Download STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS OF LIVING ORGANISMS

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Transcript
STRUCTURE
AND
FUNCTIONS
OF LIVING ORGANISMS
CELL
• Basic unit of structure and function of the life process
UNICELLULAR
• Single cell organisms, such as bacteria and Protista
• Only purpose is to survive
BACTERIA
• Contains no membrane that encloses a nuclei
• Bacteria is a decomposer which breaks
down organic material into simpler forms
that can be used by other organisms
MULTICELLULAR
• Many cells working together
• Contains a nucleus and a
surrounding nuclear
membrane
CELLULAR PROCESSES
• Absorption- to take in nutrients, oxygen, and water through the
membrane
• Excretion- move waste out of the cell
• Digestion- breakdown food into molecules to be used by the cell
• Reproduction- transfer genetics for future survival of the organism
• Response- reaction to an outside stimulus in their environment
• Energy- needed to take in food, digest, and removal of waste for an
organism to live
ANIMAL CELLS
• Plasma Membrane
• Nucleus
• Cytoplasm
• Vacuole
PLASMA MEMBRANE
• Flexible, double-layered coat; Controls what goes in and
out of the cell
VACUOLES
• Storage bubbles that
hold food until it can
be digested
NUCLEUS
• Command center of
the cell; contains
information/instruction
s of how the cell will
behave, grow, or
divide
CYTOPLASM
• Jelly-like substance that the nucleus floats in, which helps
maintain the cells shape
PLANT CELLS
• Cell Wall
• Nucleus
• Cytoplasm
• Vacuole
• Chloroplasts
PLANT CELL WALL
• Outer covering of the cell in a plant
• It is not flexible like animal plasma membrane, it is hard
and strong, which helps the plant stand up
PLANT VACUOLES
• Store food and water.
• The water pressing
against the cell walls
is what makes the cell
rigid so it can stand
up.
CHLOROPLASTS
• Sac that contains
pigments that
convert the sun’s
energy to food
PHOTOSYNTHESIS
• Process that takes place
inside the chloroplast.
• Sunlight is trapped, then
the water and carbon
dioxide turn the
combination to sugar.
• This process is what also
builds new plant tissue
and makes seeds.
HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS
• Circulatory System (heart, blood, vessels)
•
•
•
•
•
Respiratory System (nose, trachea, lungs)
Skeletal System (bones and joints)
Muscular System (voluntary and involuntary muscles)
Digestive System (mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines)
Nervous System (brain, spinal cord, nerves)
CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
• Body’s main transport
system
• Made up by blood,
arteries, veins,
capillaries, and heart
BLOOD
• Blood transports oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, and waste
• Liquid part of blood called plasma, which is made of 90% water,
and also contains proteins, glucose and salts
• Solid part of blood contains red and white blood cells and platelets
• Red blood cells carry oxygen and white blood cells fight infection
• Platelets help clot blood from wounds
• Arteries take the blood from the heart through thick walled muscular
tubes that pump the blood at a high pressure so it can reach the
entire body
• Veins return the blood back to the heart
• Capillaries are narrow tubes that go from the arteries to the veins.
They are very thin and carry blood to our tissues.
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
• Exchanges gases
between the air and
blood
• Includes the nose,
trachea and lungs
PATH OF AIR INTO AND OUT OF THE LUNGS
• Air/gas is inhaled through the nose. Air travels down the
trachea in the neck, then into the 2 bronchi and finally into
the 2 bronchioles. Gas is exchanged in the lungs in
capillary sacs called alveoli. The diaphragm keeps the
lungs open to fill with gases. Oxygen is transferred into
the blood stream through capillaries and veins and then
carbon dioxide is exhaled.
SKELETAL SYSTEM
• Frame that helps living organism their shape and protects
organs
• Endoskeleton- bone (hard tissue)
• Exoskeleton- shell that protects the inside
MUSCULAR SYSTEM
• Muscles that can lengthen and shorten, which creates
movement in the body
• Voluntary muscles are controlled by you
• Involuntary muscles move without conscious thought (heart
beating, lungs operating, digestive system)
TENDONS
• Bands of tissue that connect muscle
to bone
• Contracting muscles (shortens)
• Muscles can not push bones away,
only pull on bones
• Depending on the location of the
muscles depends on the direction it
contracts
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
•The system responsible for breaking food
down into nutrients that the body can use
•Consists of the mouth, esophagus, stomach
and intestines
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
• The process which food is
broken down into smaller
pieces and then chemically
changed to obtain the
necessary nutrients the body
needs to survive (Goes from
mouth to esophagus, to
stomach and then intestines)
ENZYMES
• The chemicals the body produces to break down food
NERVOUS SYSTEM
• System that controls the
bodies activities
• Brain
• Spinal Cord
• Nerves
BRAIN
• Receives and sends messages
• Basic functions: breathing, movement, thinking and sleeping
MAIN PARTS OF THE BRAIN
• Cerebrum- Divided into 2 halves and are joined by a thick
connection called the corpus callosum; The cerebrum
controls senses and aids in thinking, remembering, and
decision making.
• Cerebellum- Located in the back of the brain and controls
movements and balance
MEDULLA
• Connects the bottom of the
brain to the spinal cord
• Coordinates voluntary
responses with fine motor skill
movements
• Controls involuntary responses,
such as breathing, digestion,
and heartbeat
NEURONS
• Cells that carry impulses from the nervous system to different parts
of the body
• The brain has millions of neurons.
• Dendrites- carry nerve impulses toward the cell body of
neurons
• Axons- carry nerve impulses away from the cell body to
other neurons
• Myelin sheaths protect the impulse so it does not
stray of its path, like an insulator for electricity
• At the end of the axon is the terminal branches. Impulses
jump across tiny spaces (synapsis) and are picked up by
other neurons’ dendrites.