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University of Massachusetts Boston
College of Management
MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers
Chapter 5: Organizing Data & Information
Chapter Overview
Chapter 5 gives the business student insight into how an organization uses data and
transforms it into meaningful information. Most businesses suffer from too much data
rather than not enough. A typical manager will encounter a flurry of numbers, statistics,
and reports. A database helps extract significance from these numbers. The database
can contribute to organizational success in a number of other way including providing
managers and decision makers with timely, accurate, and relevant information.
Traditionally, data was maintained in separate files. These files were created by
separate applications and were characterized by program-data dependence. These
problems were addressed with the database approach to data management. Using
this approach yielded benefits such as reduced data dependency, easier update and
modification, reduced redundancy, standardization of data access, and more efficient
program development. Use of the database approach has required computer
specialists to give extra care to content and access, logical structure, and physical
organization of data. The result can be a well-designed and well-managed database
that is an extremely valuable tool in supporting decision making. Most frequently, this is
done through the use of a database management system or DBMS in business settings.
The DBMS acts as an interface between the data and application programs. The data
is generally accessed through the use of a data manipulation language like SQL.
In recent years, the functionality and power of DBMSs and other database systems has
improved through the use of the Internet, telecommunications, distributed databases,
and other support tools. Multidimensional databases and on-line analytical processing
systems are being used to explore data and allow users to extract more information.
Data mining allows for the automated discovery of new information from large data
warehouses. Object-relational database management systems provide a new set of
capabilities compatible with today’s object-oriented technology. Applications in
business intelligence, competitive intelligence, and knowledge management are also
furthering the use of collected data in business settings.
Chapter Outline
Lecture Topics
Data Management
Data Modeling and Database Models
Database Management Systems (DBMSs)
Database Developments
Chapter Objectives
After completing this chapter, students should be able to:
1. Define general data management concepts and terms, highlighting the
advantages and disadvantages of the database approach to data
2. Name three database models and outline their basic features, advantages, and
3. Identify the common functions performed by all database management systems
and discuss the key features of three popular end user database management
4. Identify and briefly discuss recent database developments.