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Transcript
ASTRONOMY TEST # 1 – FALL 2011
1. Although he is best known for his works on geography, ? developed the “Magnitude System”
and perfected the “Epicyclic Model” . A.Hipparchus B.Copernicus C.Ptolemy
D.Eratosthenes E.Brahe
2. Mass is A.the amount of material in a body B.the measure of the inertia of a body C.both of
these definitions define “mass”
3. The Doppler Effect ? upon the movement of a wave toward or away from the observer.
A.depends B.does not depend
4. Dispersion is best explained due to A.reflection B.refraction C.dispersion occurs due to both
reflection and refraction
5. There are ? minutes of arc in 1 degree. A.10 B.20 C.30 D.60 E.100
6. Daylight length depends primarily on A.the Earth’s axial tilt B.the distance between the Sun
and Earth C.daylight length depends upon both these factors
7. Each time zone encompasses about ? degrees of longitude. A.5 B.10 C.15 D.20 E.25
8. The concept of dividing the circle into 360° and dividing each degree into 60 minutes and each
minute into 60 seconds came from the ancient A.Greeks B.Romans C.Mesopotamians
D.Arabs E.Egyptians
9. In general, the “Olmec Culture” is ? than the Maya Culture. A.older B.younger
10. If you are facing south, the diurnal motion of the stars is A.counterclockwise B.clockwise
11. Two objects would have greater gravitational attraction if they were A.more massive and
farther apart B.less massive and farther apart C.more massive and closer together D.less
massive and closer together
12. The Mass Number of an element is the number of A.protons B.neutrons C.the Mass
Number of an element includes the number of both protons and neutrons
13. There ? stars that exceed 1 second of arc. A.are B.are no
14. In general, lighter atoms and molecules move ? in a mixture of gases. A.slower B.faster
15. Zodiacal constellations are A.along the celestial horizon B.at the zenith C.along the ecliptic
D.at the meridian E.at the celestial poles
16. Radioactive “heat” in the Solar System may have been due to abundant isotopes of
A.uranium B.aluminum C.thorium D.potassium E.all of these are, or may have been,
important “heat” sources in the Solar System
17. A star name beginning with “al” would have been named by the A.Greeks B.Romans
C.Mesopotamians D.Chinese E.Arabs
18. The most important method for dating Earth rocks, lunar samples and meteorites has been ?
dating techniques. A.Carbon-14 B.uranium-thorium C.rubidium-strontium D.potassiumargon E.all of these techniques have been equally useful for dating Solar System objects
19. One Astronomical Unit is approximately ? million miles. A.84 B.93 C.125 D.144 E.186
20. A “Lunar Month” begins at A.First Quarter B.Third Quarter C.New Moon D.Full Moon
E.it doesn’t matter where the “Lunar Month” begins
21. Jupiter’s Moons were first described A.Newton B.Copernicus C.Kepler D.Galileo E.Brahe
22. The model of the Solar System proposed by ? got him in trouble with the Church. A.Newton
B.Copernicus C.Kepler D.Galileo E.Brahe
23. A rocket whose orbit is a circle or ellipse around the Earth is travelling at a speed ? escape
velocity. A.less than B.equal to C.greater than
24. ? are low-mass, negatively-charged particles. A.protons B.neutrons C.electrons
25. As you move across a time zone boundary from East to West you would ? an hour. A.add
B.subtract
26. The shape of the orbits of planets around the Sun would best be explained by Newton’s
A.First Law of Motion B.Second Law of Motion C.Third Law of Motion D.concept of
Centripetal Acceleration E.observation of optical properties
27. Liquid Matter A.expands and contracts with temperature change B.does not resist
compression C.has little resistance to being pulled apart D.all of the above are true
concerning liquid matter
28. Nuclear reactions can best be explained based upon theories of A.Newton B.Copernicus
C.Kepler D.Galileo E.Einstein
29. Wien’s law can best explain the fact that A.blue stars are hotter than red stars B.the
luminosity of a star depends upon a star’s surface area and temperature C.both of these
phenomena can be explained by Wien’s Law
30. Chaco Canyon represents a ? site; it is known for its complex architecture recording both
solar and lunar alignments. A.Hohokam B.Mogollon C.Hopewell D.Mississippian Culture
E.Anasazi
31. Ions have ? of protons versus electrons. A.the same number B.different numbers
32. Radio waves have A.short wavelengths and low frequencies B.short wavelengths and high
frequencies C.long wavelengths and low frequencies D.long wavelengths and high
frequencies
33. ? published the Philosophiae Naturalis Principia, typically referred to as the Principia.
A.Newton B.Copernicus C.Kepler D.Galileo E.Brahe
34. ? electromagnetic waves are “light”. A.some B.all
35. ? lines are oriented north-south; they describe distance east and west of 0°. A.latitude
B.longitude C.this describes both latitude and longitude
36. The theoretical basis of rocket propulsion is based on Newton’s ? Law of Motion. A.first
B.second C.third
37. The distance a ball travels is proportional to the square of the time that it has been in motion.
This mathematical relationship was first defined by A.Newton B.Copernicus C.Kepler
D.Galileo E.Brahe
38. Mesoamerican Cultures often kept track of the movements of the A.Sun B.Moon C.Venus
D.Mesoamerican Cultures believed that all of these astronomical objects were sacred, and
they observed all of them in great detail
39. At the Summer Solstice the noon Sun would be directly overhead at the A.Tropic of
Capricorn B.Equator C.Tropic of Cancer
40. Copernicus first fully developed the ? theory. A.geocentric B.heliocentric
41. The motion of a body in orbit around another body or a common center of mass defines
A.rotation B.revolution C.this defines both rotation and revolution
42. The Sidereal and Synodic Periods of planets ? the same. A.are B.are not
43. Gravitational potential energy ? be converted to kinetic energy. A.can B.cannot
44. Venus is a ? planet. A.Inferior B.Superior C.Venus is a terrestrial planet; it is neither
inferior or superior
45. Tycho Brahe proposed a ? theory for the Solar System. A.geocentric B.heliocentric
C.Brahe’s model was a combination of geocentric and heliocentric theory
46. ? occurs where light passes from one substance into another. A.reflection B.refraction
C.this describes both reflection and refraction
47. The Apparent Solar Day is ? when the Earth is farther from the Sun. A.shorter B.longer
C.the Apparent Solar Day is always 24 hours long
48. Electromagnetic waves are described by their A.wavelength B.frequency C.energy flux
D.electromagnetic waves are described by all of these features
49. The Poles are at A. 0° longitude B. 0° latitude C.90° longitude D.90° latitude E.180°
longitude
50. ? discovered precession, calculated the length of the year more precisely, and used geometry
to calculate the distance between the Sun, Moon and Earth. A.Hipparchus B.Copernicus
C.Ptolemy D.Eratosthenes E.Brahe
51. The Summer Solstice occurs during A.May B.June C.July D.August E.September
52. The year 2100 ? a leap year. A.will be B.will not be
53. South is at ? degrees azimuth. A. 0° B.90° C.180° D.270°
54. The sites of Newgrange, Knowth and Maeshowe are especially known for their prehistoric ?
alignments. A.solar B.lunar C.these sites have both solar and lunar alignments
55. The Prime Meridian A.is the Equator B.passes through Greenwich, England C.both of these
points are along the Prime Meridian
56. The formula F=ma defines Newton’s ? Law of Motion. A.first B.second C.third
57. The synodic periods of planets are associated with ? motion. A.prograde B.retrograde C.the
synodic periods of planets are associated with both prograde and retrograde motion
58. A Sidereal Day A.is less than 24 hours B.is 24 hours C.is longer than 24 hours
59. The width of your outstretched fist across the knuckles against the night sky is about ?
degrees. A.1° B.5° C.10° D.15° E. 18°
60. The “zero point” of right ascension is established by the position of the Sun on the
A.Summer Solstice B.Winter Solstice C.Spring Equinox D.Fall Equinox E.right ascension
has nothing to do with the position of the Sun
61. ? is the most abundant element in the Cosmos. A.oxygen B.carbon C.silicon D.helium
E.hydrogen
62. The Meridian passes A.from the south celestial pole through the north celestial pole B.along
the celestial equator C.all of the above are true concerning the meridian
63. A ? Month is the time it takes for the Moon to return to the same position relative to the Sun.
A.Sidereal B.Synodic C.this defines both Sidereal and Synodic Months
64. Kepler’s ? Law of Planetary Motion states that a planet moves so that an imaginary line
connecting the planet to the Sun sweeps out equal areas in equal intervals of time. A.First
B.Second C.Third
65. When a planet moves eastward with respect to the stars it is said to have ? motion.
A.prograde B.retrograde
66. During antemeridian the Sun would lie ? of the meridian. A.east B.west C.it depends upon
the time of day
67. ? plasma consists of ionized “gas”. A.no B.some C.all
68. Ziggurats were ancient ? in ?. A.pyramids, Central America B.pyramids, Mesopotamia
C.temples, Central America D.temples, Greece E.observatories, Greece
69. Retrograde motion of inferior planets is observed during A.conjunctions B.oppositions
C.retrograde motion of inferior planets may be observed during conjunctions or oppositions
70. ? is the mass of a body divided by its volume. A.density B.pressure C.this defines both
density and pressure
71. ? used the relationship between the latitude and altitude of the midday Sun between Syene
and Alexandria to calculate the circumference of the Earth. A.Hipparchus B.Copernicus
C.Ptolemy D.Eratosthenes E.Brahe
72. ? depends upon the amount of light that is reflected from an object. A.density B.luminosity
C.albedo D.dispersion E.the Doppler Effect
73. ? nuclear reactions result in the formation of more massive nuclei. A.fission B.fusion
C.these will both result in the formation of more massive nuclei
74. ? is the way that Earth receives energy from the Sun. A.conduction B.convection
C.radiative transfer D.all of these are equally important
75. Maximum sun declination is at about ? degrees latitude. A.15.4 B.18 C.23.5 D.45 E.90
76. The “Epicyclic Model” is A.heliocentric B.geocentric C.the “Epicyclic Model” has nothing
to do with heliocentric or geocentric theories
77. ? discovered the law of universal gravitation, made fundamental discoveries in optics, and
invented differential and integral calculus. A.Newton B.Copernicus C.Kepler D.Galileo
E.Brahe
78. ? is celestial “latitude”; it is measured in degrees, minutes and seconds of arc. A.right
ascension B.declination C.both of these are celestial “latitude”
79. In order to escape Earth’s gravity, a rocket has to travel at a speed of about ? times the speed
of sound. A.3 B.7 C.11 D.16 E.34
80. The point on the celestial sphere directly above your head is termed the A.meridian
B.celestial horizon C.altitude D.azimuth E.zenith
81. This is test “A”. Please answer “A” for question # 81.