Download Italy - Hope For The Future

Document related concepts
no text concepts found
Hope for the Future
Portugal - Póvoa de
Second meeting
13 -17 May 2013
Learning Europe:
Culture & Civilization
Colosseum (Rome)
The Colosseum or Coliseum,
also known as the Flavian
Amphitheatre is an elliptical
amphitheatre in the centre of
the city of Rome, Italy. Built of
concrete and stone, it was the
largest amphitheatre of the
Roman Empire, and it is
considered one of the greatest
works of Roman architecture
and engineering. It is the
largest amphitheatre in the
Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-1446)
Filippo Brunelleschi was one
of the foremost architects
and engineers of the Italian
Renaissance. He is famous
for his discovery of
perspective and for
engineering the dome of the
Florence Cathedral, but his
accomplishments also
include other architectural
works, sculpture,
mathematics, engineering
and even ship design. His
principal surviving works are
to be found in Florence,
Duomo of Florence
The Basilica di Santa
Maria del Fiore is the
main church of Florence,
Italy. The Duomo, as it is
ordinarily called, was
begun in 1296 in the
Gothic style to the design
of Arnolfo di Cambio and
completed structurally in
1436 with the dome
engineered by Filippo
Giotto’s Bell Tower
Giotto’s Campanile (84,7
metres high) is a free-standing
campanile that is part of the
complex of buildings that make
up Florence Cathedral on the
Piazza del Duomo in Florence.
Standing adjacent the Basilica
of Santa Maria del Fiore and
the Baptistry of St. John, the
tower is one of the showpieces
of the Florentine Gothic
architecture with its design by
Giotto, its rich sculptural
decorations and the
polychrome marble
Gian Lorenzo Bernini (1598-1680)
Gian Lorenzo Bernini
was an Italian artist and
a prominent architect
who worked principally
in Rome. He was the
leading sculptor of his
age, credited with
creating the Baroque
style of sculpture. In
addition, he painted,
wrote plays, and
designed metalwork and
stage sets.
Saint Peter’s Square
Saint Peter's Square is a massive plaza located directly in front
of St. Peter's Basilica in the Vatican City.
Gian Lorenzo Bernini designed the square including the massive
Tuscan colonnades, four columns deep, which embrace visitors
in "the maternal arms of Mother Church." A granite fountain
constructed by Bernini in 1675 matches another fountain
designed by Carlo Maderno dating to 1613.
Basilica di San Marco (Venice)
The Patriarchal
Cathedral Basilica of
Saint Mark is the
cathedral church of the
Roman Catholic
Archdiocese of Venice,
northern Italy.
It is the most famous of
the city's churches and
one of the best known
examples of Byzantine
architecture. It lies at the
eastern end of the Piazza
San Marco, adjacent and
connected to the Doge's
Duomo di Milano
The cathedral of
Milan, the symbol of
Milan, is dedicated to
Santa Maria Rising
and is located in the
square in the city
Piazza dei miracoli
The Piazza del Duomo ("Cathedral Square") is a wide, walled area to the
north of central Pisa, Tuscany. It is recognized as one of the main
centers for medieval art in the world. Partly paved and partly grassed, it
is dominated by four great religious edifices: the Duomo (cathedral), the
Campanile (the cathedral's free standing bell tower), the Baptistry and
the Camposanto.
Renzo Piano
Renzo Piano is an
Italian architect. It is
one of the best
known and
internationally active
The Shard, also referred to as the
Shard of Glass, Shard London
Bridge is a 72-storey skyscraper in
London. It opened to the public on
1st February 2013. Standing 309.6
metres (1,016 ft) high, the Shard is
the tallest building in the European
Union. Renzo Piano is the Shard's
The basis of the
modern Italian
language was
established by the
Florentine poet Dante
Alighieri, whose
greatest work, the
Divine Comedy, is
considered among the
foremost literary
statements produced
in Europe during the
Middle Ages.
Dante Alighieri (1265-1321)
Other celebrated literary figures in Italy are: Giovanni
Boccaccio whose greatest work is “The Decameron”.
The poet Giacomo Leopardi and Alessandro Manzoni
who wrote “The Betrothed”.
Giovanni Boccaccio
Giacomo Leopardi
Alessandro Manzoni
There are also Torquato Tasso, Ludovico Ariosto, and Petrarca, whose
best-known vehicle of expression, the sonnet, was invented in Italy, Luigi
Pirandello with “Il fu Mattia Pascal” and Giovanni Pascoli.
Prominent philosophers include Giordano Bruno, Marsilio Ficino, Niccolò
Machiavelli, and Giambattista Vico. Modern literary figures and Nobel
laureates are: nationalist poet Giosuè Carducci in 1906; realist writer
Grazia Deledda in 1926; modern theatre author Luigi Pirandello in 1936;
poets Salvatore Quasimodo in 1959 and Eugenio Montale in 1975; satirist
and theatre author Dario Fo in 1997.
Giovanni Pascoli
Luigi Pirandello
Salvatore Quasimodo
Over the centuries, Italian art has gone through
many stylistic changes. Italian painting is
traditionally characterized by a warmth of colour
and light, as exemplified in the works of Caravaggio
and Titian, and a preoccupation with religious figures
and motifs. Italian painting enjoyed pre-eminence in
Europe for hundreds of years, from the Romanesque
and Gothic periods, and through the Renaissance and
Baroque periods. Other notable artists who fall
within these periods include Giotto, Michelangelo,
Leonardo da Vinci, Donatello, Botticelli, Tintoretto
and Bernini.
(1267 – 1337)
“Compianto sul Cristo morto”
“Madonna in maestà”
“San Giorgio”
(1386 – 1466)
“La Gioconda”
(1475 – 1564)
“Ultima Cena”
“Il David”
(1475 – 1564)
“Sacra Famiglia”
“Lo sposalizio della
(1483 – 1520)
“La Madonna della seggiola”
“La Primavera”
“The birth of Venus”
“Origine della Via Lattea”
(1519 – 1594)
“San Rocco in Gloria”
“Bacchini malato”
(1571 – 1610)
“The Crucifixion of Saint
The Macchiaioli were a group of Italian painters active
in Tuscany in the second half of the nineteenth
century, who, breaking with the antiquated conventions
taught by the Italian academies of art, did much of
their painting outdoors in order to capture natural
light, shade, and colour. This practice relates the
Macchiaioli to the French Impressionists. The most
notable artists of this movement were Giovanni
Fattori, Vito D’Ancona, Silvestro Lega and Telemaco
Ragazza di
Giovanni Fattori, Hay
Vito D’Ancona,
Lady in White
Silvestro Lega
Il Bindolo
“La Dame de Biarritz”
“Marthe Bibesco”
(1882 - 1916)
“The Laugh”
“Love Song”
(1888 - 1978)
“The Disquieting
From Folk to classical, music
important role in the Italian
• Instruments
associated with
classical music,
including the piano
Cristofori), violin
and organ
Frescobaldi) were
invented in Italy.
Many of prevailing classical music forms, such
as symphony, concerto and sonata, can trace
their roots back to innovations of the 16th
and 17th century Italian music.
Italian most famous composers include the
Renaissance composers Palestrina,
Giovanni Pierluigi da
Palestrina (1526 –
1594) was a
composer of sacred
music and the bestknown 16th-century
representative of
the Roman School of
musical composition.
Monteverdi (1567 -1643)
was a composer and
Monteverdi's work,
marked the transition
from the Renaissance
style of music to that of
the Baroque period.
He developed two
individual styles of
composition – the
heritage of
Renaissance polyphonyan
and the new basso
continuo technique of the
The Baroque composers
Giuseppe Domenico
Scarlatti (1685 – 1757)
was a composer who
spent much of his life
in the service of
the Portuguese and
Spanish royal
families. He composed
in a variety of musical
forms, although today
he is known mainly for
his 555 keyboard
Arcangelo Corelli (1653 –
1713) was a composer
and violinist
and composer of
the Baroque era.
The style of execution introduced by Corelli
was of vital importance for the development
of violin playing. It has been said that the
paths of all of the famous violinistcomposers of 18th-century Italy led to
Arcangelo Corelli who was their "iconic point
of reference".
Antonio Lucio Vivaldi (1678 – 1741), was
an Italian Baroque composer, Catholic
priest, and virtuoso violinist, born in
Venice. Recognized as one of the greatest
Baroque composers, his influence during
his lifetime was widespread over Europe.
Vivaldi is known mainly for composing
instrumental concertos especially for the
violin, as well as sacred choral works and
over forty operas. His best known work is
a series of violin concertos known as The
Four Seasons.
The classical composers
Niccolò Paganini (1782- 1840) was a composer
and one of the most celebrated violin virtuosi of
his time, and left his mark as one of the pillars of
modern violin technique. His Caprice No. 24 in
A minor, Op. 1, is among the best known of his
Gioachino Rossini (17921868) was a composer who
wrote 39 operas as well
as sacred music, chamber
music, songs, and some
instrumental and piano
His best-known operas
include the Italian
comedies Il barbiere di
Siviglia (The Barber of
Seville) and La
Cenerentola and the Frenchlanguage epics Moïse et
Pharaonand Guillaume Tell.
Romantic composer
Giuseppe Verdi (1813-1901) is
considered with Richard Wagner the
most influential composer of operas of
the nineteenth century, and dominated
the Italian scene after Bellini, Donizetti
and Rossini. His works are frequently
performed in opera houses throughout
the world and, transcending the
boundaries of the genre, some of his
themes have long since taken root in
popular culture, as "La donna è mobile"
from Rigoletto, "Libiamo ne' lieti calici”
(The Drinking Song) from La traviata,
"Va, pensiero”(The Chorus of the
Hebrew Slaves) from Nabucco, the
"Coro di zingari" from Il trovatore and
the "Grand March" from Aida.
Romantic Composer
Giacomo Puccini (1858-1924) was a
composer whose operas are among the
most frequently performed in opera houses
all over the world.
Puccini has been called "the greatest
composer of Italian opera after Verdi”. While
his early work was rooted in traditional late19thcentury romantic Italian opera, he
successfully developed his work in the
'realistic' verismo style, of which he became
one of the leading exponents. His greatest
operas include: Manon Lescaut, Tosca,
Madame Butterfly, La bohème, Turandot, La
fanciulla del West.
Opera has been promoted by the opening of public
theatres. In 1637 the first theatre in San Cassiano in
Venice was opened. A new kind of music was sung
and quickly spread throughout Europe.
• Italy is widely known for being the birthplace
of Opera which was founded in the early 17th
century, in Italian cities, such as Venice and
• The opera literature of the first half of the
eighteenth century was dominated by the
great figure of the great Italian composer
Giuseppe Verdi. His first successful opera was
Nabucco in 1842 in Milan.
• Operas composed by Italian composers of the
19th and early 20th centuries, such as Rossini,
Bellini, Doninzetti, Verdi and Puccini are
performed in opera houses all over the world.
• Modern Italian composers, Berio and Nono,
developed experimental and electronic music.
Luciano Berio
Famous Italian opera singers include Enrico
Caruso and Luciano Pavarotti.
Enrico Caruso
Luciano Pavarotti
La Scala Opera house in Milan, San Carlo Opera
house in Naples and La Fenice Opera House in
Venice are considered among the best theatres in
the world.
La Fenice
La Scala
• From the year of its foundation is the seat of
the Opera, the Choir, the Orchestra and
Ballet, the Philharmonic since 1982.
Claudio Abbado has served
as music director of the La Scala
opera house in Milan, principal
conductor of the London
Symphony Orchestra, principal
guest conductor of the Chicago
Symphony Orchestra, music
director of the Vienna State
Opera, and principal conductor
of the Berlin Philharmonic,
orchestra from 1989 to 2002.
Riccardo Muti is a conductor and music
director of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra.
Muti has been a regular guest of the Berlin
Philarmonic and the Vienna Philarmonic.
He has led opera performances with the
Philadelphia Orchestra and productions in the
principal opera houses of Rome (from 1969),
Ravenna, Vienna, London (from 1977), Munich
(from 1979), and, finally, in 2010, New York.
From the 50s to the 90s
Between the 50s and the 60s the
Italian popular music underwent a
significant change caused by the
rock influences coming from
overseas, in particular with the
music that was enriched with
electric guitars that took the place
of violins.
From the 70s to the 90s
In the 70s new born Italian singers and
songwriters with a musical personality that
united that of the classical composer and one
of the folk singer, produced a new type of
rock. Among these the most popular singers
were: Lucio Battisti and Mia Martini.
Lucio Battisti (1943-1998)
Mia Martini (1947-1995)
From the 80s to the 90s
• The 80s are essentially a decade of great
innovation which passes through the electronic
sound with the attempt of a link between genres
such as rock and the diverse world of soul, disco
and funk. In the second half of the 80s techno
and house music was produced.
Italy was also an
important country in the
development of disco and electronic music, known for
its futuristic sound and prominent usage of
synthesizers and drum machines. It was one of
European forms of dico music. It was called Italo Disco.
Italo disco's influences include Italian producer Giorgio
Moroder and the singer Spagna.
Today , Italian pop music is represented
annually with the Sanremo Music Festival,
which takes place at the Ariston theatre in
Sanremo. This Festival served as inspiration
for the Eurovision song contest, and the
Festival of Two Worlds in Spoleto.
Ariston Theatre
Today singers such as pop diva Mina, classical
crossover artist Andrea Bocelli, Grammy winner Laura
Pausini, European chart-topper Eros Ramazzotti,
Gianna Nannini and Tiziano Ferro have attained
international acclaim.
Andrea Bocelli
Laura Pausini
Eros Ramazzotti
Gianna Nannini
Tiziano Ferro
The history of Italian cinema began a few months after the
Lumière brothers began motion picture exhibitions. The first
Italian film was a few seconds, showing Pope Leo XIII giving a
blessing to the camera.
The Italian film industry was born between 1903 and 1908
with three companies.
Films were brought to Italy by the Lumière operators during
In 1896, the first cinema theatres opened in Rome, Milan ,
Naples, Livorno , etc.
In Pisa cinema Lumière opened in 1899 . It closed its doors on
February 13, 2011.
Cinecittà is a complex of studios of international
importance located along the Tuscolana in the eastern
outskirts of Rome, and active since 1937.
Cinecittà is the top Italian film industry but it is also used
for foreign productions and television shows.
More than 3000 films were shot here; 90 films received
an Academy Award nomination; 47 films won the
prestigious statuette. Famous national and international
directors have worked here: Federico Fellini , Francis
Ford Coppola, Martin Scorsese, Riddley Scott, etc.
Italian Directors
Vittorio De Sica
Roberto Rossellini
Federico Fellini
Sergio Leone
Luchino Visconti
Mario Monicelli
Michelangelo Antonioni
Franco Zeffirelli
Dario Argento
Giuseppe Tornatore
Gabriele Salvatores
Roberto Benigni
The mid-1940s to the early 1950s was the heyday of
neorealistic films, reflecting the poor condition of
post-war Italy
Rome, Open City (1945)
The Bicycle thief (1948)
The most famous movies include:
• La dolce vita
• The Good, the Bad and the
• Two Women
• Once upon a time in America
• Mediterraneo
• Life is beautiful
Famous actors from the 40s to 90s
Vittorio Gassman (Riso amaro)
Totò (Miseria e nobiltà)
Anna Magnani (La rosa tatuata)
Vittorio De Sica (Miracolo a Milano)
Famous actors/actresses
Alberto Sordi
(Un americano a Roma)
Sophia Loren
(La ciociara)
Marcello Mastroianni
(Matrimonio all’italiana)
Mariangela Melato
(Travolti da un insolito destino . . .)
Monica Vitti (La ragazza con la pistola)
Massimo Troisi
(Il Postino)
Giancarlo Giannini
(Pasqualino Settebellezze)
Valeria Golino
(Rain man)
Monica Bellucci
Roberto Benigni
(La vita è bella)
Raul Bova (Scusa se ti chiamo
Stefano Accorsi
(Le fate ignoranti)
Riccardo Scamarcio
(Tre metri sopra il cielo)
Elio Germano
(La nostra vita)