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The Greek Mind Chapter 8, Lesson 2 ► The Greek Thinkers Greeks believed the human mind was capable of great understanding. ► During the Golden Age of Greece (500 B.C. – 350 B.C) art, architecture and literature flourished. ► Greek thinking produced some of the greatest ideas the world has ever known. ► Philosophers were involved in creating a new body of knowledge. This body of knowledge was known as philosophy (Greek word for “love of wisdom”) ► Greek philosophers helped develop the study of many subjects such as history, political science, biology and logic (study of reason) ► Many The Sophists Greek philosophers were teachers. ► A group of philosophers known as the Sophist traveled from polis to polis. Made a living from teaching and taught many subjects including math, science, and history. They were best known for teaching rhetoric (the art of public speaking and debate) They did not believe the gods influenced human actions. They had no concept of absolute right or wrong. ►What might be right for one person may not be right for the next. ► They The Sophists challenged Greek tradition and accepted money for their teachings. ► Other Greek philosophers did not agree with this practice. They felt that the Sophist lacked ideals and values. Critics said they taught students to only win arguments and seek truths. Who was Socrates? ► Socrates was a sculptor by training, but loved philosophy. Lived in Athens were he spent most of his life teaching. He did not leave a written detail of his belief, but we can see it in the works of his students. He was a harsh critic of the Sophists. Unlike the Sophists, he believed in absolute truth and that all real knowledge was within each person. He created a new way of questioning known as the Socratic method. ► The Who was Socrates? Socratic method is used today by many university professors. ► Socrates did not lecture. He asked pointed questions and waited for his students to respond. His goal was to have students arrive to the answers on their own and form their own opinion. ► Some Athenian leaders disapproved of the Socratic method, finding it to be dangerous. Who was Socrates? ► At one point, Athens allowed its people to speak freely. This meant they were allowed to publicly question their leaders. Their loss during the Peloponnesian War lead their new leaders to limit this freedom. Athenians as a result, no longer trusted open debate. ►But this was what Socrates thought was necessary, and continued to teach his students. ► In 399 B.C., city leaders feared his influence and arrested him. ► Socrates Who was Socrates? was charged with urging young people to rebel against the government. A jury found him guilty and sentenced him to death. ► After the verdict, he was given the opportunity to leave Athens, but stays instead. While surrounded by his students and friends, he gave a final speech. He said that living under the city’s laws, required him to obey the law Socrates then drank poison to carry out the jury’s sentence, and died. Socrates ► Plato Plato’s Ideas (PLAY-toh) was one of Socrates students. He went on to become a teacher and founded a school in Athens called the Academy. While Socrates did not write his ideas down, Plato did. One of his works was known as The Republic. ►It was his vision for a perfect government and society. ► In The Republic, he organized society into three groups. ► Philosopher Plato’s Ideas Kings (Top Group) – They ruled through logic and wisdom. ► Warriors (Second Group) – Defended society from attacks. ► Rest of the people (Third Group) – Their job was to produce food, clothing, and shelter. This group lacked the wisdom of the kings and courage of the warriors. ► Plato believed that a just and reasonable government was necessary for an ideal society. ► In Plato’s Ideas The Republic, Plato voices his dislike for Athenian democracy. Argued that the common people did not think for themselves and could be influenced into making foolish decisions. He wanted philosopher kings to govern the citizens of Greece because they were well educated, intelligent, and would place the needs of the community above their own. ► Though he distrusted the common people he was willing to grant more rights to women believing they should have the same opportunities for education and jobs as men. Plato Who was Aristotle? ► Aristotle, another great thinker, wrote more than 200 works on topics such as government, astronomy, and political science. In 335 B.C., he started a school called Lyceum. He thought students the “golden mean. (“mean” is the middle position between two extremes) ► The idea of the golden mean was that people should live moderately. Example: Not eating too little or too much, but enough to stay well. ► Aristotle science. Who was Aristotle? had many interests including Studied the stars, plants, and animals carefully writing what he observed. He categorized things depending on their similarities and differences. These methods were an important step in the development of modern science. ► Like Plato, he wrote about the government. ► Aristotle Who was Aristotle? compared the governments of different city-states in hopes of finding the best political system. ► He writes a book titled, Politics, where he divided government into three types. Monarchy – rule by one person (typically a king/queen) Oligarchy – rule by a few people. Democracy – rule by many people. ► Aristotle Who was Aristotle? believed the best government had features of all three. A chief executive would serve as the head of state. A council or legislature would assist this leader and be supported by the people. ► His ideas influenced how Europeans and Americans thought about government. The authors of the U.S. Constitution also believed that no one person or group should have too much power. Aristotle tutoring a young Alexander the Great ► The The Greeks and History Greeks were very similar to other people living at that time. They believed in legends and myths. People did not analyze events to understand the past. ► In 435 B.C., a Greek thinker known as Herodotus wrote a history of the Persian Wars. He wrote saying that the gods played a role in historical events. He made a great effort though, to separate fact from fiction. ► Like The Greeks and History a news reporter, Herodotus questioned many people to gather information. He would follow up by investigating whether that information was true. Because of meticulous he was in his research, many European and American historians consider him “the father of history” ► Thucydides (thoo-sih-duh-deez) was another famous historian. He was a general in the Peloponnesian War where Athens and Sparta faced off for almost 30 years. The Greeks and History ► Thucydides considered this an important event in world history, and would write The History of the Peloponnesian War after the war. He rejected the idea of gods affecting human history and felt that only people made history. He tried hard to be accurate and impartial. He would visit battle sites and carefully study documents. He only accepted eye-witness reports of events. The Greeks and History ► Thucydides did not only state facts but explored the cause and effects of events. He believed future generations could learn from the past. He hoped to leave behind ideas and commentary so that others could learn. Herodotus ► Ancient ideas. The First Scientists Greeks developed many scientific They influenced scientific thinking for centuries. ► In ancient times, most people though gods controlled nature. Early Greek scientist thought otherwise thinking that natural events could be explained logically and that people could discover the causes of these events by using reason. ► Thales The First Scientists (THAY-leez) of Miletus was the first important Greek scientist. He studied astronomy and mathematics. He did not have telescopes or other instruments that scientist use today. He made discoveries and developed theories by observing and thinking. ► Pythagoras was another famous scientist. He taught his students that the universe followed the same laws that governed music and numbers. ► As The First Scientists a result he developed new ideas about mathematics. Most know his name because of the Pythagorean Theorem that is still used in geometry today, used to determine the length of the sides of a triangle. Pythagorean Theorem Thales Ancient Greek Medicine ► Greek scientist also studied medicine. ► Hippocrates was a physician in ancient Greece who is referenced as the “father of medicine.” He believed diseases came from natural causes. Most people thought diseases were caused by evil spirits. He traveled all over Greece helping the sick using his new ideas to diagnose, cure, and provide treatment to people. Ancient Greek Medicine ► Hippocrates created a list of rules for how a doctor should use their skills to help their patients. These rules are listed in the Hippocratic Oath (says doctors should do their best to help patients, and protect their privacy.) Doctors all around the world still promise to honor the Hippocratic Oath.