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Transcript
1
The Differential Amplifier
Asst. Prof. MONTREE SIRIPRUCHYANUN, D. Eng.
Dept. of Teacher Training in Electrical Engineering,
Faculty of Technical Education
King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology North Bangkok
http://www.te.kmitnb.ac.th/msn
[email protected]
1
BJT Differential Pair
•
•
•
Differential pair circuits are one of the most
widely used circuit building blocks. The
input stage of every op amp is a differential
amplifier
Basic Characteristics
– Two matched transistors with emitters
shorted together and connected to a
current source
– Devices must always be in active mode
– Amplifies the difference between the
two input voltages, but there is also a
common mode amplification in the nonideal case
VCC
αI/2
αI/2
RC
RC
VCC-αIRC/2
VCC-αIRC/2
I/2
vCM
I
I/2
vCM - 0.7
Let’s first qualitatively understand how this
circuit works.
– NOTE: This qualitative analysis also
applies for MOSFET differential pair
circuits
224510 Advanced communication circuit design
Asst. Prof. Dr. MONTREE SIRIPRUCHYANUN
2
2
Case 1
•
•
Assume the inputs are shorted together to a common
voltage, vCM, called the common mode voltage
– equal currents flow through Q1 and Q2
– emitter voltages equal and at vCM-0.7 in order
for the devices to be in active mode
– collector currents are equal and so collector
voltages are also equal for equal load resistors
– difference between collector voltages = 0
VCC
αI/2
αI/2
RC
VCC-αIRC/2
What happens when we vary vCM?
– As long as devices are in active mode, equal
currents flow through Q1 and Q2
– Note: current through Q1 and Q2 always add up
to I, current through the current source
– So, collector voltages do not change and
difference is still zero….
– Differential pair circuits thus reject common
mode signals
RC
Q1
Q2
I/2
vCM
VCC-αIRC/2
I/2
vCM - 0.7
I
3
224510 Advanced communication circuit design
Case 2 & 3
•
Q2 base grounded and Q1 base at +1 V
– All current flows through Q1
– No current flows through Q2
– Emitter voltage at 0.3V and Q2’s EBJ not FB
– vC1 = VCC-αIRC
– vC2 = VCC
VCC
αI
0
RC
VCC-αIRC
+1V
RC
Q1
I
Q2
0
VCC
0
αI
RC
VCC
-1V
I
RC
Q1
Q2
0
I
I
-0.7V
VCC-αIRC
•
0.3V
Q2 base grounded and Q1 base at -1 V
– All current flows through Q2
– No current flows through Q1
– Emitter voltage at -0.7V and Q1’s EBJ not FB
– vC2 = VCC-αIRC
– vC1 = VCC
224510 Advanced communication circuit design
Asst. Prof. Dr. MONTREE SIRIPRUCHYANUN
4
3
Case 4
•
Apply a small signal vi
– Causes a small positive ΔI to flow in Q1
– Requires small negative ΔI in Q2
• since IE1+IE2 = I
•
•
– Can be used as a linear amplifier for small
signals (ΔI is a function of vi)
Differential pair responds to differences in the input
voltage
– Can entirely steer current from one side of the
diff pair to the other with a relatively small
voltage
Let’s now take a quantitative look at the large-signal
operation of the differential pair
224510 Advanced communication circuit design
5
BJT Diff Pair – Large-Signal Operation
•
First look at the emitter currents when the emitters are tied together
•
Some manipulations can lead to the following equations
•
and there is the constraint:
•
Given the exponential relationship, small differences in vB1,2 can cause all of the
current to flow through one side
224510 Advanced communication circuit design
Asst. Prof. Dr. MONTREE SIRIPRUCHYANUN
6
4
•
•
Notice vB1-vB2 ~= 4VT enough to switch all of current from one side to the other
For small-signal analysis, we are interested in the region we can approximate to
be linear
– small-signal condition: vB1-vB2 < VT/2
224510 Advanced communication circuit design
7
BJT Diff Pair – Small-Signal Operation
•
Look at the small-signal operation: small
differential signal vd is applied
multiply top and
bottom by
– expand the exponential and keep the
first two terms
224510 Advanced communication circuit design
Asst. Prof. Dr. MONTREE SIRIPRUCHYANUN
8
5
Differential Voltage Gain
•
For small differential input signals, vd << 2VT, the collector currents are…
•
We can now find the differential gain to be…
9
224510 Advanced communication circuit design
BJT Diff Pair – Differential Half Circuit
•
We can break apart the differential pair circuit into two half circuits – which then
looks like two common emitter circuits driven by +vd/2 and –vd/2
Virtual Ground
224510 Advanced communication circuit design
Asst. Prof. Dr. MONTREE SIRIPRUCHYANUN
10
6
Small-Signal Model of Diff Half Circuit
•
We can then analyze the small-signal operation with the half circuit, but must
remember
– parameters rπ,gm, and ro are biased at I / 2
– input signal to the differential half circuit is vd/2
vd/2
rπ
vπ
gmvπ
vc1
ro
RC
– voltage gain of the differential amplifier (output taken differentially) is equal
to the voltage gain of the half circuit
224510 Advanced communication circuit design
11
Common-Mode Gain
•
When we drive the differential pair with a common-mode signal, vCM, the
incremental resistance of the bias current effects circuit operation and results in
some gain (assumed to be 0 when R was infinite)
224510 Advanced communication circuit design
Asst. Prof. Dr. MONTREE SIRIPRUCHYANUN
12
7
Common Mode Rejection Ratio
•
If the output is taken differentially, the output is zero since both sides move
together. However, if taken single-endedly, the common-mode gain is finite
•
If we look at the differential gain on one side (single-ended), we get…
•
Then, the common rejection ratio (CMRR) will be
– which is often expressed in dB
224510 Advanced communication circuit design
13
CM and Differential Gain Equation
•
Input signals to a differential pair usually consists of two components: common
mode (vCM) and differential(vd)
•
Thus, the differential output signal will be in general…
224510 Advanced communication circuit design
Asst. Prof. Dr. MONTREE SIRIPRUCHYANUN
14
8
MOS Diff Pair
•
The same basic analysis can be applied to a MOS
differential pair
– and the differential input voltage is
– With some algebra…
224510 Advanced communication circuit design
•
15
We get full switching of the current when…
224510 Advanced communication circuit design
Asst. Prof. Dr. MONTREE SIRIPRUCHYANUN
16
9
Another Way to Analyze MOS Differential Pairs
•
•
Let’s investigate another
technique for analyzing the
MOS differential pair
Vout1
For the differential pair circuit
on the left (driven by two
independent signals), compute V
in1
the output using superposition
– Start with Vin1, set Vin2=0
and first solve for X w.r.t.
Vin1
– Reduces to a degenerated
common-source amp
– neglecting channel-length
modulation and bodyeffect, RS = 1/gm2
Vout1
– so…
RD
X
RD
Y
RD
Vout2
X
Vout1
Vin2
RD
Y
Vin1
I
RD
X
M1
Vin1
I
RD
RD
Y
Vout2
X
Vout1
Vout2
Vin1
M2
RS
RS
17
224510 Advanced communication circuit design
Cont’d
•
•
•
Now, solve for Y w.r.t. Vin1
Replace circuit within box with a Thevenin equivalent
– M1 is a source follower with VT=Vin1
– RT=1/gm1
The circuit reduces to a common-gate amplifier where…
RD
Vout1
RD
X
Y
M1
Vout2
M2
Vin1
•
So, overall (assuming gm1 = gm2)
RD
Y
by symmetry
Vout2
RT
VT
224510 Advanced communication circuit design
Asst. Prof. Dr. MONTREE SIRIPRUCHYANUN
18
10
Differential Pair with MOS loads
• Can use load resistors or MOS devices as loads
– Diode-connected nMOS loads = 1/gm load resistance
• Load resistance looking into the source
– Diode-connected pMOS loads = 1/gm load resistance
• Load resistance looking into diode connected drain
– pMOS current source loads = ro load resistance
• Has higher gain than diode-connected loads
– pMOS current mirror
• Differential input and single-ended output
19
224510 Advanced communication circuit design
Differential Pair with MOS Loads
Vb
Vout
Vout
Vin
Vin
I
I
•
•
Consider the above two MOS loads used in place of resistors
Left:
– a diode connected pMOS has an effective resistance of 1/gmP
•
Right:
– pMOS devices in saturation have effective resistance of roP
224510 Advanced communication circuit design
Asst. Prof. Dr. MONTREE SIRIPRUCHYANUN
20
11
Active-Loaded CMOS Differential Amplifier
•
•
A commonly used amplifier topology in CMOS technologies
Output is taken single-endedly for a differential input
– with a vid/2 at the gate of M1, i1 flows
M3
M4
i1
–
–
i1 is also mirrored through the M3-M4 current mirror
a –vid/2 at the gate of M2 causes i2 to also flow through M2
vo
i1
i2
M1
M2
vid
•
Given that ID= I / 2 (nominally)
I
•
The voltage at the output then is given by…
224510 Advanced communication circuit design
21
Differential Amp with Linearized Gain
•
Use source generation to make the gain linear with respect to the
differential input and independent of gm
– Can build in two ways…
224510 Advanced communication circuit design
Asst. Prof. Dr. MONTREE SIRIPRUCHYANUN
22
12
•
Assuming a virtual ground at node X, we can draw the following small-signal
half circuit.
gmvπ
vid
vπ
ro
is
RS
RD
vο
vS
– Assume ro is very large (simplifies the math)
224510 Advanced communication circuit design
23
Offsets in MOS Differential Pair
•
•
There are 3 main sources of offset that affect the performance of MOS
differential pair circuits
– Mismatch in load resistors
– Mismatch in W/L of differential pair devices
– Mismatch in Vth of differential pair devices
Let’s investigate each individually
224510 Advanced communication circuit design
Asst. Prof. Dr. MONTREE SIRIPRUCHYANUN
24
13
Resistor Mismatch
•
•
For the differential pair circuit shown, consider the case
where
– Load resistors are mismatched by ΔRD
– All other device parameters are perfectly matched
With both inputs grounded, I1 = I2= I/2, but VO is not zero
due to differences in the voltages across the load resistors
RD1
RD2
VO
I1
I2
I
– It is common to find the input-referred offset which is
calculated as
– since Ad = gmRD
224510 Advanced communication circuit design
25
W/L Mismatch
•
Now consider what happens when device sizes W/L are mismatched for the two
differential pair MOS devices M1 and M2
•
This mismatch causes mismatch in the currents that flow through M1 and M2
– This mismatch results in VO
– So in the input referred offset is…
224510 Advanced communication circuit design
Asst. Prof. Dr. MONTREE SIRIPRUCHYANUN
26
14
Vt Mismatch
•
Lastly, consider mismatches in the threshold voltage
•
Again, currents I1 and I2 will differ according to the following saturation current
equation
– For small ΔVt << 2(VGS-Vth)
– Again, using VOS=VO/Ad (Ad = gmRD and VO =2ΔIRD) we get…
224510 Advanced communication circuit design
27
Mismatch Summary
•
The 3 sources of mismatch can be combined into one equation:
•
– arising from Vt, RD, and W/L mismatches
Notice that offsets due to ΔRD and ΔW/L are functions of the overdrive
voltage VGS – Vt
224510 Advanced communication circuit design
Asst. Prof. Dr. MONTREE SIRIPRUCHYANUN
28