Exam 3 Study Guide PUBHLTH 350 Fall 2015 Logistics: The exam will take place 10:10-11:30 on December 14. You have no class commitments after this date. Please bring a calculator to do simple calculations (you may not use your phone). The topics below are not exhaustive; please review all lecture slides, textbook chapters/readings, and discussion guides. The exam is not cumulative, except for any topics mentioned below. From previous exams: Distinguish between prevalence and incidence. Calculate an odds ratio. Interpret an odds ratio, risk ratio, rate ratio, and prevalence ratio. When are age-adjusted ratios used? Distinguish between the different study designs (experiment, cohort, case-control, crosssectional). HIV/AIDS What do HIV and AIDS stand for? What does HIV do to the host’s body? How is HIV transmitted? Currently, what is the prevalent and incident number of HIV cases? What is PrEP? What is PEPFAR? What are the four components of the socioecological model of risk and resilience? Global primary health care What are the ethical considerations for health as a human right? What are the two principles of public health law as formulated in the US? What are the four points of the expanded view of Frenk Framework? How is the US health system financed? What is the relationship between health as a right and health system financing? What is the LIST of health systems improvement? Globalization and infectious disease Define incubation period, latent period What are the differences among infectivity, pathogenicity, and virulence? What are the category A bioterrorism agents? Distinguish between endemic, epidemic, and pandemic diseases. What are the different infectious disease transmission modalities? What are some challenges in controlling diseases for each type of infectious disease agent? Define surveillance. What are NTDs? What are some reasons why Ebola has broken out? Malaria and TB What pathogens are responsible for causing AIDS, TB, and malaria? How many people are infected with the pathogen responsible for TB? How many develop disease each year? Which parts of the world have highest number of cases of TB? Malaria? What are the difficulties in eradicating TB? Malaria? Maternal health Understand what causes maternal mortality Understand the relationship between maternal mortality and child health Understand the relationship between undernutrition and breastfeeding Know global maternal health initiatives and program types Public health research and ethics in developing countries Understanding how the historical experiments violated human rights and shaped the current research ethical principles Understanding the key points discussed in Nuremberg code, Declaration of Helsinki and Belmont Report What is the importance and challenges associated with providing standard of care, post-trial benefits, and ancillary care while conducting research in developing countries? What is informed consent and what are the challenges associated with providing informed consent in developing countries? Understand the concepts of construct, reliability, validity and standardization in questionnaire development for studies Vaccines Distinguish between eradication, elimination, and control of a disease. What are the main classifications of vaccines? What are the advantages and drawbacks of live vaccines? Inactivated vaccines? Know the 4:3:1:3:3:1:4 schedule. What vaccines are commonly assessed to evaluate routine immunization programs? What is the role of supplementary immunization activities vs routine immunization services? What are the reasons people don't get vaccinated? What is the RED strategy? What are some challenges to developing vaccines for the most pressing public health problems? (consult readings) Why is the One Health Initiative important? What is an adjuvant? Why are effective HIV vaccines so difficult to make? Global health organizations and movements Understand the different sources of funds and types of funds given for public health aid. Understand the different challenges of global health and how global organization have played a role. Be able to comment on how global health organizations have been beneficial or detrimental in different countries. Evidence-based public health policy What does it mean to say that health is a right? What is the difference between an entitlement and a right? What role do police powers and parens patriae play in public health in the US? Give 5 reasons why international aid fails to be effective. Distinguish among efficacy, effectiveness, and efficiency.