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STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS OF LIVING ORGANISMS CELL • Basic unit of structure and function of the life process UNICELLULAR • Single cell organisms, such as bacteria and Protista • Only purpose is to survive BACTERIA • Contains no membrane that encloses a nuclei • Bacteria is a decomposer which breaks down organic material into simpler forms that can be used by other organisms MULTICELLULAR • Many cells working together • Contains a nucleus and a surrounding nuclear membrane CELLULAR PROCESSES • Absorption- to take in nutrients, oxygen, and water through the membrane • Excretion- move waste out of the cell • Digestion- breakdown food into molecules to be used by the cell • Reproduction- transfer genetics for future survival of the organism • Response- reaction to an outside stimulus in their environment • Energy- needed to take in food, digest, and removal of waste for an organism to live ANIMAL CELLS • Plasma Membrane • Nucleus • Cytoplasm • Vacuole PLASMA MEMBRANE • Flexible, double-layered coat; Controls what goes in and out of the cell VACUOLES • Storage bubbles that hold food until it can be digested NUCLEUS • Command center of the cell; contains information/instruction s of how the cell will behave, grow, or divide CYTOPLASM • Jelly-like substance that the nucleus floats in, which helps maintain the cells shape PLANT CELLS • Cell Wall • Nucleus • Cytoplasm • Vacuole • Chloroplasts PLANT CELL WALL • Outer covering of the cell in a plant • It is not flexible like animal plasma membrane, it is hard and strong, which helps the plant stand up PLANT VACUOLES • Store food and water. • The water pressing against the cell walls is what makes the cell rigid so it can stand up. CHLOROPLASTS • Sac that contains pigments that convert the sun’s energy to food PHOTOSYNTHESIS • Process that takes place inside the chloroplast. • Sunlight is trapped, then the water and carbon dioxide turn the combination to sugar. • This process is what also builds new plant tissue and makes seeds. HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS • Circulatory System (heart, blood, vessels) • • • • • Respiratory System (nose, trachea, lungs) Skeletal System (bones and joints) Muscular System (voluntary and involuntary muscles) Digestive System (mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines) Nervous System (brain, spinal cord, nerves) CIRCULATORY SYSTEM • Body’s main transport system • Made up by blood, arteries, veins, capillaries, and heart BLOOD • Blood transports oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, and waste • Liquid part of blood called plasma, which is made of 90% water, and also contains proteins, glucose and salts • Solid part of blood contains red and white blood cells and platelets • Red blood cells carry oxygen and white blood cells fight infection • Platelets help clot blood from wounds • Arteries take the blood from the heart through thick walled muscular tubes that pump the blood at a high pressure so it can reach the entire body • Veins return the blood back to the heart • Capillaries are narrow tubes that go from the arteries to the veins. They are very thin and carry blood to our tissues. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM • Exchanges gases between the air and blood • Includes the nose, trachea and lungs PATH OF AIR INTO AND OUT OF THE LUNGS • Air/gas is inhaled through the nose. Air travels down the trachea in the neck, then into the 2 bronchi and finally into the 2 bronchioles. Gas is exchanged in the lungs in capillary sacs called alveoli. The diaphragm keeps the lungs open to fill with gases. Oxygen is transferred into the blood stream through capillaries and veins and then carbon dioxide is exhaled. SKELETAL SYSTEM • Frame that helps living organism their shape and protects organs • Endoskeleton- bone (hard tissue) • Exoskeleton- shell that protects the inside MUSCULAR SYSTEM • Muscles that can lengthen and shorten, which creates movement in the body • Voluntary muscles are controlled by you • Involuntary muscles move without conscious thought (heart beating, lungs operating, digestive system) TENDONS • Bands of tissue that connect muscle to bone • Contracting muscles (shortens) • Muscles can not push bones away, only pull on bones • Depending on the location of the muscles depends on the direction it contracts DIGESTIVE SYSTEM •The system responsible for breaking food down into nutrients that the body can use •Consists of the mouth, esophagus, stomach and intestines DIGESTIVE SYSTEM • The process which food is broken down into smaller pieces and then chemically changed to obtain the necessary nutrients the body needs to survive (Goes from mouth to esophagus, to stomach and then intestines) ENZYMES • The chemicals the body produces to break down food NERVOUS SYSTEM • System that controls the bodies activities • Brain • Spinal Cord • Nerves BRAIN • Receives and sends messages • Basic functions: breathing, movement, thinking and sleeping MAIN PARTS OF THE BRAIN • Cerebrum- Divided into 2 halves and are joined by a thick connection called the corpus callosum; The cerebrum controls senses and aids in thinking, remembering, and decision making. • Cerebellum- Located in the back of the brain and controls movements and balance MEDULLA • Connects the bottom of the brain to the spinal cord • Coordinates voluntary responses with fine motor skill movements • Controls involuntary responses, such as breathing, digestion, and heartbeat NEURONS • Cells that carry impulses from the nervous system to different parts of the body • The brain has millions of neurons. • Dendrites- carry nerve impulses toward the cell body of neurons • Axons- carry nerve impulses away from the cell body to other neurons • Myelin sheaths protect the impulse so it does not stray of its path, like an insulator for electricity • At the end of the axon is the terminal branches. Impulses jump across tiny spaces (synapsis) and are picked up by other neurons’ dendrites.