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WEEK 7: PLANT STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION Basic Plant Structure and Function ___________________: anchor the plants and used for absorption Stem: support for the leaves ___________________: Collection and conversion of solar energy into food. Basic Functions of Each Plant Organ ___________________: outer covering of the plant ___________________: carries out photosynthesis, stores photosynthetic products, helps support the plants. ___________________: conducts water and solutes thoughout the plant ______________________: Transports water and nutrients ______________________: Protective layer of outer leaf Cuticle: Layer of wax that waterproofs leave Stomata: Pores in the epidermis, regulate gas exchange – composed of guard cells _______________: Provides structure, storage, and support. Mesophyll: Middle portion of the leaf; contains most photosynthetic cells of the plant. Roots Provide Anchorage and Support ___________________ - Outermost layer of the root Root hairs - Increase the surface area of the root. Absorb water and minerals from the soil. ___________________ – Region between the epidermis and endodermis, composed of ground tissue. ___________________ – Layer of tissue deep in the cortex; filters substances before they enter the vascular tissue. Casparian Strips - Waxy band around the endodermis that “seals” it, ensuring all fluid is filtered through. ___________________- Center portion of the root which contains the vascular tissue. Stems Support the Leaves Epidermis Dicots Monocots Protective outermost layer Protective outermost layer Cortex Center of the stem. Composed of ground tissue. Center of the stem. Composed of ground tissue. Vascular Bundles Bundles xylem & phloem that ___________ Bundles of xylem & phloem ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ Vascular System – Transport system A ___________________that together make up the vascular system These vessels connect the organs of the plant Two Main Tissues of the Vascular System: ___________&___________ Xylem Tissue Cells organized into tubes that bring up ___________________from the soil. Phloem Tissue FUNCTION: Allows liquid sap containing ________________,________________,&_________________ elements to flow through the plant. Tissue is made of tubes composed of cells known as sieve-tube members, which lack organelles. ________________________________and Companion Cells are LIVE cells at maturity WHY do sieve tube members lack organelles? Answer: Organelles would take up ________________, reducing the flow of sap through the sieve-tube members. Sieve Tube Members Sieve tube members are divided by sieve plates which contain pores. ____________________________ enables transport and communication between cell walls Xylem Tissue These cells are ________________. Vessel elements ________________cells with no end walls. Tracheids Long, thin cells with tapered ends and ________________. Adhesion: Hydrogen bonds ________________________ Cohesion: Hydrogen bonds __________________ Ground Tissue Store _______________________ and provide support Made up of mostly young plant Lies between vascular and dermal tissues Primary versus Secondary Growth Primary Growth: Secondary Growth: An embryonic tissue called meristem provides the cells needed to increase the __________________. In primary growth, this tissue is called the __________________ It lies at the extremities of the plant, both in the shoots and in the roots. Why is primary growth important? Plants need to grow taller to be able to have plenty of access to the sunlight in order to perform photosynthesis. At a certain point in its life cycle, the xylem gets clogged. Without functional xylem the plant would ______________________because no water would reach the rest of the plant body. Thus, we have secondary growth to the rescue… Secondary Growth Vascular cambium creates secondary xylem (___________) and secondary phloem (which makes up the ___________,___________,and ___________). Cork cambium creates new layers of cork to the outside. Secondary Growth The vascular cambium increases the girth (width) of the plant Heartwood-The ______________________of the xylem ____________________- The still functioning xylem tissue.