Download 任课教师教学材料 任 课 教 师 ZHANG MIN 课 程 名 称 THE HISTORY

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Opera in German wikipedia, lookup

Allgemeiner Deutscher Musikverein wikipedia, lookup

History of music wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
任课教师教学材料
任 课 教 师
ZHANG MIN
课 程 名 称
THE HISTORY OF WESTERN
专业隶属系
MUSIC DEPARTMENT
教
研
室
周学时/总学时
Theory
2/34
枣庄学院教务处
MUSIC
兼
爱
尚
贤
博
物
戴
行
目
录
● 授课表
● 学生名单
● 教学进度简表
● 教学日志
● 课程教案
● 教研活动记录
● 总评成绩表、总评成绩分析图
● 教学总结
枣庄学院教案与讲稿
基本要求
教案是教师授课前针对授课对象为授课过程编写的教学活动组织方案,是编写讲稿的
根据,一般以一个相对独立的教学内容(章或单元)来编写。讲稿是教学准备工作的详细记
录。教案与讲稿基本要求有以下几个方面:
一、教学目的。确定教学目的的依据一是大纲,二是教材,三是学生。教学大纲规定
了各年级、各门课程的基础知识和基本技能训练的具体要求,因此不能脱离大纲的指导;每
章节教材都有各自的特点,因此必须从具体的教材内容出发;学生的知识水平和接受能力也
有差异,因此又必须针对学生的实际情况,只有三者兼顾,教学目的才能定的准确。教学目
的包括两方面内容:一是知识教养——基础知识和基本技能训练的教育;二是思想教养——
通过教材教学渗透思想品德教育。
二、课时安排。根据教学计划,按章节安排课时。课时安排要根据教学内容要求和学
生的接受能力而定,每堂课教学内容的分配要讲究科学性,合理分布。
三、重点难点。教学重点是教材中为了达到教学目的而着重指导学生必须熟练掌握的
内容。教学的难点就是学生对教材中不易理解掌握的地方。重点和难点的确定,一定要站在
学生的角度去考虑。教师认为易学好懂的地方,学生不一定感到好学。
四、课程主要内容。按章节详细编写授课内容,突出重点难点,每章节讲稿的内容是
教学大纲的分散点和具体落脚点,要突出重点,分散难点,每堂课教学内容的量要基本相近,
不能过轻或过重。在讲稿编写过程中,尽可能针对教学过程中的主要内容设计板书。
五、教学方法与手段。教学方法是在科学理论指导下,探求完成教学任务,实现最佳
效果所选用的教和学的方法。教学方法的选择主要依据一定的教学目的,每一学科、每一节
课的教学目的是不同的,因此,它所要求的教法自然也不同。教学方法的选择和运用要从实
际出发,除了依据一定的教学目的,还要依据教材的特点,以及符合学生掌握知识的规律,
要在实践中不断改进教学方法与手段,以其获得良好的效果。
六、教具准备。教学过程中需要用的辅助材料。
七、教学后记。写教学后记可以将平时星星点点的启发和顿误、有特色的教学经验和
典型问题记录下来。既要记成功之举,也要记“败笔之处”
:既记学生的见解,又要记教学
过程中教师的随机应变,更要记下改进教学的具体措施。这样可以提高自己的知识水平和教
学能力,又能为教育教学科研打下良好的基础。
精心备课,让我们的课堂更精彩
备好课是上好课的前提。为了提高教学质量,在抓备课这一环节时,要注意教学内容
的综合性,教学方法的灵活性,练习的多样性,力争做到心中有教材、心中有学生、心中有
教法、心中有目标。
1.备教材。备教材即认真钻研教材,包括钻研教学大纲、教材和教学参考书,以了解
本门课程的教学目的、任务和要求,了解教材的结构体系及其与前后课程的关系,明确教材
的重难点,在此基础上根据课时安排、学生情况和设备情况等精选教学内容,编写学期教学
计划。
备教材是备课的前期基本工作。通过钻研教材要把课程内容所涉及的基本理论、基本
概念理解准确、透彻;重要公式、推导过程要清楚熟练;掌握教材的重点,找准教材的难点;
掌握教材内在的知识体系结构和思维逻辑关系;同时广泛阅读有关教学参考书和资料,从优
取舍教学要点、方法和案例、例题等。另外,还要注意搜集与教材相关的国内外最前沿的研
究成果(尤其是专业课)
,及时纠正删除过时或有错的内容,增补最新的信息。
2.备学生。备学生是尽量了解学生的实际,有的放矢地进行教学。内容包括了解学生
的思想、情绪、知识和能力基础、思维特点和思维水平、学习方法、爱好和对教学的期望等,
依据教学大纲的要求和照顾大多数的原则,确定教学的起点和难点,同时考虑相应的教学措
施,做到因材施教、因人施教。
教师应做到“以人为本”,以学生的学为本,在考虑教学内容、教学策略的时候要“随
机应变”,精心设计、调整、修正,使之更适合学生的知识水平和能力结构。这样的备课才
是有效的。
3.备教法。备教法就是选择恰当的教学手段和教学方法以实现教学目标。恰当的教学
方法符合学生的认知规律,使学生可以接受,最终实现了预期的教学目标并收到好的教学效
果。
教学方法多种多样,常用的有启发式、讨论式、研究型、模拟式、讲练结合等多种形
式,还包括课堂讲授的组织和设计等方法。但不论那种方法,都应该把教学过程中教师的主
导作用 、学生的接收知识的主体地位充分体现出来, 表现教学的主动性 、活跃性和创造
性,有效地培养学生的创新能力和理论及技术应用能力,以最灵活机动的方式突出重点、突
破难点、设疑点、析异点、体现特点,实现最佳的教学效果, 达到教学目标 。
4. 备习题。习题,是学生掌握知识的必经途径,是学生对新学知识深度、广度进一步
扩大、解决实际问题的起点。习题设定也是教师备课的重要组成部分 。
备习题,教师应结合教材,统筹安排,不一定都选取教材上现成的习题,也可以自编
习题。习题一定要做到精选,要有针对性,是教学目标的最好体现,同时体现能力和技能的
培养。不论哪些类型,不论难易程度,教师都必须认真做一遍,甚至每一题有几种解法必须
心中有数。 解题中哪些是关键,哪些易出问题,要记下来分析,在课堂给予讲评或纠正。
师者知在先,好的备课不仅是备教材、备学生、备教法,备习题,更重要的是备教艺,
备属于自己的科学的、先进的、有特色的教育教学理念。这些工作需要我们用毕生的精力去
完成,用一生的时间去用心备课。
授课表
星期
节次
1
∣
2
节
3
∣
4
节
5
∣
6
节
7
∣
8
节
9
∣
1无
节
地点
人数
地点
人数
地点
人数
地点
人数
地点
人数
一
二
三
四
五
六
日
学
生
名
单
教学进度简表
课程名称 专题音乐学研究 2
总学时
考核方式
周 次
34(其中讲课
Appreciation
explanation
教学方式
实验
上机
)
学分
2
随堂□
停课□
闭卷□
开卷●
其他□
考 试 成 绩 占 7 无 %; 实 验 占 %; 平 时 成 绩 占 3 无 %
学时分配
讲 实 上
(写明章节名称、实验的名称、课堂讨论的题目等)
课 验 机
教学内容
作业安排
必读书和
参考书
Antiquity
第一周
The Medieval Period400
(
-1400)
第二周
The Renaissance1400
(
-1600)
第三周
The Baroque Period1600
(
-1750)
第四周
The classical Period 1750
(
-1820)
第五周
1( ) Haydn
The classical music
第六周
2)
( Mozart
《
History
of
werstern
music
》
The classical Period 1750
(
-1820)
第七周
3)
(Beethoven
The Romantic music(
1820 —1900)
第八周
1、 shubert
The Romantic music(
1820 —1900)
第九周
2、 Mendelsohn
The Romantic music(
1820 —1900)
第十周
3、 Chopin
The Romantic music(
1820 —1900)
第十一周
4、Franz List
教学内容
周 次
(写明章节名称、实验的名称、课堂讨论的
学时分配
讲 实 上
课 验 机
作业安排
必读书和
参考书
题目等)
The Romantic music(
1820 —1900)
第十二周
5、Berlioz
The Romantic music(
1820 —1900)
第十三周
6、Wagner
The Romantic music(
1820 —1900)
第十四周
7、verdi
《
History
of
werstern
music
》
The Romantic music(
1820 —1900)
第十五周
8、Mahler
第十六周
opera
第十七周
The twentieth century
任课教师签名:
填写日期:
年
月
日
教研室负责人签章:
审核日期:
年
月
日
系主管教学领导签章:
审核日期:
年
月
日
教学日志
章节名称
第一章 Antiquity
学时数
授课时间
第一周 2.13 周一 1.2 节
教学进度
学生考勤
应到:16 实到:16 请假:无
理论课●
讨论课□
课程类型
□
教学方法
精讲;欣赏;多媒体
习题课□
2
正常
旷课:无
实验课□ 上机课□
技能课□
其他
Know the characteristic of greek
目的要求
重点
难点
Theory
is difficult to understand
思考题
What is meaning of the word “tetrachords .”
作业
教学后记
作业批改
及实验记
录
教案正文
1、Greek
The music of antiquity about which we know most and that has most profoundly influenced
European musical concepts ,theories ,and aesthetics is that of Greece .the word music itself comes
from Greece ,as do many other musical terms ,such as tetrachord ,lyric .rhythm .polyphony and
hymn. Present knowledge of greek music is based on a wealth of extant literature and pictorial
evidence , although little is preserved in notation.
2、Characteristics
Greek music was largely monophonic .if the melody was sung or played by two
performers ,most likely the accompanying line sounded simultaneously as an elaborated version of
the primary melody. This texture is called heterophony . most music was improvised and heavily
ornamented. The performer’s ability to embellish a melody was a critical aspect of skill. Greek
music was inseparable from poetry and drama and was important in mythology and ceremonial
rites.
3、Cults
Two cults dominated musical concepts:
1. the cult of Apollo ,which used the kithara ,was Characterized by clarity and simplicity of form
and restraint of emotional expression
2. the cult of Dionysus, which used the aulos, was Characterized by subjectivity and emotional
expression.
These two concepts have played varying roles in subsequent development of western music .
Doctrine of ethos
Aristotle and plato among others ,articulated a doctrine of ethos, in which music was stated to
have a direct And profound influence on Character. They believed music could imitate two
states of being and inculcate them in the listener. Factors that determined a particular musical
ethos were its rhythm ,mode , and the instrument employed.
4、Theory
Greek Theory was based on largely on the acoustical mathematics of pythagorean ratios. Music
was organized by modes ,with names like Dorian ; phrygain ,Lydian and so on. Each one of
which produced different mental states . the modes were based on tetrachords(groups of four notes
spanning the interval of a perfect fourth)that could be arranged in conjunct order or disjunct
order . there were 3 genera of tetrachords .
1. the diatonic B C D E
2. the chromatic B C#c E
3. the enharmonic B #B C E
5、Notation
The Greeks were among the first to develop systems of notation .there were two kinds :
An instrumental Notation ,its symbols from Phoenician letters ,and a vocal Notation with symbols
derived from the ionic alphabet and placed above the words of the text .
Instrument
The principal Instruments used the lyre and kithara ,aulos ,tympanon and hydraulus.
6、Extant Music
There are six melodies and about the same number of fragments left to us .the more or less
complete melodies are two “Delphic hymns to Apollo ; two short hymns to muse ;and the
Epitaph of seikilos . Obviously , these constitute a wholly inadequate basis upon which to judge
ancient Greek music.
Th middle ages
章节名称
学时数
授课时间
学生考勤
第二周 2.2 无周一 1、2 节
应到:16
理论课●
实到: 14
讨论课□
教学进度
请假:1
习题课□
2
正常
旷课:1
实验课□ 上机课□
技能课□
其他
课程类型
□
教学方法
精讲;欣赏;多媒体
目的要求
Understanding of medieval music
重点
Music theory in medieval
难点
思考题
作业
教学后记
Tell the Number of types about vocal music in the middle ages
作业批改
及实验记
录
1、Concept
Mediaeval music is Western music written during the Middle Ages. This era begins with the fall of
the Roman Empire and ends sometime in the early fifteenth century. Establishing the end of the
mediaeval era and the beginning of the Renaissance is difficult; the usage in this article is the one
usually adopted by musicologists
2、Instruments
A musician plays the vielle in a fourteenth-century Medieval manuscript.Instruments used to
perform mediaeval music still exist, but in different forms. The flute was once made of wood
rather than silver or other metal, and could be made as a side-blown or end-blown instrument. The
recorder has more or less retained its past form. The gemshorn is similar to the recorder in having
finger holes on its front, though it is actually a member of the ocarina family. One of the flute's
predecessors, the pan flute, was popular in mediaeval times, and is possibly of Hellenic origin.
This instrument's pipes were made of wood, and were graduated in length to produce different
pitches.
Mediaeval music uses many plucked string instruments like the lute, mandore, gittern and psaltery.
The dulcimers, similar in structure to the psaltery and zither, were originally plucked, but became
struck in the 14th century after the arrival of the new technology that made metal strings possible.
The bowed lyra of the Byzantine Empire was the first recorded European bowed string instrument.
The Persian geographer Ibn Khurradadhbih of the 9th century (d. 911) cited the Byzantine lyra, in
his lexicographical discussion of instruments as a bowed instrument equivalent to the Arab rabāb
and typical instrument of the Byzantines along with the urghun (organ), shilyani (probably a type
of harp or lyre) and the salandj (probably a bagpipe). The hurdy-gurdy was (and still is) a
mechanical violin using a rosined wooden wheel attached to a crank to "bow" its strings.
Instruments without sound boxes like the jaw harp were also popular in the time. Early versions of
the organ, fiddle (or vielle), and trombone (called the sackbut) existed.
A musician plays the vielle in a fourteenth-century Medieval manuscript
3、vocal music
GenresFurther information: Gregorian chant, Ars nova, Organum, Motet, Madrigal, Canon (music)
and Ballata
Mediaeval music was both sacred and secular During the earlier mediaeval period, the liturgical
genre, predominantly Gregorian chant, was monophonic. Polyphonic genres began to develop
during the high mediaeval era, becoming prevalent by the later 13th and early 14th century. The
development of such forms is often associated with the Ars nova.
The earliest innovations upon monophonic plainchant were heterophonic. The Organum, for
example, expanded upon plainchant melody using an accompanying line, sung at a fixed interval,
with a resulting alternation between polyphony and monophony. The principles of the organum
date back to an anonymous 9th century tract, the Musica enchiriadis, which established the
tradition of duplicating a preexisting plainchant in parallel motion at the interval of an octave, a
fifth or a fourth.
Of greater sophistication was the motet, which developed from the clausula genre of mediaeval
plainchant and would become the most popular form of mediaeval polyphony. While early motets
were liturgical or sacred, by the end of the thirteenth century the genre had expanded to include
secular topics, such as courtly love.
Finally, purely instrumental music also developed during this period, both in the context of a
growing theatrical tradition and for court consumption. Dance music, often improvised around
familiar tropes, was the largest purely instrumental genre. The secular Ballata, which became very
popular in Trecento Italy, had its origins, for instance, in mediaeval instrumental dance music.
4、Theory and notation
During the Mediaeval period, the foundation was laid for the notational and theoretical practices
that would shape western music into what it is today. The most obvious of these is the
development of a comprehensive notational system; however the theoretical advances, particularly
in regard to rhythm and polyphony, are equally important to the development of western music.
NotationThe earliest Mediaeval music did not have any kind of notational system. The tunes were
primarily monophonic and transmitted by oral tradition. However, this form of notation only
served as a memory aid for a singer who already knew the melody. Also, as Rome tried to
centralize the various liturgies and establish the Roman rite as the primary tradition the need to
transmit these chant ideas across vast distances effectively was equally glaring. The first step to
fix this problem came with the introduction of various signs written above the chant texts, called
neumes. The origin of neumes is unclear and subject to some debate; however, most scholars
agree that their closest ancestors are the classic Greek and Roman grammatical signs that indicated
important points of declamation by recording the rise and fall of the voice. The two basic signs of
the classical grammarians were the acutus, /, indicating a raising of the voice, and the gravis, \,
indicating a lowering. These eventually evolved into the basic symbols for neumatic notation, the
virga (or "rod") which indicates a higher note and still looked like the acutus from which it came;
and the punctum (or "dot") which indicates a lower note and, as the name suggests, reduced the
gravis symbol to a point. These the acutus and the gravis could be combined to represent graphical
vocal inflections on the syllable This kind of notation seems to have developed no earlier than
the eighth century, but by the ninth it was firmly established as the primary method of musical
notation. The basic notation of the virga and the punctum remained the symbols for individual
notes, but other neumes soon developed which showed several notes joined together. These new
neumes—called ligatures—are essentially combinations of the two original signs. This basic
neumatic notation could only specify the number of notes and whether they moved up or down.
There was no way to indicate exact pitch, any rhythm, or even the starting note. These limitations
are further indication that the neumes were developed as tools to support the practice of oral
tradition, rather than to supplant it. However, even though it started as a mere memory aid, the
worth of having more specific notation soon became evident.
The next development in musical notation was "heighted neumes", in which neumes were
carefully placed at different heights in relation to each other. This allowed the neumes to give a
rough indication of the size of a given interval as well as the direction. This quickly led to one or
two lines, each representing a particular note, being placed on the music with all of the neumes
relating back to them. At first, these lines had no particular meaning and instead had a letter placed
at the beginning indicating which note was represented. However, the lines indicating middle C
and the F a fifth below slowly became most common. Having been at first merely scratched on the
parchment, the lines now were drawn in two different colored inks: usually red for F, and yellow
or green for C. This was the beginning of the musical staff as we know it today.[18] The
completion of the four-line staff is usually credited to Guido d’ Arezzo (c. 1000-1050), one of the
most important musical theorists of the Middle Ages. While older sources attribute the
development of the staff to Guido, some modern scholars suggest that he acted more as a codifier
of a system that was already being developed. Either way, this new notation allowed a singer to
learn pieces completely unknown to him in a much shorter amount of time. However, even though
chant notation had progressed in many ways, one fundamental problem remained: rhythm. The
neumatic notational system, even in its fully developed state, did not clearly define any kind of
rhythm for the singing of notes.
Music theoryThe music theory of the Mediaeval period saw several advances over previous
practice both in regard to tonal material, texture, and rhythm. Concerning rhythm, this period had
several dramatic changes in both its conception and notation. During the early Mediaeval period
there was no method to notate rhythm, and thus the rhythmical practice of this early music is
subject to heated debate among scholars. The first kind of written rhythmic system developed
during the 13th century and was based on a series of modes. This rhythmic plan was codified by
the music theorist Johannes de Garlandia, author of the De Mensurabili Musica (c.1250), the
treatise which defined and most completely elucidated these rhythmic modes. In his treatise
Johannes de Garlandia describes six species of mode, or six different ways in which longs and
breves can be arranged. Each mode establishes a rhythmic pattern in beats (or tempora) within a
common unit of three tempora (a perfectio) that is repeated again and again. Furthermore, notation
without text is based on chains of ligatures (the characteristic notations by which groups of notes
are bound to on another). The rhythmic mode can generally be determined by the patterns of
ligatures used. Once a rhythmic mode had been assigned to a melodic line, there was generally
little deviation from that mode, although rhythmic adjustments could be indicated by changes in
the expected pattern of ligatures, even to the extent of changing to another rhythmic mode. The
next step forward concerning rhythm came from the German theorist Franco of Cologne. In his
treatise Ars cantus mensurabilis ("The Art of Mensurable Music"), written around 1280, he
describes a system of notation in which differently shaped notes have entirely different rhythmic
values. This is a striking change from the earlier system of de Garlandia. Whereas before the
length of the individual note could only be gathered from the mode itself, this new inverted
relationship made the mode dependent upon—and determined by—the individual notes or figurae
that have incontrovertible durational values, an innovation which had a massive impact on the
subsequent history of European music. Most of the surviving notated music of the 13th century
uses the rhythmic modes as defined by Garlandia. The step in the evolution of rhythm came after
the turn of the 13th century with the development of the Ars Nova style.
5、composer
Composers of this time include Léonin, Pérotin, W. de Wycombe, Adam de St. Victor, and Petrus
de Cruce (Pierre de la Croix). Petrus is credited with the innovation of writing more than three
semibreves to fit the length of a breve. Coming before the innovation of imperfect tempus, this
practice inaugurated the era of what are now called "Petronian" motets. These late 13th-century
works are in three to four parts and have multiple texts sung simultaneously. Originally, the tenor
line (from the Latin tenere, "to hold") held a preexisting liturgical chant line in the original Latin,
while the text of the one, two, or even three voices above, called the voces organales, provided
commentary on the liturgical subject either in Latin or in the vernacular French. The rhythmic
values of the voces organales decreased as the parts multiplied, with the duplum (the part above
the tenor) having smaller rhythmic values than the tenor, the triplum (the line above the duplum)
having smaller rhythmic values than the duplum, and so on. As time went by, the texts of the
voces organales became increasingly secular in nature and had less and less overt connection to
the liturgical text in the tenor line.
6、Texture
Polyphony is music where two or more melodic lines are heard at the same time in a harmony.
Polyphony didn't exist (or it wasn't on record) until the 11th century. Although the majority of
medieval polyphonic works are anonymous - the names of the authors were either not preserved or
simply never known - there are some composers whose work was so significant that their names
were recorded along with their work.
章节名称
The Renaissance1400
(
-1600)
学时数
授课时间
第三周 2.27 周一 1、2 节
教学进度
学生考勤
应到:16 实到:15 请假:无
理论课●
讨论课□
习题课□
实验课□ 上机课□
□
精讲;欣赏;多媒体
Grasp the important music school
目的要求
正常
旷课:1
课程类型
教学方法
2
技能课□
其他
重点
Theory and notation
难点
思考题
How many musical schools in the period of Renaissance
作业
教学后记
作业批改
及实验记
录
教案正文
1、
Overview
One of the most pronounced features of early Renaissance European art music was the increasing
reliance on the interval of the third (in the Middle Ages, thirds had been considered dissonances).
Polyphony became increasingly elaborate throughout the 14th century, with highly independent
voices: the beginning of the 15th century showed simplification, with the voices often striving for
smoothness. This was possible because of a greatly increased vocal range in music – in the Middle
Ages, the narrow range made necessary frequent crossing of parts, thus requiring a greater contrast
between them.
The modal (as opposed to tonal) characteristics of Renaissance music began to break down
towards the end of the period with the increased use of root motions of fifths. This later developed
into one of the defining characteristics of tonality.The main characteristics of Renaissance music
are:
Music based on modes.
Richer texture in four or more parts.
Blending rather than contrasting strands in the musical texture.
Harmony with a greater concern with the flow and progression of chords.
Polyphony is one of the notable changes that mark the Renaissance from the Middle Ages
musically.
Its use encouraged the use of larger ensembles and demanded sets of instruments that would blend
together across the whole vocal range.
2、
Theory and notation
According to Margaret Bent (1998), "Renaissance notation is under-prescriptive by our standards;
when translated into modern form it acquires a prescriptive weight that overspecifies and distorts
its original openness."
Ockeghem, Kyrie "Au travail suis," excerptRenaissance compositions were notated only in
individual parts; scores were extremely rare, and barlines were not used. Note values were
generally larger than are in use today; the primary unit of beat was the semibreve, or whole note.
As had been the case since the Ars Nova (see Medieval music), there could be either two or three
of these for each breve (a double-whole note), which may be looked on as equivalent to the
modern "measure," though it was itself a note value and a measure is not. The situation can be
considered this way: it is the same as the rule by which in modern music a quarter-note may equal
either two eighth-notes or three, which would be written as a "triplet." By the same reckoning,
there could be two or three of the next smallest note, the "minim," (equivalent to the modern "half
note") to each semibreve.
These different permutations were called "perfect/imperfect tempus" at the level of the
breve–semibreve relationship, "perfect/imperfect prolation" at the level of the semibreve–minim,
and existed in all possible combinations with each other. Three-to-one was called "perfect," and
two-to-one "imperfect." Rules existed also whereby single notes could be halved or doubled in
value ("imperfected" or "altered," respectively) when preceded or followed by other certain notes.
Notes with black noteheads (such as quarter notes) occurred less often. This development of white
mensural notation may be a result of the increased use of paper (rather than vellum), as the weaker
paper was less able to withstand the scratching required to fill in solid noteheads; notation of
previous times, written on vellum, had been black. Other colors, and later, filled-in notes, were
used routinely as well, mainly to enforce the aforementioned imperfections or alterations and to
call for other temporary rhythmical changes.
Accidentals were not always specified, somewhat as in certain fingering notations (tablatures)
today. However, Renaissance musicians would have been highly trained in dyadic counterpoint
and thus possessed this and other information necessary to read a score, "what modern notation
requires [accidentals] would then have been perfectly apparent without notation to a singer versed
in counterpoint." See musica ficta. A singer would interpret his or her part by figuring cadential
formulas with other parts in mind, and when singing together musicians would avoid parallel
octaves and fifths or alter their cadential parts in light of decisions by other musicians (Bent,
1998).
It is through contemporary tablatures for various plucked instruments that we have gained much
information about what accidentals were performed by the original practitioners.
3、Early Renaissance music (1400–1467)This group gradually dropped the late Medieval period's
complex devices of isorhythm and extreme syncopation, resulting in a more limpid and flowing
style. What their music "lost" in rhythmic complexity, however, it gained in rhythmic vitality, as a
"drive to the cadence" became a prominent feature around mid-century.
4、Middle Renaissance music (1467–1534)
1611 woodcut of Josquin des Prez, copied from a now-lost oil painting done during his lifetime]In
the early 1470s, music started to be printed using a printing press. Music printing had a major
effect on how music spread for not only did a printed piece of music reach a larger audience than
any manuscript ever could, it did it far cheaper as well. Also during this century, a tradition of
famous makers began for many instruments. These makers were masters of their craft. An
example is Neuschel for his trumpets.
Towards the end of the 15th century, polyphonic sacred music (as exemplified in the masses of
Johannes Ockeghem and Jacob Obrecht) had once again become more complex, in a manner that
can perhaps be seen as correlating to the stunning detail in the painting at the time. Ockeghem,
particularly, was fond of canon, both contrapuntal and mensural. He composed a mass, Missa
prolationum, in which all the parts are derived canonically from one musical line.
It was in the opening decades of the next century that music felt in a tactus (think of the modern
time signature) of two semibreves-to-a-breve began to be as common as that with three
semibreves-to-a-breve, as had prevailed prior to that time.
In the early 16th century, there is another trend towards simplification, as can be seen to some
degree in the work of Josquin des Prez and his contemporaries in the Franco-Flemish School, then
later in that of G. P. Palestrina, who was partially reacting to the strictures of the Council of Trent,
which discouraged excessively complex polyphony as inhibiting understanding the text. Early
16th-century Franco-Flemings moved away from the complex systems of canonic and other
mensural play of Ockeghem's generation, tending toward points of imitation and duet or trio
sections within an overall texture that grew to five and six voices. They also began, even before
the Tridentine reforms, to insert ever-lengthening passages of homophony, to underline important
text or points of articulation. Palestrina, on the other hand, came to cultivate a freely flowing style
of counterpoint in a thick, rich texture within which consonance followed dissonance on a nearly
beat-by-beat basis, and suspensions ruled the day (see counterpoint). By now, tactus was generally
two semibreves per breve with three per breve used for special effects and climactic sections; this
was a nearly exact reversal of the prevailing technique a century before.
5、Late Renaissance music (1534–1600)
San Marco in the evening. The spacious, resonant interior was one of the inspirations for the
music of the Venetian School.In Venice, from about 1534 until around 1600, an impressive
polychoral style developed, which gave Europe some of the grandest, most sonorous music
composed up until that time, with multiple choirs of singers, brass and strings in different spatial
locations in the Basilica San Marco di Venezia (see Venetian School). These multiple revolutions
spread over Europe in the next several decades, beginning in Germany and then moving to Spain,
France and England somewhat later, demarcating the beginning of what we now know as the
Baroque musical era.
The Roman School was a group of composers of predominantly church music in Rome, spanning
the late Renaissance and early Baroque eras. Many of the composers had a direct connection to the
Vatican and the papal chapel, though they worked at several churches; stylistically they are often
contrasted with the Venetian School of composers, a concurrent movement which was much more
progressive. By far the most famous composer of the Roman School is Giovanni Pierluigi da
Palestrina. While best known as a prolific composer of masses and motets, he was also an
important madrigalist. His ability to bring together the functional needs of the Catholic Church
with the prevailing musical styles during the Counter-Reformation period gave him his enduring
fame.
The brief but intense flowering of the musical madrigal in England, mostly from 1588 to 1627,
along with the composers who produced them, is known as the English Madrigal School. The
English madrigals were a cappella, predominantly light in style, and generally began as either
copies or direct translations of Italian models. Most were for three to six voices.
Musica reservata is either a style or a performance practice in a cappella vocal music of the latter,
mainly in Italy and southern Germany, involving refinement, exclusivity, and intense emotional
expression of sung text.
The cultivation of European music in the Americas began in the 16th century soon after the arrival
of the Spanish, and the conquest of Mexico. Although fashioned in European style, uniquely
Mexican hybrid works based on native Mexican language and European musical practice,
appeared very early. Musical practices in New Spain continually coincided with European
tendencies throughout the subsequent Baroque and Classical music periods. Among these New
World composers were Hernando Franco, Antonio de Salazar, and Manuel de Zumaya.
In addition, many composers observed a division in their own works between a prima pratica
(music in the Renaissance polyphonic style) and a seconda pratica (music in the new style) during
the first part of the 17th century.
6、Instruments of the Renaissance
Many instruments originated during the Renaissance; others were variations of, or improvements
upon, instruments that had existed previously. Some have survived to the present day; others have
disappeared, only to be recreated in order to perform music of the period on authentic instruments.
As in the modern day, instruments may be classified as brass, strings, percussion, and woodwind.
Medieval instruments in Europe had most commonly been used singly, often self accompanied
with a drone, or occasionally in parts. During the 15th century there was a division of instruments
into Haut (loud, outdoor instruments) and Bas (quieter, more intimate instruments) Only two
groups of instruments could play freely in both types of ensembles: the Cornett and sackbut and
the Tabor and tambourine
Beginning of the 16th century, instruments were considered to be less important then voices. They
were used for dances and to accompany vocal music. Instrumental music remained subordinated
to vocal music, and much of its repertory was in varying ways derived from or dependent on,
vocal models.
The Baroque Period1600
(
-1750)
章节名称
授课时间
学时数
第四周 3.5 周一 1、2 节
教学进度
2
正常
学生考勤
应到:16 实到:16 请假:无
理论课●
讨论课□
习题课□
旷课: 无
实验课□ 上机课□
技能课□
其他
课程类型
□
教学方法
精讲;欣赏;多媒体
目的要求
Understand the style of Baroque
重点
Representative composers
难点
Bach and Handel's works
思考题
Oral early music features
作业
教学后记
条理性欠缺;语言表述应在清晰些
作业批改
及实验记
录
教案正文
1、Overview
Baroque music is the style of Western music extending approximately from
1600 to 1750. This era follows the Renaissance and was followed in turn by
the Classical era. The word "baroque" comes from the Portuguese word
barroco, meaning "misshapen pearl", a negative description of the ornate and
heavily ornamented music of this period; later, the name came to be applied
also to its architecture.
Baroque music forms a major portion of the classical music canon, being
widely studied, performed, and listened to. Composers of the baroque era
include Johann Sebastian Bach, George Frideric Handel, Alessandro Scarlatti,
Antonio Vivaldi, Georg Philipp Telemann, Jean-Baptiste Lully, Arcangelo
Corelli, François Couperin, Denis Gaultier, Claudio Monteverdi, Jean-Philippe
Rameau and Henry Purcell.
The baroque period saw the creation of functional tonality. During the period,
composers and performers used more elaborate musical ornamentation, made
changes in musical notation, and developed new instrumental playing
techniques. Baroque music expanded the size, range, and complexity of
instrumental performance, and also established opera as a musical genre.
Many musical terms and concepts from this era are still in use today.
3、
Early baroque music1600
(
–1654)
Jacopo PeriThe Florentine Camerata was a group of humanists, musicians,
poets and intellectuals in late Renaissance Florence who gathered under the
patronage of Count Giovanni de' Bardi to discuss and guide trends in the arts,
especially music and drama. In reference to music, their ideals were based on
their perception of Classical especially
(
ancient Greek)musical drama, in
which discourse and oration was viewed with much importance. As such, they
rejected the use by their contemporaries of polyphony and instrumental music,
and discussed such ancient Greek music devices as monody, which consisted
of a solo singing accompanied by a kithara. The early realizations of these
ideas, including Jacopo Peri's Dafne and L'Euridice, marked the beginning of
opera which in turn can be considered to have marked the catalyst of Baroque
music. Concerning music theory, the more widespread use of figured bass
also
(
known as "thorough bass")represents the developing importance of
harmony as the linear underpinnings of polyphony. Harmony is the end result
of counterpoint, and figured bass is a visual representation of those harmonies
commonly employed in musical performance. Composers began concerning
themselves with harmonic progressions, and also employed the tritone,
perceived as an unstable interval, to create dissonance. Investment in
harmony had also existed among certain composers in the Renaissance,
notably Carlo Gesualdo; However, the use of harmony directed towards
tonality, rather than modality, marks the shift from the Renaissance into the
Baroque period. This led to the idea that chords, rather than notes, could
provide a sense of closure, which is one of the fundamental ideas of what
came to be known as tonality.
Claudio Monteverdi in 1640 by Bernardo StrozziItaly formed one of the
cornerstones of the new style, as the papacy—besieged by Reformation but
with coffers fattened by the immense revenues flowing in from Habsburg
conquest—searched for artistic means to promote faith in the Roman Catholic
Church. One of the most important musical centers was Venice, which had
both secular and sacred patronage available.
Giovanni Gabrieli became one of the important transitional figures in the
emergence of the new style, although his work is largely considered to be in
the "High Renaissance" manner. However, his innovations were foundational
to the new style. Among these are instrumentation labeling
(
instru ments
specifically for specific tasks)and the use of dynamics
The demands of religion were also to make the text of sacred works clearer,
and hence there was pressure to move away from the densely layered
polyphony of the Renaissance, to lines which put the words front and center,
or had a more limited range of imitation. This created the demand for a more
intricate weaving of the vocal line against backdrop, or homophony
Claudio Monteverdi became the most visible of a generation of composers
who felt that there was a secular means to this "modern" approach to harmony
and text, and in 1607 his opera L'Orfeo became the landmark which
demonstrated the array of effects and techniques that were associated with
this new school, called seconda pratica, to distinguish it from the older style or
prima pratica. Monteverdi was a master of both, producing precisely styled
madrigals that extended the forms of Luca Marenzio and Giaches de Wert. But
it is his pieces in the new style which became the most influential. These
included features which are recognizable even to the end of the baroque
period, including use of idiomatic writing, virtuoso flourishes, and the use of
new techniques.
4、Middle baroque music1654
(
–1707)
The middle Baroque is separated from the early Baroque by the coming of
systematic thinking to the new style and a gradual institutionalization of the
forms and norms, particularly in opera. As with literature, the printing press and
trade created an expanded international audience for works and greater
cross-pollination between national centres of musical activity.
The middle Baroque, in music theory, is identified by the increasingly harmonic
focus of musical practice and the creation of formal systems of teaching. Music
was an art, and it came to be seen as one that should be taught in an orderly
manner. This culminated in the later work of Johann Fux in systematizing
counterpoint.
One pre-eminent example of a court style composer is Jean-Baptiste Lully. His
career rose dramatically when he collaborated with Molière on a series of
comédie-ballets, that is, plays with dancing. He used this success to become
the sole composer of operas for the king, using not just innovative musical
ideas such as the tragédie lyrique, but patents from the king which prevented
others from having operas staged. Lully's instinct for providing the material that
his monarch desired has been pointed out by almost every biographer,
including his rapid shift to church music when the mood at court became more
devout. His 13 completed lyric tragedies are based on libretti that focus on the
conflicts between the public and private life of the monarch.
Arcangelo CorelliMusically, he explored contrast between stately and fully
orchestrated sections, and simple recitatives and airs. In no small part, it was
his skill in assembling and practicing musicians into an orchestra which was
essential to his success and influence. Observers noted the precision and
intonation, this in an age where there was no standard for tuning instruments.
One essential element was the increased focus on the inner voices of the
harmony and the relationship to the soloist. He also established the
string-dominated norm for orchestras.
Arcangelo Corelli is remembered as influential for his achievements on the
other side of musical technique— as a violinist who organized violin technique
and pedagogy— and in purely instrumental music, particularly his advocacy
and development of the concerto grosso. Whereas Lully was ensconced at
court, Corelli was one of the first composers to publish widely and have his
music performed all over Europe. As with Lully's stylization and organization of
the opera, the concerto grosso is built on strong contrasts— sections alternate
between those played by the full orchestra, and those played by a smaller
group. Dynamics were "terraced", that is with a sharp transition from loud to
soft and back again. Fast sections and slow sections were juxtaposed against
each other. Numbered among his students is Antonio Vivaldi, who later
composed hundreds of works based on the principles in Corelli's trio sonatas
and concerti.
Henry Purcell by John ClostermanIn England the middle Baroque produced a
cometary genius in Henry Purcell, who, despite dying at age 36, produced a
profusion of music and was widely recognized in his lifetime. He was familiar
with the innovations of Corelli and other Italian style composers; however, his
patrons were different, and his musical output was prodigious. Rather than
being a painstaking craftsman, Purcell was a fluid composer who was able to
shift from simple anthems and useful music such as marches, to grandly
scored vocal music and music for the stage. His catalogue runs to over 800
works. He was also one of the first great keyboard composers, whose work still
has influence and presence.
5、
Late baroque music1680
(
–1750)
The dividing line between middle and late Baroque is a matter of some debate.
Dates for the beginning of "late" baroque style range from 1680 to 1720. In no
small part this is because there was not one synchronized transition; different
national styles experienced changes at different rates and at different times.
Italy is generally regarded as the first country to move to the late baroque style.
The important dividing line in most histories of baroque music is the full
absorption of tonality as a structuring principle of music. This was particularly
evident in the wake of theoretical work by Jean-Philippe Rameau, who
replaced Lully as the important French opera composer. At the same time,
through the work of Johann Fux, the Renaissance style of polyphony was
made the basis for the study of counterpoint. The combination of modal
counterpoint with tonal logic of cadences created the sense that there were
two styles of composition— the homophonic dominated by vertical
considerations and the polyphonic dominated by imitation and contrapuntal
considerations.
The forms which had begun to be established in the previous era flourished
and were given wider range of diversity; concerto, suite, sonata, concerto
grosso, oratorio, opera and ballet all saw a proliferation of national styles and
structures. The overall form of pieces was generally simple, with repeated
binary formsAABB)
(
, simple three part formsABC)
( , and rondeau forms being
common. These schematics in turn influenced later composers.
Antonio VivaldiAntonio Vivaldi is a figure who was forgotten in concert music
making for much of the 19th century, only to be revived in the 20th century.
Born in Venice in 1678, he began as an ordained priest of the Catholic Church
but ceased to say Mass by 1703. Around the same time he was appointed
maestro di violino at a Venetian girls' orphanage with which he had a
professional relationship until nearly the end of his life. Vivaldi's reputation
came not from having an orchestra or court appointment, but from his
published works, including trio sonatas, violin sonatas and concerti. They were
published in Amsterdam and circulated widely through Europe.
It is in these instrumental genres of baroque sonata and baroque concerto,
which were still evolving, that Vivaldi's most important contributions were
made. He settled on certain patterns, such as a fast-slow-fast three-movement
plan for works, and the use of ritornello in the fast movements, and explored
the possibilities in hundreds of works— 550 concerti alone. He also used
programmatic titles for works, such as his famous "The Four Seasons" violin
concerti. Vivaldi's career reflects a growing possibility for a composer to be
able to support himself by his publications, tour to promote his own works, and
have an independent existence.
Domenico Scarlatti was one of the leading keyboard virtuosi of his day, who
took the road of being a royal court musician, first in Portugal and then, starting
in 1733, in Madrid, Spain, where he spent the rest of his life. His father,
Alessandro Scarlatti, was a member of the Neapolitan School of opera and
has been credited with being among its most skilled members. Domenico also
wrote operas and church music, but it is the publication of his keyboard works,
which spread more widely after his death, which have secured him a lasting
place of reputation. Many of these works were written for his own playing but
others for his royal patrons. As with his father, his fortunes were closely tied to
his ability to secure, and keep, royal favour.
George Frideric Handel by Philip Mercier Perhaps the most famous composer
to be associated with royal patronage was George Frideric Handel, who was
born in Germany, studied for three years in Italy, and went to London in 1711,
which was his base of operations for a long and profitable career that included
independently produced operas and commissions for nobility. He was
constantly searching for successful commercial formulas, in opera, and then in
oratorios in English. A continuous worker, Handel borrowed from others and
often recycled his own material. He was also known for reworking pieces such
as the famous Messiah, which premiered in 1742, for available singers and
musicians. Even as his economic circumstances rose and fell with his
productions, his reputation, based on published keyboard works, ceremonial
music, constant stagings of operas and oratorios and concerti grossi, grew
tremendously.
By the time of his death, he was regarded as the leading composer in Europe
and was studied by later classical-era musicians. Handel, because of his very
public ambitions, rested a great deal of his output on melodic resource
combined with a rich performance tradition of improvisation and counterpoint.
The practice of ornamentation in the Baroque style was at a very high level of
development under his direction. He travelled all over Europe to engage
singers and learn the music of other composers, and thus he had among the
widest acquaintance of other styles of any composer.
Johann Sebastian Bach by Elias Gottlob Haussmann, 1748Johann Sebastian
Bach has, over time, come to be seen as the towering figure of Baroque music,
with what Béla Bartók described as "a religion" surrounding him. During the
baroque period, he was better known as a teacher, administrator and
performer than composer, being less famous than either Handel or Georg
Philipp Telemann. Born in Eisenach in 1685 to a musical family, he received
an extensive early education and was considered to have an excellent boy
soprano voice. He held a variety of posts as an organist, rapidly gaining in
fame for his virtuosity and ability. In 1723 he settled at the post which he was
associated with for virtually the rest of his life: cantor and director of music for
Leipzig. His varied experience allowed him to become the town's leader of
music both secular and sacred, teacher of its musicians, and leading musical
figure. He began his term in Leipzig by composing a church cantata for every
Sunday and holiday of the Liturgical year, resulting in annual cycles of
cantatas, namely his second cycle of Chorale cantatas. About 200 sacred
cantatas are extant.
Bach created the grand scale works St John Passion, the St Matthew Passion,
the Christmas Oratorio, spanning six feast days, and the Mass in B minor.
Bach's musical innovations plumbed the depths and the outer limits of the
Baroque homophonic and polyphonic forms. He was a virtual catalogue of
every contrapuntal device possible and every acceptable means of creating
webs of harmony with the chorale. As a result, his works in the form of the
fugue coupled with preludes and toccatas for organ, and the baroque concerto
forms, have become fundamental in both performance and theoretical
technique. Virtually every instrument and ensemble of the age— except for the
theatre genres— is represented copiously in his output. Bach's teachings
became prominent in the classical and romantic eras as composers
rediscovered the harmonic and melodic subtleties of his works.
Classical music
章节名称
Haydn
学时数
授课时间
第 5 周 周一 1、2 节
教学进度
学生考勤
应到:16 实到:13 请假:无
理论课●
讨论课□
习题课□
实验课□ 上机课□
□
教学方法
精讲;欣赏;多媒体
目的要求
Understanding of Haydn's works and style
Structure and character of his music
难点
思考题
What are the works of Haydn
作业
正常
旷课: 3
课程类型
重点
2
技能课□
其他
教学后记
作业批改
及实验记
录
正文;
1、overview
Classical music is the art music produced in, or rooted in, the traditions of
Western liturgical and secular music, encompassing a broad period from
roughly the 11th century to present times The central norms of this tradition
became codified between 1550 and 1900, which is known as the common
practice period.
European music is largely distinguished from many other non-European and
popular musical forms by its system of staff notation, in use since about the
16th century. Western staff notation is used by composers to prescribe to the
performer the pitch, speed, meter, individual rhythms and exact execution of a
piece of music. This leaves less room for practices such as improvisation and
ad libitum ornamentation, that are frequently heard in non-European art music
and popular music.
The term "classical music" did not appear until the early 19th century, in an
attempt to "canonize" the period from Johann Sebastian Bach to Beethoven as
a golden age. The earliest reference to "classical music" recorded by the
Oxford English Dictionary is from about 1836.
2、Characteristics
Given the extremely broad variety of forms, styles, genres, and historical
periods generally perceived as being described by the term "classical music," it
is difficult to list characteristics that can be attributed to all works of that type.
Vague descriptions are plentiful, such as describing classical music as
anything that "lasts a long time," a statement made rather moot when one
considers contemporary composers who are described as classical; or music
that has certain instruments like violins, which are also found in other genres.
However, there are characteristics that classical music contains that few or no
other genres of music contain
3、Instrumentation
The
Dublin
Philharmonic
Orchestra
performs
Tchaikovsky's
Fourth
Symphony.The instruments used in most classical music were largely invented
before the mid-19th century often
(
much earlier)
, and codified in the 18th and
19th centuries. They consist of the instruments found in an orchestra, together
with a few other solo instrumentssuch
(
as the piano, harpsichord, and organ)
.
The symphony orchestra is the most widely known medium for classical music.
The orchestra includes members of the string, woodwind, brass brass[英][brɑ:s]
铜管乐组, and percussion percussion[英][pəˈkʌʃən]打击乐组 families.
Electric instruments such as the electric guitar appear occasionally in the
classical music of the 20th and 21st centuries. Both classical and popular
musicians have experimented in recent decades with electronic instruments
such as the synthesizer, electric and digital techniques such as the use of
sampled or computer-generated sounds, and the sounds of instruments from
other cultures such as the gamelan.
None of the brass bass[beis]低音的 instruments existed until the Renaissance.
In Medieval music, instruments are divided in two categories: loud instruments
for use outdoors or in church, and quieter instruments for indoor use. The
Baroque orchestra consisted of flutes, oboes oboes[ˈəʊbəʊz] 双簧管, horns
and violins, occasionally with trumpets and timpani [ˈtimpəni:]定音鼓. Many
instruments today associated with popular music filled important roles in early
classical music, such as bagpipes, vihuelas, hurdy-gurdies, and some
woodwind instruments. On the other hand, instruments such as the acoustic
guitar, once associated mainly with popular music, gained prominence in
classical music in the 19th and 20th centuries.
While equal temperament [ˈtempərəmənt] 性格 became gradually accepted
as the dominant musical temperament during the 18th century, different
historical temperaments are often used for music from earlier periods. For
instance, music of the English Renaissance is often performed in meantone
temperament. Keyboards almost all share a common layout often
(
called the
piano keyboard)
.
4、
Form
Whereas most popular styles lend themselves to the song form, classical
music has been noted for its development of highly sophisticated [səˈfistikeitid]
复杂的;精致的;forms of instrumental music: these include the concerto,
symphony, sonata, suite, étude, symphonic poem, and others.
Classical composers often aspire to imbue their music with a very complex
relationship between its affective emotio
(
nal)content and the intellectual
means by which it is achieved. Many of the most esteemed works of classical
music make use of musical development, the process by which a musical idea
or motif is repeated in different contexts or in altered form. The sonata form
and fugue employ rigorous forms of musical development.
5 、Technical executionAlong with a desire for composers to attain high
technical achievement in writing their music, performers of classical music are
faced with similar goals of technical mastery, as demonstrated by the
proportionately high amount of schooling and private study most successful
classical musicians have had when compared to "popular" genre musicians,
and the large number of secondary schools, including conservatories,
dedicated to the study of classical music. The only other genre in the Western
world with comparable secondary education opportunities is jazz.
6、haydn
Franz Joseph Haydn ( / ˈdʒoʊzəf ˈhaɪdən/; German pronunciation: [ˈjoːzɛf
ˈhaɪdən] 31 March[1] 1732 – 31 May 1809)
, known as Joseph Haydn, was an
Austrian composer, one of the most prolific and prominent composers of the
Classical period. He is often called the "Father of the Symphony" and "Father
of the String Quartet" because of his important contributions to these forms. He
was also instrumental in the development of the piano trio and in the evolution
of sonata form.
A lifelong resident of Austria, Haydn spent much of his career as a court
musician for the wealthy Esterházy family on their remote estate. Isolated from
other composers and trends in music until the later part of his long life, he was,
as he put it, "forced to become original".At the time of his death, he was one of
the most celebrated composers in Europe.
A life
B Character and appearance
James Webster writes of Haydn's public character thus: "Haydn's public life
exemplified the Enlightenment ideal of the honest man)
: the man whose go od
character and worldly success enable and justify each other. His modesty and
probity were everywhere acknowledged. These traits were not only
prerequisites to his success as Kapellmeister, entrepreneur and public figure,
but also aided the favourable reception of his music." Haydn was especially
respected by the Eszterházy court musicians whom he supervised, as he
maintained a cordial working atmosphere and effectively represented the
musicians' interests with their employer; see Papa Haydn and the tale of the
"Farewell"告别 Symphony.
Haydn's signature on a musical work. He writes in Italian, a language he often
used professionally: di me giuseppe Haydn, "by me Joseph Haydn".Haydn had
a robust sense of humor, evident in his love of practical jokes and often
apparent in his music, and he had many friends. For much of his life he
benefited from a "happy and naturally cheerful temperament", but in his later
life, there is evidence for periods of depression, notably in the correspondence
with Mrs. Genzinger and in Dies's biography, based on visits made in Haydn's
old age.
Haydn was a devout Catholic who often turned to his rosary when he had
trouble composing, a practice that he usually found to be effective. He
normally began the manuscript of each composition with "in nomine Domini"
"in
( the name of the Lord")and ended with "Laus Deo""praise
(
be to God")
Haydn's primary character flaw was greed as it related to his business dealings.
Webster writes, "As regards money, Haydn was so self-interested as to shock
[both] contemporaries and many later authorities .... He always attempted to
maximize his income, whether by negotiating the right to sell his music outside
the Esterházy court, driving hard bargains with publishers or selling his works
three and four times over; he regularly engaged in 'sharp practice' and
occasionally in outright fraud. When crossed in business relations, he reacted
angrily." Webster notes that Haydn's ruthlessness in business might be viewed
more sympathetically in light of his struggles with poverty during his years as a
freelancer, and notes that outside of the world of business—in dealings with
relatives and servants, and in volunteering his services for charitable
concerts—Haydn was a generous man.
Haydn was short in stature, perhaps as a result of having been underfed
throughout most of his youth. He was not handsome, and like many in his day
he was a survivor of smallpox, his face being pitted with the scars of this
disease. His biographer Dies wrote, "he couldn't understand how it happened
that in his life he had been loved by many a pretty woman. 'They couldn't have
been led to it by my beauty'".
His nose, large and aquiline, was disfigured by polypus, which he suffered
from for much of his adult life. This was an agonizing and debilitating disease
in the 18th century, and at times it prevented him from writing music.
c Structure and character of his music
A central characteristic of Haydn's music is the development of larger
structures out of very short, simple musical motifs, often derived from standard
accompanying figures. The music is often quite formally concentrated, and the
important musical events of a movement can unfold rather quickly.
Haydn's work was central to the development of what came to be called
sonata form. His practice, however, differed in some ways from that of Mozart
and Beethoven, his younger contemporaries who likewise excelled in this form
of composition. Haydn was particularly fond of the so-called "monothematic
exposition", in which the music that establishes the dominant key is similar or
identical to the opening theme. Haydn also differs from Mozart and Beethoven
in his recapitulation sections, where he often rearranges the order of themes
compared to the exposition and uses extensive thematic development
Haydn's formal inventiveness also led him to integrate the fugue into the
classical style and to enrich the rondo form with more cohesive tonal logicsee
(
sonata rondo form)
. Haydn was also the principal exponent of the double
variation form—variations on two alternating themes, which are often majorand minor-mode versions of each other.
Perhaps more than any other composer's, Haydn's music is known for its
humor. The most famous example is the sudden loud chord in the slow
movement of his "Surprise" symphony; Haydn's many other musical jokes
include numerous false endingse.g.,
(
in the quartets Op. 33 No. 2 and Op. 50
No. 3)
, and the remarkable rhythmic illusion placed in the trio section of the
third movement of Op. 50 No. 1.
Much of the music was written to please and delight a prince, and its emotional
tone is correspondingly upbeat.[citation needed] This tone also reflects,
perhaps, Haydn's fundamentally healthy and well-balanced personality.
Occasional minor-key works, often deadly serious in character, form striking
exceptions to the general rule. Haydn's fast movements tend to be rhythmically
propulsive and often impart a great sense of energy, especially in the finales.
Some characteristic examples of Haydn's "rollicking" finale type are found in
the "London" symphony No. 104, the string quartet Op. 50 No. 1, and the piano
trio Hob XV: 27. Haydn's early slow movements are usually not too slow in
tempo, relaxed, and reflective. Later on, the emotional range of the slow
movements increases, notably in the deeply felt slow movements of the
quartets Op. 76 Nos. 3 and 5, the Symphonies No. 98 and 102, and the piano
trio Hob XV: 23. The minuets tend to have a strong downbeat and a clearly
popular character. Over time, Haydn turned some of his minuets into "scherzi"
which are much faster, at one beat to the bar.
D works
There are 106 symphonies by the classical composer Joseph Haydn.and so
on.
Mozart
章节名称
学时数
授课时间
学生考勤
第 6 周 3.19 周一 1、2 节
应到:16
理论课●
实到:14 请假:1
讨论课□
习题课□
教学进度
正常
旷课: 1
实验课□ 上机课□
课程类型
□
教学方法
精讲;欣赏;多媒体
目的要求
Master Mozart's creation and style
重点
Important works of appreciation and understanding
难点
2
技能课□
其他
思考题
Back to sing the melody of Figaro wedding
作业
教学后记
条理性欠缺;语言表述应在清晰些
作业批改
及实验记
录
教案正文
1、life
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart German:
(
[ ˈvɔlf ɡ aŋ amaˈdeus ˈmoːtsaʁt],
English see fn.)
, 27
( January 1756
– 5 December 1791)
, was a prolific and
influential composer of the Classical era.
Mozart showed prodigious ability from his earliest childhood. Already
competent on keyboard and violin, he composed from the age of five and
performed before European royalty. At 17, he was engaged as a court
musician in Salzburg, but grew restless and travelled in search of a better
position, always composing abundantly. While visiting Vienna in 1781, he was
dismissed from his Salzburg position. He chose to stay in the capital, where he
achieved fame but little financial security. During his final years in Vienna, he
composed many of his best-known symphonies, concertos, and operas, and
portions of the Requiem, which was largely unfinished at the time of his death.
The circumstances of his early death have been much mythologized. He was
survived by his wife Constanze and two sons.
Mozart learned voraciously from others, and developed a brilliance and
maturity of style that encompassed the light and graceful along with the dark
and passionate. He composed over 600 works, many acknowledged as
pinnacles of symphonic, concertante, chamber, operatic, and choral music. He
is among the most enduringly popular of classical composers, and his
influence on subsequent Western art music is profound; Beethoven composed
his own early works in the shadow of Mozart, and Joseph Haydn wrote that
"posterity will not see such a talent again in 100 years
2、Style
Mozart's music, like Haydn's, stands as an archetype of the Classical style. At
the time he began composing, European music was dominated by the style
galant, a reaction against the highly evolved intricacy of the Baroque.
Progressively, and in large part at the hands of Mozart himself, the
contrapuntal complexities of the late Baroque emerged once more, moderated
and disciplined by new forms, and adapted to a new aesthetic and social
milieu. Mozart was a versatile composer, and wrote in every major genre,
including symphony, opera, the solo concerto, chamber music including string
quartet and string quintet, and the piano sonata. These forms were not new,
but Mozart advanced their technical sophistication and emotional reach. He
almost single-handedly developed and popularized the Classical piano
concerto. He wrote a great deal of religious music, including large-scale
masses, but also dances, divertimenti, serenades, and other forms of light
entertainment.
A facsimile sheet of music from the Dies Irae movement of the "Requiem Mass
in D Minor" K.
( 626) in Mozart's own handwriting. It is located at the
Mozarthaus in Vienna.The central traits of the Classical style are all present in
Mozart's music. Clarity, balance, and transparency are the hallmarks of his
work, but simplistic notions of its delicacy mask the exceptional power of his
finest masterpieces, such as the Piano Concerto No. 24 in C minor, K. 491; the
Symphony No. 40 in G minor, K. 550; and the opera Don Giovanni. Charles
Rosen makes the point forcefully:
"It is only through recognizing the violence and sensuality at the center of
Mozart's work that we can make a start towards a comprehension of his
structures and an insight into his magnificence. In a paradoxical way,
Schumann's superficial characterization of the G minor Symphony can help us
to see Mozart's daemon more steadily. In all of Mozart's supreme expressions
of suffering and terror, there is something shockingly voluptuous."
Especially during his last decade, Mozart exploited chromatic harmony to a
degree rare at the time, with remarkable assurance and to great artistic effect.
Mozart always had a gift for absorbing and adapting valuable features of
others' music. His travels helped in the forging of a unique compositional
language. In London as a child, he met J. C. Bach and heard his music. In
Paris, Mannheim, and Vienna he met with other compositional influences, as
well as the avant-garde capabilities of the Mannheim orchestra. In Italy he
encountered the Italian overture and opera buffa, both of which deeply
affected the evolution of his own practice. In London and Italy, the galant style
was in the ascendent: simple, light music with a mania for cadencing; an
emphasis on tonic, dominant, and subdominant to the exclusion of other
harmonies; symmetrical phrases; and clearly articulated partitions in the
overall form of movements. Some of Mozart's early symphonies are Italian
overtures, with three movements running into each other; many are homotonal
all
( three movements having the
same key signature, with the slow middle
movement being in the relative minor)
. Others mimic the works of J. C. Bach,
and others show the simple rounded binary forms turned out by Viennese
composers.
As Mozart matured, he progressively incorporated more features adapted from
the Baroque. For example, the Symphony No. 29 in A major K. 201 has a
contrapuntal main theme in its first movement, and experimentation with
irregular phrase lengths. Some of his quartets from 1773 have fugal finales,
probably influenced by Haydn, who had included three such finales in his
recently published Opus 20 set. The influence of the Sturm und Drang"Storm
(
and Stress")period in music, with its brief foreshadowing of the Romantic era,
is evident in the music of both composers at that time. Mozart's Symphony No.
25 in G minor K. 183 is another excellent example.
Mozart would sometimes switch his focus between operas and instrumental
music. He produced operas in each of the prevailing styles: opera buffa, such
as The Marriage of Figaro, Don Giovanni, and Così fan tutte; opera seria, such
as Idomeneo; and Singspiel, of which Die Zauberflöte is the most famous
example by any composer. In his later operas he employed subtle changes in
instrumentation, orchestral texture, and tone color, for emotional depth and to
mark dramatic shifts. Here his advances in opera and instrumental composing
interacted: his increasingly sophisticated use of the orchestra in the
symphonies and concertos influenced his operatic orchestration, and his
developing subtlety in using the orchestra to psychological effect in his operas
was in turn reflected in his later non-operatic compositions.
3 Works
《figalo”s marrige》《41symphony》 and so on .
章节名称
Ludwig van Beethoven
学时数
授课时间
第 7 周 3.26 周一 1、2 节
教学进度
学生考勤
应到:16
理论课●
实到:16 请假:无
讨论课□
课程类型
□
教学方法
精讲;欣赏;多媒体
习题课□
2
正常
旷课: 无
实验课□ 上机课□
技能课□
其他
目的要求
重点
Familiar with the works and style of Beethoven
Beethoven important works in different kinds
难点
思考题
作业
教学后记
what ‘s contribution in the Symphony area of Beethoven
条理性欠缺;语言表述应在清晰些
作业批改
及实验记
录
教案正文
一、life
Ludwig van Beethoven i/( ˈlʊdvɪɡ væn ˈbeɪt.hoʊvən/; )17 December 1770 –
26 March 1827)was a German composer and pianist. A crucial figure in the
transition between the Classical and Romantic eras in Western art music, he
remains one of the most famous and influential of all composers. His best
known compositions include 9 symphonies, 5 concertos for piano, 32 piano
sonatas, and 16 string quartets. He also composed other chamber music,
choral worksincluding
(
the celebrated Missa Solemnis)
, and songs.
Born in Bonn, then the capital of the Electorate of Cologne and part of the Holy
Roman Empire, Beethoven displayed his musical talents at an early age and
was taught by his father Johann van Beethoven and Christian Gottlob Neefe.
During his first 22 years in Bonn, Beethoven intended to study with Wolfgang
Amadeus Mozart and befriended Joseph Haydn. Beethoven moved to Vienna
in 1792 and began studying with Haydn, quickly gaining a reputation as a
virtuoso pianist. He lived in Vienna until his death. During the late 18th century,
his hearing began to deteriorate significantly, yet he continued to compose,
conduct, and perform after becoming completely deaf.
二、Character
Beethoven's personal life was troubled by his encroaching deafness and
irritability brought on by chronic abdominal pain beginning
(
in his twenties)
which led him to contemplate suicide docum
(
ented in his Heiligenstadt
Testament)
. Beethoven was often irascible. It has been suggested he suffered
from bipolar disorder. Nevertheless, he had a close and devoted circle of
friends all his life, thought to have been attracted by his strength of personality.
Toward the end of his life, Beethoven's friends competed in their efforts to help
him cope with his incapacities.
Sources show Beethoven's disdain for authority, and for social rank. He
stopped performing at the piano if the audience chatted amongst themselves,
or afforded him less than their full attention. At soirées, he refused to perform if
suddenly called upon to do so. Eventually, after many confrontations, the
Archduke Rudolph decreed that the usual rules of court etiquette did not apply
to Beethoven.
Beethoven was attracted to the ideals of the Enlightenment. In 1804, when
Napoleon's imperial ambitions became clear, Beethoven took hold of the title
page of his Third Symphony and scratched the name Bonaparte out so
violently that he made a hole in the paper. He later changed the work's title to
"Sinfonia Eroica, composta per festeggiare il sovvenire d'un grand'uom"
"Heroic
(
Symphony, composed to celebrate the memory of a great man")
, and
he rededicated it to his patron, Prince Joseph Franz von Lobkowitz, at whose
palace it was first performed. The fourth movement of his Ninth Symphony
features an elaborate choral setting of Schiller's Ode An die Freude "Ode
(
to
Joy")
, an optimistic hymn championing the brotherhood of humanity.
Beethoven is acknowledged as one of the giants of classical music;
occasionally he is referred to as one of the "three Bs" along
(
with Bach and
Brahms)who epitomise that tradition. He was also a pivotal figure in the
transition from the 18th century musical classicism to 19th century romanticism,
and his influence on subsequent generations of composers was profound. His
music features twice on the Voyager Golden Record, a phonograph record
containing a broad sample of the images, common sounds, languages, and
music of Earth, sent into outer space with the two Voyager probes.
三、Overview
Beethoven composed in several musical genres and for a variety of instrument
combinations. His works for symphony orchestra include nine symphoniesthe
(
Ninth Symphony includes a chorus)
, and about a dozen pieces of "occasional"
music. He wrote seven concerti for one or more soloists and orchestra, as well
as four shorter works that include soloists accompanied by orchestra. His only
opera is Fidelio; other vocal works with orchestral accompaniment include two
masses and a number of shorter works
His large body of compositions for piano includes 32 piano sonatas and
numerous shorter pieces, including arrangements of some of his other works.
Works with piano accompaniment include 10 violin sonatas, 5 cello sonatas,
and a sonata for French horn, as well as numerous lieder.
Beethoven also wrote a significant quantity of chamber music. In addition to
16 string quartets, he wrote five works for string quintet, seven for piano trio,
five for string trio, and more than a dozen works for various combinations of
wind instruments
三、works
《1—9 symphony》;《32sonatas》and so on
章节名称
Franz Schubert
学时数
授课时间
第 8 周 3.31 周一 1.2 节
教学进度
学生考勤
应到:16 实到:14 请假:2
旷课: 无
理论课●
实验课□ 上机课□
讨论课□
习题课□
课程类型
□
教学方法
精讲;欣赏;多媒体
目的要求
Understanding of Schubert's works and style
重点
analysis of Important works
难点
思考题
Write the concept of art songs
作业
教学后记
条理性欠缺;语言表述应在清晰些
2
正常
技能课□
其他
作业批改
及实验记
录
1、
life
Franz Peter SchubertGerman
(
pronunciation: [ ˈfʁants ˈʃuːbɛɐ̯
t]; 31 January
1797 – 19 November 1828)was an Austrian composer.
In a short lifespan of just nearly 32 years, Schubert was a prolific composer,
writing some 600 Lieder, nine symphonies including
(
the famous "Unfinished
Symphony")
, liturgical music, operas, some incidental music, and a large body
of chamber and solo piano music. Appreciation of Schubert's music during his
lifetime was limited, but interest in his work increased significantly in the
decades following his death. Franz Liszt, Robert Schumann, Johannes
Brahms and Felix Mendelssohn, among others, discovered and championed
his works in the 19th century. Today, Schubert is seen as one of the leading
exponents of the early Romantic era in music and he remains one of the most
frequently performed composers.
2、
Musical
maturity
The compositions of 1819 and 1820 show a marked advance in development
and maturity of style.[34] The unfinished oratorio "Lazarus" D.
( 689)was
begun in February; later followed, amid a number of smaller works, by the 23rd
Psalm D.
( 706)
, the Gesang der Geister D.
( 705/714)
, the Quartettsatz in C
minor D.
( 703)
, and the
"Wanderer Fantasy" for piano D.
( 760)
. Of most
notable interest is the staging in 1820 of two of Schubert's operas: Die
Zwillingsbrüder (D. 647) appeared at the Theater am Kärntnertor on 14 June,
and Die Zauberharfe D.
( 644)appeared at the Theater an der
Wien on 21
August. Hitherto, his larger compositions apart
(
from his masses)had been
restricted to the amateur orchestra at the Gundelhof, a society which grew out
of the quartet-parties at his home. Now he began to assume a more prominent
position, addressing a wider public. Publishers, however, remained distant,
with Anton Diabelli hesitantly agreeing to print some of his works on
commission. The first seven opus numbers all
( songs)appeared on these
terms; then the commission ceased, and he began to receive the meager
pittances which were all that the great publishing houses ever paid him. The
situation improved somewhat in March 1821 when Vogl sang "Der Erlkönig" at
a concert that was extremely well received. That month, Schubert composed a
variation on a waltz by Anton DiabelliD.
( 718)
, being one of the fifty composers
who contributed to Vaterländischer Künstlerverein.
The production of the two operas turned Schubert's attention more firmly than
ever in the direction of the stage, where, for a variety of reasons, he was
almost completely unsuccessful. All in all, he produced seventeen stage works,
each of them failures which were quickly forgotten. In 1822, Alfonso und
Estrella was refused, partly owing to its libretto. Fierrabras D.
( 796)was
rejected in the fall of 1823, but this was largely due to the popularity of Rossini
and the Italian operatic style, and the failure of Carl Maria von Weber's
Euryanthe. Die Verschworenen The
( Conspirators, D. 787)was prohibited by
the censorapparently
(
on the gro unds of its title)
,[40] and RosamundeD.
( 797)
was withdrawn after two nights, owing to the poor quality of the play for which
Schubert had written incidental music. Of these works, the two former are
written on a scale which would make their performances exceedingly difficult
Fierrabras,
(
for instance, contains over 1,000 pages of manuscript score)
, but
Die Verschworenen is a bright attractive comedy, and Rosamunde contains
some of the most charming music that Schubert ever composed. In 1822, he
made the acquaintance of both Weber and Beethoven, but little came of it in
either case. Beethoven is said to have acknowledged the younger man's gifts
on a few occasions, but some of this is likely legend and in any case he could
not have known the real scope of Schubert's music – especially not the
instrumental works – as so little of it was printed or performed in the
composer's lifetime. On his deathbed, Beethoven is said to have looked into
some of the younger man's works and exclaimed, "Truly, the spark of divine
genius resides in this Schubert!" but what would have come of it if he had
recovered we can never know.
3、
works
Numbering of symphoniesConfusion arose quite early over the numbering of
Schubert's symphonies, in particular the "Great" C major Symphony. George
Grove, who rediscovered many of Schubert's symphonies, assigned the
following numbering after his 1867 visit to Vienna:
Number 7: E major D. 729completely
(
sketched but not completely scored by
Schubert, with multiple historic and modern completions)
Number 8: B minor Unfinished D. 759
Number 9: C major Great D. 944.
Breitkopf & Härtel, when preparing the 1897 complete works publication,
originally planned to publish only complete workswhich
(
would have given the
Great number 7)
, with "fragments", inc luding the Unfinished and the D. 729
sketch, receiving no number at all. When Johannes Brahms became general
editor of that project, he assigned the following numbers:[85]
Number 7: C major Great
Number 8: B minor Unfinished
no number: E major D. 729.
Examples of Works for violin and piano
Rondeau brillant, D. 895, Op. 70
Some of the disagreement continued into the 20th century. George Grove in
his 1908 Dictionary of Music and Musicians, assigned the Great as number 10,
and the Unfinished as number 9. It(
is unclear from his article which
symphonies, fragmentary or otherwise, are numbers 7 and 8.)However, the
Unfinished is now generally referred to as number 8 in the English-speaking
world, with the Great at number 9. Number 10 is generally acknowledged to be
the D. 936a fragment, for which a completion by Brian Newbould exists. The
1978 revision to the Deutsch catalog leaves D. 729 without a numberin
( spite
of numerous completions)
, and assigns number 7 to the Unfinished and
number 8 to the Great. As a consequence, generally available scores for the
later symphonies may be published using conflicting numbers.
Grove and Sullivan also suggested that there may have been a "lost"
symphony. Immediately before Schubert's death, his friend Eduard von
Bauernfeld recorded the existence of an additional symphony, dated 1828
although
(
this does not necessarily indicate the year of composition)named
the "Letzte" or "Last" symphony. Brian Newbould believes that the "Last"
symphony refers to a sketch in D majorD.
( 936A ,)identified by Ernst Hilmar in
1977, and which was realised by Newbould as the Tenth Symphony. The
fragment was bound with other symphony fragmentsD.
( 615 and D. 708a)that
Schubert had apparently intended to combine.
章节名称
Mendelsohn
学时数
授课时间
第 9 周 4.9 周一 1.2 节
教学进度
学生考勤
应到:16 实到:16 请假:无
旷课:无
理论课●
实验课□ 上机课□
讨论课□
习题课□
课程类型
□
教学方法
目的要求
精讲;欣赏;多媒体
Know music of Mendelsohn
2
正常
技能课□
其他
evolution of Overture
重点
难点
思考题
Play the song of spring
作业
教学后记
条理性欠缺;语言表述应在清晰些
作业批改
及实验记
录
1.Life
Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy German:
(
[ ˈjaːkɔp ˈluːtvɪç
ˈfeːlɪks
ˈmɛndl̩
szoːn
baʁˈtɔldi])
, born,
and
generally
known
English-speaking countries, as Felix Mendelssohn 3( February 1809
in
– 4
November 1847)was a German composer, pianist, organist and conduc tor of
the early Romantic period.
The grandson of the philosopher Moses Mendelssohn, Felix Mendelssohn was
born into a prominent Jewish family, although initially he was raised without
religion and was later baptised as a Lutheran Christian. Mendelssohn was
recognised early as a musical prodigy, but his parents were cautious and did
not seek to capitalise on his talent.
Early success in Germany, where he also revived interest in the music of
Johann Sebastian Bach, was followed by travel throughout Europe.
Mendelssohn was particularly well received in Britain as a composer,
conductor and soloist, and his ten visits there – during which many of his major
works were premiered – form an important part of his adult career. His
essentially conservative musical tastes, however, set him apart from many of
his more adventurous musical contemporaries such as Franz Liszt, Richard
Wagner and Hector Berlioz. The Leipzig Conservatoire now
(
the University of
Music and Theatre Leipzig)
, which he founded, became a bastion of
this
anti-radical outlook.
Mendelssohn's work includes symphonies, concerti, oratorios, piano music
and chamber music. His most-performed works include his Overture and
incidental music for A Midsummer Night's Dream, the Italian Symphony, the
Scottish Symphony, the overture The Hebrides, his Violin Concerto, and his
String Octet. After a long period of relative denigration due to changing musical
tastes and anti-Semitism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, his creative
originality has now been recognised and re-evaluated. He is now among the
most popular composers of the Romantic era.
2Religion
Although Mendelssohn was a conforming if( not over -zealous)Lutheran by
confession, he was both conscious and proud of his Jewish ancestry and
notably of his connection with his grandfather Moses Mendelssohn. He was
the prime mover in proposing to the publisher Heinrich Brockhaus a complete
edition of Moses's works, which continued with the support of his uncle Joseph
Mendelssohn. Mendelssohn was notably reluctant, either in his letters or
conversation, to comment on his innermost beliefs; his friend Devrient wrote
that "[his] deep convictions were never uttered in intercourse with the world;
only in rare and intimate moments did they ever appear, and then only in the
slightest and most humorous allusions". Thus for example in a letter to his
sister Rebecka, Mendelssohn rebukes her complaint about an unpleasant
relative: "What do you mean by saying you are not hostile to Jews? I hope this
was a joke
It is really sweet of you that you do not despise your family, isn't
it?" Some modern scholars have devoted considerable energy to demonstrate
that Mendelssohn was either deeply sympathetic to his Jewishness or sincere
to his Lutheran beliefs though
(
there is in fact
no reason to suppose these
attitudes to be incompatible)
.
3 works
Early worksThe young Mendelssohn was greatly influenced in his childhood by
the music of Bach, Beethoven, and Mozart and traces of these can all be seen
in the 12 early string symphonies – mainly written for performance in the
Mendelssohn household, and not published or publicly performed until long
after his death. He wrote these from 1821 to 1823, when he was between the
ages of 12 and 14 years old.
Mendelssohn's first published works were his three piano quartets,
1822
(
–1825; Op. 1 in C minor, Op. 2 in F minor and Op. 3 in B minor)
; but his
astounding capacities are especially revealed in a group of works of his early
maturity:
the String Octet1825)
(
the Overture A Midsummer Night's Dream 1826)
( , which in its finished form
also owes much to the influence of Adolf Bernhard Marx, at the time a close
friend of Mendelssohn.
the two early quartets: Op. 12 1829)
( , and Op. 13 1827)
( , which both show a
remarkable grasp of the techniques and ideas of Beethoven's last quartets,
which Mendelssohn had been closely studying[79]
These four works show an intuitive grasp of form, harmony, counterpoint,
colour, and compositional technique, which justify claims frequently made that
Mendelssohn's precocity exceeded even that of Mozart in its intellectual grasp.
Symphonies
The numbering of Mendelssohn's mature symphonies is approximately in
order of publishing, rather than of composition. The order of actual composition
is: 1, 5, 4, 2, 3. Because he worked on it for over a decade, the placement of
No. 3 in this sequence is problematic; Mendelssohn started sketches for it
soon after starting No. 5, but completed it following both Nos. 5 and 4.
The Symphony No. 1 in C minor for full-scale orchestra was written in 1824,
when Mendelssohn was aged 15. This work is experimental, showing the
influences of Beethoven, and Carl Maria von Weber.[81] Mendelssohn
conducted this symphony on his first visit to London in 1829, with the orchestra
of the Royal Philharmonic Society. For the third movement he substituted an
orchestration of the Scherzo from his Octet. In this form the piece was a
success, and laid the foundations of his British reputation.[82]
During 1829 and 1830 Mendelssohn wrote his Symphony No. 5, known as the
Reformation. It celebrated the 300th anniversary of the Lutheran Church.
Mendelssohn remained dissatisfied with the work and did not allow publication
of the score.[83]
The Scottish SymphonySymphony
(
No. 3 in A minor)was written and revised
intermittently between 1829 when
(
Mendelssohn noted down the opening
theme during a visit to Holyrood Palace)
[84] and 1842, when it was given its
premiere in Leipzig, the last of his symphonies to be performed in public. This
piece evokes Scotland's atmosphere in the ethos of Romanticism, but does
not employ any identified Scottish folk melodies.
Mendelssohn's travels in Italy inspired him to write the Symphony No. 4 in A
major, known as the Italian Symphony. Mendelssohn conducted the premiere
in 1833, but he did not allow this score to be published during his lifetime as he
continually sought to rewrite it
Mendelssohn wrote the choral Symphony No. 2 in B-flat major, entitled
Lobgesang Hymn
(
of Praise)
, to mark the celebrations in Leipzig of the 400th
anniversary of the invention of the printing press; the first performance took
place on 25 June 1840.
Other orchestral music
Trumpet part, including main theme, of the Wedding March from Op.
61.Mendelssohn wrote the concert Hebrides OvertureFingal's
(
Cave)in 1830,
inspired by visits he made to Scotland around the end of the 1820s. He visited
Fingal's Cave, on the Hebridean isle of Staffa, as part of his Grand Tour of
Europe, and was so impressed that he scribbled the opening theme of the
overture on the spot, including it in a letter he wrote home the same evening.
Throughout his career he wrote a number of other concert overtures. Those
most frequently played today include an overture to Ruy Blas, commissioned
for a charity performance of Victor Hugo's drama, which Mendelssohn hated;
Calm Sea and Prosperous Voyage (Meeresstille und glückliche Fahrt) inspired
by a pair of poems by Goethe; and The Fair Melusine.
The incidental music to A Midsummer Night's Dream Op.
( 61)
, including the
well-known Wedding March, was written in 1843, seventeen years after the
overture.
Opera
Mendelssohn wrote some Singspiels for family performance in his youth. His
opera Die beiden Neffen The
(
Two Nephews)was rehearsed for him on his
15th birthday.[88] 1829 saw Die Heimkehr aus der FremdeS( on and Stranger
or Return of the Roamer)
, a comedy of mistaken identity written in honor of his
parents' silver anniversary and unpublished during his lifetime. In 1825 he
wrote a more sophisticated work, Die Hochzeit des Camacho Camacho's
(
Wedding)
, based on an episode in Don Quixote, for public consumption. It was
produced in Berlin in 1827, but coolly received. Mendelssohn left the theatre
before the conclusion of the first performance, and subsequent performances
were cancelled.[89]
Although he never abandoned the idea of composing a full opera, and
considered many subjects – including that of the Nibelung saga later adapted
by Wagner – he never wrote more than a few pages of sketches for any project.
In Mendelssohn's last years the opera manager Benjamin Lumley tried to
contract him to write an opera from Shakespeare's The Tempest on a libretto
by Eugène Scribe, and even announced it as forthcoming in 1847, the year of
Mendelssohn's death.[90] The libretto was eventually set by Fromental Halévy.
At his death Mendelssohn left some sketches for an opera on the story of the
Lorelei.
Concertos
Violin Concerto op.64, main theme of second movementThe Violin Concerto in
E minor, Op. 64 1844)
( , written for Ferdinand David, has become one of the
most popular of all of Mendelssohn's compositions. David, who had worked
closely with Mendelssohn during the piece's preparation, gave the premiere of
the concerto on his Guarneri violin.
Mendelssohn also wrote a lesser-known, early violin concerto in d1822)
( ; four
piano concertos0( in a, 1822; 1 in g Op. 25, 1831; 2 in d Op. 40, 1837; and 3 in
e Op. Posth., a fragment from 1844)
; two concertos for two pianos and
orchestra, when he was 15 and 17 years old; and another double concerto, for
violin and piano 1823)
( . In ad
dition, there are several single-movement works
for soloist and orchestra. Those for piano are the Rondo Brillante, Op. 29, of
1834; the Capriccio Brillante, Op. 22, of 1832; and the Serenade and Allegro
Giocoso Op. 43, of 1838. He also wrote two concertinos (Konzertstücke), Op.
113 and Op. 114, originally for clarinet, basset horn and piano; Op. 113 was
orchestrated by the composer.
Chamber music
Mendelssohn's mature output contains many chamber works, many of which
display an emotional intensity lacking in some of his larger works. In particular
his String Quartet No. 6, which is the last of his string quartets and last major
work – written following the death of his sister Fanny – is both powerful and
eloquent. Other mature works include two string quintets; sonatas for the
clarinet, cello, viola and violin; and two piano trios. For the Piano Trio No. 1 in
D minor, Mendelssohn uncharacteristically took the advice of his fellow
composer, Ferdinand Hiller, and rewrote the piano part in a more romantic,
"Schumannesque" style, considerably heightening its effect
章节名称
Chopin
学时数
授课时间
第十周 4.16 周一 1.2 节
教学进度
学生考勤
应到:16 实到: 15 请假:1
理论课●
讨论课□
习题课□
实验课□ 上机课□
□
精讲;欣赏;多媒体
目的要求
Appreciate
正常
旷课:无
课程类型
教学方法
2
Chopin's piano music
技能课□
其他
重点
The style of Chopin's piano music
难点
思考题
How to understand Chopin’s nationalism
作业
教学后记
条理性欠缺;语言表述应在清晰些
作业批改
及实验记
录
1、
life
Frédéric François Chopin ( / ˈʃoʊpæn/; French pronunciation: [fʁe.de.ʁik
ʃɔ.pɛ̃
]; Polish: Fryderyk Franciszek Chopin, also phonetically Szopen; 1
March or 22 February 1810 – 17 October 1849)was a Polish composer and
virtuoso pianist. He is widely considered one of the greatest Romantic
composers. Chopin was born in Żelazowa Wola, a village in the Duchy of
Warsaw. A renowned child-prodigy pianist and composer, he grew up in
Warsaw and completed his music education there; he composed many mature
works in Warsaw before leaving Poland in 1830 at age 20, shortly before the
November 1830 Uprising.
Following the Russian suppression of the Uprising, he settled in Paris as part
of Poland's Great Emigration. During the remaining 19 years of his life, Chopin
gave only some 30 public performances, preferring the more intimate
atmosphere of the salon; he supported himself by sales of his compositions
and as a piano teacher. After some romantic dalliances with Polish women,
including an abortive engagement, from 1837 to 1847 he carried on a
relationship with the French writer Amantine Dupin. For most of his life, Chopin
suffered from poor health; he died in Paris in 1849 at age 39.
The vast majority of Chopin's works are for solo piano, though he also wrote
two piano concertos, a few chamber pieces and some songs to Polish texts.
His piano works are often technically demanding, with an emphasis on nuance
and expressive depth. Chopin invented the instrumental ballade and made
major innovations to the piano sonata, mazurka, waltz, nocturne, polonaise,
étude, impromptu, scherzo and prélude.
2. Style
Chopin's autograph of first 32 bars of Polonaise in A-flat major, 1842Although
Chopin lived in the 19th century, he was educated in the tradition of Beethoven,
Haydn, Mozart and Clementi; he used Clementi's piano method with his own
students. He was also influenced by Hummel's development of virtuoso, yet
Mozartian, piano technique. Chopin cited Bach and Mozart as the two most
important composers in shaping his musical outlook.
The series of seven Polonaises published in his lifetime another
(
nine were
published posthumously)
, beginning with the Op. 26 pair, set a new standard
for music in the form, and were rooted in Chopin's desire to write something to
celebrate Polish culture after the country had fallen into Russian control.[86]
The Polonaise in A major, Op. 40, No. 1, the "Military," and the Polonaise in
A-flat major, Op. 53, the "Heroic," are among Chopin's best-loved and
most-often-played works.
Chopin also wrote 24 different preludes as a tribute to J. S. Bach's The
Well-Tempered Clavier. Chopin's preludes move up the circle-of-fifths,
whereas Bach uses the chromatic scale to create a prelude in every major and
minor tonality achievable on the clavier.
3.Rubato
Chopin's music is well known for benefiting from rubato which
(
was how he
himself performed his music)
,[87] as opposed to a strictly regular playing. Yet
there is usually call for caution when the music is performed with wobbly,
over-exaggerated, inappropriate "rubato" e.g.
(
attempting to justify insecure
playing, with reference to expressive rubato)
.
His playing was always noble and beautiful; his tones sang, whether in full
forte or softest piano. He took infinite pains to teach his pupils this legato,
cantabile style of playing. His most severe criticism was "He—or she—does
not know how to join two notes together." He also demanded the strictest
adherence to rhythm. He hated all lingering and dragging, misplaced rubatos,
as well as exaggerated ritardandos ... and it is precisely in this respect that
people make such terrible errors in playing his works.
4. Nationalism
Opening of Revolutionary Étude 1831 Russian attack on Warsaw during the
November 1830 UprisingChopin's Polish biographer Zdzis ław Jachimecki
notes that "Chopin at every step demonstrated his Polish spirit – in the
hundreds of letters that he wrote in Polish, in his attitude to Paris' [Polish]
émigrés, in his negative view of all that bore the official stamp of the powers
that occupied Poland." Likewise Chopin composed music to accompany Polish
texts but never musically illustrated a single French or German text, though he
numbered among his friends several great French and German poets.
According to his English biographer Arthur Hedley, Chopin "found within
himself and in the tragic story of Poland the chief sources of his inspiration.
The theme of Poland's glories and sufferings was constantly before him, and
he transmuted the primitive rhythms and melodies of his youth into enduring
art forms."
In asserting his own Polishness, Chopin, according to Jachimecki, exerted "a
tremendous influence [toward] the nationalization of the work of numerous
later composers, who have often personally – like the Czech Smetana and
Norway's Grieg – confirmed this opinion..."
The Hungarian composer Franz Liszt, Chopin's contemporary, referred to
Chopin's Polish homeland when he wrote that Chopin "may be ranked first
among musicians who have had an individual poetic sense of a particular
nation." He referred to Chopin as "a Polish artist." Composer Robert
Schumann acknowledged the strength of Chopin's personal reaction to
Russia's suppression of the November 1830 Uprising when he wrote that in
Chopin's music one found "cannon hidden among the flowers." Joseph Conrad,
a great admirer of Chopin's music, considered the distinctive feature of the
compositions to be their "Polishness".
Some Polish writers have used, for Chopin's surname, the Polonized phonetic
spelling, "Szopen"pronounced
(
[ ˈʂɔpɛn])
.
5.works
The vast majority of Chopin's works are for solo piano, though he also wrote
two piano concertos, a few chamber pieces and some songs to Polish texts.
His piano works are often technically demanding, with an emphasis on nuance
and expressive depth. Chopin invented the instrumental ballade and made
major innovations to the piano sonata, mazurka, waltz, nocturne, polonaise,
étude, impromptu, scherzo and prélude.
章节名称
Franz Liszt
学时数
授课时间
第十一周 4.23 12 周一 1.2 节
教学进度
学生考勤
应到:16 实到:12 请假:3
旷课: 1
理论课●
实验课□ 上机课□
课程类型
□
讨论课□
习题课□
2
正常
技能课□
其他
教学方法
精讲;欣赏;多媒体
目的要求
The style feature about Franz Liszt
重点
Listz’s Performing style
难点
思考题
作业
教学后记
The relation between list and Prelude
条理性欠缺;语言表述应在清晰些
作业批改
及实验记
录
一、life
Franz Liszt in Hungarian: Liszt Ferencz, in modern use Liszt Ferenc
1859 to 1867 officially Franz Ritter von Liszt October
(
22, 1811
from
– July 31,
1886) was a 19th -century Hungariancomposer, pianist, conductor and
teacher.
Liszt became renowned in Europe during the nineteenth century for his
virtuosic skill as a pianist. He was said by his contemporaries to have been the
most technically advanced pianist of his age though
(
Liszt vehemently denied
this, stating that Charles-Valentin Alkan undoubtedly had superior technical
facility)
, and in the 1840s he was considered by some to be perhaps the
greatest pianist of all time. Liszt was also a well-known and influential
composer, piano teacher and conductor. He was a benefactor to other
composers, including Richard Wagner, Hector Berlioz, Camille Saint-Saëns,
Edvard Grieg and Alexander Borodin.
As a composer, Liszt was one of the most prominent representatives of the
"Neudeutsche Schule" "New
(
German School")
. He left behind an extensive
and diverse body of work in which he influenced his forward-looking
contemporaries and anticipated some 20th-century ideas and trends. Some of
his most notable contributions were the invention of the symphonic poem,
developing the concept of thematic transformation as part of his experiments
in musical form and making radical departures in harmony. He also played an
important role in popularizing a wide array of music by transcribing it for piano.
3. Performing style
There are few, if any, good sources that give an impression of how Liszt really
sounded from the 1820s. Carl Czerny claimed Liszt was a natural who played
according to feeling, and reviews of his concerts especially praise the brilliance,
strength and precision in his playing. At least one also mentions his ability to
keep absolute tempo, which may be due to his father's insistence that he
practice with a metronome.[citation needed] His repertoire at this time
consisted primarily of pieces in the style of the brilliant Viennese school, such
as concertos by Hummel and works by his former teacher Czerny, and his
concerts often included a chance for the boy to display his prowess in
improvisation.
Franz Liszt Fantasizing at the Piano 1840)
( , by Danhauser, commissioned by
Conrad Graf. The imagined gathering shows seated Alfred de Musset or
Alexandre Dumas, George Sand, Franz Liszt, Marie d'Agoult; standing Hector
Berlioz or Victor Hugo, Niccolò Paganini, Gioachino Rossini; a bust of
Beethoven on the grand pianoa( "Graf")
, a portrait of Lord Byron on the wall, a
statue of Joan of Arc on the far left.[38][39][40]Following the death of Liszt's
father in 1827 and his hiatus from the life as a touring virtuoso, it is likely Liszt's
playing gradually developed a more personal style. One of the most detailed
descriptions of his playing from this time comes from the winter of 1831/1832,
during which he was earning a living primarily as a teacher in Paris. Among his
pupils was Valerie Boissier, whose mother Caroline kept a careful diary of the
lessons. From her we learn that:
"M. Liszt's playing contains abandonment, a liberated feeling, but even when it
becomes impetuous and energetic in his fortissimo, it is still without harshness
and dryness. [He] draws from the piano tones that are purer, mellower and
stronger than anyone has been able to do; his touch has an indescribable
charm. He is the enemy of affected, stilted, contorted expressions. Most of all,
he wants truth in musical sentiment, and so he makes a psychological study of
his emotions to convey them as they are. Thus, a strong expression is often
followed by a sense of fatigue and dejection, a kind of coldness, because this
is the way nature works."
Possibly influenced by Paganini's showmanship, once Liszt began focusing on
his career as a pianist again, his emotionally vivid presentations of the music
were rarely limited to mere sound. His facial expression and gestures at the
piano would reflect what he played, for which he was sometimes mocked in
the press. Also noted were the extravagant liberties he could take with the text
of a score at this time. Berlioz tells us how Liszt would add cadenzas, tremolos
and trills when playing the first movement of Beethoven's Moonlight Sonata,
and created a dramatic scene by changing the tempo between Largo and
Presto. In his Baccalaureus letter to George Sand from the beginning of 1837,
Liszt admitted that he had done so for the purpose of gaining applause, and
promised to follow both the letter and the spirit of a score from then on. It has
been debated to what extent he realized his promise, however. By July 1840
the British newspaper The Times could still report
"His performance commenced with Händel's Fugue in E minor, which was
played by Liszt with an avoidance of everything approaching to meretricious
ornament, and indeed scarcely any additions, except a multitude of
ingeniously contrived and appropriate harmonies, casting a glow of colour over
the beauties of the composition, and infusing into it a spirit which from no other
hand it ever received."
4.Repertoire
During his years as a travelling virtuoso, Liszt performed an enormous amount
of music throughout Europe, but his core repertoire always centered around
his own compositions, paraphrases and transcriptions. Of Liszt's German
concerts between 1840 and 1845, the five most frequently played pieces were
the Grand galop chromatique, Schubert's Erlkönigin
( Liszt's transcription)
,R
é
miniscences de Don Juan, R é miniscences de Robert le Diable, and
Réminiscences de Lucia de Lammermoor. Among the works by other
composers we find compositions like Weber's Invitation to the Dance, Chopin
mazurkas, études by composers like Ignaz Moscheles, Chopin and Ferdinand
Hiller, but also major works by Beethoven, Schumann, Weber and Hummel,
and from time to time even selections from Bach, Handel and Scarlatti.
Most of the concerts at this time were shared with other artists, and as a result
Liszt also often accompanied singers, participated in chamber music, or
performed works with an orchestra in addition to his own solo part. Frequently
played works include Weber's Konzertstück, Beethoven's Emperor Concerto
and Choral Fantasy, and Liszt's reworking of the Hexameron for piano and
orchestra. His chamber music repertoire included Hummel's Septet,
Beethoven's Archduke Trio and Kreutzer Sonata, and a large selection of
songs by composers like Rossini, Donizetti, Beethoven and especially
Schubert. At some concerts, Liszt could not find musicians to share the
program with, and consequently was among the first to give solo piano recitals
in the modern sense of the word. The term was coined by the publisher
Frederick Beale, who suggested it for Liszt's concert at the Hanover Square
Rooms in London on June 9, 1840, even though Liszt had given concerts all
by himself already by March 1839.
5.Musical works
Piano music
The largest and best-known portion of Liszt's music is his original piano work.
His thoroughly revised masterwork, "Années de pèlerinage" ("Years of
Pilgrimage")includes arguably his most provocative and stirring pieces. This
set of three suites ranges from the virtuosity of the Suisse OrageStorm)
(
to the
subtle and imaginative visualizations of artworks by Michelangelo and Raphael
in the second set. "Années" contains some pieces which are loose
transcriptions of Liszt's own earlier compositions; the first "year" recreates his
early pieces of "Album d'un voyageur", while the second book includes a
resetting of his own song transcriptions once separately published as "Tre
sonetti di Petrarca""Three
(
sonnets of Petrarch")
. The relative obscurity of the
vast majority of his works may be explained by the immense number of pieces
he composed, and the level of technical difficulty which was present in much of
his composition.
Liszt's piano works are usually divided into two categories. On the one hand,
there are "original works", and on the other hand "transcriptions",
"paraphrases" or "fantasies" on works by other composers. Examples for the
first category are works such as the piece Harmonies poétiques et religieuses
of May 1833 and the Piano Sonata in B minor 1853)
( . Liszt's
transcriptions of
Schubert songs, his fantasies on operatic melodies, and his piano
arrangements of symphonies by Berlioz and Beethoven are examples from the
second category. As special case, Liszt also made piano arrangements of his
own instrumental and vocal works. Examples of this kind are the arrangement
of the second movement "Gretchen" of his Faust Symphony and the first
"Mephisto Waltz" as well as the "Liebesträume No. 3" and the two volumes of
his "Buch der Lieder".
TranscriptionsSee also: Franz Liszt's treatments of the works of other
composers
Liszt wrote transcriptions for piano of a wide variety of music. He played many
of them himself in his celebrated performances. In the mid-19th century,
orchestral performances were much less common than they are today, and
were not available at all outside major cities, so Liszt's transcriptions played a
major role in popularizing a wide array of music such as the symphonies of
Beethoven. When Liszt wrote transcriptions of works by other composers, he
invested a lot of creativity in doing so. Instead of just overtaking original
melodies and harmonies, he ameliorated them. In the case of his fantasies
and transcriptions in the Italian style, composers such as Bellini and Donizetti
knew that certain forms, usually periods of eight measures, were to be filled
with music. Occasionally, while the first half of a period was composed with
inspiration, the second half was added with mechanical routine. Liszt changed
this by modifying the melody, bass and occasionally the harmonies.
Liszt's transcriptions yielded results that were often more inventive than what
Liszt or the original composer could have achieved alone. Some notable
examples are the Sonnambula-fantasy Bellini)
(
, the Rigoletto
Verdi)
( , the Faus
-Paraphrase
t-Walzer (Gounod), and Réminiscences de Don Juan
(Mozart). Hans von Bülow admitted that Liszt's transcription of his Dante
Sonett "Tanto gentile" was much more refined than the original he himself had
composed. Liszt's transcriptions of Schubert songs, his fantasies on operatic
melodies, and his piano arrangements of symphonies by Berlioz and
Beethoven are other well-known examples of piano transcriptions.
Organ music
Liszt wrote his two largest organ works between 1850 and 1855 while he was
living in Weimar, a city with a long tradition of organ music, most notably that of
J.S. Bach. Humphrey Searle calls these works – Ad nos, ad salutarem undam
and the Prelude and Fugue on B-A-C-H – Liszt's "only important original organ
works", and Derek Watson, writing in his 1989 Liszt, considered them among
the most significant organ works of the nineteenth century, heralding the work
of such key organist-musicians as Reger, Franck, and Saint-Saens, among
others. Ad nos is an extended fantasia, Adagio, and fugue, lasting over half an
hour, and the Prelude and Fugue on B-A-C-H includes chromatic writing which
sometimes removes the sense of tonality. Liszt also wrote some smaller organ
works, including a prelude 1854)
(
and set of variations on the first section of
movement 2 chorus from Bach's cantata Weinen, Klagen, Sorgen, Zagen,
BWV 12which
(
Bach later reworked as the Crucifixus in the Mass in B minor)
,
which he composed after the death of his daughter in 1862. He also wrote a
Requiem for organ solo, intended to be performed liturgically, along with the
spoken Requiem Mass.
Original songs
Franz Liszt composed about six dozen original songs with piano
accompaniment. In most cases the lyrics were in German or French, but there
are also some songs in Italian and Hungarian and one song in English. Liszt
began with the song "Angiolin dal biondo crin" in 1839, and by 1844 had
composed about two dozen songs. Some of them had been published as
single pieces. In addition, there was an 1843–1844 series "Buch der Lieder".
The series had been projected for three volumes, consisting of six songs each,
but only two volumes appeared.
Today, Liszt's songs are relatively obscure. As an exception, most frequently
the song "Ich möchte hingehen" is cited. It is because of a single bar, most
resembling the opening motif of Wagner's Tristan und Isolde. While it is
commonly claimed that Liszt wrote that motif ten years before Wagner started
work on his masterpiece,[51] it has turned out that this is not true: the original
version of "Ich möchte hingehn" was composed in 1844 or 1845. There are
four manuscripts, and only a single one, a copy by August Conradi, contains
the said bar with the Tristan motif. It is on a paste-over in Liszt's hand. Since in
the second half of 1858 Liszt was preparing his songs for publication, and he
just at that time received the first act of Wagner's Tristan, it is most likely that
the version on the paste-over was a quotation from Wagner.[52] This is not to
say the motif was originally invented by Wagner. An earlier example can be
found in bar 100 of Liszt's Ballade No. 2 in B minor for piano, composed in
1853.
Programme music
A statue of Liszt in Kalocsa, HungaryLiszt, in some of his works, supported the
relatively new idea of programme music – that is, music intended to evoke
extra-musical ideas such as a depiction of a landscape, a poem, a particular
character or personage. By
( contrast, absolute music stands for itself and is
intended to be appreciated without any particular reference to the outside
world.)
Liszt's own point of view regarding programme music can for the time of his
youth be taken from the preface of the Album d'un voyageur1837)
( . According
to this, a landscape could evoke a certain kind of mood. Since a piece of music
could also evoke a mood, a mysterious resemblance with the landscape could
be imagined. In this sense the music would not paint the landscape, but it
would match the landscape in a third category, the mood.
In July 1854 Liszt stated in his essay about Berlioz and Harold in Italy that not
all music was programme music. If, in the heat of a debate, a person would go
so far as to claim the contrary, it would be better to put all ideas of programme
music aside. But it would be possible to take means like harmony, modulation,
rhythm, instrumentation and others to let a musical motif endure a fate. In any
case, a programme should be added to a piece of music only if it was
necessarily needed for an adequate understanding of that piece.
Still later, in a letter to Marie d'Agoult of November 15, 1864, Liszt
wrote:"Without any reserve I completely subscribe to the rule of which you so
kindly want to remind me, that those musical works which are in a general
sense following a programme must take effect on imagination and emotion,
independent of any programme. In other words: All beautiful music must be
first rate and always satisfy the absolute rules of music which are not to be
violated or prescribed"
Symphonic poems
Die Hunnenschlacht, as painted by Wilhelm von Kaulbach, which in turn
inspired one of Liszt's symphonic poemsSee also: Symphonic poemsLiszt)
(
A symphonic poem or tone poem is a piece of orchestral music in one
movement in which some extramusical program provides a narrative or
illustrative element. This program may come from a poem, a story or novel, a
painting, or another source. The term was first applied by Liszt to his 13
one-movement orchestral works in this vein. They were not pure symphonic
movements in the classical sense because they dealt with descriptive subjects
taken from mythology, Romantic literature, recent history or imaginative
fantasy. In other words, these works were programmatic rather than abstract.
The form was a direct product of Romanticism which encouraged literary,
pictorial and dramatic associations in music. It developed into an important
form of program music in the second half of the 19th century.
The first 12 symphonic poems were composed in the decade 1848–58though
(
some use material conceived earlier)
; one other, Von der Wiege bis zum
Grabe From
(
the
Cradle to the Grave)
, followed in 1882. Liszt's intent,
according to Hugh MacDonald in the New Grove Dictionary of Music and
Musicians 1980)
( , was for these single
-movement works "to display the
traditional logic of symphonic thought." That logic, embodied in sonata form as
musical development, was traditionally the unfolding of latent possibilities in
given themes in rhythm, melody and harmony, either in part or in their entirety,
as they were allowed to combine, separate and contrast with one another. To
the resulting sense of struggle, Beethoven had added an intensity of feeling
and the involvement of his audiences in that feeling, beginning from the Eroica
Symphony to use the elements of the craft of music—melody, bass,
counterpoint, rhythm and harmony—in a new synthesis of elements toward
this end.
Liszt attempted in the symphonic poem to extend this revitalization of the
nature of musical discourse and add to it the Romantic ideal of reconciling
classical formal principles to external literary concepts. To this end, he
combined elements of overture and symphony with descriptive elements,
approaching symphonic first movements in form and scale. While showing
extremely creative amendments to sonata form, Liszt used compositional
devices such as cyclic form, motifs and thematic transformation to lend these
works added coherence.[60] Their composition proved daunting, requiring a
continual process of creative experimentation that included many stages of
composition, rehearsal and revision to reach a version where different parts of
the musical form seemed balanced.
Late works of Franz Liszt
Liszt as caricatured in 1886 by Vanity Fair's 'Spy'With some works from the
end of the Weimar years, Liszt drifted more and more away from the musical
taste of his time. An early example is the melodrama "Der traurige Mönch"
"The
(
sad monk")after a poem by Nikolaus Lenau, composed in the beginning
of October 1860. While in the 19th century harmonies were usually considered
as major or minor triads to which dissonances could be added, Liszt took the
augmented triad as central chord.
More examples can be found in the third volume of Liszt's Années de
Pélerinage. "Les Jeux d'Eaux à la Villa d'Este" ("The Fountains of the Villa
d'Este")
, composed in September 1877, foreshadow s the impressionism of
pieces on similar subjects by Debussy and Ravel. However, other pieces such
as the "Marche funèbre, En mémoire de Maximilian I, Empereur du Mexique"
"Funeral
(
march, In memory of Maximilian I, Emperor of Mexico")composed in
1867 are without stylistic parallel in the 19th and 20th centuries.
At a later stage, Liszt experimented with "forbidden" things such as parallel
5ths in the "Csárdás macabre" and atonality in the Bagatelle sans tonalité
"Bagatelle
(
without Tonality")
. Pieces like
the "2nd Mephisto-Waltz" are
unconventional because of their numerous repetitions of short motives. Also
characteristic are the "Via crucis" of 1878, as well as Unstern!, Nuages gris,
and the two works entitled La lugubre gondola of the 1880s.
Literary works
Besides his musical works, Liszt wrote essays about many subjects. Most
important for an understanding of his development is the article series "De la
situation des artistes""On
( the situation of artists")which was published in the
Parisian Gazette musicale in 1835. In winter 1835–36, during Liszt's stay in
Geneva, about half a dozen further essays followed. One of them that was
slated to be published under the pseudonym "Emm Prym" was about Liszt's
own works. It was sent to Maurice Schlesinger, editor of the Gazette musicale.
Schlesinger, however, following the advice of Berlioz, did not publish it. In the
beginning of 1837, Liszt published a review of some piano works of Sigismond
Thalberg. The review provoked a huge scandal. Liszt also published a series
of writings titled "Baccalaureus letters", ending in 1841.
During the Weimar years, Liszt wrote a series of essays about operas, leading
from Gluck to Wagner. Liszt also wrote essays about Berlioz and the
symphony Harold in Italy, Robert and Clara Schumann, John Field's nocturnes,
songs of Robert Franz, a planned Goethe foundation at Weimar, and other
subjects. In addition to essays, Liszt wrote a book about Chopin as well as a
book about the RomanisGypsies)
(
and their music in Hungary.
While all of those literary works were published under Liszt's name, it is not
quite clear which parts of them he had written himself. It is known from his
letters that during the time of his youth there had been collaboration with Marie
d'Agoult. During the Weimar years it was the Princess Wittgenstein who
helped him. In most cases the manuscripts have disappeared so that it is
difficult to determine which of Liszt's literary works were actually works of his
own. However, until the end of his life it was Liszt's point of view that it was he
who was responsible for the contents of those literary works.
Liszt also worked until at least 1885 on a treatise for modern harmony. Pianist
Arthur Friedheim, who also served as Liszt's personal secretary, remembered
seeing it among Liszt's papers at Weimar. Liszt told Friedheim that the time
was not yet ripe to publish the manuscript, titled Sketches for a Harmony of the
Future. Unfortunately, this treatise has been lost.
Liszt also wrote a biography of his friend and fellow composer Frédéric Chopin,
"Life of Chopin".
Legacy
Although there was a period in which many considered Liszt's works "flashy"
or superficial, it is now held that many of Liszt's compositions such as Nuages
gris, Les jeux d'eaux à la villa d'Este, etc., which contain parallel fifths, the
whole-tone scale, parallel diminished and augmented triads, and unresolved
dissonances, anticipated and influenced twentieth century music like that of
Debussy, Ravel and Bartok.
章节名称
Hector Berlioz
学时数
授课时间
第十三周 5.7 周一 1.2 节
教学进度
学生考勤
应到:16 实到:14 请假:1
旷课: 1
理论课●
实验课□ 上机课□
讨论课□
习题课□
课程类型
□
教学方法
精讲;欣赏;多媒体
目的要求
Master Berlioz's works
重点
Appreciate Fantasy Symphony
难点
思考题
Back to sing some fantasy theme
作业
教学后记
条理性欠缺;语言表述应在清晰些
2
正常
技能课□
其他
作业批改
及实验记
录
一 life
Hector Berlioz pronounced:
(
[ ɛktɔʁ bɛʁˈljoːz]; 11 December 1803 – 8
March 1869)was a French Romantic composer, best known for his
compositions Symphonie fantastique and Grande messe des morts
Requiem)
(
. Berlioz ma
de significant contributions to the modern orchestra
with his Treatise on Instrumentation. He specified huge orchestral forces
for some of his works; as a conductor, he performed several concerts with
more than 1,000 musicians. He also composed around 50 songs. His
influence was critical for the further development of Romanticism,
especially in composers like Richard Wagner, Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov,
Franz Liszt, Richard Strauss, Gustav Mahler and many others
二、Musical works
The five movement Symphonie fantastique, partly due to its fame, is
considered by most to be Berlioz's most outstanding work, and the work
had a considerable impact when first performed in 1830, 3 years after the
death of Beethoven and 2 years after that of Schubert. It is famous for its
innovations in the form of the programmatic symphony. The story behind
this work relates to Berlioz himself and can be considered somewhat
autobiographical.
In addition to the Symphonie fantastique, some other orchestral works of
Berlioz currently in the standard orchestral repertoire include his "légende
dramatique" La damnation de Faust and "symphonie dramatique" Roméo
et Julietteboth
(
large -scale works for mixed voices and orchestra)
, and his
concertante symphony for
( viola and orchestra)Harold en Italie, several
concert overtures also remain enduringly popular, such as Le Corsaire and
Le Carnaval romain. Amongst his more vocally oriented works, the song
cycle Les nuits d'été and the oratorio L'enfance du Christ have retained
enduring appeal, as have the quasi-liturgical Te Deum and Grande messe
des morts.
The unconventional music of Berlioz irritated the established concert and
operascene. Berlioz often had to arrange for his own performances as well
as pay for them himself. This took a heavy toll on him financiallyand
emotionally. The nature of his large works – sometimes involving hundreds
of performers– made financial success difficult. His journalistic abilities
became essential for him to make a living and he survived as a witty critic,
emphasizing the importance of drama and expressiveness in musical
entertainment. It was perhaps this expense which prevented Berlioz from
composing more opera than he did. His talent in the genre is obvious, but
opera is the most expensive of all classical forms, and Berlioz in particular
struggled to arrange stagings of his operas, due in part to the unwillingness
of conservative Paris opera companies to perform his work.
Literary worksWhile Berlioz is best known as a composer, he was also a
prolific writer, and supported himself for many years by writing musical
criticism, utilising a bold, vigorous style, at times imperious and sarcastic.
He wrote for many journals, including the Rénovateur,[108] Journal des
débats and Gazette musicale. He was active in the Débats for over thirty
years until submitting his last signed article in 1863. Almost from the
founding, Berlioz was a key member of the editorial board of the Gazette as
well as a contributor, and acted as editor on several occasions while the
owner was otherwise engaged. Berlioz took full advantage of his times as
editor, allowing himself to increase his articles written on music history
rather than current events, evidenced by him publishing seven articles on
Gluck in the Gazette between June 1834 and January 1835. An example of
the amount of work he produced is indicated in his producing over
one-hundred articles for the Gazette between 1833 and 1837. This is a
conservative estimate, as not all of his submissions were signed.[110] In
1835 alone, due to one of his many times of financial difficulty, he wrote
four articles for the Monde dramatique, twelve for the Gazette, nineteen for
the Débats and thirty-seven for the Rénovateur. These were not mere
scribbles, but in-depth articles and reviews with little duplication, which took
considerable time to write.
Berlioz in 1863Another noteworthy indicator of the importance Berlioz
placed on journalistic integrity and even-handedness were the journals
which he both did and did not write for. During the middle of the 1830s the
Gazette was considered an intellectual journal, strongly supporting the
progressive arts and Romanticism in general, and opposing anything which
it considers as debasing this. Exemplified in its long-standing criticism of
Henri Herz, and his seemingly endless stream of variations on opera
themes, but to its credit, it also positively reviewed his music on occasion.
Its writers included Alexandre Dumas, Honoré de Balzac and George Sand.
The Gazette wasn't even unanimous in its praise of Berlioz's music,
although it always recognised him as an important and serious composer
to be respected. An example of another journal of the same time is the
Revue musicale, which thrived on personal attacks, many against Berlioz
himself from the pen of critic François-Joseph Fétis. At one point, Robert
Schumann was motivated to publish a detailed rebuttal of one of Fétis'
attacks on Berlioz's Symphonie fantastique in his own Neue Zeitschrift für
Musik journal. Fétis would later contribute to the debasement of the
reputation of the Gazette when his journal failed and was absorbed by the
Gazette, he found himself on the editorial board.
The books which Berlioz has become acclaimed for were compiled from his
journal articles. Les soirées de l’orchestre (Evenings with the Orchestra)
1852)
( , a scathing satire of provincial musical life in 19th century France,
and the Treatise on Instrumentation, a pedagogic work, were both
serialised originally in the Gazette musicale. Many parts of the Mémoires
(1870) were originally published in the Journal des débats, as well as Le
monde illustré. The Mémoires paint a magisterial (if biased) portrait of the
Romantic era through the eyes of one of its chief protagonists. Evenings
with the Orchestra is more overtly fictional than his other two major books,
but its basis in reality is its strength, making the stories it recounts all the
funnier due to the ring of truth. W. H. Auden praises it, saying "To succeed
in, as Berlioz most brilliantly does, requires a combination of qualities which
is very rare, the many-faceted curiosity of the dramatist with the
aggressively personal vision of the lyric poet." The Treatise established his
reputation as a master of orchestration. The work was closely studied by
Gustav Mahler and Richard Strauss and served as the foundation for a
subsequent textbook by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, who, as a music student,
attended the concerts Berlioz conducted in Moscow and Saint Petersburg.
章节名称
Wagner
学时数
授课时间
第十四周 5.14 周一 1.2 节
教学进度
学生考勤
应到:16
理论课●
实到:13 请假:2
讨论课□
习题课□
实验课□ 上机课□
□
目的要求
正常
旷课: 1
课程类型
教学方法
2
精讲;欣赏;多媒体
Understanding of works and style
技能课□
其他
重点
meaning
of motivation
难点
思考题
What are representative music dramas of Wagner
作业
教学后记
条理性欠缺;语言表述应在清晰些
作业批改
及实验记
录
1、life
Wilhelm Richard Wagner (/ ˈvɑːɡnər/;22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883)was
a German composer, conductor, theatre director and polemicist primarily
known for his operas or
( "music dramas", as they are sometimes called)
. His
compositions, particularly those of his later period, are notable for their
complex texture, rich harmonies and orchestration, and the elaborate use of
leitmotifs: musical themes associated with individual characters, places, ideas
or plot elements. His advances in musical language, such as extreme
chromaticism and quickly shifting tonal centres, greatly influenced the
development of European classical music. His Tristan und Isolde is sometimes
described as marking the start of modern music.
Initially establishing his reputation as a composer of works which were broadly
in the romantic vein of Weber and Meyerbeer, Wagner transformed operatic
thought through his concept of the Gesamtkunstwerk"total
(
work of art")
. This
had the objective of the synthesis of all the poetic, visual, musical and dramatic
arts, with music subsidiary to drama, and was announced in a series of essays
between 1849 and 1852. Wagner realized this concept most fully in the first
half of the monumental four-opera cycle Der Ring des NibelungenThe
( R ing)
.
However, his thoughts on the relative importance of music and drama were to
change again, and he reintroduced some traditional forms into his last few
stage works,
Unlike most other opera composers, Wagner wrote both the music and libretto
for all of his stage works. He had his own opera house built, the Bayreuth
Festspielhaus, which contained many novel design features. It was here that
the Ring and Parsifal received their premieres and where his most important
stage works continue to be performed today in an annual festival run by his
descendants.
Wagner's life was characterized, until his last decades, by political exile,
turbulent love affairs, poverty and repeated flight from his creditors. The effect
of his ideas can be traced in many of the arts throughout the 20th century; their
influence spread beyond composition into conducting, philosophy, literature,
the visual arts and theatre. Wagner's controversial writings on music, drama
and politics have attracted extensive comment in recent decades, especially
where they have antisemitic content.
2. Works
Wagner's operatic works are his primary artistic legacy. Unlike other opera
composers, who generally left the task of writing the librettothe
( text and lyrics)
to others, Wagner wrote his own libretti, which he referred to as "poems".He
urged a new concept of opera often referred to as "music drama"although
(
he
did not use or sanction this term himself)
, in which all musical poetic and
dramatic elements were to be fused together—the Gesamtkunstwerk. Wagner
developed a compositional style in which the orchestra importance is equal to
that of the singers. The orchestra's dramatic role in the later operas includes
the use of leitmotifs, musical phrases that can be interpreted as announcing
specific characters, locales, and plot elements; their complex interweaving and
evolution illuminates the progression of the drama.
Wagner's operas are typically characterized as belonging to three
chronological periods.
Early stageto
( 1842)
Opening of Overture to Der fliegende Holländer in Wagner's hand and with his
notes to the publisherWagner's earliest attempts at opera were often
uncompleted. Abandoned works include Die Laune des Verliebten, written at
the age of 17, Die HochzeitThe
( Wedd ing)
, on which Wagner worked in 1832,
and the singspiel Männerlist grösser als Frauenlist. Die Feen The
(
Fairies,
1833)was unperformed in the composer's lifetime and Das LiebesverbotThe
(
Ban on Love, 1836)was withdrawn after its first performanc e. Rienzi 1842)
(
was Wagner's first opera to be successfully staged.[125] The compositional
style of these early works was conventional—the relatively more sophisticated
Rienzi showing the clear influence of Meyerbeerean Grand Opera—and did
not exhibit the innovations that would mark Wagner's place in musical history.
Later in life, Wagner said that he did not consider these works to be part of his
oeuvre; none of them has ever been performed at the Bayreuth Festival,[126]
and they have been performed only rarely in the last hundred years although
(
the overture to Rienzi is an occasional concert piece)
.
Middle stage 1843
(
–51)
Wagner's middle stage output begins to show the
deepening of his powers as a dramatist and composer. This period began with
Der fliegende Holländer1843;
(
The Flying Dutchman)
, followed by Tannh äuser
1845)
(
and Lohengrin 1850)
( . These three operas reinforced the reputation,
amongst the public in Germany and beyond, that Wagner had begun to
establish for himself with Rienzi. Although distancing himself from the style of
these operas from 1849 onwards, he reworked both the Dutchman and
Tannhäuser on several occasions. The three operas are the earliest works
included into the Bayreuth canon, the mature operas that Cosima put on at the
Bayreuth Festival after Wagner's death in accordance with his wishes. They
continue to be regularly performed today and have been frequently recorded.
They show increasing mastery in stagecraft, orchestration and atmosphere
Late stage1851
(
–1882) Starting the Ring
Brünnhilde the Valkyrie, as illustrated by Arthur Rackham 1910)
( Main articles:
Der Ring des Nibelungen, Der Ring des Nibelungen: Composition of the music
and Der Ring des Nibelungen: Composition of the poem
Wagner's late dramas are considered his masterpieces. Der Ring des
Nibelungen, commonly referred to as the Ring or Ring Cycle, is a set of four
operas
based
loosely
on
figures
and
elements
of
Germanic
mythology—particularly from the later Norse mythology—notably the Old
Norse Poetic Edda and Volsunga Saga, and the Middle High German
Nibelungenlied. They were also influenced by Wagner's concepts of ancient
Greek drama, in which tetralogies were a component of Athenian festivals, and
which he had amply discussed in his essay "Oper und Drama".
The first two components of the Ring Cycle were Das Rheingold The
(
Rhinegold), which he completed in 1854, and Die Walküre (The Valkyrie),
which he finished in 1856. In Das Rheingold, with its "relentlessly talky 'realism'
[and] the absence of lyrical 'numbers'", Wagner came very close to the pure
musical ideals of his 1849–51 essays. Die Walküre, with Siegmund's almost
full-blown aria (Winterstürme) in the first act, and the quasi-choral appearance
of the Valkyries themselves, shows more "operatic" traits, but has been
assessed as "the music drama that most satisfactorily embodies the
theoretical principles of 'Oper und Drama' [...] A thoroughgoing synthesis of
poetry and music is achieved without any notable sacrifice in musical
expression".
Tristan und Isolde and Die Meistersinger
Franz Betz, who created the role of Hans Sachs in Die Meistersinger, and
sang Wotan in the first complete Ring cycle.While still composing the Ring,
leaving the third Ring opera Siegfried uncompleted for the moment, Wagner
paused between 1857 and 1864 to compose the tragic love story Tristan und
Isolde and his only mature comedy Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg (The
Mastersingers of Nuremberg)
, two works that are also part of the regular
operatic canon
Tristan is often granted a special place in musical history; many see it as the
beginning of the move away from conventional harmony and tonality and
consider that it lays the groundwork for the direction of classical music in the
20th century. Wagner himself felt that his musico-dramatical theories were
most perfectly realized in this work with its use of "the art of transition" between
dramatic elements and the balance achieved between vocal and orchestral
lines.
Die Meistersinger was originally conceived by Wagner in 1845 as a sort of
comic pendant to Tannhäuser. It was first performed in Munich, again under
the baton of Bülow, on 21 June 1868, its accessibility making it an immediate
success. It is "a rich, perceptive music drama widely admired for its warm
humanity"; but because of its strong German nationalist overtones, it is also
held up by some as an example of Wagner's reactionary politics and
antisemitism.
Completing the RingWhen Wagner returned to writing the music for the last
act of Siegfried and for Götterdämmerung Twilight
(
of the Gods)
, as the final
part of the Ring was eventually called, his style had changed once more to
something more recognisable as "operatic" than the aural world of Rheingold
and Walküre, though it was still thoroughly stamped with his own originality as
a composer and suffused with leitmotivs.[140] This was in part because the
libretti of the four Ring operas had been written in reverse order, so that the
book for Götterdämmerung was conceived more "traditionally" than that of
Rheingold;[141] still, the self-imposed strictures of the Gesamtkunstwerk had
become relaxed. However, the differences also result from Wagner's
development as a composer during the period in which he wrote Tristan,
Meistersinger and the Paris version of Tannhäuser. From Act III of Siegfried
onwards, the Ring becomes more chromatic melodically, and both
harmonically more complex and more developmental in its treatment of
leitmotifs.
Wagner took 26 years from writing the first draft of a libretto in 1848 until he
completed of Götterdämmerung in 1874. The Ring takes about 15 hours to
perform and is the only undertaking of such size to be regularly presented on
the world's stages.
ParsifalWagner's final opera, Parsifal 1882)
( , which was his only work written
especially for his Festspielhaus in Bayreuth and which is described in the
score as a "Bühnenweihfestspiel" (festival play for the consecration of the
stage)
, has a storyline suggested by elements of the legend of the Holy Grail. It
also carries elements of Buddhist renunciation suggested by Wagner's
readings of Schopenhauer. Wagner described it to Cosima as his "last
card".The composer's treatment of Christianity in the opera, its eroticism, and
its supposed relationship to ideas of German nationalismand
( of antisemitism)
have continued to render it controversial for non-musical reasons. However,
musically it has been held to represent a continuing development of the
composer's style, with "a diaphanous score of unearthly beauty and
refinement".
[edit] Non-operatic music
André Gill suggesting that Wagner's music was ear-splitting. Cover of
L'Eclipse 18 April 1869Apart from his operas, Wagner composed relatively few
pieces of music. These include a single symphonywritten
(
at the age of 19)
,a
Faust Overture the
( only completed part of an intended symphony on the
subject)
, and some overtures, choral and piano pieces. His most commonly
performed work that is not an extract from an opera is the Siegfried Idyll, a
piece for chamber orchestra written for the birthday of his second wife, Cosima.
The Idyll has several motifs in common with the Ring cycle, though it is not
itself part of the Ring. The Wesendonck Lieder also receive frequent
performances, either with orchestral accompaniment or in the original piano
version. More rarely performed are the American Centennial March of 1876,
commissioned by the city of Philadelphia and Das Liebesmahl der Apostel
The
(
Love Feast of the Apostles)
, a piece for male choruses and orchestra,
composed in 843 for the city of Dresden.
After completing Parsifal, Wagner expressed his intention to turn to the writing
of symphonies, and several sketches dating from the late 1870s and early
1880s have been identified as work toward this endThe overtures and certain
orchestral passages from Wagner's middle and late-stage operas are
commonly played as concert pieces. For most of these, Wagner wrote or
rewrote short passages to ensure musical coherence. The "Bridal Chorus"
from Lohengrin is frequently played as the bride's processional wedding march
in English-speaking countries.
Prose
writingsSee
also:
Category:Essays
by
Richard
Wagner
and
Category:Autobiographical works by Richard Wagner
Wagner was an extremely prolific writer, authoring numerous books, poems,
and articles, as well as voluminous correspondence, throughout his life. His
writings covered a wide range of topics, including autobiography, politics,
philosophy, and detailed analyses of his own operas.
There have been several editions of Wagner's writings, including a centennial
edition in German edited by Dieter Borchmeyer which
(
however o mitted the
essay "Das Judenthum in der Musik")The English translations of Wagner's
prose in 8 volumes by W. Ashton Ellis 1892
(
–99)
, are still in print and
commonly used, despite their deficiencies. A complete edition of Wagner's
correspondence, estimated to amount to between 10,000 and 12,000 surviving
items, of which the first volume appeared in 1967, is still under way.
The Romantic
章节名称
music(
1820 —1900)
学时数
2
7、verdi
授课时间
学生考勤
第十五周 5.21 周一 1.2 节
应到:16
理论课●
实到:14 请假:2
讨论课□
习题课□
课程类型
□
教学方法
目的要求
精讲;欣赏;多媒体
Verdi's works and style
教学进度
正常
旷课: 无
实验课□ 上机课□
技能课□
其他
重点
features
of
O pera
难点
思考题
What are representative operas of verdi/
作业
教学后记
条理性欠缺;语言表述应在清晰些
作业批改
及实验记
录
1. life
Giuseppe Fortunino Francesco Verdi
10 October 1813 – 27 January 1901)
was an Italian Romantic composer, mainly of opera. Some of his themes have
long since taken root in popular culture – such as "La donna è mobile" from
Rigoletto, "Va, pensiero" The
( Chorus of the Hebrew Slaves)from Nabucco,
"Libiamo ne' lieti calici" The
( Drinking Song)from La traviata and the "Grand
March" from Aida.
Early life
Giuseppe Verdi in Vanity Fair187
(
9)
Verdi was born the son of Carlo Giuseppe
Verdi and Luigia Uttini in Le Roncole, a village near Busseto, The baptismal
register, on 11 October lists him as being "born yesterday", but since days
were often considered to begin at sunset, this could have meant either 9 or 10
October. The next day, he was baptized in the Roman Catholic Church in Latin
as Joseph Fortuninus Franciscus. The day after that Tuesday)
(
, Verdi's father
took his newborn the three miles to Busseto, where the baby was recorded as
Joseph Fortunin François; the clerk wrote in French. "So it happened that for
the civil and temporal world Verdi was born a Frenchman."
When he was still a child, Verdi's parents moved from Piacenza to Busseto,
where the future composer's education was greatly facilitated by visits to the
large library belonging to the local Jesuit school. Also in Busseto, Verdi was
given his first lessons in composition.
Verdi went to Milan when he was twenty to continue his studies. He took
private lessons in counterpoint while attending operatic performances, as well
as concerts of, specifically, German music. Milan's beaumonde association
convinced him that he should pursue a career as a theatre composer. During
the mid 1830s, he attended the Salotto Maffei salons in Milan, hosted by Clara
Maffei.
Returning to Busseto, he became the town music master and, with the support
of Antonio Barezzi, a local merchant and music lover who had long supported
Verdi's musical ambitions in Milan, Verdi gave his first public performance at
Barezzi's home in 1830.
Because he loved Verdi's music, Barezzi invited Verdi to be his daughter
Margherita's music teacher, and the two soon fell deeply in love. They were
married on 4 May 1836 and Margherita gave birth to two children, Virginia
Maria Luigia 26
( March 1837
– 12 August 1838)and Icilio Romano 11
( July
1838 – 22 October 1839)
. Both died in infancy while Verdi was working on his
first opera and, shortly afterwards, Margherita died of ncephalitison 18 June
1840, aged only 26. Verdi adored his wife and children, and he was devastated
by their deaths.
The production by Milan's La Scala of his first opera, Oberto in November
1839 achieved a degree of success, after which Bartolomeo Merelli, La Scala's
impresario, offered Verdi a contract for three more works.
It was while he was working on his second opera, Un giorno di regno, that
Verdi's wife died. The opera, given in September 1840, was a flop and he fell
into despair and vowed to give up musical composition forever. However,
Merelli persuaded him to write Nabucco and its opening performance in March
1842 made Verdi famous. Legend and
(
Verdi's own "An Autobiographical
Sketch" of 1879)has it that it was the words of the famous Va pensiero chorus
of the Hebrew slaves that inspired him to write music again. A large number of
operas – 14 in all – followed in the decade after 1843, a period which Verdi was
to describe as his "galley years". These included his I Lombardi in 1843, and
Ernani in 1844. For some, the most original and important opera that Verdi
wrote is Macbeth in 1847. For the first time, Verdi attempted an opera without
a love story, breaking a basic convention in 19th century Italian opera.
In 1847, I Lombardi, which was revised and renamed Jérusalem, was
produced by the Paris Opera. Due to a number of Parisian conventions that
had to be honored including
(
extensive ballets)
, it became Verdi's first work in
the French Grand opera style.
2. Role in the Risorgimento 意大利复兴运动
Music historians have long perpetuated a myth about the famous Va, pensiero
chorus sung in the third act of Nabucco. The myth reports that, when the Va,
pensiero chorus was sung in Milan, then belonging to the large part of Italy
under Austrian domination, the audience, responding with nationalistic fervor
to the exiled slaves' lament for their lost homeland, demanded an encore of the
piece. As encores were expressly forbidden by the government at the time,
such a gesture would have been extremely significant. However, recent
scholarship puts this to rest. Although the audience did indeed demand an
encore, it was not for Va, pensiero but rather for the hymn Immenso Jehova,
sung by the Hebrew slaves to thank God for saving His people. In light of these
new revelations, Verdi's position as the musical figurehead of the Risorgimento
has been correspondingly downplayed. Claudio, Verdi, Milan: Rusconi, 1982
On the other hand, during rehearsals, workmen in the theater stopped what
they were doing during Va, pensiero and applauded 鼓掌 at the conclusion of
this haunting melody while the growth of the "identification of Verdi's music
with Italian nationalist politics" is judged to have begun in the summer 1846 in
relation to a chorus from Ernani in which the name of one of its characters,
"Carlo", was changed to "Pio", a reference to Pope Pius IX's grant of an
amnesty to political prisoners.
After Italy was unified in 1861, many of Verdi's early operas were
re-interpreted as Risorgimento works with hidden Revolutionary messages
that probably had not been intended by either the composer or librettist.
Beginning in Naples in 1859 and spreading throughout Italy, the slogan "Viva
VERDI" was used as an acronym for Viva Vittorio Emanuele Re D'Italia Viva
(
Victor Emmanuel King of Italy)
, referri ng to Victor Emmanuel II, then king of
Sardinia.
The Chorus of the Hebrews the
( English title for Va, pensiero)has another
appearance in Verdi folklore. Prior to Verdi's body's being driven from the
cemetery to the official memorial service and its final resting place at the Casa
di Riposo per Musicisti, Arturo Toscanini conducted a chorus of 820 singers in
"Va, pensiero". At the Casa, the Miserere from Il trovatore was sung.
Verdi was elected as a member of the Chamber of Deputies in 1861 following
a request of Prime Minister Cavour but in 1865 he resigned from the office. In
1874 he was named Senator of the Kingdom by King Victor Emanuel II.
3. important works
A
Nabucco 那不科 short
(
for Nabucodonosor, English Nebuchadnezzar)is
an opera in four acts by Giuseppe Verdi to an Italian libretto by Temistocle
Solera, based on the Biblical story and the 1836 play by Auguste
Anicet-Bourgeois and Francis Cornue. It is Verdi’s third opera and the one
which is considered to have permanently established his reputation as a
composer.
Nabucco follows the plight of the Jews as they are assaulted, conquered, and
subsequently exiled from their homeland by the Babylonian King Nabucco in
(
English, Nebuchadnezzar)
. The historical events are used as background for a
romantic and political plot.
Its first performance took place on 9 March 1842 at the Teatro alla Scala, Milan
under the original name of Nabucodonosor. The definitive name of Nabucco
for the opera and
( its protagonist)was first used at a performance at the San
Giacomo Theatre of Corfu in September, 1844. Nonetheless, a more plausible
alternative for the establishment of this abbreviated form claims that it was the
result of a revival of the opera in Teatro Giglio of Lucca.
B
La traviata 茶花女 is an opera in three acts by Giuseppe Verdi set to an Italian
libretto by Francesco Maria Piave. It is based on La dame aux Camélias
1852)
( , a play adapted from the novel by Alexandre Dumas, fils. The title La
traviata means literally The Fallen Woman, or perhaps more figuratively, The
Woman Who Goes Astray. It was originally entitled Violetta, after the main
character.
Piave and Verdi wanted to follow Dumas in giving the opera a contemporary
setting, but the authorities at La Fenice insisted that it be set in the past, "c.
1700". It was not until the 1880s that the composer and librettist's original
wishes were carried out and "realistic" productions were staged.
C 游吟武士
Il trovatoreThe
( Troubadour)is an opera in four acts by Giuseppe Verdi to an
Italian libretto by Salvadore Cammarano, based on the play El Trovador1836)
(
by Antonio García Gutiérrez. Cammarano died in mid-1852 before completing
the libretto. This gave the composer the opportunity to propose significant
revisions, which were accomplished under his direction by the young librettist
Leone Emanuele Bardare,[1] and they are seen largely in the expansion of the
role of Leonora.
The opera was first performed at the Teatro Apollo, Rome, on 19 January 1853
where it "began a victorious march throughout the operatic world".[2] Today it
is given very frequently and is a staple of the standard operatic repertoire. It
appears at number 23 on the Operabase list of the most-performed operas
worldwide
章节名称
Mahler
学时数
授课时间
第十六周 5.28 周一 1.2 节
教学进度
学生考勤
应到:16
实到:14 请假:2
旷课: 无
2
正常
理论课●
讨论课□
习题课□
实验课□ 上机课□
技能课□
其他
课程类型
□
教学方法
精讲;欣赏;多媒体
目的要求
works and style
重点
难点
思考题
Mahler’s musical
features
Do you know Mahler's religion
作业
教学后记
条理性欠缺;语言表述应在清晰些
作业批改
及实验记
录
1. life
Gustav Mahler German
(
pronunciation: [ ˈɡʊstaf ˈmaːlɐ]; 7 July 1860 – 18
May 1911)was a late -Romantic Austrian composer and one of the leading
conductors of his generation. He was born in the village of Kalischt, Bohemia,
in what was then the Austrian Empire, now Kaliště in the Czech Republic.
Then his family moved to nearby Iglaunow
(
Jihlava)where Mahler grew up.
As a composer, he acted as a bridge between the 19th-century
Austro-German tradition and the modernism of the early 20th century. While in
his lifetime his status as a conductor was established beyond question, his
own music gained wide popularity only after periods of relative neglect which
included a ban on its performance in much of Europe during the Nazi era. After
1945 the music was discovered and championed by a new generation of
listeners; Mahler then became one of the most frequently performed and
recorded of all composers, a position he has sustained into the 21st century.
Born in humble circumstances, Mahler displayed his musical gifts at an early
age. After graduating from the Vienna Conservatory in 1878, he held a
succession of conducting posts of rising importance in the opera houses of
Europe, culminating in his appointment in 1897 as director of the Vienna Court
Opera Hofoper)
(
. During his ten years in Vienna, Mahler
—who had converted
to Catholicism from Judaism to secure the post—experienced regular
opposition and hostility from the anti-Semitic press. Nevertheless, his
innovative productions and insistence on the highest performance standards
ensured his reputation as one of the greatest of opera conductors, particularly
as an interpreter of the stage works of Wagner and Mozart. Late in his life he
was briefly director of New York's Metropolitan Opera and the New York
Philharmonic.
Mahler's œuvre is relatively small in size though extremely wide in scope,
depth and complexity. For much of his life composing was necessarily a
part-time activity while he earned his living as a conductor, but he devoted as
much time as he could to his compositions, faithfully reserving his summer
months for intense periods of creative concentration, supplemented as time
permitted during his active concert seasons with the tasks of editing and
orchestrating his expansive works. Aside from early works such as a
movement from a piano quartet composed when he was a student in Vienna,
Mahler's works are designed for large orchestral forces, symphonic choruses
and operatic soloists. Most of his twelve symphonic scores are very
large-scale works, often employing vocal soloists and choruses in addition to
augmented orchestral forces. These works were often controversial when first
performed, and several were slow to receive critical and popular approval;
exceptions included his Symphony No. 2, Symphony No. 3, and the triumphant
premiere of his Eighth Symphony in 1910. Some of Mahler's immediate
musical successors included the composers of the Second Viennese School,
notably Arnold Schoenberg, Alban Berg and Anton Webern. Shostakovich and
Benjamin Britten are among later 20th-century composers who admired and
were influenced by Mahler. The International Gustav Mahler Institute was
established in 1955, to honour the composer's life and work.\
2.mature composer
The demands of his twin appointments in Vienna initially absorbed all Mahler's
time and energy, but by 1899 he had resumed composing. The remaining
Vienna years were to prove particularly fruitful. While working on the last of his
Des Knaben Wunderhorn settings he started his Fourth Symphony, which he
completed in 1900. By this time he had abandoned the composing hut at
Steinbach and had acquired another, at Maiernigg on the shores of the
Wörthersee in Carinthia, where he later built a villa.[85] In this new venue
Mahler embarked upon what is generally considered as his "middle" or
post-Wunderhorn compositional period.[86] Between 1901 and 1904 he wrote
ten settings of poems by Friedrich Rückert, five of which were collected as
Rückert-Lieder. The other five formed the song cycle Kindertotenlieder
"Songs
(
on the Death of Children")
. The trilogy of orchestral symphonies, the
Fifth, the Sixth and the Seventh were composed at Maiernigg between 1901
and 1905, and the Eighth Symphony written there in 1906, in eight weeks of
furious activity.
Within this same period Mahler's works began to be performed with
increasing frequency. In April 1899 he conducted the Viennese premiere of his
Second Symphony; 17 February 1901 saw the first public performance of his
early work Das klagende Lied, in a revised two-part form. Later that year, in
November, Mahler conducted the premiere of his Fourth Symphony, in Munich,
and was on the rostrum for the first complete performance of the Third
Symphony, at the Allgemeiner Deutscher Musikverein festival at Krefeld on 9
June 1902. Mahler "first nights" now became increasingly frequent musical
events; he conducted the first performances of the Fifth and Sixth Symphonies
at Cologne and Essen respectively, in 1904 and 1906. Four of the Rückert
Lieder, and Kindertotenlieder, were introduced in Vienna on 29 January 1905.
3.Three creative periods and famous wofks
The opening of Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen, published 1897 in a version
for voice and pianoDeryck Cooke and other analysts have divided Mahler's
composing life into three distinct phases: a long "first period", extending from
Das klagende Lied in 1880 to the end of the Wunderhorn phase in 1901; a
"middle period" of more concentrated composition ending with Mahler's
departure for New York in 1907; and a brief "late period" of elegiac works
before his death in 1911
The main works of the first period are the first four symphonies, the Lieder
eines fahrenden Gesellen song cycle and various song collections in which the
Wunderhorn songs predominate. In this period songs and symphonies are
closely related and the symphonic works are programmatic. Mahler initially
gave the first three symphonies full descriptive programmes, all of which he
later repudiated. He devised, but did not publish, titles for each of the
movements for the Fourth Symphony; from these titles the German music critic
Paul Bekker conjectured a programme in which Death appears in the Scherzo
"in the friendly, legendary guise
the fiddler tempting his flock to follow him out
of this world".
The middle period comprises a triptych of purely instrumental symphoniesthe
(
Fifth, Sixth and Seventh), the Rückert songs and the Kindertotenlieder, two
final Wunderhorn settings and, in some reckonings, Mahler's last great
affirmative statement, the choral Eighth Symphony. Cooke believes that the
Eighth stands on its own, between the middle and final periods. Mahler had by
now abandoned all explicit programmes and descriptive titles; he wanted to
write "absolute" music that spoke for itself. Cooke refers to "a new granite-like
hardness of orchestration" in the middle-period symphonies, while the songs
have lost most of their folk character, and cease to fertilise the symphonies as
explicitly as before.
The works of the brief final period—Das Lied von der Erde, the Ninth and
incomplete)
(
Tenth Symphonies
—are expressions of personal experience, as
Mahler faced death.[128] Each of the pieces ends quietly, signifying that
aspiration has now given way to resignation. Cooke considers these works to
be a loving rather
(
than a
bitter)farewell to life; the composer Alban Berg
called the Ninth "the most marvellous thing that Mahler ever wrote". None of
these final works was performed in Mahler's lifetime.
章节名称
opera
授课时间
学生考勤
学时数
第十七周 6.4 周一 1.2 节
应到:16
理论课●
课程类型
□
实到: 12 请假:3
讨论课□
习题课□
教学进度
2
正常
旷课: 1
实验课□ 上机课□
技能课□
其他
教学方法
精讲;欣赏;多媒体
目的要求
The changes of National Opera
重点
Italian opera
难点
思考题
Opera’s change in different countries
作业
教学后记
条理性欠缺;语言表述应在清晰些
作业批改
及实验记
录
一、opera
Opera English
(
plural: operas; Italian pl ural: opere)is an art form in which
singers and musicians perform a dramatic work combining text called
(
a
libretto) and musical score, usually in a theatrical setting. Opera
incorporates many of the elements of spoken theatre, such as acting,
scenery, and costumes and sometimes includes dance. The performance
is typically given in an opera house, accompanied by an orchestra or
smaller musical ensemble.
Opera is part of the Western classical music tradition. It started in Italy at
the end of the 16th century with
(
Jacopo Peri's lost Dafne, produced in
Florence in 1598) and soon spread through the rest of Europe: Schütz in
Germany, Lully in France, and Purcell in England all helped to establish
their national traditions in the 17th century. In the 18th century, Italian
opera continued to dominate most of Europe, except France, attracting
foreign composers such as Handel. Opera seria was the most prestigious
form of Italian opera, until Gluck reacted against its artificiality with his
"reform" operas in the 1760s. Today the most renowned figure of late 18th
century opera is Mozart, who began with opera seria but is most famous for
his Italian comic operas, especially The Marriage of Figaro Le
( Nozze Di
Figaro), Don Giovanni, and Così fan tutte, as well as The Magic Flute Die
(
Zauberflöte)
, a landmark in the Germa n tradition.
The first third of the 19th century saw the highpoint of the bel canto style,
with Rossini, Donizetti and Bellini all creating works that are still performed
today. It also saw the advent of Grand Opera typified by the works of Auber
and Meyerbeer. The mid-to-late 19th century was a "golden age" of opera,
led and dominated by Wagner in Germany and Verdi in Italy. The popularity
of opera continued through the verismo era in Italy and contemporary
French opera through to Puccini and Strauss in the early 20th century.
During the 19th century, parallel operatic traditions emerged in central and
eastern Europe, particularly in Russia and Bohemia. The 20th century saw
many experiments with modern styles, such as atonality and serialism
Schoenberg
(
and Berg)
, Neoclassicism Stravinsky)
(
, and Minimalism
Philip
(
Glass and John Adams)
. With the rise of recording technology,
singers such as Enrico Caruso became known to audiences beyond the
circle of opera fans. Operas were also performed onand
( written for)radio
and television
2. Italian opera
The bel canto opera movement flourished in the early 19th century and is
exemplified by the operas of Rossini, Bellini, Donizetti, Pacini, Mercadante and
many others. Literally "beautiful singing", bel canto opera derives from the
Italian stylistic singing school of the same name. Bel canto lines are typically
florid and intricate, requiring supreme agility and pitch control.
Following the bel canto era, a more direct, forceful style was rapidly
popularized by Giuseppe Verdi, beginning with his biblical opera Nabucco.
Verdi's operas resonated with the growing spirit of Italian nationalism in the
post-Napoleonic era, and he quickly became an icon of the patriotic movement
although
(
his own politics were perhaps not quite so radical)
. In the early
1850s, Verdi produced his three most popular operas: Rigoletto, Il trovatore
and La traviata. But he continued to develop his style, composing perhaps the
greatest French Grand Opera, Don Carlos, and ending his career with two
Shakespeare-inspired works, Otello and Falstaff, which reveal how far Italian
opera had grown in sophistication since the early 19th century.
After Verdi, the sentimental "realistic" melodrama of verismo appeared in Italy.
This was a style introduced by Pietro Mascagni's Cavalleria rusticana and
Ruggiero Leoncavallo's Pagliacci that came virtually to dominate the world's
opera stages with such popular works as Giacomo Puccini's La bohème,
Tosca, and Madama Butterfly. Later Italian composers, such as Berio and
Nono, have experimented with modernism.[9]
3. German-language opera
The first German opera was Dafne, composed by Heinrich Schütz in 1627, but
the music score has not survived. Italian opera held a great sway over
German-speaking countries until the late 18th century. Nevertheless, native
forms developed too. In 1644 Sigmund Staden produced the first Singspiel,
Seelewig, a popular form of German-language opera in which singing
alternates with spoken dialogue. In the late 17th century and early 18th century,
the Theater am Gänsemarkt in Hamburg presented German operas by Keiser,
Telemann and Handel. Yet many of the major German composers of the time,
including Handel himself, as well as Graun, Hasse and later Gluck, chose to
write most of their operas in foreign languages, especially Italian.
Mozart's Singspiele, Die Entführung aus dem Serail (1782) and Die
Zauberflöte 1791)
(
were an important breakthrough in achieving international
recognition for German opera. The tradition was developed in the 19th century
by Beethoven with his Fidelio, inspired by the climate of the French Revolution.
Carl Maria von Weber established German Romantic opera in opposition to
the dominance of Italian bel canto. His Der Freischütz1821)
(
shows his genius
for creating a supernatural atmosphere. Other opera composers of the time
include Marschner, Schubert, Schumann and Lortzing, but the most significant
figure was undoubtedly Wagner.
Wagner was one of the most revolutionary and controversial composers in
musical history. Starting under the influence of Weber and Meyerbeer, he
gradually evolved a new concept of opera as a Gesamtkunstwerka( "complete
work of art")
, a fusion of music, poetry and painting. In his mature music
dramas, Tristan und Isolde, Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg, Der Ring des
Nibelungen and Parsifal, he abolished the distinction between aria and
recitative in favour of a seamless flow of "endless melody". He greatly
increased the role and power of the orchestra, creating scores with a complex
web of leitmotivs, recurring themes often associated with the characters and
concepts of the drama; and he was prepared to violate accepted musical
conventions, such as tonality, in his quest for greater expressivity. Wagner
also brought a new philosophical dimension to opera in his works, which were
usually based on stories from Germanic or Arthurian legend. Finally, Wagner
built his own opera house at Bayreuth with part of the patronage from Ludwig II
of Bavaria, exclusively dedicated to performing his own works in the style he
wanted.
Opera would never be the same after Wagner and for many composers his
legacy proved a heavy burden. On the other hand, Richard Strauss accepted
Wagnerian ideas but took them in wholly new directions. He first won fame
with the scandalous Salome and the dark tragedy Elektra, in which tonality
was pushed to the limits. Then Strauss changed tack in his greatest success,
Der Rosenkavalier, where Mozart and Viennese waltzes became as important
an influence as Wagner. Strauss continued to produce a highly varied body of
operatic works, often with libretti by the poet Hugo von Hofmannsthal, right up
until Capriccio in 1942. Other composers who made individual contributions to
German opera in the early 20th century include Zemlinsky, Korngold, Schreker,
Hindemith, Kurt Weill and the Italian-born Ferruccio Busoni. The operatic
innovations of Arnold Schoenberg and his successors are discussed in the
section on modernism.
4. french opera
In rivalry with imported Italian opera productions, a separate French tradition
was founded by the Italian Jean-Baptiste Lully at the court of King Louis XIV.
Despite his foreign origin, Lully established an Academy of Music and
monopolised French opera from 1672. Starting with Cadmus et Hermione,
Lully and his librettist Quinault created tragédie en musique, a form in which
dance music and choral writing were particularly prominent. Lully's operas also
show a concern for expressive recitative which matched the contours of the
French language. In the 18th century, Lully's most important successor was
Jean-Philippe Rameau, who composed five tragédies en musique as well as
numerous works in other genres such as opéra-ballet, all notable for their rich
orchestration and harmonic daring. After Rameau's death, the German Gluck
was persuaded to produce six operas for the Parisian stage in the 1770s. They
show the influence of Rameau, but simplified and with greater focus on the
drama. At the same time, by the middle of the 18th century another genre was
gaining popularity in France: opéra comique. This was the equivalent of the
German singspiel, where arias alternated with spoken dialogue. Notable
examples in this style were produced by Monsigny, Philidor and, above all,
Grétry. During the Revolutionary period, composers such as Méhul and
Cherubini, who were followers of Gluck, brought a new seriousness to the
genre, which had never been wholly "comic" in any case. Another
phenomenon of this period was the 'propaganda opera' celebrating
revolutionary successes, e.g.Gossec's Le triomphe de la République (1793).
By the 1820s, Gluckian influence in France had given way to a taste for Italian
bel canto, especially after the arrival of Rossini in Paris. Rossini's Guillaume
Tell helped found the new genre of Grand Opera, a form whose most famous
exponent was another foreigner, Giacomo Meyerbeer. Meyerbeer's works,
such as Les Huguenots emphasised virtuoso singing and extraordinary stage
effects. Lighter opéra comique also enjoyed tremendous success in the hands
of Boïeldieu, Auber, Hérold and Adolphe Adam. In this climate, the operas of
the French-born composer Hector Berlioz struggled to gain a hearing. Berlioz's
epic masterpiece Les Troyens, the culmination of the Gluckian tradition, was
not given a full performance for almost a hundred years.
In the second half of the 19th century, Jacques Offenbach created operetta
with witty and cynical works such as Orphée aux enfers, as well as the opera
Les Contes d'Hoffmann; Charles Gounod scored a massive success with
Faust; and Bizet composed Carmen, which, once audiences learned to accept
its blend of Romanticism and realism, became the most popular of all opéra
comiques. Massenet, Saint-Saëns and Delibes all composed works which are
still part of the standard repertory. At the same time, the influence of Richard
Wagner was felt as a challenge to the French tradition. Many French critics
angrily rejected Wagner's music dramas while many French composers
closely imitated them with variable success. Perhaps the most interesting
response came from Claude Debussy. As in Wagner's works, the orchestra
plays a leading role in Debussy's unique opera Pelléas et Mélisande (1902)
and there are no real arias, only recitative. But the drama is understated,
enigmatic and completely unWagnerian.
5. Russian opera
Opera was brought to Russia in the 1730s by the Italian operatic troupes and
soon it became an important part of entertainment for the Russian Imperial
Court and aristocracy. Many foreign composers such as Baldassare Galuppi,
Giovanni Paisiello, Giuseppe Sarti, and Domenico Cimarosa as
( well as
various others)were invited to Russia to compose new operas, mostly in the
Italian language. Simultaneously some domestic musicians like Maksym
Berezovsky and Dmitry Bortniansky were sent abroad to learn to write operas.
The first opera written in Russian was Tsefal i Prokris by the Italian composer
Francesco Araja 1755)
( . The development of Russian
-language opera was
supported by the Russian composers Vasily Pashkevich, Yevstigney Fomin
and Alexey Verstovsky.
However, the real birth of Russian opera came with Mikhail Glinka and his two
great operas A Life for the Tsar1836)
(
and Ruslan and Lyudmila1842)
( . After
him in the 19th century in Russia there were written such operatic
masterpieces as Rusalka and The Stone Guest by Alexander Dargomyzhsky,
Boris Godunov and Khovanshchina by Modest Mussorgsky, Prince Igor by
Alexander Borodin, Eugene Onegin and The Queen of Spades by Pyotr
Tchaikovsky, and The Snow Maiden and Sadko by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov.
These developments mirrored the growth of Russian nationalism across the
artistic spectrum, as part of the more general Slavophilism movement.
In the 20th century the traditions of Russian opera were developed by many
composers including Sergei Rachmaninoff in his works The Miserly Knight and
Francesca da Rimini, Igor Stravinsky in Le Rossignol, Mavra, Oedipus rex, and
The Rake's Progress, Sergei Prokofiev in The Gambler, The Love for Three
Oranges, The Fiery Angel, Betrothal in a Monastery, and War and Peace; as
well as Dmitri Shostakovich in The Nose and Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk
District, Edison Denisov in L'écume des jours, and Alfred Schnittke in Life with
an Idiot and Historia von D. Johann Fausten
章节名称
The twentieth century
学时数
授课时间
第十八周周一 1.2 节
教学进度
学生考勤
应到:16
理论课●
实到: 12 请假:3
讨论课□
习题课□
实验课□ 上机课□
□
目的要求
精讲;欣赏;多媒体
The style of twentieth century music
重点
Too many schools
难点
思考题
How do you understand the New Nationalism
作业
教学后记
作业批改
及实验记
录
正常
旷课: 1
课程类型
教学方法
2
条理性欠缺;语言表述应在清晰些
技能课□
其他
1. overview
20th-century music is defined by the sudden emergence of advanced
technology for recording and distributing music as well as dramatic innovations
in musical forms and styles. Because music was no longer limited to concerts,
opera-houses, clubs, and domestic music-making, it became possible for
music artists to quickly gain global recognition and influence.
Twentieth-century music brought new freedom and wide experimentation with
new musical styles and forms that challenged the accepted rules of music of
earlier periods. Faster modes of transportation allowed musicians and fans to
travel more widely to perform or listen. Amplification permitted giant concerts
to be heard by those with the least expensive tickets, and the inexpensive
reproduction and transmission or broadcast of music gave rich and poor alike
nearly equal access to high-quality music performances.
2. Modernism
the early 20th century, many composers, including Rachmaninoff, Richard
Strauss, Giacomo Puccini, and Edward Elgar, continued to work in forms and
in a musical language that derived from the 19th century. However, modernism
in music became increasingly prominent and important; among the most
important modernists were Alexander Scriabin, Claude Debussy, and
post-Wagnerian composers such as Gustav Mahler and Richard Strauss, who
experimented with form, tonality and orchestration. Busoni, Stravinsky,
Schoenberg, and Schreker were already recognized before 1914 as
modernists, and Ives was retrospectively also included in this category for his
challenges to the uses of tonality. Composers such as Ravel, Milhaud, and
Gershwin combined classical and jazz idioms
3. Musical nationalism 新民族主义
Musical nationalism refers to the use of musical ideas or motifs that are
identified with a specific country, region, or ethnicity, such as folk tunes and
melodies, rhythms, and harmonies inspired by them.[citation needed] Musical
nationalism can also include the use of folklore as a basis for programmatic
works including opera
Late-Romantic and modernist nationalism was found also in British, American,
and Latin-American music of the early 20th century. Composers such as Ralph
Vaughan Williams, Aaron Copland, Carlos Chávez, and Heitor Villa-Lobos
used folk themes collected by themselves or others in many of their major
compositions.
5. Microtonal music 新古典主义
A dominant trend in music composed from 1923 to 1950 was neoclassicism, a
reaction against the exaggerated gestures and formlessness of late
Romanticism which revived the balanced forms and clearly perceptible
thematic processes of earlier styles. There were three distinct "schools" of
neoclassicism, associated with Igor Stravinsky, Paul Hindemith, and Arnold
Schoenberg. Similar sympathies in the second half of the century are generally
subsumed under the heading "postmodernism".
Neoclassicism in music was a twentieth-century trend, particularly current in
the period between the two World Wars, in which composers sought to return
to aesthetic precepts associated with the broadly defined concept of
"classicism", namely order, balance, clarity, economy, and emotional restraint.
As such, neoclassicism was a reaction against the unrestrained emotionalism
and perceived formlessness of late Romanticism, as well as a "call to order"
after the experimental ferment of the first two decades of the twentieth century.
The neoclassical impulse found its expression in such features as the use of
pared-down performing forces, an emphasis on rhythm and on contrapuntal
texture, an updated or expanded tonal harmony, and a concentration on
absolute music as opposed to Romantic program music. In form and thematic
technique, neoclassical music often drew inspiration from music of the 18th
century, though the inspiring canon belonged as frequently to the Baroque and
even earlier periods as to the Classical period—for this reason, music which
draws inspiration specifically from the Baroque is sometimes termed
Neo-Baroque music. Neoclassicism had two distinct national lines of
development, French proceeding
(
partly from the influence of Erik Satie and
represented by Igor Stravinsky)
, and German proceeding
(
from the "New
Objectivism" of Ferruccio Busoni and represented by Paul Hindemith.)
Neoclassicism was an aesthetic trend rather than an organized movement;
even many composers not usually thought of as "neoclassicists" absorbed
elements of the style.
Neoclassicism
A dominant trend in music composed from 1923 to 1950 was neoclassicism, a
reaction against the exaggerated gestures and formlessness of late
Romanticism which revived the balanced forms and clearly perceptible
thematic processes of earlier styles. There were three distinct "schools" of
neoclassicism, associated with Igor Stravinsky, Paul Hindemith, and Arnold
Schoenberg. Similar sympathies in the second half of the century are generally
subsumed under the heading "postmodernism".
Experimental music
A compositional tradition arose in the mid-20th century—particularly in North
America—called "experimental music". Its most famous and influential
exponent was John Cage. According to Cage, "an experimental action is one
the outcome of which is not foreseen", and he was specifically interested in
completed works that performed an unpredictable action.
Minimalism
Minimalist music, involving a simplification of materials and intensive repetition
of motives began in the late 1950s with the composers Terry Riley, Steve
Reich, and Philip Glass. Later, minimalism was adapted to a more traditional
symphonic setting by composers including Reich, Glass, and John Adams.
Minimalism was practiced heavily throughout the latter half of the century and
has carried over into the 21st century, as well as composers like Arvo Pärt,
Henryk Górecki and John Tavener working in the holy minimalism variant. For
more examples see List of 20th-century classical composers.
Contemporary classical
Contemporary classical music
In the broadest sense, contemporary music is any music being written in the
present day. In the context of classical music the term is informally applied to
music written in the last half century or so, particularly works post-1960,
though standard reference works do not consistently follow this definition.
Since it is a word that describes a movable time frame, rather than a particular
style or unifying idea, there are no universally agreed on criteria for making
these distinctions.
Many composers working in the early 21st century were prominent figures in
the 20th century. Some younger composers such as Oliver Knussen, Thomas
Adès, and Michael Daugherty did not rise to prominence until late in the 20th
century. For more examples see List of 21st-century classical composers.
Electronic music
Karlheinz Stockhausen in the electronic-music studio of WDR, Cologne in
1991Main article: Electronic music
For centuries, instrumental music had either been created by singing, drawing
a bow across or plucking taught gut or metal strings string
(
instruments)
,
constricting vibrating air woodwinds
(
and brass) or hitting or stroking
something percussion)
(
. In the early twentieth century, devices were invented
that were capable of generating sound electronically, without an initial
mechanical source of vibration.
As early as the 1930s, composers such as Olivier Messiaen incorporated
electronic instruments into live performance. Recording technology was used
to produce art music, as well. The musique concrète of the late 1940s and
1950s was produced by editing together natural and industrial sounds.
In the years following World War II, some composers were quick to adopt
developing electronic technology. Electronic music was embraced by
composers such as Edgard Varèse, Karlheinz Stockhausen, Milton Babbitt,
Pierre Boulez, Luigi Nono, Herbert Brün, and Iannis Xenakis.
In the 1950s the film industry also began to make extensive use of electronic
soundtracks. From the late 1960s onward, much popular music was developed
on synthesizers by pioneering groups like Heaven 17, The Human League, Art
of Noise, and New Order.
Folk musicMain
Folk music, in the original sense of the term as coined in the 18th century by
Johann Gottfried Herder, is music produced by communal composition and
possessing dignity, though by the late 19th century the concept of ‘folk’ had
become a synonym for ‘nation ’, usually identified as peasants and rural
artisans, as in the Merrie England movement and the Irish and Scottish Gaelic
Revivals of the 1880s.[6] Folk music was normally shared and performed by
the entire community not
( by a special class of expert or professional
performers, possibly excluding the idea of amateurs)
, and was transmi tted by
word of mouthoral
( tradition)
.
教研活动记录
第一周
仔细和郑甜老师研读了西音史的教学大纲,进一步明确课程的进度和
内容。
第三周
利用周五晚上和学生一起观看《莫扎特传》了解传奇人物莫扎特的生
平和部分作品。
第八周
观摩了孙莉老师的视唱练耳课,总结教学经验和不足。
第十周
和学生一起讨论了关于西方音乐史教学中存在的问题。
学生指出以下不足;
1、
课件内容太多应该精简
2、
应多添加作曲家的故事和趣事增加课程的趣味性,减轻史论教
学的枯燥
3、
作业应少而精
第十四周
准备考试题目
学
生
成
绩
分
析
图
粘
贴
学
生
成
绩
表
教学总结
本学期本人顺利完成教学大纲规定完成教学
任务,讲述了从古希腊至古典主义之间的西
方音乐发展历史,并将有关音响和影像资料
利用课余时间和学生一起分享。通过考试结
果来看,大部分学生都能掌握所学重点,也
可看出已经达到教学目的并取得不错的教学
效果。
任课教师签字:
教研室主任签字:
系主管教学领导签字: