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Chapter 6 Multiple-Choice Questions 1. During a phone conversation, you are able to infer something about the speaker’s mood and personality by listening to his or her vocal cues. This fact illustrates which of the following claims about nonverbal communication? a. Nonverbal communication is usually believed over verbal communication. b. Nonverbal communication is present in most forms of interpersonal communication. c. Nonverbal communication conveys more meaning than verbal communication. d. Nonverbal communication metacommunicates. 2. a. b. c. d. Which of the following vocal behaviors is a dimension of nonverbal communication? tone of voice rate of speech loudness all of these 3. Contemporary research suggests that approximately what percentage of meaning is transmitted nonverbally? a. 30–35% b. 45–50% c. 65–70% d. 90–95% 4. Why do people tend to believe nonverbal messages even when they contradict verbal messages? a. Nonverbal behaviors are completely involuntary and reflect people’s true states. b. People will only attempt to control their nonverbal behavior when they are lying. c. It is harder for most people to control their nonverbal communication than their verbal communication. d. All the answers are correct. 5. Which of the following pairs of nonverbal channels is particularly useful in communicating emotion? a. facial expression and vocal behaviors b. eye contact and hand gesturing c. body movement and eye contact d. vocal behaviors and body movement Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 6. Which of the following emotional states was NOT identified by Paul Ekman as having a universal facial expression? a. happiness b. disgust c. jealousy d. surprise 7. Rick’s manager, Susan, called him into her office one afternoon to discuss his annual evaluation. As soon as Rick sat down, Susan said, “Rick, your performance is unacceptable and I’m going to have to let you go.” After a moment of silence, Susan grinned and winked at Rick, and he knew she was joking. Susan used nonverbal communication to a. reinforce the interpersonal nature of her message. b. metacommunicate that she was teasing. c. convey emotional meaning. d. give her statement greater impact. 8. According to the text, the face is used primarily to communicate all of the following EXCEPT a. identity. b. emotion. c. attractiveness. d. intellect. 9. Which aspect of facial attractiveness refers to the relative size of facial features, such as the nose or ears? a. symmetry b. rhinoplasty c. proportionality d. asymmetry 10. Which of the following claims about facial expressions of emotion is FALSE? a. Extroverts tend to be better than introverts at interpreting nonverbal expressions of emotion. b. Women are generally better than men at understanding facial displays of emotion. c. Happiness is the easiest facial expression to decode. d. Facial expressions are second only to vocal behaviors in their ability to express emotion. 11. The study of how people use movement is called what? a. haptics b. kinesics c. oculesics d. proxemics Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 12. Which type of gesture has a direct verbal translation? a. illustrator b. regulator c. emblem d. adaptor 13. The study of touch behavior is known as a. haptics. b. oculesics. c. proxemics. d. kinesics. 14. Vocal behaviors that go along with verbal behaviors to convey meaning are known as a. fundamental frequency. b. enunciation. c. paralanguage. d. paravocalic devices. 15. When people get excited or aroused, what usually happens to their voice? a. increased articulation b. decreased loudness c. reduced inflection d. elevated pitch 16. According to Edward T. Hall, the range of which type of distance is approximately 1½ to 4 feet? a. intimate distance b. personal distance c. social distance d. public distance 17. The tendency to assume that attractive people also have other positive qualities is called what? a. positive prototyping b. character assumption c. principle of facial primacy d. halo effect 18. While talking to a friend at a party, you notice that your romantic partner has just arrived. Eager to greet your partner, you angle your posture away from your friend and toward your partner. That movement a. is culturally insensitive, especially to members of high-contact cultures. b. is a form of leave-taking behavior known as left-positioning. c. incorrectly suggests to your friend that your partner is more important than he or she is. d. All the answers are correct. Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 19. Which of the following statements about facial or vocal expressions of emotions is factually incorrect? a. Infants are unable to respond to pleasant stimuli before they are 12 months old. b. Facial expressions of basic emotions are fairly consistent across cultures. c. Disgust, boredom, and grief are typically accompanied by a lower vocal pitch. d. People tend to speak faster when they are scared. 20. When Rachel saw her neighbor Harold in the hallway, he quickly flagged her down and began to speak with her. Throughout their conversation, Harold maintained steady eye contact, spoke very quickly, laughed frequently, and stood closer to Rachel than he usually would. Harold’s nonverbal cues indicate that he was a. nervous or uncomfortable. b. engaging in deception. c. excited. d. content. 21. Which of the following was NOT identified in your textbook as a demographic characteristic? a. age b. ethnic background c. sexual orientation d. socioeconomic status 22. When you see someone dressed in very tight, dark clothing with spiky hair and eyeliner, you infer that this person is into emo punk rock. Your impression is based on which set of cues? a. demographic b. sociocultural c. socioeconomic d. psychographic 23. Your textbook identifies several ways that speakers can use nonverbal communication to increase the persuasiveness of their statements. Which of the following nonverbal behaviors is NOT in line with these prescriptions? a. speaking softly, slowly, and calmly b. matching someone else’s nonverbal behavior c. casually touching someone on the arm d. maintaining eye contact with someone while speaking 24. Research shows that olfactic cues play a role in mate selection. Which of the following statements is true? a. Men prefer women who smell like themselves. b. Women with more attractive faces smell better to men. c. Men’s facial attractiveness is unrelated to how they smell. d. All of the statements are false. Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 25. Which of the following nonverbal cues is commonly associated with deception, according to research? a. decreased smiling b. increased kinesic behavior c. increased vocal pitch d. decreased pupil dilation 26. Effectively interpreting nonverbal communication includes all of the following EXCEPT a. sensitivity to others’ nonverbal messages. b. trying to decipher the correct meaning of nonverbal behavior. c. looking past cultural differences to understand the meaning. d. asking for clarification when necessary. 27. Which is the term used for textual representations of facial expressions, often used in e-mail messages? a. textspressions b. emoticons c. e-smiles d. faceprints True/False Questions 28. When nonverbal cues conflict with verbal cues, people usually believe the verbal statements. 29. Most research strongly supports the common notion that beauty is in the eye of the beholder. 30. The face communicates more information than any other nonverbal channel. 31. The pupil of the eye contracts when we look at someone we find attractive. 32. Children who are regularly touched develop stronger immune systems than those who are not. 33. Voices that have low amounts of inflection are said to be monotone. 34. Of all the senses, smell is most strongly tied to memory. 35. People tend to be most attracted to others whose natural body odors are different from their own. 36. Most Hispanic, southern European, and Middle Eastern cultures are classified as low-contact cultures. 37. Our use of time can send powerful messages about value and power. Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 38. Arousal is an increase in energy. Answer: True Chapter 7 Multiple-Choice Questions 1. a. b. c. d. What is the active process of making meaning out of another person’s spoken message? hearing acknowledging understanding listening 2. a. b. c. d. Which of the following statements about listening is true, according to your text? Listening is an innate ability. People spend more time listening than speaking. Everyone who listens to a message hears the same thing. Hearing is the same as listening. 3. Which of the following statements about the importance of listening is NOT true? a. Employers tend to rank listening skills as one of the most important factors in effective management. b. A survey of family interaction showed that listening was the most important communication skill. c. Listening has little to no effect on our physical health beyond avoiding sounds that may induce hearing loss. d. Listening skills are important in the workplace for promoting safety, productivity, and satisfaction. 4. After a lengthy meeting with the boss and several of his coworkers, Alex asked his friend Jeff if he was concerned about the number of layoffs that his boss said were coming. Jeff looked puzzled for a moment before telling Alex that he wasn’t sure when exactly their boss had said to expect layoffs. That exchange reflects which of the following myths of listening? a. All listeners hear the same thing. b. Listening is natural and effortless. c. Hearing is the same as listening. d. People vividly recall information that they hear. 5. a. b. c. d. In the HURIER model of effective listening, the “I” stands for what? internal thoughts interviewing interpreting intellect Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 6. a. b. c. d. On average, we are able to remember about ________ of what we hear. 95% 75% 50% 25% 7. a. b. c. d. A(n) ________ device is a memory aid that helps people recall important information. memory enhancement mnemonic recall alliteration 8. According to your text, which of the following statements correctly represents the two parts of interpretation? a. Focus on the subjective meaning of the speaker’s message; and gauge the truthfulness of his or her claim. b. Understand the point of view the speaker represents; and assign a mental interpretation of his or her statement based on that understanding. c. Pay attention to all of the speaker’s verbal and nonverbal messages; and signal your interpretation back to the speaker. d. Interpret the speaker’s message carefully; and remember your interpretation for future interactions with the speaker. 9. Which type of listening response includes the use of head nods, facial expressions, and short utterances such as “uh-huh” that signal your interest to the speaker? a. pseudolistening b. engaging c. supporting d. backchanneling 10. Which form of listening occurs when you are trying to experience what another person is thinking or feeling? a. critical b. empathic c. informational d. passive 11. We engage in which form of listening when our goal is to evaluate or analyze what we’re hearing? a. informational b. analytical c. critical d. empathic Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 12. Which type of listener engages messages for the intellectual challenges; in other words, he or she likes to think things through? a. content-oriented listener b. action-oriented listener c. information-oriented listener d. intellectual-oriented listener 13. According to your text, which of the following could qualify as noise? a. loud music b. feeling hungry c. being too hot d. all of these 14. Rachel finished her oral exam in her Spanish class, and her teacher Señora Lopez evaluated her performance. Although Rachel did well on the exam, and most of Señora Lopez’s comments were positive, Rachel focused only on the negative critiques and felt very bad about her performance. Rachel just engaged in which of the following behaviors? a. pseudolistening b. content-oriented listening c. selective attention d. negative attention bias 15. According to your textbook, people might interrupt for all of the following reasons EXCEPT a. to qualify a speaker’s concerns. b. to take control of the conversation. c. to express enthusiasm for what the speaker is saying. d. to stop the speaker and ask for clarification. 16. How is pseudolistening related to glazing over? a. They are the same thing. b. You’re actually listening during glazing over, but not during pseudolistening. c. You’re actually listening during pseudolistening, but not during glazing over. d. Glazing over involves pretending to listen, but pseudolistening does not. 17. Dan is an atheist who has a keen interest in politics. Whenever Dan is watching a debate and one of the candidates mentions his or her belief or interest in God, Dan stops listening to that candidate. Sometimes, he’ll even change his vote if a candidate he likes mentions God too frequently. Which of the following listening barriers describes Dan? a. rebuttal tendency b. closed-mindedness c. attack listening d. information overload Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 18. Asking follow-up questions to confirm our interpretations of someone else’s statements is a strategy for a. separating what is said from what isn’t said. b. avoiding the vividness effect. c. minimizing the effect of a confirmation bias. d. evaluating the speaker’s credibility. 19. The tendency to pay attention only to information that supports our values and beliefs is called what? a. vividness effect b. mere exposure effect c. valuation bias d. confirmation bias 20. Which of the following statements is true about being skeptical? a. It is the same as being cynical. b. It is about evaluating the evidence for a claim. c. It is about finding fault with a claim. d. It harms a listener’s credibility. 21. Which of the following statements about credibility is FALSE? a. Credibility is a measure of how reliable and trustworthy someone is. b. Experience and expertise are the same thing. c. Biases can affect a speaker’s credibility. d. Sometimes research is necessary to determine someone’s credibility. 22. Regarding probability, which of the following statements is true? a. A statement is certain if its likelihood of being true is at least 95%. b. To be possible, a statement has to have greater than a 50% chance of being true. c. A statement is possible if there is even the slightest chance, however small, that it might be true. d. No statement has a 0% chance of being true. 23. Which of the following techniques will NOT help people improve their empathic skills? a. listening non-judgmentally to the speaker b. acknowledging the speaker’s feelings c. encouraging the speaker to focus on what he or she still has, instead of what was lost d. communicating support to the speaker nonverbally True/False Questions 24. Hearing is a passive process; listening is an active process. 25. Research indicates that most people spend more time talking than listening. Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 26. The evaluation stage of listening involves making a value judgment about the merits of what someone else has said. 27. Part of effective listening is responding appropriately to what you hear. 28. Critical listening is more passive than informational listening. 29. Empathic listening means feeling sorry for someone else. 30. Information overload can impair our ability to listen effectively. 31. The average person speaks less than 150 words per minute. 32. Research shows that most interruptions are competitive. 33. The vividness effect is the tendency of dramatic, shocking events to distort our perceptions of reality. 34. Listening nonjudgmentally is important for effective critical listening. Chapter 8 Multiple-Choice Questions 1. A multi-dimensional response to any event that enhances or inhibits your goals is known as a(n) a. communicative response. b. feeling. c. emotion. d. action tendency. 2. a. b. c. d. How are emotions and moods different? Emotions are relatively enduring, whereas moods are short lived. Emotions have an identifiable cause, whereas moods do not. Emotions are specific feelings, whereas moods are more general. Emotions affect communication, but moods do not. 3. Which emotion involves feelings of joy and surprise, along with experiences of excitement and attraction for another person? a. liking b. love c. attachment d. passion Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 4. Which of the following emotions is derived from the product of your overall evaluation of another person? a. liking b. love c. interest d. affection 5. a. b. c. d. ________ is the emotion we experience when we feel we have been wronged in some way. Disgust Jealousy Anger Contempt 6. a. b. c. d. Which of the following was NOT found by a study of emotional contagion online? Sad participants produced more words than non-sad participants. Partners of sad participants felt sad themselves. Sad participants communicated in a more depressed manner. Sad participants exchanged their messages at a slower rate than non-sad participants. 7. During a counseling session with his wife, Edith, Harris frequently rolled his eyes, made rude and condescending remarks, and openly mocked Edith in front of their counselor. Harris’s emotional state is best described as a. hostile. b. arrogant. c. contemptuous. d. disrespectful. 8. Which of the following is true about the relationship between jealousy and envy? a. Jealousy is focused on material things, whereas envy is focused on relationships. b. Envy involves wanting something that another person has; jealousy involves feeling threatened by a third party. c. Jealousy is a primary emotion; envy is a secondary emotion. d. Envy and jealousy are the same emotion. 9. Your text described five stages in the grieving process. Which of the following was NOT among them? a. depression b. retribution c. bargaining d. anger 10. Which of the following statements about the amygdala is FALSE? a. The amygdala is a small cluster of neurons in the spinal cord. b. In response to fear, the amygdala causes our heart and breathing rates to increase. c. The amygdala responds to several primary emotions. d. The amygdala causes stress hormone levels to rise when we feel afraid. Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 11. During a normal, calm conversation with your friend, you begin to notice that you feel very uncomfortable. You start to wonder what is going on and then you remember that, before talking to your friend, you were nervous because you have a test in an hour. This example illustrates the fact that emotions are a. behavioral. b. cognitive. c. physiological. d. None of the answers is correct. 12. The action tendency for which emotion is to hide or disappear from others? a. anger b. disgust c. shame d. fear 13. Which of the following emotions has a neutral valence? a. surprise b. happiness c. contentment d. positivity 14. Which of the following is an example of a primary emotion? a. jealousy b. anger c. contempt d. remorse 15. Which of the following statements about cultural displays of emotion is FALSE? a. After contact with Western cultures, preliterate cultures tend to adopt Western display rules. b. There is little cultural variation in the way that people express primary emotions. c. There is some cultural variation in the way that cultures define primary emotions. d. Emotional display rules are likely to be directly affected by biological structures. 16. Soldiers decline treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder primarily because they a. feel confused about having the condition. b. feel fear that their comrades will stigmatize them. c. feel ashamed of being a soldier. d. fear the doctors and medical personnel who might treat them. 17. Which display rule involves acting as though you’re indifferent or emotionless when you are actually experiencing an emotion? a. de-intensification b. inhibition c. simulation d. masking Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 18. Which of the following statements about communication technology is true? a. People cannot experience genuine emotion caused by a technological device. b. Social networking sites such as Facebook diminish people’s capacity for emotion. c. Online support communities are a viable option for helping people deal with a difficult situation. d. The use of emoticons does not accurately convey emotion in computer-mediated communication. 19. When one member of a group spreads his or her emotional state to the others, ________ has taken place. a. emotional expressiveness b. a sympathetic emotional response c. emotional synchrony d. emotional contagion 20. According to your text, women are more likely than men to experience which of the following? a. emotional jealousy b. anger c. surprise d. contempt 21. In the expression of emotion, androgynous people a. are more emotionally expressive than highly feminine people. b. are more emotionally expressive than highly masculine people. c. express more emotions like passion and joy. d. express less emotion than either masculine or feminine individuals. 22. People who score highly on which personality trait are more likely than others to experience anger, guilt, anxiety, and depression? a. extroversion b. psychoticism c. neuroticism d. agreeableness 23. ________ is a condition in which people lack the ability to understand, describe, and process emotions. a. Neuroticism b. Emotional processing deficit disorder c. Emotional underexpression d. Alexithymia Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 24. Which process involves changing the way you think about the situation that gave rise to a negative emotion? a. emotional contagion b. emotional reappraisal c. emotional intelligence d. alexithymia 25. Using you-statements to describe your emotions is problematic because it a. provides specific prescriptions for change. b. fails to acknowledge the part you play in determining your feelings. c. involves blaming yourself for your emotions. d. doesn’t allow you to separate emotions from actions. True/False Questions 26. Social practices and messages influence both the emotions we feel and the ways in which we react to emotions. 27. Emotions generally last longer than moods. 28. Remorse is a secondary emotion composed of disgust and fear. 29. Whereas sadness is an emotion, depression is an illness. 30. Social anxiety is a rare and serious psychological disorder. 31. People raised in collectivistic cultures typically express more negative emotion to outsiders than do people raised in individualistic cultures. 32. Women are more likely than men to respond to jealousy by trying to make their partners jealous. 33. The emotional contagion effect applies only to positive emotions, such as happiness. 34. Denying and suppressing felt emotions can contribute to a number of health problems. 35. People who can accurately identify which emotion they’re feeling are best equipped to manage their emotions in productive ways. 36. In every measurable way, women are more emotional than men. Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.