Download HARDWARE TERMS The Forensic Services Group ROM (read

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The Forensic Services Group
ROM (read-only memory)
- can hold data permanently
- nonvolatile
- ideal for startup configuration settings and boot code (ROM BIOS)
RAM (random access memory)
- temporary storage
- volatile
- lost when computer powers down
Power Supply
- DC voltages of 3.3v, 5v and 12v are provided on a power supply for an ATX
Molex Power Connector
- Four Wires
- Yellow = 12VDC+
- Black = Ground
- Black = Ground
- Red = 5VDC+
- Largest circuit board
- Hold CPU, RAM, BIOS, CMOS and much more
CPU (Central Processing Unit)
- The brains of the computer
- Performs Data Processing
- Interprets and executes instructions
Heat sink and Fan
- Keeps CPU cool
- Can be on memory, hard drives and video cards
Hard Drive
- Main storage media
- Holds boot files, operating system files, program files and data files.
- Speeds range from 4,800 – 15,000 RPM
SCSI (Small Computer Systems Interface)
- Started with Apple Computers
- High Speed – High Performance
- Used on devices requiring high input/output
- SCSI BIOS (queues read/write requests)
IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics)
- Generic term for any drive with its own integrated drive controller
- Main type is ATA (Advanced Technology Attachment)
- Primary and Secondary IDE controllers found on motherboard
- IDE controllers are capable of handling two devices
SATA (Serial Advanced Technology Attachment)
- Uses Serial Circuitry 150 – 300MB/s
- Require no pinning
- Often have raid zero available to them
RAID (Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks)
- An array of two or more disks
- RAID 0 Data is stripped of two or more disks
- RAID 1 Data is mirrored
- RAID 5 Uses bit parity
- RAID 0+1 minimum 4 drives uses a strip and a mirror
Floppy Drive
- 3.5-inch
- Stores 1.44MB of data
- Used for boot disks
DVD-ROM (Digital Versatile Disc – Read-Only Memory) or DVD-RW (Digital Versatile
Disc – Read/Write)
- Uses laser beams to write data
- The laser is a shorter wave length then CD creating smaller pits and lands
- Holds 8 to 17GB
USB Controller
- USB 1.1 = 1.5MB/s
- USB 2.0 = 480MB/s
USB Port
- Uses four pin conductors (one cable power, two data negative, three data
positive, four ground) all surrounded by shielding
- Used for storage devices, cameras, dongles, keyboards, mice and so forth.
IEEE 1394 (Firewire)
- Allows daisy chaining of up to 63 devices
- 1394a 400MB/s
- 1394b 800MB/s
- Six wires/pins with two pairs of clock and data lines, plus two for power (one
positive, one negative)
Expansion Slots
- ISA (Industry Standard Architecture 8 bit and 16 bit in 1981 and 1984)
- MCA (IBM Micro Channel Architecture 32 bit in 1986)
- EISA (Extended Industry Standard Architecture – Compaq and Generic 32 bit
in 1986)
- VL-Bus (VESA Local Bus 16 and 32 bit 1992 to 1994)
- PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect 32 bit and 64 bit 1992 to present)
- PCI Express
- AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port used with PCI for graphics replaced by PCI
Sound Card
- Interface for microphone, headphones, speakers, CD players and so forth
- Must have a software driver in order to function
Video Card (PCI, APG, PCI Express)
- Transmits signals that appear as images on a computer display or monitor
- Use 15 pin video graphics array (VGA) analog connectors or Digital Video
Interface (DVI) analog/digital connectors
RTC (Real-Time Clock)
- Stores the system date and time
- Maintained by a battery when system shuts down or loses power
CMOS Chip (Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor process)
- Called RTC/NVRAM (Real-Time Clock / nonvolatile random access memory)
- Stores configuration data which includes amount of memory installed, types
of devices and other startup configuration settings.
- Contains boot order
BIOS (Basic Input Output System)
- Combination of low level software and drivers
- Function as the layer between a computers hardware and operating system
- Reads NVRAM during boot to apply settings
- Three types ROM BIOS, adapter card BIOS and drivers
Mouse Port
- Older systems use a serial port
- PS2 is widely used today
- USB is up and coming
Keyboard Port
- Old systems use a five-pin round port
- PS2 is widely used today
- USB is up and coming
NIC (Network Interface Card)
- Available via USB
- Built into most modern motherboards
- Ethernet is the most common type of network
- Token Rings are still found
- Has a unique address or ID called the MAC (Media Access Control)
o Address is 48 bits
o Consists of two parts 1.) Identify the manufacturer 2.) serial number
- Speeds from 10MB/s to 1000/MB/s
Modem (modulate/demodulate)
- Converts or modulates digital signals to analog for transmission over a
telephone wire
- Assembles or demodulates the analog signals back into digital signals
Parallel Port
- Used mainly for legacy printer connections
- Parallel describes a method of transmitting data in which data is sent down
parallel electrical paths at the same time
Serial Port
- Most work stations have two
- Can support four
- Only two can be working at the same time
- I/O port