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Musical-technical terms:
Responsorial singing- style of singing in which a leader alternates with a chorus, especially in liturgical
chant. Responsorial singing, also known as call-and-response
Antiphonal singing- Antiphonal music is music that is performed by two semi-independent choirs in
interaction, often singing alternate musical phrases. Antiphonal psalmody is the singing or musical
playing of psalms by alternating groups of performers.
Monophony/monophonic music- Monophony means music with a single "part" and a "part" typically
means a single vocal melody, but it could mean a single melody on an instrument of one kind or
Gregorian chant- church music sung as a single vocal line in free rhythm and a restricted scale
(plainsong), in a style developed for the medieval Latin liturgy
Byzantine chant- is the liturgical music form used by the Eastern Christian churches that follow the
Byzantine rite.
Chant rites- a short, simple series of syllables or words that are sung on or intoned to the same note or
a limited range of notes
Psalm- a sacred song or hymn, in particular any of those contained in the biblical Book of Psalms and
used in Christian and Jewish worship.
Hymn- a religious song or poem, typically of praise to God or a god.
Responsory- in the Christian church an anthem sung or said by a soloist and choir after a lesson
Antiphon- (in traditional Western Christian liturgy) a short sentence sung or recited before or after a
psalm or canticle.
Psalm tones- a medieval melodic formula for singing the psalms and other texts in which most of the
text is chanted on a single note.
Mass Ordinary- The Order of Mass (Latin: Ordo Missae), formerly called the Ordinary of the Mass, is the
set of texts of the Roman Rite Mass that are generally invariable. This contrasts with the proper, which
are items of the Mass that change with the feast or following the Liturgical Year.
Mass Proper- The Order of Mass (Latin: Ordo Missae), formerly called the Ordinary of the Mass, is the
set of texts of the Roman Rite Mass that are generally invariable. This contrasts with the proper, which
are items of the Mass that change with the feast or following the Liturgical Year.
Troping- "to turn, to direct, to alter, to change" In music, a trope is adding another section, or trope to a
plainchant or section of plainchant, thus making it appropriate to a particular occasion or festival.
The Guidonian hand - In Medieval music, the Guidonian hand was a mnemonic device used to assist
singers in learning to sight-sing. Some form of the device may have been used by Guido of Arezzo, a
medieval music theorist who wrote a number of treatises, including one instructing singers in
Solmization- a system of associating each note of a scale with a particular syllable, especially to teach
Hexachord- a musical scale of six notes with a half step between the third and fourth. An overlapping
series of seven such scales starting on G, C, and F formed the basis of medieval music theory.
Tonaries- A tonary is a liturgical book in the Western Christian Church containing various chant incipits
which is organized according to the eight psalm tones of Gregorian chant. It may include antiphons and
responsories from the Mass and Offices.
Modal theory- music composed from a scale that has a set of characteristic melodic behaviors
Church modes - one of eight scales prevalent in medieval music each utilizing a different pattern of
intervals and beginning on a different tone.
The final- the tonic, the tonic note of a church mode
Authentic/plagal music- both Gregorian modes, divided into two categories authentic and plagal
Vidas- Vida is the usual term for a brief prose biography, written in Old Occitan, of a troubadour or
Chansons de geste- a medieval historical romance in French verse, typically one connected with
Troubadours - a French medieval lyric poet composing and singing in Provençal in the 11th to 13th
centuries, especially on the theme of courtly love.
Trouveres – a medieval epic poet in northern France in the 11th-14th centuries
Trobairitz- were Occitan female troubadours of the 12th and 13th centuries
Polyphony/polyphonic music- two or more notated independent parts
Symphonia- : concord of sounds; especially : musical harmony. 2 [Late Latin, a kind of musical
instrument, from Latin, concord of sounds] : any of various musical instruments (such as the bagpipe
and hurdy-gurdy) of the medieval period.
Ison chanting - Ison is a drone note, or a slow-moving lower vocal part, used in Byzantine chant and
some related musical traditions to accompany the melody, thus enriching the singing, at the same time
not transforming it into a harmonized or polyphonic piece.
Parallel doubling- an identical melody separated by a given interval
Organum- (in medieval music) a form of early polyphony based on an existing plainsong. (any sacred
Melismatic organum- florid or Acquitainian organum (q.v.)
Measured organum- sacred music that incorporates meter and rhythmical notation
Occursus (the Gregorian chant cadence)- mainly: meeting, falling in, running into each other.
St. Martial polyphony- freely composed
Notre Dame organum- has the introduction of rhythm and meter, and allows for 4 voice polyphony
Substitute clausulaeOrdoVox organilis – composed at a parallel perfect interval below, usually a fourth.
Vox principalis – the upper voice, the original chant line
Motet- a short piece of sacred choral music, typically polyphonic and unaccompanied
Cantus firmus- an existing melody used as the basis for a polyphonic composition
Tenor- sustaining bottom line
Duplum- in organum, the voice above the tenor line which was the second to be composed. In early
motets, this line is often called the "motetus."
Triplum – the third voice part in medieval polyphony counting upward from the tenor inclusive
Clausula- in roman rhetoric, a clausula was a rhythmic figure used to add finesse and finality to the end
of a sentence or phrase.
Musica cum littera – translates to music with words
Organum triplum - a type of organum with three voices pioneered by medieval composer Pérotin
Organum duplum- a type of organum with two voices
Organum cum alio- literally defined as “organum with another voice”
Virga- the symbol that represented a quarter n ote
Punctum ("point")
Bipunctum ("two points")
Breve - a musical note having the time value of two semibreves or whole notes
Semibreve- the equivalence of a whole note
Minum- the equivalence of a half note
Franconian notation- (franco of cologne) an idea which was to transform musical notation permanently:
that the duration of any note should be determined by its appearance on the page, and not from
context alone. The result was Franconian notation.
Petronian notationIsorhythmic motet - Isorhythm (from the Greek for "the same rhythm") is a musical technique that
arranges a fixed pattern of pitches with a repeating rhythmic pattern.
Talea - a rhythmic pattern (longer than a motive) which is repeated exactly in an isorhythmic tenor. One
refers to the "number of talea" when determining the structure of the isorhythmic voice. The talea may
be augmented or diminished as long as the rhythmic proportions stay the same. See isorhythm.
Color- In music, timbre also known as tone color or tone quality from psychoacoustics, is the quality of a
musical note or sound or tone that distinguishes different types of sound production, such as voices and
musical instruments, string instruments, wind instruments, and percussion instruments.
Ars Nova mensuration levels :
Tempus (perfect imperfect)Prolatio (major/minor)Forms fixes: The formes fixes (singular forme fixe, "fixed form") are the three fourteenth- and fifteenthcenturies French poetic forms: the ballade, rondeau and virelai.
Ballade - a poem normally composed of three stanzas and an envoi. The last line of the opening
stanza is used as a refrain, and the same rhymes, strictly limited in number, recur throughout, or in
music, a short lyrical piece, especially used for piano.
Virelai- a medieval French lyric poem of indefinite length composed of stanzas of long lines
rhyming with each other and short lines rhyming with each other, the short lines of each stanza
furnishing the rhyme for the long lines of the next, with the short lines of the last stanza taking their
rhyme from the short lines of the first.
Rondeau- a thirteen-line poem, divided into three stanzas of 5, 3, and 5 lines, with only two
rhymes throughout and with the opening words of the first line used as a refrain at the end of the
second and third stanzas.
Summer Canon- "Sumer Is Icumen In" is a medieval English rota of the mid-13th century.
The title translates approximately to "Summer Has Come In" or "Summer Has Arrived".[1] The
song is composed in the Wessex dialect of Middle English. Although the composer's identity is
unknown today, it may have been W. de Wycombe. The year of composition is estimated to be c.
Rota – a type of vocal round of the 13th and 14th centuries, probably only in England. The voices entered
at one time, each singing precisely what the last voice sang, exactly as a modern round.
The Middle Ages-the period of European history from the fall of the Roman Empire in the West
(5th century) to the fall of Constantinople (1453), or, more narrowly, from circa 1100 to 1453.
Christendom- the worldwide body or society of Christians.
Holy Roman Empire- the complex of European territories under the rule of the Frankish or
German king who bore the title of Roman emperor, beginning with the coronation of Charlemagne
in 800 ad, or of Otto the great in 962 ad. The last emperor, Francis II, relinquished his crown in
The Divine Office(a.k.a Canonic Hours)- the major hours consist of the Office of Readings,
Morning (or Lauds) and Evening Prayer (or Vespers). The daytime hours follow a simpler format,
like a very compact form of the Office of Readings:
Phonetic notation- (aka phonetic script or phonetic notation) is the visual representation of
speech sounds (or phones). The most common type of phonetic transcription uses a phonetic
alphabet, e.g., the International Phonetic Alphabet.
Graphic notation- Graphic notation is the representation of music through the use of visual
symbols outside the realm of traditional music notation. Graphic notation evolved in the 1950s,
and it is often used in combination with traditional music notation.
Neumatic notation- (neume) A sign used in the notation of plainsong during the Middle Ages,
surviving today in transcriptions of Gregorian chants.
Carolignian Empire- (800–888) was the final stage in the history of the early medieval realm of
the Franks, ruled by the Carolingian dynasty. The size of the empire at its zenith around 800 AD was
1,112,000 km², with a population of between 10 and 20 million people.[1]
The Franks - Frank, member of a Germanic-speaking people who invaded the western Roman
Empire in the 5th century. Dominating present-day northern France, Belgium, and western
Germany, the Franks established the most powerful Christian kingdom of early medieval western
Europe. The name France (Francia) is derived from their name. emerged in the late 3rd century.
The Trivium- an introductory curriculum at a medieval university involving the study of grammar,
rhetoric, and logic.
The quadrivium- a medieval university curriculum involving the “mathematical arts” of arithmetic,
geometry, astronomy, and music. Latin, literally ‘the place where four roads meet’ (in late Latin ‘the
four branches of mathematics’), from quadri- ‘four’ + via ‘road.’
The scriptorium- a room set apart for writing, especially one in a monastery where manuscripts
were copied.
Monastery- a building or buildings occupied by a community of monks living under religious vows.
St. Martial Abbey- a monastery in Limoges, France, founded in 848 and dissolved in 1791. The
buildings were razed at the beginning of the 19th century. The only remaining part is the 10th
century crypt, which was rediscovered in 1960, and which contains the tomb of Saint Martial, the
first bishop of Limoges, and that of Saint Valerie of Limoges, another, possibly legendary, early
martyr. The abbey reached the peak of its importance in the century following its take-over by
Cluny Abbey in 1065, when it was famed for its literature and music.
Feudalism- the dominant social system in medieval Europe, in which the nobility held lands from
the Crown in exchange for military service, and vassals were in turn tenants of the nobles, while the
peasants (villeins or serfs) were obliged to live on their lord's land and give him homage, labor, and
a share of the produce, notionally in exchange for military protection.
Feudal hierarchy of power (lords vs. vassals; nobility vs. non-nobility)Fin amors- French for “refined love” or courtly love, the self-professed subject of the troubadour
love song (canso)
Notre Dame Cathedral- or just Notre Dame is a historic religious cathedral, on the eastern half of
the Île de la Cité in the fourth arrondissement of Paris, France. Some say it is possibly the most
famous of cathedral. Notre-Dame de Paris was among the first buildings in the world to use the
flying buttress (arched exterior supports)
The cathedral-university complexCodex- an ancient manuscript text in book form. (pl. codices)
Maurice de Sully- (died September 11, 1196) was Bishop of Paris from 1160 until his death.
Author of a treatise on the Canon of the Mass
Cathedralism- is a political movement in Outer Joriscia which advocates a universal Vaestic
empire. Particularly strong in the climate of great social and economic upheaval affecting much of
the old core of Neritsia in the aftermath of the Long War, Cathedralism remains influential today in
many of these areas and, to a lesser extent, in Outer Joriscia as a whole.
Cathedral Nobility- Cathedral schools began in the Early Middle Ages as centers of advanced
education, some of them ultimately evolving into medieval universities. Throughout the Middle
Ages and beyond, they were complemented by the monastic schools. Some of these early cathedral
schools, and more recent foundations, continued into modern times.
Petrus de Cruce- (Pierre de la Croix) was active as a cleric, composer and theorist in the late part
of the 13th century. His main contribution was to the notational system.
The petronian motet- Composed around 1300, these motets are still considered part of the Ars
Antiqua. Characteristics include further division of the triplum, the motetus and triplum move
toward light and elegant expression, and a lack of concern for principles of proper textual
Franco of Cologne- Franco of Cologne (fl. mid-13th century) was a German music theorist and
possibly a composer. He was one of the most influential theorists of the late Medieval era, and was
the first to propose an idea which was to transform musical notation permanently: that the
duration of any note should be determined by its appearance on the page, and not from context
alone. The result was Franconian notation.
Papl court at Avignon- The Avignon Papacy was the period from 1309 to 1378 during which
seven Popes resided in Avignon (modern-day France).[1] This arose from the conflict between the
Papacy and the French crown. Clement declined to move to Rome, remaining in France, and in 1309
moved his court to the papal enclave at Avignon, where it remained for the next 68 years. This
absence from Rome is sometimes referred to as the "Babylonian Captivity of the Papacy"
Treatises, Manuscripts, and literary works:
Regula Monachorum- an influential set of rules that governed daily life in ST. Benedict of Nursia’s
Monastery that became widely adopted as the rule of St. Benedict. (cantillation- repetition of bible
Liber Usalis- Book of prayers, chants, and lessons used by Roman Catholic monks first published in
1896. a modern-day chant book which contains chants, prayers and readings for major services
(particularly the mass) throughout the church year. The Liber is not a critical edition, for it conflates
practices of different times and places, but it is a standard reference for "typical" plainchant services.
Items for a particular service are scattered (the propers in one place, the ordinary chants and texts in
Scivias- Scivias is an illustrated work by Hildegard von Bingen, completed in 1151 or 1152, describing
26 religious visions she experienced. It is the first of three works that she wrote describing her visions,
the others being Liber vitae meritorum and De operatione Dei (also known as Liber divinorum operum).
The title comes from the Latin phrase "Scito vias Domini" ("Know the Ways of the Lord").[1] The book is
rather long – over 150,000 words, or what would be about 600 pages of printed text.[2] The book is
illustrated by 35 miniature illustrations, more than that are included in her two later books of visions.
(broken into three parts reflecting the trinity)
Micrologus de disciplina artis musicae- The Micrologus is a treatise on Medieval music
written by Guido of Arezzo, dating to approximately 1026.[1] It was dedicated to Tedald, Bishop
of Arezzo. This treatise outlines singing and teaching practice for Gregorian chant, and has
considerable discussion of the composition of polyphonic music.This treatise discusses modified
parallel organum as well as free organum. The examples given are in two voices, set noteagainst-note, and the voices are frequently permitted to cross. He advised against use of the
perfect fifth and minor second, favouring instead the major second and perfect fourth (though
thirds were also permitted).
De harmonica instutione- written by Hucbald in 880, also called musica.
Musica enchiriadis- is an anonymous musical treatise of the 9th century. It is the first surviving
attempt to set up a system of rules for polyphony in western art music. The treatise was once attributed
to Hucbald, but this is no longer accepted.
Scolica enchiriadis- an anonymous ninth-century music theory treatise and commentary on its
companion work, the Musica enchiriadis. These treatises were once attributed to Hucbald, but
this is no longer accepted.[1] The Scolica enchiriadis is written as a tripartite dialogue, and
despite being a commentary on the Musica enchiriadis, it is nearly three times as long. [2] Much
of the theory discussed by the treatise is indebted to Augustinian conceptions of music,
especially its affirmations of the importance of mathematics to music as kindred disciplines of
the quadrivium.[2] Later sections draw heavily on the music theory of Boethius and Cassiodorus,
two early medieval authors whose works on music were widely read and circulated hundreds of
years after their death. The treatise makes use of the monochord to explain interval relations. The
treatise also discusses singing technique, ornamentation of plainchant, and polyphony in the style
of organum.
Magnus liber organi- The Magnus Liber or Magnus Liber Organi (Latin for "Great Book of Organum")
is a compilation of the medieval music known as organum. The whole name of the work is Magnus liber
organi de graduali et antiphonario pro servitio divino.
De musica- treatise by St. Augustine (354-430) “about music”
Roman de Fauvel- a 14th-century French allegorical poem by the French royal clerk Gervais de Bus
and Chaillou de Pesstain. It tells of Fauvel, a curry- or fauve-colored horse who has risen to prominence
in the French royal court. It consists of two books, the first dated to 1310, the second to 1314. The
Roman de Fauvel is best known for its lavish presentation in the deluxe manuscript Paris, BN fr. 146 (c.
1317–20), which augments du Bus's book with newly composed poetry, 77 miniatures, and 169 musical
insertions which span the gamut of thirteenth- and early fourteenth-century genres and textures. Some
of these can be linked with Philippe de Vitry and the nascent musical style referred to as Ars Nova.
De mensuris et discantu- (anonymous IV Anonymous IV is the designation given to the writer of an
important treatise of medieval music theory)
Ars cantus mensurabilis- was the first treatise to suggest that individual notes could have their own
rhythmic durations. This new rhythmic system was the foundation for mensural notation system and the
ars nova style. (franco of cologne)
Ars nova- refers to a musical style which flourished in France and the Burgundian Low Countries in the
Late Middle Ages: more particularly, in the period between the preparation of the Roman de Fauvel and
the death of the composer Guillaume de Machaut in 137. (Philippe de Vitry)
Historical Figures:
St. Benedict of Nursia- Benedict of Nursia is a Christian saint, honored by the Catholic Church and the
Anglican Church as the patron saint of Europe and students.  Born: 480 AD, Norcia, Italy
 Died: March 21, 543 AD, Monte Cassino, Italy
Pope Gregory I- commonly known as Saint Gregory the Great,[1] was Pope from 3 September 590 to his
death in 604. Gregory is well known for his writings, which were more prolific than those of any of his
predecessors as pope.[2] He is also known as St. Gregory the Dialogist in Eastern Orthodoxy because of
his Dialogues. C 540-604
Charlemagne- also known as Charles the great, was the king of the franks from 768, the king of Italy
from 774, and from 800 the first emperor in western Europe since the collapse of the western roman
empire three centuries earlier. 2 April 742- 28 January 814
Pope Leo II- (611 – 28 June 683) was Pope from 17 August 682 to his death in 683. Background and early
activity in the Church[edit] He was a Sicilian by birth (the son of a man named Paulus), and succeeded
Alcuin- Alcuin of York, also called Ealhwine, Albinus or Flaccus, was an English scholar, ecclesiastic, poet
and teacher from York, Northumbria. He was born around 735 and became the student of Archbishop
Ecgbert at York. 735-804
Hildegard of Bingen- Saint Hildegard of Bingen, O.S.B., also known as Saint Hildegard, and Sibyl of the
Rhine, was a German writer, composer, philosopher, Christian mystic, Benedictine abbess, visionary, and
polymath. 1098
Guido of Arezzo- Saint Hildegard of Bingen, O.S.B., also known as Saint Hildegard, and Sibyl of the Rhine,
was a German writer, composer, philosopher, Christian mystic, Benedictine abbess, visionary, and
polymath. Guido was a monk of the Benedictine order from the Italian city-state of Arezzo. He came up
with a method for teaching the singers to learn chants in a short time, and quickly became famous
throughout north Italy
Hucbald- Hucbald was a Frankish music theorist, composer, teacher, writer, hagiographer, and
Benedictine monk. 840-930 AD
Eleanor of Aquitaine- Eleanor of Aquitaine was one of the wealthiest and most powerful women in
Western Europe during the High Middle Ages and a member of the Ramnulfid dynasty of rulers in
southwestern France. Married Henry II of England, mother of Richard the lionheart.
Richard the Lionheart (king Richard I of England)- Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King
of England from 6 July 1189 until his death. He also ruled as Duke of Normandy (as Richard IV), Duke of
Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Lord of Cyprus, Count of Poitiers, Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Count of
Nantes, and Overlord of Brittany at various times during the same period. He was the third of five sons
of King Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine. He was known as Richard Cœur de Lion or Richard
the Lionheart because of his reputation as a great military leader and warrior.
Bernart de Ventadorn- also known as Bernard de Ventadour or Bernart del Ventadorn, was a prominent
troubadour of the classical age of troubadour poetry.
Contessa de Dia- The Comtessa de Dia, probably named Beatritz or Beatriz, was a trobairitz. She is only
known as the comtessa de Dia in contemporary documents, but was almost certainly named Beatriz and
likely the daughter of Count Isoard II of Diá. 1140-1175
Leonin- was the first known significant composer of polyphonic organum. He was probably French,
probably lived and worked in Paris at the Notre Dame Cathedral and was the earliest member of the
Notre Dame school of polyphony and the ars antiqua style who is known by name.1150-1201
Perotin- Pérotin, also called Perotin the Great, was a European composer, believed to be French, who
lived around the end of the 12th and beginning of the 13th century.
Anonymous IV- Anonymous IV is the designation given to the writer of an important treatise of
medieval music theory. He was probably an English student working at Notre Dame in Paris, most likely
in the 1270s or 1280s.
Johannes de Crocheio- Johannes de Grocheio was a Parisian musical theorist of the early fourteenth
century. His French name was Jean de Grouchy, but he is more commonly known by his Latinized name.
Gervais de Bus- lived in the 14th century, and co wrote the French allegorical poem, “Roman de Fauvel”
Phillip de Vitry- Philippe de Vitry was a French composer, music theorist and poet. He was an
accomplished, innovative, and influential composer, and may also have been the author of the Ars Nova
treatise. 1291-1361
Guillame de Machaut- Guillaume de Machaut was a medieval French poet and composer. He is one of
the earliest composers on whom significant biographical information is available 1300-1377
John Dunstable- John Dunstaple was an English composer of polyphonic music of the late medieval era
and early Renaissance periods.1390-1453
Johannes Tinctoris- Johannes Tinctoris was a Renaissance composer and music theorist from the Low
Countries. He is known to have studied in Orléans, and to have been master of the choir there; he also
may have been director of choirboys at Chartres. 1435-1511
William the Conqueror- William I, usually known as William the Conqueror and sometimes William the
Bastard, was the first Norman King of England, reigning from 1066 until his death in 1087. 1028-1087.
Father to Henry the I and William the II
Assigned Listening:
Responsory/Gradual: Christus factus es
Hymn: Crux fidelis
Plainchant Vespers For Trinity Sunday: Antiphon Laus Deo Patri and Psalm 114
Introit: Resurrexi
Trope: Ecce pater
Hildegard, O rubor sanguinis
Bernart de Ventadorn, Can vei de lauzeta (both versions)
Beatritz de Dia, a chanter m’er
Kyrie: Missa Cunctipotens genitor (from codex calixtinus)
Leonin, Viderunt omnes
Perotin- Viderunt omnes
Motet: El mois d’avril/O quam sancta/ ET GAUDEBIT
Motet: Phillippe de Vitry, Garrit gallus/In nova fert/Neuma
Machaut, mass: Kyrie
Machaut, Ma fin est mon commencement
Adam de la Halle, Dieus soit
Dunstable, Quam pulchra es
1. Musical and geographic communities
Troubadours + trouvères
Troubadours: spoke Provencal /Occitan, originated in south-central France (finders of words), but after a
while they had to move because of the war and they were dying, and they went to the ibearian and
Italian peninsulas. The troubadours also went to Castile and León in Spain, and they used the literary
vernacular which is Galician-Portuguese
Basically courtly love musicians, they couldn’t be with the people they wanted to be with but they would
sing the courtly songs anyway.
Trouveres: poet musicians, spoke old French, langue d’oïl. Went to Germany from Northern France
Troveres were modeled after troubadours did some courtly songs, but they did the debating songs. The
main difference in the trouveres and troubadours was that they wrote more poems, had a more modern
language, and had a more diverse group of people, not mainly made up of nobility like the troubadours.
2. Tradition vs. innovation
Jacobus retired professor from the university of paris, who was entirely against
Jacobus tried to disprove that the new meters of music weren’t correct. Harmonic perportions of de
Senior colleague of des mur and he basically wrote another treatise called the speculum musicaeknown as the mirror of music
Tried to discredit their advance and their new innovations and dismiss the innovations as superfluous
complexity. Reasoned that the music by permitting so much imperfection was then made imperfect
itself. Ars nova was made imperfect when compared to Ars Antiqua
The use of the term perfection in music by saying that all perfection does lie in the turnary number
beginning with the trinity and god himself. Jacobus maintained that the art that uses perfect values
more often is therefore more perfect, and the art that does that is the ar antiqua of master franco.
Helped prove them while trying to disprove them
3. Theory vs. practice.
Most people that thought they were writing about practice were in fact writing about theory in practice,
because they basically thought they were writing down what people were already doing musically, but
Ex. Grocheio believed that music was built for specific classes, such as epics were written for old men,
working citizens, average people, while the trouvere songs were for the nobility to move their souls to
bravery. Chant and organum are for the sacred
Trovere – nobility
Chant- sacred/worship
Motets- educated
Most important concepts emerging between 800. C.E -1400 C.E:
Guidonian hand- developing common day solfege
Chants moved to syllabic, neumatic, melismatic
Polyphony was added to the majority of repertoire around the 13th century
Offices in the mass were created (helped organize the chants)
Tropes came into view
Sequence was a newly created poetic text/syllabic style
Hymn- strophic setting of poetry performed in the office
While Gregorian chant was monophonic, early polyphony was chant that began to be more opened,
which a majority of that polyphony had been unwritten monophony
Changed from monophony to polyphony through parallel doubling of 4th, 5th, and octaves DOWN