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0 Names a person, place, thing, or idea
0 Common Noun: girl, shoe, dog
0 Proper Noun: Julie, Nike, Labrador Retreiver
0 If you an put “a”, “an”, or “the” before a word; it is most
likely a noun.
0 Concrete Nouns - Concrete nouns are things that you
can experience through your five senses: sight, smell,
hearing, taste, and touch.
For example, desk, New York City, Mrs. Rodabaugh
0 Abstract Nouns - Abstract nouns refer to ideas and
For example, freedom, love, joy.
0 Expresses action or state of being. There are two
kinds of verbs: action and linking.
0 Action Verbs: Express actions or thoughts
Linking Verbs
0 Linking Verbs: Connect the subject with a word that
links or connects it. Linking verbs help describe the
condition or state-of-being or a noun.
0 Common linking verbs:
0 Any form of the verb “is” or “be”
0 Appear, seem, become, etc.
0 Action verbs imply either physical or mental activity
0 Some verbs can be both action and linking verbs!
Verb Phrases
0 Consists of a helping verb and at least one main verb.
Common Used Helping Verbs
Forms of Be
am were is be are being was been
Forms of Have
has have having had
Forms of Do
do does doing did
may might must can shall will could
should would
0 A word used in place of a noun or more than one nouns.
0 The word a pronoun stands for is called the antecedent of the
0 Personal Pronoun – Refers to the one speaking (1st person), the one
spoken to (2nd person), or the one spoken about (3rd person)
0 1st Person:
0 2nd Person:
0 3rd Person:
I, me, my, mine, we, us, our, ours
you, your, yours
he, him, his, she, her, hers, it, its, they, them, their, theirs
0 Pronouns can be:
0 Personal (e.g. them)
0 Relative (e.g. which)
0 Interrogative (e.g. whom)
0 Reflexive (e.g. itself)
0 Indefinite (e.g. everybody)
Indefinite Pronouns
0 Indefinite Pronoun – Refers to a person, place, thing,
or idea that may not be specifically named.
no one
Other Pronouns
0 Demonstrative – this, that, these, those
0 Interrogative – who, whom, which, what
0 Relative – that, which, who, whom, whose
0 Reflexive/Intensive
0 First Person – myself, ourselves
0 Second Person – yourself, yourselves
0 Third Person – himself, herself, itself, themselves
0 A word used to modify (describe or make more
definite) a noun or pronoun
0 Adjectives modify nouns or pronouns by telling:
0 Which kind?
0 Which one?
0 How many?
0 How much?
0 Adjectives usually precede the words they modify, but
sometimes are placed after the words they modify for
0 Adjectives may be separate from the words they
0 Articles are the most frequently used adjectives.
0 Indefinite Articles (A,An) refer to one of a non-specific
0 Definite Article (The) refers to someone or something
in particular and can precede any word.
0 Some words can be used as both pronouns and
0 Sometimes nouns are used as adjectives.
Coordinating Adjectives
0 Coordinating adjectives are two or more adjectives
that describe the same noun and are equal in
describing the noun. Their order can be reversed and
the word and can be inserted between them.
0 Example: While strolling through the woods, they found
a strange, mysterious and frightened child.
Cumulative Adjectives
0 Cumulative adjectives are two or more adjectives that
describe the same noun, but they need to be put in a
specific order for them to make sense. Their order
cannot be reversed.
0 Example: He bought a wonderful old French car.
0 Modifies a verb, adjective, or another adverb.
0 Adverbs answer:
0 How?
0 Where?
0 When?
0 To what extent?
0 Most adverbs end in –ly
Adverbs Modify Verbs
0 The adverb can be positioned after the verb.
0 Example: Andre sang
How: Andre sang magnificently.
When: Andre sang earlier.
Where: Andre sang there.
To What extent: Andre sang
Adverbs Modify Adjectives
0 When an adverb modifies an adjective, its position
usually comes before the word it modifies.
0 Example: It was a clear day.
How clear? It was a very clear day.
Adverbs Modify Other
0 When an adverb modifies another adverb its position
usually comes before the word it modifies.
0 Example: Joe spoke fast.
0 How fast: Joe spoke extremely fast.
0 Shows the relationship between a noun or pronoun to
some other word in the sentence.
0 Examples:
0 The airplane flew above us.
0 She walked to the store.
0 Commonly used prepositions include: about, before,
for, from, in, on, over, to, up, until, with, without.
Prepositional Phrase
0 A preposition always introduce a prepositional
phrase. The noun or pronoun that ends the
prepositional phrase is called the object of the
0 Prepositional Phrase – Includes a preposition, a noun
or pronoun called the object of the preposition, and
any modifiers of that object.
0 Connects words or groups of words. Types: coordinating,
correlative, and subordinating.
0 Coordinating Conjunctions: for, but, yet, so, or, yet.
0 Correlative Conjunctions: Both… and, either… or, neither… nor.
0 Subordinating Conjunctions join dependent clauses to main
0 Examples:
0 Coordinating: My professor is strict, yet fair.
0 Correlative: Both swimming and dancing are fun ways to work
0 Subordinate: I am happy because of you.
0 Express surprise or strong feeling.
0 Examples:
0 Wow! This place is great!
0 Yes! My team just scored a goal!
0 They are commonly used before a sentence or at the
beginning of a sentence.