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Basic Plant Structure and Function
___________________: anchor the plants and
used for absorption
Stem: support for the leaves
___________________: Collection and conversion of solar energy into food.
Basic Functions of Each Plant Organ
___________________: outer covering of the plant
___________________: carries out photosynthesis, stores photosynthetic
products, helps support the plants.
___________________: conducts water and solutes thoughout the plant
______________________: Transports water and nutrients
______________________: Protective layer of outer leaf
Cuticle: Layer of wax that waterproofs leave
Stomata: Pores in the epidermis, regulate gas exchange –
composed of guard cells
_______________: Provides structure, storage, and support.
Mesophyll: Middle portion of the leaf; contains most
photosynthetic cells of the plant.
Roots Provide Anchorage and Support
___________________ - Outermost layer of the root
Root hairs - Increase the surface area of the root. Absorb water and minerals
from the soil.
___________________ – Region between the epidermis and endodermis,
composed of ground tissue.
___________________ – Layer of tissue deep in the cortex; filters substances
before they enter the vascular tissue.
Casparian Strips - Waxy band around the endodermis that “seals” it, ensuring all
fluid is filtered through.
___________________- Center portion of the root which contains the vascular
Stems Support the Leaves
Protective outermost layer
Protective outermost layer
Center of the stem. Composed
of ground tissue.
Center of the stem. Composed
of ground tissue.
Vascular Bundles
Bundles xylem & phloem that
Bundles of xylem & phloem
Vascular System – Transport system
A ___________________that together make up the vascular system
These vessels connect the organs of the plant
Two Main Tissues of the Vascular System: ___________&___________
Xylem Tissue
Cells organized into tubes that bring up ___________________from the soil.
Phloem Tissue
FUNCTION: Allows liquid sap containing
________________,________________,&_________________ elements to flow
through the plant.
Tissue is made of tubes composed of cells known as sieve-tube members, which
lack organelles.
________________________________and Companion Cells are LIVE cells at
WHY do sieve tube members lack organelles?
Answer: Organelles would take up ________________, reducing the flow of sap
through the sieve-tube members.
Sieve Tube Members
Sieve tube members are divided by sieve plates which contain pores.
____________________________ enables transport and communication
between cell walls
Xylem Tissue
These cells are ________________.
Vessel elements
________________cells with no end walls.
Long, thin cells with tapered ends and ________________.
Adhesion: Hydrogen bonds ________________________
Cohesion: Hydrogen bonds __________________
Ground Tissue
Store _______________________ and provide support
Made up of mostly young plant
Lies between vascular and dermal tissues
Primary versus Secondary Growth
Primary Growth:
Secondary Growth:
An embryonic tissue called meristem provides the cells needed to increase the
In primary growth, this tissue is called the __________________
It lies at the extremities of the plant, both in the shoots and in the roots.
Why is primary growth important?
Plants need to grow taller to be able to have plenty of access to the sunlight in
order to perform photosynthesis.
At a certain point in its life cycle, the xylem gets clogged.
Without functional xylem the plant would ______________________because no
water would reach the rest of the plant body.
Thus, we have secondary growth to the rescue…
Secondary Growth
Vascular cambium creates secondary xylem (___________) and secondary
phloem (which makes up the ___________,___________,and ___________).
Cork cambium creates new layers of cork to the outside.
Secondary Growth
The vascular cambium increases the girth (width) of the plant
Heartwood-The ______________________of the xylem
____________________- The still functioning xylem tissue.