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Chapter 1, Section 1
By Rachel Gu, Coni Foehl, John Regan, Arash Boostani, and Nicholas
Exploring Inside the Earth
Surface constantly changing
Extreme conditions prevent exploration
Heat increases as you go deeper
Pressure increases as you go deeper
Scientific Evidence
● Evidence from rock samples
● Rocks give clues about earth structure
and conditions deep inside earth
● Evidence from seismic waves
● When earthquakes occur:geologists study
how they travel through earth
● Speed of seismic waves and the path
they take show the structure of earth
The Crust
Layer of rock that forms outer skin
Includes dry land and ocean floor
Between 5-40 km thick
Thinnest layer
Ocean crust: Basalt
Continental crust: Granite
The Mantle
● Made of very hot rock that is solid
● 3000 meters thick
● Lithosphere: Upper most part of mantle
that is similar to crust (100 km thick)
● Asthenosphere: Rocks are less rigid than in
Lithosphere and it can bend like plastic but
it is still solid
● The Lower mantle is made of solid material
extends to the core
The Core
Mostly made of iron and nickel
Outer Core: Layer of molten metal
Inner core: Dense ball of metal
The core has to do with the earth
magnetic field
Seismic Waves: Vibrations that travel through Earth carrying the
energy released during an earthquake
Crust: The layer of rock that forms Earth’s outer surface
Mantle: The layer of hot, solid material between Earth’s crust and
Outer Core: A layer of molten iron and nickel that surrounds the inner
core of Earth
Inner Core: A dense sphere of a solid iron and nickel the center of
Pressure: The force exerted on a surface divided by the area over
which the force is exerted
Lithosphere: The uppermost part of the mantle and crust
Asthenosphere: Soft layer of mantle
home slide :
slide 4
the end slide:
scientific evidence :
Graphics by: Arash Boostani
Text by: Rachel Gu
Research by: John Regan
Vocab by: Nicholas Kim
Commentary by: Coni Foehl