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No Journal Check
Computer Parts Quiz
The CPU Today!
• Online- History of
Computing Graphic
CPU Chips have improved in line
with the prediction of Gordon
Moore, Intel’s co-founder.
According to his rule of thumb,
known as Moore’s law, processing
power doubles roughly every two
years as smaller transistors are
packed ever more tightly onto
silicon wafers, boosting
performance and reducing costs
A circuit is a path
between two or more
points along which an
electrical current can
be carried
A transistor is used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power
It is composed of semiconductor material usually with at least three terminals for
connection to an external circuit
To electronically switch (no moving parts) a signal on or off (high/low) (0/1)
Requires a semi-conductor, a substance with resistance between that of a conductor
and an insulator
The best semiconductors for industry can be treated with a wide variety of
“dopants” to finely adjust their resistance, as needed
A semiconductor is a substance, usually a solid chemical element or compound, that
can conduct electricity under some conditions but not others, making it a good
medium for the control of electrical current
Devices made of semiconductors, notably silicon, are essential components of most
electronic circuits
The specific properties of a semiconductor depend on the impurities, or dopants,
added to it
An N-type semiconductor carries current mainly in the form of negatively-charged
electrons, in a manner similar to the conduction of current in a wire. A P-type
semiconductor carries current predominantly as electron deficiencies called holes. A
hole has a positive electric charge, equal and opposite to the charge on an electron.
Silicon makes up 25.7% of the earth's crust by weight, and is the second
most abundant element, exceeded only by oxygen
It is found largely as silicon oxides such as sand
Symbol- Si
Atomic Number- 14
Silicon isn’t the only semiconducting substance on Earth — it’s not even
the best semiconductor on Earth
What it is, is by far the most abundant semiconductor on Earth
2 Types of Silicon Current Carriers
How It Works
When there is no current
to the base, no current
can flow between the
collector and the emitter,
and the transistor is off.
A small current to the base enables
the transistor to conduct current from
the collector to the emitter, and
allows a larger current to flow
through the transistor. Components
connected to the collector can use
this larger current.
Historical Development
1941, Vacuum Tube
1948, the first (Germanium) TR
John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Schockly
1954, Silicon TR
At TI Lab, Ease of processing, lower cost, greater power handling, more stable
temperature characteristics
1958, Integrated Circuit
Individual electronic
components were soldered on
to printed circuit boards.
Sep 2009, 22nm silicon wafer
Intel CEO Paul
Otellini, Sep 23 2009
more than 2.9 billion transistors is packed into an area of fingernail
IC placed all components in
one chip.
In April 1970, Intel hired Italian-born engineer Federico Faggin as project
leader, a move that ultimately made the single-chip CPU final design a
The CPU is a chip containing millions/Billions of tiny transistors
Two typical components of a CPU are the following:
 The arithmetic logic unit (ALU), which performs arithmetic and logical
 The control unit (CU), which extracts instructions from memory and decodes
and executes them, calling on the ALU when necessary
Online- Transistor Count Chart
The CPU market for desktop (home) computers is controlled by two companies:
Intel and Advanced Micro Devices (usually shortened to AMD).
There are other CPU manufacturers like Apple, ARM, IBM, VIA, MCST, ELVEES,
SRISA, NTC Module, and Sun Microsystems, but their CPUs usually have more
specific uses (for example in mobile phones, cars, game consoles, or in the
The speed that a CPU works at is measured in hertz, Hz.
Modern processors often run so fast that gigahertz, GHz, is used instead.
One gigahertz is one billion hertz.
For example, a CPU with a clock rate of 1.8 GHz can perform
1,800,000,000 clock cycles per second
The hertz (symbol: Hz) is a unit time to measure frequency.
It tells how often something happens. A frequency of 1 hertz
means that something happens once a second.
The pitch of the note Middle C (the C in the middle of the piano)
is 262 Hz. This means there are 262 vibrations every second
when a Middle C is played.
Humans ability to hears sounds is somewhere between 20-20 000
Owl ability to hear sounds is somewhere between 20-120000
The unit is named after Heinrich Rudolf Hertz.
A Little Chip History
First chip built in 1971 called
Intel® 4004 processor
• Initial clock speed: 108KHz
• Transistors: 2,300
• Manufacturing technology: 10 micron
42 years later
• In 2014 6th generation Intel® Core™
• Initial clock speed: 2.9GHz
• Transistors: 2.6 billion
• Manufacturing technology: 22nm
There are mainly two different types of CPUs used in modern desktop systems:
32-bit CPUs and 64-bit CPUs.
The instructions in a 32-bit CPU are good at handling data that is 32 bits in
Likewise, a 64-bit CPU is good at handling data that is 64 bits in size (and is
often good at handling 32-bit data too).
Many older CPUs from the 70s, 80s and early 90s (and some modern small
CPUs) have an 8-bit or 16-bit size.
Some newer processors have multiple cores. This means that they have many processors
built on to the same chip so that they can run many instructions at once.
While the individual cores might be slower than a single core processor, all the cores can
work together to go faster. This means that the GHz might be lower, however the overall
speed of the processor will be higher.
To make an analogy, think of traffic lanes;
 One road having one lane, which takes up 50 cars in 10 minutes.
 Another road with two lanes will take 100 cars in the same 10 minutes and if one of the lanes has a
problems cars can go to the other lane.
In today's modern computers, some processors may have up to eight cores and are
available to all consumers, like the AMD FX-8350.
• Largest private collection of
CPUs has been discovered
• Russian guy has posted a
message on a forum. His
message says “here is my humble
collection for you”
• Then listed something more than
one thousand of different types
of computer processors he
Review CPU Function
Journal for Next Class- Lots of Vocabulary and History
Journal Check- Next Class