S. had the right to
intervene if necessary
[Image source: http://www.bnjm.cu/librinsula/imagen/ima62/COLABORACIONES_Una-vez-mas-.jpg]
One result of the Spanish-American War was
heightened interest in an isthmian canal.
Queen
Liliuokalani,
the rightful
monarch of
Hawaii, was
portrayed as
an incompetent
savage.
[Images source: http://library.kcc.hawaii.edu/~soma/cartoons/drawthum.jpg]
With the help of United States Marines,
pineapple planter Sanford B. Dole seized
control of the Hawaiian Islands in 1893.
[Image source: http://libweb.hawaii.edu/digicoll/annexation/images/pic5.html]
Dole declared
Hawaii a
republic and
requested that
it be annexed
by the United
States.
[Image source: Atlantic Monthly Review, July 1898]
“We need Hawaii
just as much and
a good deal more
than we did
California. It is
Manifest Destiny.”
President
William McKinley
(1898)
[Image source: http://genealogytrails.com/main/presidents/mckinley.jpg]
The need for
naval stations
in the Pacific
Ocean
convinced
Congress to
approve the
annexation
of Hawaii in
1898.
[Image source:
http://library.kcc.hawaii.edu/~soma/cartoons/wed3.jpg]
By the late-1800s,
European powers
and Japan were
seeking areas of
economic and
political control
in China.
[Image source: http://academickids.com/encyclopedia/images/thumb/0/0e/200px-China_imperialism_cartoon.jpg]
The United
States feared
that the
resulting
spheres of
influence
would limit
opportunities
for trade.
[Image source: America – Pathways to the Present, page 516.]
In 1899, the
American
Secretary-ofState John Hay
proposed the
Open Door Policy
regarding trade
with China.
[Image source:
http://www.heritage.nf.ca/law/images/johnhay_550.jpg]
[Source: America – Pathways to the Present, page 525.]
The American empire
at the dawn of the
twentieth-century:
[Image source: http://websupport1.citytech.cuny.edu/Faculty/pcatapano/lectures_us2/pacificmap98.jpg]
Civilization Begins at Home
[http://www.utep.edu/hist3101/gif/civilize.gif]
[Image source: http://content.answers.com/main/content/wp/en/thumb/5/5d/275px-1899BalanceCartoon.jpg]