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Sociology, grade 12
2016/2017
Aliaa El Sawy
Chapter 4: Social Structure
Section Four: Groups within Society
Sociological Terms and Definitions:
1 ) aggregate: people who gather in the same place at the same time or share some certain qualities but without
interaction, shared expectations, or a common identity
2 )social category: people who share some certain qualities but without interaction, shared expectations, or a
common identity
3 ) dyad: the smallest group possible, a group with two members
4 ) triad: a three-person group
5 ) formal group: a group in which the structure, goals, and activities of the group are clearly defined
6 ) informal group: a group in which there is no official structure or established rules of conduct
7 ) primary group: a small group of people who interact over a relatively long period of time on a direct and
personal basis
8 ) secondary groups: a group in which interaction is impersonal and temporary
9 ) reference group: any group with whom individuals identify and whose attitudes and values they adopt and act
according to
10 ) in- group: the group that a person belongs to and identifies with
11 ) out- group: any group that the person does not belong to or identify with
12 ) e- community: people who interact with one another regularly on the Internet
13 ) leader: people who influence the attitudes and opinions of others
14) Social network: the web of relationships formed by the sum total of a person’s interactions with other people
Self Evaluating Questions
A) Answer the Following Questions:
1) Main Idea: What are the features of primary and secondary groups?
2) What roles do group members play in primary and secondary groups?
3) Compare the roles of group members in formal and informal groups.
4) Identify: Give an example of a group, an aggregate, and a social category.
5) Describe: What changes take place in a group when it moves from a dyad to a triad?
6) Elaborate: Why are reference groups important for an individual’s social development? Illustrate your answer
with examples.
7) Compare: How do groups and social networks differ?
8) Explain: What functions does a leader perform for a group?
9) Find the Main Idea: How do primary groups and secondary groups differ?
10) Make Generalizations: What roles do members play in primary groups and secondary groups?
11) Analyze: Why might decision-making in a dyad be difficult?
12) Develop: What are some possible actors that make a community’s police officers a group?
13) Contrast: How do formal groups and informal groups differ in structure?
14) Draw Conclusions: Why can an individual easily be replaced in secondary groups?
15) Identify Cause and Effect: Why would in-groups compete or conflict with out- groups?
16) What are the main functions of groups?
17) Explain: Why do groups define their boundaries?
18) Analyze: What are ways at least three different human senses are used to define group boundaries?
19) What types of groups do sociologists recognize?
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Sociology, grade 12
2016/2017
Aliaa El Sawy
B ) MATCHING In the space provided, write the letter of the term or name that matches each
description.
_____ 1. a three-person group
_____ 2. a small group of people who interact over a relatively long period of time
on a direct and personal basis
_____ 3. a group in which interaction is impersonal and temporary in nature
_____ 4. people who influence the attitudes and opinions of others
_____ 5. any group that a person does not belong to or identify with
_____ 6. a group in which people interact with one another regularly on the Internet
_____ 7. a group that an individual belongs to and identifies with
_____ 8. the web of relationships that is formed by the sum total of an individual’s
interactions with other people
_____ 9. a group in which there is no official structure or established rules of
conduct
a.in-group
b. electronic community
c. primary group
d. social network
e. dyad
f. informal group
g. secondary group
h. out-group
i. leaders
j. triad
_____ 10. a group with two members
C ) Write The Sociological Terms:
1 ) _________________: people who gather in the same place at the same time or share some certain qualities but
without interaction, shared expectations, or a common identity
2 ) _________________: people who share some certain qualities but without interaction, shared expectations, or
a common identity
3 ) _________________: the smallest group possible, a group with two members
4 ) _________________: a three-person group
5 ) _________________: a group in which the structure, goals, and activities of the group are clearly defined
6 ) _________________: a group in which there is no official structure or established rules of conduct
7 ) _________________: a small group of people who interact over a relatively long period of time on a direct
and personal basis
8 ) _________________: a group in which interaction is impersonal and temporary
9 ) _________________: any group with whom individuals identify and whose attitudes and values they adopt
and act according to
10 ) _________________: the group that a person belongs to and identifies with
11 ) _________________: any group that the person does not belong to or identify with
12 _________________: people who interact with one another regularly on the Internet
13 ) _________________: people who influence the attitudes and opinions of others
14) _____________: the web of relationships formed by the sum total of a person’s interactions with other people
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Sociology, grade 12
2016/2017
Aliaa El Sawy
Answers
A) Answer the Following Questions:
1) Primary: interact on a personal basis over a long period of time // Secondary: Marked by interaction that is
impersonal and temporary.
2) Members fulfill group functions such as providing friendship or doing a specific job.
3) Members of formal groups fill specific roles. // Members of informal groups do not have to fit into established
roles.
4) Group: drama club/ aggregate: crowd at a sports event/ social category: students
5) more types of interactions possible, no one person can disband the group, decision making often easier
6) They help members learn to perform roles and judge behavior based on standards of reference groups. Drama
club helps members learn to work together, carry out tasks, socialize…
7) Groups: have boundaries, members have clear sense of common identity; // Social networks: no
clear boundaries, members have no common sense of identity
8) He influences attitudes and opinions of group members.
9) Primary: small group deeply and directly interacting over long time, often face-to-face, informal structure //
Secondary: impersonal and temporary interaction, members can be replaced to perform functions of group
10) Primary: provide affection, intimacy, whatever forms of support other group members need; //
Secondary:
carry out tasks and fulfill roles defined by the group
11) Each of the two has direct control over group’s existence; if 1 member leaves, the group ends.
12) same uniforms and badges, all carry weapons, work together, common goal of protecting community members
13) Formal: formal structure, goals and activities defined // Informal: no official structure or established rules of
conduct
14) A member’s function is to perform certain tasks, so another person who can do the same tasks can replace the
member.
15) Feelings of superiority by in-group members may result in competition or conflict with out-groups.
16) define boundaries for members/ select leaders/ set goals/ assign tasks to members/ control members’ behavior
17) for members to know who is in the group and who is not
18) Sight: clothing& gestures // Hearing: words, style of speech // Touch: handshakes, hugs
19) A ) primary group: small group interacting directly for long time, face-to-face and deep communications,
informal structure.
B ) secondary group: impersonal, temporary, casual, limited personal involvement.
C ) Reference group: individuals identify with this group and adopt group’s attitudes and values, may positively
or negatively affect behavior.
D) In-group: group that individuals belong to and identify with, members use symbols to separate themselves from
other groups, view themselves positively and out-groups negatively.
E) Out-group: group that an individual does not belong to or identify with.
F) Electronic communities: people interacting on the Internet
B ) MATCHING In the space provided, write the letter of the term or name that matches each
description.
1. j
2. c
3. g
4. i
5. h
6. b
7. a
8. d
9. f
10. e
C ) Write The Sociological Terms: Refer to your sheet.
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