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Human Behavior
Common Misconception…
• People who have schizophrenia do not have
multiple personalities or a split personality
• They are split from reality – cannot tell
what is real and what is not…
Eugen Bleuler (1857–1939) coined the term
"Schizophrenia" in 1908
• definition – mental condition involving
distorted perceptions of reality and inability
to function in most aspects of life
• Dissociative Identity Disorder
• Multiple Personality Disorder
• When 2 or more personalities are present
within the same individual
• Most common with people who have been
sexually or physically abused
• Amnesia cause the other personality to take
• Each personality has its own memories,
behaviors and relationships (also different
allergies, physical symptoms)
Who has schizophrenia?
• Most common mental illness – 1-2% of the
Risks of getting schizophrenia…
Who has schizophrenia?
• Common in all cultures, genders, and races
– Men tend to develop symptoms earlier
• NOTE – 2 or more of these for a month
would classify you as a schizophrenic
– Can be gradual or abrupt
– There are positive and negative symptoms
Symptoms cont.
• POSITIVE – exaggerations or distortions of
normal processes or behaviors
Symptoms cont.
1. Delusions
* bizarre or false beliefs about reality
* Examples…
someone out to get them
believe they are famous
Symptoms cont.
2. Hallucinations
* bizarre, unreal sensory perceptions of
the environment
* Examples
hearing voices
feeling bugs crawl on skin
seeing objects or faces
smelling things
Symptoms cont.
3. Psychosis
* lack of touch with reality
* Example…
disordered thought process
Symptoms cont.
4. Disorganized thinking or speech
* Example…
speak very little
change thought mid-sentence
Symptoms cont.
5. Inappropriate Behavior
* Examples…
childlike silliness
Symptoms cont.
6. Catatonia
* flexed in a certain position for a period
of time
“Waxy Flexibility” – persons arms will
remain frozen if moved by someone else
for long periods of time
Negative Symptoms
• Flat Effect – absence of normal behavior or
• Examples
– Social withdrawal
– Absence of emotion and expression
– Reduced energy, motivation, and activity
– Poor hygiene
** occurs before and after positive symptoms
Flat effect…
Types of Schizophrenia…
1. Disorganized
* lack of emotion
* disorganized speech
* silly/childlike behavior
* makes no sense when talking
Types of Schizophrenia…
2. Catatonic
* waxy flexibility
* reduced movement
* rigid posture
* sometime too much movement
Catatonic Schizophrenia…
Types of Schizophrenia…
3. Paranoid
* strong delusions
* strong hallucinations
Types of Schizophrenia…
4. Undifferentiated / Simple
* disturbances of thought or behavior or
* does not fit into another category
• Scientists do not know all the causes…
1. Genetics – “runs in the family”
2. Prenatal Damage
* Malnutrition
* Viruses
3. Environment
* Family Stress
* Poor Social Interactions
* Infections or Viruses at an early age
* Trauma at an early age
4. Neurotransmitters (Biological)
* too much dopamine, low levels of
serotonin and glutamate
5. Brain Abnormalities (Biological)
* reduced number of neurons
* enlarged ventricles
* thalamus abnormalities
6. Reinforcement of a bizarre behavior
1. Medication – Anti-psychotic drugs
* many are made to block and alter
dopamine and serotonin receptors
* not a cure, but reduces symptoms (in
* side effects…
tremors, dystonia (muscle contraction),
restlessness, involuntary/abnormal
movements of mouth (40%), weight
gain, skin problems
Anti-psychotic drugs…
2. Counseling…
* family counseling / psychological therapy
* occupational training
* Goal – make them a useful member of
John Forbes Nash Jr.
Timeline of John Nash
• 1928 – born in Bluefield, WV
• 1945-48 – attended Carnegie Institute
• 1949-50 – attended Princeton
– Ph.D. 1950
– Nash Equilibrium
• 1950-51 – taught at Princeton
• 1951-59 – taught at MIT
Timeline of John Nash
• 1953 – 1st child with Eleanor Stier
• John David (refused to have contact with)
• 1957 – married Alicia Lopez-Harrison de Lard
• 1958 – showed 1st signs of mental illness
• 1959 – admitted to McClean Hospital
– Diagnosed with Schizophrenia
– son John Charles born – no name for 2 year
• was also schizophrenic
Timeline of John Nash
1961-1965 – returned to teach at Princeton
1963 – Alicia divorced Nash
1960-70 – In and out of mental hospital
1965-67 – researcher at Brandeis University
1970 – moved back in with Alicia
1970-90 – little known about Nash, slowly
improved mental health
1994 – Nobel Prize
1996 – published research again
2001 – remarried Alicia