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Describe and Evaluate
Biological Treatments for Schizophrenia
TREATMENT FOR
SCHIZOPHRENIA
Historically people suffering
from mental health issues
were not treated with dignity
or respect.
Before the 1950s schizophrenia was
considered untreatable and patients
were interned in mental institutions
Over time there have been a
variety of different methods
used to treat schizophrenia
• Rosenhan & Seligman vividly explain the
back wards of mental hospitals as ‘snake
pits’, filled with inmates who were
unreachable or mutely catatonic, or were
wild with delusions and straitjacketed.
• Attempts to treat schizophrenia with
insulin, ECT and drugs often failed.
Chemotherapy
• Since the 1950s use of drugs to
treat mental disorders has
become widespread
• Types of drugs fall into following
categories
–
–
–
–
–
Anti-anxiety
Anti-depressant
Anti-psychotic
Anti-manic
Stimulants
•They work to either increase or reduce the levels of
various neurotransmitters
Group poster activity
Lets remind ourselves of the Dopamine Hypothesis:
Use this poster to propose how you could design a
Drug Therapy
DISCOVERY
1. In the mid 1950s it was discovered that large
daily doses of Amphetamines could produce
a psychosis identical to schizophrenia
•
Amphetamine increases D2 transmission
2. Chlorpromazine improves symptoms of
schizophrenia
•
Prevents Dopamine from activating
• This knowledge has led to the development of drugs that
have similar pharmacological properties to
chlorpromazine.
• The symptoms that are most responsive to these types of
drugs are the ‘positive’ symptoms. Type 1
ANTIPSYCHOTIC DRUGS
• Anti-psychotic drugs have provided a
breakthrough in treating schizophrenia and
remain the main form of treatment
– Although they provide a calming effect…..
The problem is ……
– Have little effect on Type 2
– Have side effects
1. Phenothiazines: decreases
dopamine activity.
a. Reduces positive symptoms
(hallucinations, delusions,
etc.).
b. Fails to reduce negative
symptoms (flat affect, low
motivation, etc.).
c.
Unpleasant side effects:
dizziness, nausea, sexual
impotence, tardive dyskinesia
(involuntary facial
movements), etc.
d. May cause permanent
biochemical changes
reducing possible eventual
full recovery.
2. Clozapine: blocks less
dopamine and blocks more
serotonin.
a. Reduces both positive
and negative symptoms.
b. Fewer side effects; .
c. Problem: produces a
potentially lethal blood
disorder.
Group Activity
Make a drug marketing poster to describe the
usefulness of your chosen drug.
You must include health warning / side effects
information on your poster.
Using p111 of text book
Pickar (1992)
Emsley (2008)
“Problem Schizophrenics”
• Newer generation antipsychotics can be effective
in these normally unresponsive schizophrenics.
They also lack some of the debilitating side
effects of the older Drugs.
• These newer generation antipsychotics appear to
block multiple subtypes of dopamine receptors
(including D1 D2 D3 D4 D5).
Evaluation of biological treatments