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Transcript
SENSING SOIL MOISTURE CONTENT
AUTOMATIC IRRIGATION SYSTEM
ABSTRACT
• This project is designed to water for plants regularly
• The circuit comprises of sensor parts built using opamp IC LM358.(as a comparator)
• Two stiff copper wires are inserted in the soil to sense
whether the soil is wet or dry.
• The Microcontroller is used to control the whole
system by monitoring the sensors
BLOCK DIAGRAM
HARD WARE EQUIPMENTS
• POWER SUPPLY BLOCK
• MICROCONTROLLER (AT89S52/AT89C51)
• LCD
• WATER PUMP
• LM358 OP-AMP
• BC547 TRANSISTOR
• RELAY
• 1N4007
• LED
• RESISTORS & CAPACITORS
EMBEDDED SYSTEMS
Definition for :-
EMBEDDED SYSTEMS
 A combination of hardware and software which together
form a component of a larger machine.
 An example of an embedded system is a microprocessor that
controls an automobile engine.
 An embedded system is designed to run on its own without
human intervention, and may be required to respond to
events in real time.
EMBEDDED SYSTEMS
MICRO CONTROLLER
 Compatible with MCS®-51 Products
 8K Bytes of In-System Programmable (ISP) Flash
Memory
 4.0V to 5.5V Operating Range
 Crystal Frequency 11.0592MHZ
 Three-level Program Memory Lock
 256 x 8-bit Internal RAM
 32 Programmable I/O Lines
 Three 16-bit Timer/Counters
 Eight Interrupt Sources
 Full Duplex UART Serial Channel
 Watchdog Timer
AT89S52
PIN DIAGRAM OF AT89S52
BC547
The BC547 transistor is an NPN Epitaxial
Silicon Transistor.
The BC547 transistor is a general-purpose
transistor in small plastic packages.
 It is used in general-purpose switching and
amplification BC847/BC547 series 45 V, 100 mA
NPN general-purpose transistors.
Whenever base is high, then current starts
flowing through base and emitter and after that
only current will pass from collector to emitter
LED
LEDs are semiconductor devices are made out of silicon
When current passes through the LED, it emits photons as a
byproduct. Normal light bulbs produce light by heating a metal
filament until its white hot
LEDs present many advantages over traditional light sources
including lower energy consumption, longer lifetime,
improved robustness, smaller size and faster switching
DC- MOTOR
A DC motor is an electric motor that runs on direct
current (DC) electricity. In any electric motor,
operation is based on simple electromagnetism.
A simple 2-pole DC electric motor (here red
represents a magnet or winding with a "North"
polarization, while green represents a magnet or
winding with a "South" polarization).
Every DC motor has six basic parts -- axle, rotor
(a.k.a., armature), stator, commutator, field magnet(s),
and brushes.
LM 358 ( COMPARATOR )
• Internally frequency compensated for unity gain.
• Large dc voltage gain: 100 Db.
• Wide bandwidth (unity gain): 1 MHz (temperature
compensated)
• Wide power supply range:
– Single supply: 3V to 32V
– or dual supplies: ±1.5V to ±16V
• Very low supply current drain (500 µA)-essentially
independent of supply voltage.
• Low input offset voltage: 2 mV
• Input common-mode voltage range includes ground.
• Differential input voltage range equal to the power supply
voltage.
LM 358 PIN DIAGRAM
1 - Output 1
2 - Inverting input
3 - Non-inverting input
4 – VCC5 - Non-inverting input 2
6 - Inverting input 2
7 - Output 2
8 – VCC+
RELAY
IT IS A ELECTRO MAGNETIC SWITCH
USED TO CONTROL THE ELECTRICAL DEVICES
COPPER CORE MAGNETIC FLUX PLAYS MAIN ROLE HERE
LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY (LCD)
Most common LCDs connected to the microcontrollers are 16x2 and
20x2 displays.
This means 16 characters per line by 2 lines and 20 characters per line
by 2 lines, respectively.
The standard is referred to as HD44780U, which refers to the controller
chip which receives data from an external source (and communicates
directly with the LCD.
LCD BACKGROUND
 If an 8-bit data bus is used the LCD will require 11 data lines
(3 control lines plus the 8 lines for the data bus)
 The three control lines are referred to as EN, RS, and RW
 EN=Enable (used to tell the LCD that you are sending it data)
 RS=Register Select (When RS is low (0), data is treated as a command)
(When RS is High(1), data being sent is text data )
 R/W=Read/Write (When RW is low (0), the data written to the LCD)
(When RW is low (0), the data reading to the LCD)
SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS
PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES
Embedded C , ALP (Assembly Language)
COMPILERS:
Keil 2.0/3.0uv
DUMPING SOFT WARE:
Using Micro controller flash Software we are dumping
our HEX Code into Micro Controller
KEIL COMPILER WINDOW
BIBILOGRAPHY
 The 8051 Microcontroller and Embedded systems” by Muhammad Ali
Mazidi and Janice Gillispie Mazidi , Pearson Education.
 ATMEL 89S52 Data Sheets.
 www.atmel.com
 www.beyondlogic.org
 www.wikipedia.org
 www.howstuffworks.com
 www.alldatasheets.com
THANK ‘Q’