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ASTRONOMY TEST # 1 – FALL 2011 1. Although he is best known for his works on geography, ? developed the “Magnitude System” and perfected the “Epicyclic Model” . A.Hipparchus B.Copernicus C.Ptolemy D.Eratosthenes E.Brahe 2. Mass is A.the amount of material in a body B.the measure of the inertia of a body C.both of these definitions define “mass” 3. The Doppler Effect ? upon the movement of a wave toward or away from the observer. A.depends B.does not depend 4. Dispersion is best explained due to A.reflection B.refraction C.dispersion occurs due to both reflection and refraction 5. There are ? minutes of arc in 1 degree. A.10 B.20 C.30 D.60 E.100 6. Daylight length depends primarily on A.the Earth’s axial tilt B.the distance between the Sun and Earth C.daylight length depends upon both these factors 7. Each time zone encompasses about ? degrees of longitude. A.5 B.10 C.15 D.20 E.25 8. The concept of dividing the circle into 360° and dividing each degree into 60 minutes and each minute into 60 seconds came from the ancient A.Greeks B.Romans C.Mesopotamians D.Arabs E.Egyptians 9. In general, the “Olmec Culture” is ? than the Maya Culture. A.older B.younger 10. If you are facing south, the diurnal motion of the stars is A.counterclockwise B.clockwise 11. Two objects would have greater gravitational attraction if they were A.more massive and farther apart B.less massive and farther apart C.more massive and closer together D.less massive and closer together 12. The Mass Number of an element is the number of A.protons B.neutrons C.the Mass Number of an element includes the number of both protons and neutrons 13. There ? stars that exceed 1 second of arc. A.are B.are no 14. In general, lighter atoms and molecules move ? in a mixture of gases. A.slower B.faster 15. Zodiacal constellations are A.along the celestial horizon B.at the zenith C.along the ecliptic D.at the meridian E.at the celestial poles 16. Radioactive “heat” in the Solar System may have been due to abundant isotopes of A.uranium B.aluminum C.thorium D.potassium E.all of these are, or may have been, important “heat” sources in the Solar System 17. A star name beginning with “al” would have been named by the A.Greeks B.Romans C.Mesopotamians D.Chinese E.Arabs 18. The most important method for dating Earth rocks, lunar samples and meteorites has been ? dating techniques. A.Carbon-14 B.uranium-thorium C.rubidium-strontium D.potassiumargon E.all of these techniques have been equally useful for dating Solar System objects 19. One Astronomical Unit is approximately ? million miles. A.84 B.93 C.125 D.144 E.186 20. A “Lunar Month” begins at A.First Quarter B.Third Quarter C.New Moon D.Full Moon E.it doesn’t matter where the “Lunar Month” begins 21. Jupiter’s Moons were first described A.Newton B.Copernicus C.Kepler D.Galileo E.Brahe 22. The model of the Solar System proposed by ? got him in trouble with the Church. A.Newton B.Copernicus C.Kepler D.Galileo E.Brahe 23. A rocket whose orbit is a circle or ellipse around the Earth is travelling at a speed ? escape velocity. A.less than B.equal to C.greater than 24. ? are low-mass, negatively-charged particles. A.protons B.neutrons C.electrons 25. As you move across a time zone boundary from East to West you would ? an hour. A.add B.subtract 26. The shape of the orbits of planets around the Sun would best be explained by Newton’s A.First Law of Motion B.Second Law of Motion C.Third Law of Motion D.concept of Centripetal Acceleration E.observation of optical properties 27. Liquid Matter A.expands and contracts with temperature change B.does not resist compression C.has little resistance to being pulled apart D.all of the above are true concerning liquid matter 28. Nuclear reactions can best be explained based upon theories of A.Newton B.Copernicus C.Kepler D.Galileo E.Einstein 29. Wien’s law can best explain the fact that A.blue stars are hotter than red stars B.the luminosity of a star depends upon a star’s surface area and temperature C.both of these phenomena can be explained by Wien’s Law 30. Chaco Canyon represents a ? site; it is known for its complex architecture recording both solar and lunar alignments. A.Hohokam B.Mogollon C.Hopewell D.Mississippian Culture E.Anasazi 31. Ions have ? of protons versus electrons. A.the same number B.different numbers 32. Radio waves have A.short wavelengths and low frequencies B.short wavelengths and high frequencies C.long wavelengths and low frequencies D.long wavelengths and high frequencies 33. ? published the Philosophiae Naturalis Principia, typically referred to as the Principia. A.Newton B.Copernicus C.Kepler D.Galileo E.Brahe 34. ? electromagnetic waves are “light”. A.some B.all 35. ? lines are oriented north-south; they describe distance east and west of 0°. A.latitude B.longitude C.this describes both latitude and longitude 36. The theoretical basis of rocket propulsion is based on Newton’s ? Law of Motion. A.first B.second C.third 37. The distance a ball travels is proportional to the square of the time that it has been in motion. This mathematical relationship was first defined by A.Newton B.Copernicus C.Kepler D.Galileo E.Brahe 38. Mesoamerican Cultures often kept track of the movements of the A.Sun B.Moon C.Venus D.Mesoamerican Cultures believed that all of these astronomical objects were sacred, and they observed all of them in great detail 39. At the Summer Solstice the noon Sun would be directly overhead at the A.Tropic of Capricorn B.Equator C.Tropic of Cancer 40. Copernicus first fully developed the ? theory. A.geocentric B.heliocentric 41. The motion of a body in orbit around another body or a common center of mass defines A.rotation B.revolution C.this defines both rotation and revolution 42. The Sidereal and Synodic Periods of planets ? the same. A.are B.are not 43. Gravitational potential energy ? be converted to kinetic energy. A.can B.cannot 44. Venus is a ? planet. A.Inferior B.Superior C.Venus is a terrestrial planet; it is neither inferior or superior 45. Tycho Brahe proposed a ? theory for the Solar System. A.geocentric B.heliocentric C.Brahe’s model was a combination of geocentric and heliocentric theory 46. ? occurs where light passes from one substance into another. A.reflection B.refraction C.this describes both reflection and refraction 47. The Apparent Solar Day is ? when the Earth is farther from the Sun. A.shorter B.longer C.the Apparent Solar Day is always 24 hours long 48. Electromagnetic waves are described by their A.wavelength B.frequency C.energy flux D.electromagnetic waves are described by all of these features 49. The Poles are at A. 0° longitude B. 0° latitude C.90° longitude D.90° latitude E.180° longitude 50. ? discovered precession, calculated the length of the year more precisely, and used geometry to calculate the distance between the Sun, Moon and Earth. A.Hipparchus B.Copernicus C.Ptolemy D.Eratosthenes E.Brahe 51. The Summer Solstice occurs during A.May B.June C.July D.August E.September 52. The year 2100 ? a leap year. A.will be B.will not be 53. South is at ? degrees azimuth. A. 0° B.90° C.180° D.270° 54. The sites of Newgrange, Knowth and Maeshowe are especially known for their prehistoric ? alignments. A.solar B.lunar C.these sites have both solar and lunar alignments 55. The Prime Meridian A.is the Equator B.passes through Greenwich, England C.both of these points are along the Prime Meridian 56. The formula F=ma defines Newton’s ? Law of Motion. A.first B.second C.third 57. The synodic periods of planets are associated with ? motion. A.prograde B.retrograde C.the synodic periods of planets are associated with both prograde and retrograde motion 58. A Sidereal Day A.is less than 24 hours B.is 24 hours C.is longer than 24 hours 59. The width of your outstretched fist across the knuckles against the night sky is about ? degrees. A.1° B.5° C.10° D.15° E. 18° 60. The “zero point” of right ascension is established by the position of the Sun on the A.Summer Solstice B.Winter Solstice C.Spring Equinox D.Fall Equinox E.right ascension has nothing to do with the position of the Sun 61. ? is the most abundant element in the Cosmos. A.oxygen B.carbon C.silicon D.helium E.hydrogen 62. The Meridian passes A.from the south celestial pole through the north celestial pole B.along the celestial equator C.all of the above are true concerning the meridian 63. A ? Month is the time it takes for the Moon to return to the same position relative to the Sun. A.Sidereal B.Synodic C.this defines both Sidereal and Synodic Months 64. Kepler’s ? Law of Planetary Motion states that a planet moves so that an imaginary line connecting the planet to the Sun sweeps out equal areas in equal intervals of time. A.First B.Second C.Third 65. When a planet moves eastward with respect to the stars it is said to have ? motion. A.prograde B.retrograde 66. During antemeridian the Sun would lie ? of the meridian. A.east B.west C.it depends upon the time of day 67. ? plasma consists of ionized “gas”. A.no B.some C.all 68. Ziggurats were ancient ? in ?. A.pyramids, Central America B.pyramids, Mesopotamia C.temples, Central America D.temples, Greece E.observatories, Greece 69. Retrograde motion of inferior planets is observed during A.conjunctions B.oppositions C.retrograde motion of inferior planets may be observed during conjunctions or oppositions 70. ? is the mass of a body divided by its volume. A.density B.pressure C.this defines both density and pressure 71. ? used the relationship between the latitude and altitude of the midday Sun between Syene and Alexandria to calculate the circumference of the Earth. A.Hipparchus B.Copernicus C.Ptolemy D.Eratosthenes E.Brahe 72. ? depends upon the amount of light that is reflected from an object. A.density B.luminosity C.albedo D.dispersion E.the Doppler Effect 73. ? nuclear reactions result in the formation of more massive nuclei. A.fission B.fusion C.these will both result in the formation of more massive nuclei 74. ? is the way that Earth receives energy from the Sun. A.conduction B.convection C.radiative transfer D.all of these are equally important 75. Maximum sun declination is at about ? degrees latitude. A.15.4 B.18 C.23.5 D.45 E.90 76. The “Epicyclic Model” is A.heliocentric B.geocentric C.the “Epicyclic Model” has nothing to do with heliocentric or geocentric theories 77. ? discovered the law of universal gravitation, made fundamental discoveries in optics, and invented differential and integral calculus. A.Newton B.Copernicus C.Kepler D.Galileo E.Brahe 78. ? is celestial “latitude”; it is measured in degrees, minutes and seconds of arc. A.right ascension B.declination C.both of these are celestial “latitude” 79. In order to escape Earth’s gravity, a rocket has to travel at a speed of about ? times the speed of sound. A.3 B.7 C.11 D.16 E.34 80. The point on the celestial sphere directly above your head is termed the A.meridian B.celestial horizon C.altitude D.azimuth E.zenith 81. This is test “A”. Please answer “A” for question # 81.