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World History
Mr. Sadow
Chapter 19 Notes and All Work
Chapter 19- The Industrial Revolution Begins (1750–1850)
Section 1- Dawn of the Industrial Age
Since the beginning of civilization, most people have lived in small villages and used simple handmade tools. During the
1700’s, production began to shift from simple hand tools to complex machines, and new sources of energy replaced human
and animal power. This turning point is known as the Industrial Revolution. This transformation marked a crucial turning
point in history and changed the lives of people all over the world.
The Industrial Revolution began with an agricultural revolution in Western Europe that contributed to a population
explosion. This in turn fed the growing industrial labor force. In the 1600’s, the Dutch built dikes (dams), to protect
drained farmland from the sea, and used animal fertilizer to improve the soil. Farms increased their production by creating
enclosures (fenced in land). Then, in the 1700’s, British farmers discovered ways to produce more food. A British man
invented the seed drill that planted seeds in rows. Another pioneer bred stronger horses for work and fatter sheep and cattle
for meat. Rich landowners forced many peasants off the land. With no work in the country, peasants moved to cities.
There, they became the laborers who would soon operate the new machines.
The agricultural revolution helped to create a population explosion. Since women ate better, they had healthier and
stronger babies. At the same time, medical care improved. People lived longer lives.
In the 1700’s, an energy revolution occurred. People continued to use human, animal, and wind power but now began to
also use giant water wheels to power new machines. English inventors used coal to power the steam engine. Steam engines
became the power source of the early Industrial Revolution.
Section 2- Britain Leads the Way
The Industrial Revolution began in Britain. Britain had plenty of natural resources, many workers for the new mines and
factories, and a lot of capital (money to invest). The British overseas empire made the economy strong. As a result, the
middle class had money to invest in mines, railroads, and factories. During the early Industrial Revolution, iron and coal
were very important. Iron was needed to produce machines and steam engines. In 1709, the British began using coal,
instead of wood, for fuel in the production of iron. Experiments led to the production of iron that was cheaper and stronger.
The textile industry was the first to use inventions of the Industrial Revolution. In the 1600’s, families spun raw cotton
into thread and then wove the thread into cloth at home. By the 1700’s, new machines allowed people to make cloth much
faster. However, the machines were too large and expensive to be operated at home. Instead, spinners and weavers worked
in long sheds that became the first factories. As production increased, people needed a faster and cheaper means of
transportation to move goods from place to place.
In the 1700’s, people built turnpikes (privately built roads that charged a fee to travelers who used them), canals, and
stronger bridges. James Watt improved the steam engine that powered boats along canals. Most importantly, the invention
of the steam locomotive made the growth of railroads possible.
Section 3- Hardships of Early Industrial Life
The Industrial Revolution brought great riches, mostly to business owners, and great misery, mostly to workers. Many
people moved from small villages to towns and cities as jobs were lost on the farm. The movement of large numbers of
people to cities is called urbanization. In the cities, most people were poor and lived in tenements (multistory buildings
divided into crowded apartments). There were no sewers. Garbage rotted in the streets and diseases spread quickly.
The heart of the new industrial city was the factory (a place that brings workers and machines together to manufacture
products). Men, women, and children worked hard in the factories 12 to 16 hours a day for only a few cents an hour. The
work was boring, and the machines were dangerous. If workers were sick or injured, they lost their jobs. Children worked
as hard as adults. Parents let their children work because the money children earned was needed to support their families.
Owners often preferred female workers to men because they could pay them less and be more controlling of them.
Eventually, however, Parliament passed laws to improve working conditions.
Historians have debated whether the Industrial Revolution was a blessing or a curse. The Industrial Revolution created
hardships for many people. Low pay, unemployment, and horrible living conditions caused social problems. Still, the
Industrial Revolution had many positive effects. Factories created new jobs. More goods became available. Railroads
made it possible to visit family members in other towns. The middle class, especially merchants and inventors, benefited
financially. Most importantly, opportunities for all classes of people increased.
Section 4- New Ways of Thinking
During the Enlightenment, thinkers developed the policy of laissez faire (to not interfere). They believed that a free
market economy (business with few rules) would help everyone, not just the rich. In the early 1800’s, thinkers tried to
understand the changes created by the Industrial Revolution. Two economists, Thomas Malthus and David Ricardo,
believed that as long as the population kept increasing, the poor would suffer. They believed that poor people could
improve their lives only by working hard and having fewer children. They did not believe that government should help the
By the 1800’s, some thinkers began to argue that government should help the poor. They worked to reform society
without making radical changes. Jeremy Bentham taught utilitarianism (the idea that the goal of a society should be the
happiness of its people). Another utilitarian, John Stuart Mill, wanted government to improve the lives of the poor. Mill
and other utilitarians worked for many reforms, including child labor and public health, and tried to help create the best
possible life for the most people.
Other thinkers condemned industrialism. They believed it was unfair that some people were rich while others were poor.
Labor unions (workers’ organizations) were created to help workers gain rights and better working conditions and to close
the gap between those who “had” and the proletariats (the working class “have-nots” in society). To end poverty, they
introduced socialism (when farms and businesses belong to all the people and not to individuals). The goal of socialists
was a society that worked for the good of all the people. Karl Marx called for an international struggle to end capitalism
and created communism (socialism that see class struggle as unavoidable between employees and employers).
World History
Mr. Sadow
Chapter 19 Homework Assignments
Section 1, Due by
in complete sentences in your own words
1. What did the agricultural revolution in Britain lead to?
2. Why did the Industrial Revolution occur?
3. What were at least three forms of energy used before and during the Industrial Revolution?
4. Define enclosure.
Section 2, Due by
in complete sentences in your own words
1. What are the main reasons the Industrial Revolution started in Britain?
2. Define capital.
3. Define turnpike.
4. Who was James Watt? What did he do?
5. What industry had the first factories?
Section 3, Due by
in complete sentences in your own words
1. Define factory.
2. What group of people benefited the most from the Industrial Revolution?
3. What groups (sexes, ages) of people worked in factories?
4. Why did factory owners often prefer women workers to men?
5. Define urbanization.
6. Define tenements.
Section 4 Due by
1. Define utilitarianism.
2. Define socialism.
3. Define communism.
4. Define labor unions.
5. Define proletariat.
6. Define free market.
in complete sentences in your own words
7. Who was Karl Marx? What did he do?