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Noun 0 Names a person, place, thing, or idea 0 Common Noun: girl, shoe, dog 0 Proper Noun: Julie, Nike, Labrador Retreiver 0 If you an put “a”, “an”, or “the” before a word; it is most likely a noun. Nouns 0 Concrete Nouns - Concrete nouns are things that you can experience through your five senses: sight, smell, hearing, taste, and touch. For example, desk, New York City, Mrs. Rodabaugh 0 Abstract Nouns - Abstract nouns refer to ideas and concepts. For example, freedom, love, joy. Verb 0 Expresses action or state of being. There are two kinds of verbs: action and linking. 0 Action Verbs: Express actions or thoughts Linking Verbs 0 Linking Verbs: Connect the subject with a word that links or connects it. Linking verbs help describe the condition or state-of-being or a noun. 0 Common linking verbs: 0 Any form of the verb “is” or “be” 0 Appear, seem, become, etc. 0 Action verbs imply either physical or mental activity 0 Some verbs can be both action and linking verbs! Verb Phrases 0 Consists of a helping verb and at least one main verb. Common Used Helping Verbs Forms of Be am were is be are being was been Forms of Have has have having had Forms of Do do does doing did Others may might must can shall will could should would Pronoun 0 A word used in place of a noun or more than one nouns. 0 The word a pronoun stands for is called the antecedent of the pronoun. 0 Personal Pronoun – Refers to the one speaking (1st person), the one spoken to (2nd person), or the one spoken about (3rd person) 0 1st Person: 0 2nd Person: 0 3rd Person: I, me, my, mine, we, us, our, ours you, your, yours he, him, his, she, her, hers, it, its, they, them, their, theirs 0 Pronouns can be: 0 Personal (e.g. them) 0 Relative (e.g. which) 0 Interrogative (e.g. whom) 0 Reflexive (e.g. itself) 0 Indefinite (e.g. everybody) Indefinite Pronouns 0 Indefinite Pronoun – Refers to a person, place, thing, or idea that may not be specifically named. all either much other another everybody neither several any everyone nobody some anybody everything none somebody anyone few no one someone anything many nothing something both more one such each most Other Pronouns 0 Demonstrative – this, that, these, those 0 Interrogative – who, whom, which, what 0 Relative – that, which, who, whom, whose 0 Reflexive/Intensive 0 First Person – myself, ourselves 0 Second Person – yourself, yourselves 0 Third Person – himself, herself, itself, themselves Adjective 0 A word used to modify (describe or make more definite) a noun or pronoun 0 Adjectives modify nouns or pronouns by telling: 0 Which kind? 0 Which one? 0 How many? 0 How much? Adjectives 0 Adjectives usually precede the words they modify, but sometimes are placed after the words they modify for emphasis. 0 Adjectives may be separate from the words they modify. Adjectives 0 Articles are the most frequently used adjectives. 0 Indefinite Articles (A,An) refer to one of a non-specific group. 0 Definite Article (The) refers to someone or something in particular and can precede any word. Adjectives 0 Some words can be used as both pronouns and adjectives. 0 Sometimes nouns are used as adjectives. Coordinating Adjectives 0 Coordinating adjectives are two or more adjectives that describe the same noun and are equal in describing the noun. Their order can be reversed and the word and can be inserted between them. 0 Example: While strolling through the woods, they found a strange, mysterious and frightened child. Cumulative Adjectives 0 Cumulative adjectives are two or more adjectives that describe the same noun, but they need to be put in a specific order for them to make sense. Their order cannot be reversed. 0 Example: He bought a wonderful old French car. Adverb 0 Modifies a verb, adjective, or another adverb. 0 Adverbs answer: 0 How? 0 Where? 0 When? 0 To what extent? 0 Most adverbs end in –ly Adverbs Modify Verbs 0 The adverb can be positioned after the verb. 0 Example: Andre sang How: Andre sang magnificently. When: Andre sang earlier. Where: Andre sang there. To What extent: Andre sang frequently. Adverbs Modify Adjectives 0 When an adverb modifies an adjective, its position usually comes before the word it modifies. 0 Example: It was a clear day. How clear? It was a very clear day. Adverbs Modify Other Adverbs 0 When an adverb modifies another adverb its position usually comes before the word it modifies. 0 Example: Joe spoke fast. 0 How fast: Joe spoke extremely fast. Preposition 0 Shows the relationship between a noun or pronoun to some other word in the sentence. 0 Examples: 0 The airplane flew above us. 0 She walked to the store. 0 Commonly used prepositions include: about, before, for, from, in, on, over, to, up, until, with, without. Prepositional Phrase 0 A preposition always introduce a prepositional phrase. The noun or pronoun that ends the prepositional phrase is called the object of the preposition. 0 Prepositional Phrase – Includes a preposition, a noun or pronoun called the object of the preposition, and any modifiers of that object. Conjunction 0 Connects words or groups of words. Types: coordinating, correlative, and subordinating. 0 Coordinating Conjunctions: for, but, yet, so, or, yet. 0 Correlative Conjunctions: Both… and, either… or, neither… nor. 0 Subordinating Conjunctions join dependent clauses to main clauses. 0 Examples: 0 Coordinating: My professor is strict, yet fair. 0 Correlative: Both swimming and dancing are fun ways to work out. 0 Subordinate: I am happy because of you. Interjection 0 Express surprise or strong feeling. 0 Examples: 0 Wow! This place is great! 0 Yes! My team just scored a goal! 0 They are commonly used before a sentence or at the beginning of a sentence.