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Transcript
The Greek Mind
Chapter 8, Lesson 2
► The
Greek Thinkers
Greeks believed the human mind was capable
of great understanding.
► During the Golden Age of Greece (500 B.C. – 350
B.C) art, architecture and literature flourished.
► Greek thinking produced some of the greatest
ideas the world has ever known.
► Philosophers were involved in creating a new
body of knowledge.
 This body of knowledge was known as philosophy
(Greek word for “love of wisdom”)
► Greek
philosophers helped develop the study of
many subjects such as history, political science,
biology and logic (study of reason)
► Many
The Sophists
Greek philosophers were teachers.
► A group of philosophers known as the Sophist
traveled from polis to polis.
 Made a living from teaching and taught many
subjects including math, science, and history.
 They were best known for teaching rhetoric
(the art of public speaking and debate)
 They did not believe the gods influenced human
actions.
 They had no concept of absolute right or
wrong.
►What might be right for one person may not
be right for the next.
► They
The Sophists
challenged Greek tradition and
accepted money for their teachings.
► Other Greek philosophers did not agree with
this practice.
 They felt that the Sophist lacked ideals and
values.
 Critics said they taught students to only win
arguments and seek truths.
Who was Socrates?
► Socrates
was a sculptor by training, but
loved philosophy.
 Lived in Athens were he spent most of his life
teaching.
 He did not leave a written detail of his belief,
but we can see it in the works of his students.
 He was a harsh critic of the Sophists.
 Unlike the Sophists, he believed in absolute
truth and that all real knowledge was within
each person.
 He created a new way of questioning known as
the Socratic method.
► The
Who was Socrates?
Socratic method is used today by many
university professors.
► Socrates did not lecture.
 He asked pointed questions and waited for his
students to respond.
 His goal was to have students arrive to the
answers on their own and form their own
opinion.
► Some
Athenian leaders disapproved of the
Socratic method, finding it to be dangerous.
Who was Socrates?
► At
one point, Athens allowed its people to
speak freely.
 This meant they were allowed to publicly
question their leaders.
 Their loss during the Peloponnesian War lead
their new leaders to limit this freedom.
 Athenians as a result, no longer trusted open
debate.
►But
this was what Socrates thought was necessary,
and continued to teach his students.
► In
399 B.C., city leaders feared his influence
and arrested him.
► Socrates
Who was Socrates?
was charged with urging young people to
rebel against the government.
 A jury found him guilty and sentenced him to
death.
► After the verdict, he was given the opportunity to
leave Athens, but stays instead.
 While surrounded by his students and friends,
he gave a final speech.
 He said that living under the city’s laws,
required him to obey the law
 Socrates then drank poison to carry out the
jury’s sentence, and died.
Socrates
► Plato
Plato’s Ideas
(PLAY-toh) was one of Socrates
students.
 He went on to become a teacher and founded a
school in Athens called the Academy.
 While Socrates did not write his ideas down,
Plato did.
 One of his works was known as The Republic.
►It
was his vision for a perfect government and
society.
► In
The Republic, he organized society into
three groups.
► Philosopher
Plato’s Ideas
Kings (Top Group) – They ruled
through logic and wisdom.
► Warriors (Second Group) – Defended
society from attacks.
► Rest of the people (Third Group) – Their job
was to produce food, clothing, and shelter.
 This group lacked the wisdom of the kings and
courage of the warriors.
► Plato
believed that a just and reasonable
government was necessary for an ideal
society.
► In
Plato’s Ideas
The Republic, Plato voices his dislike for
Athenian democracy.
 Argued that the common people did not think for
themselves and could be influenced into making foolish
decisions.
 He wanted philosopher kings to govern the citizens of
Greece because they were well educated, intelligent,
and would place the needs of the community above
their own.
► Though
he distrusted the common people he was
willing to grant more rights to women believing
they should have the same opportunities for
education and jobs as men.
Plato
Who was Aristotle?
► Aristotle,
another great thinker, wrote more
than 200 works on topics such as
government, astronomy, and political
science.
 In 335 B.C., he started a school called Lyceum.
 He thought students the “golden mean.
(“mean” is the middle position between two
extremes)
► The
idea of the golden mean was that
people should live moderately.
 Example: Not eating too little or too much, but
enough to stay well.
► Aristotle
science.
Who was Aristotle?
had many interests including
 Studied the stars, plants, and animals carefully
writing what he observed.
 He categorized things depending on their
similarities and differences.
 These methods were an important step in the
development of modern science.
► Like
Plato, he wrote about the government.
► Aristotle
Who was Aristotle?
compared the governments of
different city-states in hopes of finding the
best political system.
► He writes a book titled, Politics, where he
divided government into three types.
 Monarchy – rule by one person (typically a
king/queen)
 Oligarchy – rule by a few people.
 Democracy – rule by many people.
► Aristotle
Who was Aristotle?
believed the best government had
features of all three.
 A chief executive would serve as the head of
state.
 A council or legislature would assist this leader
and be supported by the people.
► His
ideas influenced how Europeans and
Americans thought about government.
 The authors of the U.S. Constitution also
believed that no one person or group should
have too much power.
Aristotle tutoring a young Alexander the Great
► The
The Greeks and History
Greeks were very similar to other
people living at that time.
 They believed in legends and myths.
 People did not analyze events to understand the
past.
► In
435 B.C., a Greek thinker known as
Herodotus wrote a history of the Persian
Wars.
 He wrote saying that the gods played a role in
historical events.
 He made a great effort though, to separate fact
from fiction.
► Like
The Greeks and History
a news reporter, Herodotus questioned
many people to gather information.
 He would follow up by investigating whether
that information was true.
 Because of meticulous he was in his research,
many European and American historians
consider him “the father of history”
► Thucydides
(thoo-sih-duh-deez) was
another famous historian.
 He was a general in the Peloponnesian War
where Athens and Sparta faced off for almost
30 years.
The Greeks and History
► Thucydides
considered this an important
event in world history, and would write The
History of the Peloponnesian War after the
war.
 He rejected the idea of gods affecting human
history and felt that only people made history.
 He tried hard to be accurate and impartial.
 He would visit battle sites and carefully study
documents.
 He only accepted eye-witness reports of events.
The Greeks and History
► Thucydides
did not only state facts but
explored the cause and effects of events.
 He believed future generations could learn from
the past.
 He hoped to leave behind ideas and
commentary so that others could learn.
Herodotus
► Ancient
ideas.
The First Scientists
Greeks developed many scientific
 They influenced scientific thinking for centuries.
► In
ancient times, most people though gods
controlled nature.
 Early Greek scientist thought otherwise thinking
that natural events could be explained logically
and that people could discover the causes of
these events by using reason.
► Thales
The First Scientists
(THAY-leez) of Miletus was the first
important Greek scientist.
 He studied astronomy and mathematics.
 He did not have telescopes or other instruments
that scientist use today.
 He made discoveries and developed theories by
observing and thinking.
► Pythagoras
was another famous scientist.
 He taught his students that the universe
followed the same laws that governed music
and numbers.
► As
The First Scientists
a result he developed new ideas about
mathematics.
 Most know his name because of the
Pythagorean Theorem that is still used in
geometry today, used to determine the length
of the sides of a triangle.
Pythagorean Theorem
Thales
Ancient Greek Medicine
► Greek
scientist also studied medicine.
► Hippocrates was a physician in ancient
Greece who is referenced as the “father of
medicine.”
 He believed diseases came from natural causes.
 Most people thought diseases were caused by
evil spirits.
 He traveled all over Greece helping the sick
using his new ideas to diagnose, cure, and
provide treatment to people.
Ancient Greek Medicine
► Hippocrates
created a list of rules for how a
doctor should use their skills to help their
patients.
 These rules are listed in the Hippocratic Oath
(says doctors should do their best to help
patients, and protect their privacy.)
 Doctors all around the world still promise to
honor the Hippocratic Oath.