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Chapter VI-1
Chapter 6: Duel For North America
1608-1763
Gen.: “A torch lighted in the forests of America set all Europe in conflagration.” – Voltaire, c.
1756
This quote is saying that something, either and idea or conflict, if started in Europe with spread to
throughout Europe. Example: If rebellion or war in Americas could result in rebellion or war in Europe.
A) France Finds A Foothold In Canada
1. France was a latecomer to seek New World Land and was involved in civil & religious
wars (Catholics v. Huguenots/Calvinists).
2. St. Bartholomew’s Day 1572–10,000 Huguenots killed in cold blood. [Henry Navarre
(Huguenot) was getting married on that day – later became King Henry IV of France
and converted to Catholicism (had to be Catholic in France to be King).]
3. Edict of Nantes – 1598
a) Issued by crown
b) Granted limited tolerance of Protestants
c) Civil rights to Huguenots in France
d) Allowed France to focus on other things
- Peace ensued and France gained power under King Louis XIV, who
had been ruling since he was 5
4. France began to look for permanent settlements in America
5. Samuel D. Champlain “ Father of New France” helped establish Quebec (1608) along
the Saint Lawrence
6. Champlain befriended Huron, helped them in battle vs. the Iroquois, made Iroquois
hate French.
7. New France (Canada) was controlled by King
8. Population grew slowly  1750 – 60,000 pop. (Huguenots accepted in France so
they didn’t need to leave for Canada)
B) New France Fans Out
1. Beaver pelts from New France were highly valuable.
2. Coureurs de Bois (runners of the woods), free spirited, responsible for naming Baton
Rouge (red stick), Terre Haute (highland), Des Moines (some monks) and Grand Teton
(big breast)
3. Recruited Indians for fur trading – disease, liquor started to kill natives off
4. French Catholic missionaries tried to covert natives, not successful. Jesuit missionaries
served as explorers and geographers.
5. Antoine Cadillac founded Detroit “City of Straits”– 1701
6. La Salle-1682 named Louisiana for Louis XIV after sailing down the Mississippi. France
tried to block Spain out of the Gulf of Mexico, set up several trading posts in Mississippi
and Louisiana.
7. Well known posts: Kaskaskia, Cahokia, Vincennes
C) The Clash of Empires
1. English, French & Spanish = 3 main empires on the world stage.
2. (1688-1763) – 4 major wars in Europe
3. Counting 1st 4 wars  9 World Wars since 1688
Chapter VI-2
4. The first two wars in America were King Williams War (1689-1697) and Queen Anne’s
War (1702-1713)
5. Native Americans tomahawked entire towns – NY, SC, & Deerfield, MA
6. English gained Acadia (Nova Scotia)
7. Peace of Utrecht (1713) England rewarded with Acadia, Newfoundland & Hudson Bay
8. England gained trading rights in Spanish America
9. War of Jenkins’s Ear (1739) occurred between England & Spain (although confined
to the Caribbean Sea and Georgia), merged with War of Austrian Succession in
Europe (in America, King George’s War)
10. France allied with Spain, bad for American Colonies, New Englanders invaded New
France, captured Louisburg (Cape Breton Island) with help of British fleet
11. Peace treaty (1748) gave Louisburg back to France
D) George Washington Inaugurates War with France
1. British and French fought over the Ohio Valley to gain more land.
2. 1749- group of English colonists mostly from VA (including Washington family)
secured 500,000 acres of Valley
3. 1754 the governor of VA, sent George Washington, 21-year-old surveyor as lieutenant
colonel to Ohio Country commanding 150 men
4. There, encountered French troops near Fort Duquesne, lead to gunfire, French leader
killed = French retreat
5. French came back to siege Washington’s Fort Necessity, Washington surrendered
July 4th 1754 after 10 hour battle
6. British deported French Acadians all the way to Louisiana (Cajuns) – 4,000 from
Nova Scotia
7. Called “Great Displacement” – caused by G. Washington
E) Global War & Colonial Disunity
1. French & Indian War started 1754 (7 Year’s War in Europe) fought in Americas,
Europe, West Indies, Caribbean, Philippines, Africa & on the seven seas.
2. Europe: England & Prussia v. France, Spain, Austria & Russia
3. France & allies beat in Germany by Frederick the Great – luckily, France had no more
power to fight in new world.
4. 1754 Albany Congress held in Albany, NY. 7 of 13 colonies sent delegates; main idea
of convention: keep natives on British side. Lead by Ben Franklin (pushed for home rule),
he published most famous cartoon of era in Pennsylvania Gazette (“Join, or Die”)
F) Braddock’s Blundering and Its Aftermath
1. General “Bulldog” Braddock sent to colonies, 1755 with 2,000 men to conquer Fort
Duquesne. Expedition slow, many British injured (Braddock mortally) – G. Washington
had 2 horses shot, 4 bullet holes in coat.
2. G. Washington defended frontier w/ 300 men
3. 1756 British invasion of Canada, didn’t succeed
G) Pitt’s Palms of Victory
1. William Pitt (“the Great Commoner”) known as passionate orator, well loved by
commoners, very patriotic
Chapter VI-3
2. 1757 was Prime Minister of London – decided to concentrate on Canada in war
(Quebec-Montreal area), picked young leaders
3. 1st major expedition dispatch, 1758 Louisburg (fell to British) – victory FINALLY!
4. Quebec (1759) – Pitt chose James Wolfe (32 years old) – defeated French (Marquis
de Montcalm), both leaders fatally wounded
5. Battle of Quebec very significant – Montreal fell 1760 (last time French flag waved in
Canada)
6. 1763 (Peace of Paris) – no French power in North America
7. Spain gave FL to England for Cuba in return
8. Great Britain = dominant power in North America & best naval power in WORLD.
French and Indian War Results:
1. Boost in colonial confidence
2. England treated Americans poorly; British were mad at contempt shown by
colonies, during war Britain forbade the colonies from trading with Caribbean.
3. Native Americans became lesser threat because they were unable to pin rivals
against each other.
4. Benign/ Salutary Neglect
5. Land restrictions due to Proclamation of 1763- no settling beyond Appalachian
Mountains.
H) Restless Colonists
1. French & Indian War – made colonial esteem go up & shattered British “invincibility”
2. Hostility between British officers & colonials they commanded – British refused to
give a rank higher than captain to American soldiers
3. General Wolfe referred to militias as “dirtiest and cowardly”, but had victory at
Quebec.
4. Americans believed they deserved credit for their duties
5. Some colonials wouldn’t trade or refused to provide troops with $ (but bribed by Pitt
later to give $)
6. Curse of intercolonial disunity – geography, diff. nationalities, conflicting religions &
diff. govn’t
7. During French & Indian War – colonials came together
I) War’s Fateful Aftermath
1. France hoped since their efforts in America failed maybe Britain’s would, too.
2. History of US began w/ fall of Quebec & Montreal
3. Spanish eliminated from FL – Indians eliminated from territory- Treaty of Paris
4. British officer ordered blankets w/ smallpox as tactic to infect & kill Indians
5. Americans could now go over Appalachians & explore west more – ex. Daniel Boone
6. Proclamation of 1763 (British issued) said could not settle beyond Appalachian
mountain range – really angered colonists
7. 1765- 1,000 wagons went through Salisbury, NC.
KEY TERMS
Samuel de Champlain
Chapter VI-4
French explorer who sailed to the West Indies, Mexico, and Panama. He wrote many books
telling of his trips to Mexico City and Niagara Falls. His greatest accomplishment was his
exploration of the St. Lawrence River and his latter settlement of Quebec.
William Pitt
British leader from 1757-1758. He was a leader in the London government (Prime Minister),
and earned himself the name, "Organizer of Victory". He led and won a war against Quebec.
Pittsburgh was named after him.
Robert de La Salle
The first European to float down the Mississippi river to the tip from Canada and upon
seeing the beautiful river valley, named Louisiana after his king Louis XIV in 1682.
James Wolfe
British general whose success in the Battle of Quebec won Canada for the British Empire.
Even though the battle was only fifteen minutes, Wolfe was killed in the line of duty. This
was a decisive battle in the French and Indian War.
Edward Braddock
British commander during the French and Indian War. He attempted to capture Fort
Duquesne in 1755, but defeated by the French and the Indians. At this battle, Braddock was
mortally wounded.
Pontiac
Indian chief; led post-war flare-up in the Ohio River Valley and Great Lakes Region in 1763;
his actions led to the Proclamation of 1763; the Proclamation angered the colonists.
Huguenots
Group of French Protestants from about 1560 to 1629. Protestantism was introduced into
France between 1520 and 1523, and many members of the nobility, the intellectual
classes, and the middle class accepted the principles. At first the new religious group was
royally protected, but toward the end of the reign of King Francis I they were persecuted.
Nevertheless, they continued to grow.
French and Indian War
War fought by French and natives v.English on American soil over control of the Ohio River
Valley-- English defeated French in1763. Historical significance: established England as
number one world power, began to gradually change attitudes of the colonists toward
England for the worse.
Albany Congress
Chapter VI-5
Conference from June 19-July 11, 1754 in Albany, New York. It advocated a union of the
British colonies for their security and defense against French held by the British Board of
Trade to help cement the loyalty of the Iroquois League. After receiving presents, provisions
and promises of redress of grievances, 150 representatives of tribes withdrew without
committing themselves to the British cause.
Proclamation of 1763
English law enacted after gaining territory from the French at the end of the French and
Indian War. It forbade the colonists from settling beyond the Appalachian Mountains. The
colonists were no longer proud to be British citizens after the enactment. The Proclamation
of 1763 caused the first major revolt against the British.
Deism – religion built on reason & philosophy,with reason seen as the only guide to truth.
-- Belief in God – (created morals & physical laws) seen as the watchmaker (sets in
motion) or
Original creator of world and reason.
 1700s  Scientific revolution/enlightenment
Chapter 6
Political
“World Wars 1-4”
Albany Convention
Franklins plan
Great displacement
Proclamation of 1763
Peace of Paris
Colonies spread
St. Bartholomew’s day massacre Pragmatic Sanction
Balance of Powers
Edict of Nantes
Land expansion
“Join or Die”
Social
-
“World Wars 1-4”
Great displacement
Scalping
Colonies
St. Bartholomew’s day massacre
Land expansion
“Join or Die”
Economic
- - “World Wars 1-4”
- Great displacement
- Scalping
- Colonies
Chapter VI-6
-
Fur trade
Trade restrictions
Smuggling
Champlain
La Salle
Land expansion