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Transcript
THE SPIRIT OF NATIONALISM
NATIONALISM- WHAT IS IT?
A potent force that has the ability to unite or
divide people, countries and empires
 It is a celebration of a common cultural and
national heritage
 People tend to share common ties such as:

 Language
 Ethnicity
 Territory
 Religion
PATRIOTISM VS. NATIONALISM

What’s the difference?
EXAMPLES OF NATIONALISM

National Anthems
 Songs
that honor a country by celebrating historic
events in a people’s history.
 They allow people to identify strongly with the
nations they originate from
 People began to show love of their country by
creating anthems, flags, and songs

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5bW5Wf_dH7Q
HOW AND WHEN DID NATIONALISM BEGIN?
The first step of nationalism occurred when all
the people in a country became loyal to one
person- the monarch
 The first monarchs established powerful
kingdoms in France, Spain, England, and
Portugal
 Gradually, people in each country began to be
loyal also their language, history, and culture
 They were becoming loyal to their nations

NATIONALISM EVOLVES
In the late eighteenth century, French
Revolution furthered the growth of nationalism.
 After the French king and queen were executed,
people shifted their loyalty to their nation.
 They showed how strongly they felt about
France by creating a national flag (the tricolor)
and a national anthem (Le Marseilles)
 Ironically, Napoleon banned the singing of the
national anthem. He wanted the French people
to be loyal to him, not to France (Hitler too!)

NATIONALISM SPREADS
As Napoleon conquers Europe, he inadvertently
spreads nationalism
 In the regions of Germany and Italy,
nationalism united areas that had not been
united under one government for centuries.
 In other countries, such as Spain and Russia,
nationalism was used as a tool to drive out the
French armies.

NATIONALISM EXPRESSED…
Writers and poets of the nineteenth century
had much to do with the spread of nationalism.
 These people were called romantics, or
followers of romanticism.
 This movement placed great value on feelings
and on the past.
 An ethnic group is a group of people who share
the same language and culture.

ROMANTICISM


Romanticism helped to bring about a cultural revival,
(which is a renewed interest in the history and
customs of a group) amongst ethnic groups in Europe.
A group of German writers began to write in German
about Germany’s past. Among these were Johann
Wolfgang von Goethe, Friedrich Schiller, and the
brothers Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm.
CULTURE AND LANGUAGE
In eastern Europe, people began collecting
their own people’s folktales and ballads as well
as popular songs.
 They studied the ethnic languages and wrote
grammars and dictionaries of them (the
purpose? To provide standardization and
overcome differences in dialect)
 Histories told of the heroic deeds of the
peoples of Europe during the Middle Ages.

ITALIAN NATIONALISM
The writer who helped to develop a spirit of
nationalism in Italy was Giuseppe Mazzini. He
wrote that ethnic groups in Europe had the right
to rule themselves (exactly what the Congress
of Vienna had warned against. Why?)
 His most widely read book was called
On the Duties of Man
 The theme: It is only through our country that
we can have a recognized collective existence
(that we can be seen as one group)

NATIONALISM AND MUSIC
The spirit of nationalism also affected the
musical composers of the 1800s.
 Each ethnic group had a national composer
whose music would speak for the many who
yearned to be united and free.
 Italy- Giuseppe Verdi, Great opera composer


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2F4G5H_TTvU

Russia- Peter Tchaikovsky, the 1812 Overture

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VbxgYlcNxE8 @8:35
GERMANY- RICHARD WAGNER
A German composer whose operas stirred
the feelings of nationalism in his
country was Richard Wagner.
 He admired everything German, especially German
history, myths, and literature. This love is shown in
the music he wrote.
 His great national opera was called The Ring of the
Nibelung. It tells of a story of gods, goddesses,
heroes, villains, giants, dwarfs, etc. (Basically, just
think Lord of the Rings).


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GGU1P6lBW6Q
THE EFFECT OF NATIONALISM
It took centuries for nationalism to take hold in
Europe, but once it did, Europe would never be
the same again.
 Books, newspapers, and even songs reminded
people of their desire to belong to one nation.
 Nationalism would have the dual effect of
either drawing a country together or tearing it
apart. The examples we will be using- Germany
and the Austrian Empire.

AN ADDED TREAT!


Which is better, Italian or German national
music?
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9osjQDLjpc0