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Biology 20
Introduction to Life
What is Biology?
Unifying themes in Biology:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
A hierarchy of organization & Emergent Properties
Interaction of organisms with their environment
Cellular basis of life
Evolution: The core theme of Biology
Heritable information (biological information)
Attributes of Life
Unity in diversity
1. A HIERARCHY OF ORGANIZATION (p. 2, Fig 1.1)
-Biological organization is based on structural levels.
Atoms
Biological molecules
Organelles
Cells
Tissues
Organs
Organs systems
Organism
Organization beyond the level of the organism:
Population
Community
Ecosystem
Biosphere
Bio 20 Lecture
Exploring Life (0110)
Page 1 of 4
2. THE INTERACTION OF ORGANISMS WITH THEIR ENVIRONMENT (p. 3 Fig 1.2)
Producers:
Consumers:
Energy lost as?
3. THE CELLULAR BASIS OF LIFE (p. 4, Fig 1.3)
1)
2)
3)
4)
•
5)
Two major cell types:
1. Prokaryotic
2. Eukaryotic
4. EVOLUTION: THE CORE THEME OF BIOLOGY
5. HERITABLE INFORMATION (p. 5 Fig 1.4A)
genotype determines phenotype
6. ATTRIBUTES OF LIFE: (p.5, Fig 1.4B)
a. Order
b. Reproduction
Biogenesis:
c.
Growth and Development
d. Energy utilization & processing:
Metabolism:
Anabolism:
Catabolism:
Bio 20 Lecture
Exploring Life (0110)
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e. Respond to environmental stimuli
f.
Regulation:
Homeostasis:
a) Negative Feedback (p. 426, Fig 20.15)
b) Positive Feedback
g. Evolutionary Adaptations
5. UNITY IN DIVERSITY
Estimated:
1.5 million species identified, of which:
-290,000 plant species
- 59,000 vertebrates
-1,200,000 insects
Taxonomy:
Taxonomic categories are ranked into a hierarchy form most to least inclusive.
DOMAIN
Eukarya
KINGDOM
Animalia
PHYLUM
Chordata
CLASS
Mammalia
ORDER
Carnivora
Primates
FAMILY
Canidae
Hominidae
GENUS
Canis
Homo
Specific
SPECIES
C. latrans
H. sapiens
General
Whittaker’s Classical 5 Kingdoms scheme
Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae & Animalia
Bio 20 Lecture
Exploring Life (0110)
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Today:
3 Domains => Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya
7. Evolution
Acceptable biological definition:
What’s changing?
Unit of evolution?
What causes the change?
Life evolves and species change over time - "A change in the genes (DNA sequence)"
All life is connected and can be traced back 3.5 million years.
Charles Darwin
=
The Origin of Species
a) Descent with modification
Similarities between species:
Differences between species:
b) Natural selection and differential reproduction
Bio 20 Lecture
Exploring Life (0110)
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