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Skeletal muscle injuries
Overuse injuries to the muscle (tendonitis)
Also known as tendonitis is an inflammation of a tendon (a band of fibrous tissue that
connect muscle to bone) that causes pain, tenderness and occasionally, restricted
movement of the muscle attached to the affected tendon.
knee tendinitis is most common:
1. Patellar tendinitis (also called “jumper’s knee”) affects the patellar tendon just below the
patella. (knee cap). The person complains of pain during an activity such as landing from
a jump and going downstairs, or lack of activity, such as sitting for long periods of time
2. Pes anserine bursitis/tendonitis is a painful, inflammatory condition affecting the
tendons and/or lubricating sac (bursae) between your shinbone and the
hamstring tendons at the inside of your knee; typically caused by stress to the
area. Specifically, the pes anserinus is the area where the tendons of 3 muscles
(sartorius, gracilis, and semitendinosus) come together.
- Scoliosis
Scoliosis is a curving of the spine. The spine curves away from the middle or sideways.
Abnormal curvature in the spine is known as scoliosis, and generally begins just at the onset of puberty
and progresses during the period of rapid growth. Most junior high schools routinely screen for scoliosis
because, if caught early, progressive spine curvature can be prevented. Scoliosis affects girls much more
frequently than boys.
- Whiplash injuries
Whiplash is commonly associated with motor vehicle accidents] usually when the vehicle
has been hit in the rear; however, the injury can be sustained in many other ways, including falls
from stools, bicycles or horses.] It stands out as one of the main injuries covered by the car
result of impulsive stretching of the spine, mainly the ligament: anterior longitudinal
ligament which is stretched or tears,
- Spondylolisthesis
Spondylolisthesis is a condition in which a bone (vertebra) in the lower part of the spine slips
forward and onto a bone below it.
In children, spondylolisthesis usually occurs between the fifth bone in the lower back (lumbar
vertebra) and the first bone in the sacrum area. It is often due to a birth defect in that area of the
In adults, the most common cause is degenerative disease (such as arthritis). The slip usually
occurs between the fourth and fifth lumbar vertebrae.
Other causes of spondylolisthesis include stress fractures (commonly seen in gymnasts) and
traumatic fractures. Spondylolisthesis may occasionally be associated with bone diseases
- Herniated disc
Disks are soft rubbery pads that are found between the vertebrae. The spinal cord and
other nerve roots are located in the spinal canal. The disks are between the vertebrae and
act as shock absorbers and allow flexibility.
When a herniated or ruptured disk occurs, a portion of the nucleus center pushes through
the outer edge of the disk and back toward the spinal canal where the nerves are located.
The nerves are very sensitive even to the slightest pressure.
When we are young, disks have high water content and the content lessens as we age.
The disks become less flexible, decrease in size and the space between the vertebrae
- Mechanical back dysfunction
Many causes of mechanical low back pain exist. The most common causes are age-related
degenerative disc and facet processes and muscle- or ligament-related injuries. These can be divided into
nerve root syndromes, musculoskeletal pain syndromes, and skeletal causes
-Midback pain caused from a rib
Anytime the rib cage is jarred, Costovertebral injuries can occur.
This can occur from: Excessive stretching or compressive forces, excessive bending, lifting, arching or
twisting movements
Carpal tunnel syndrome
- A disorder marked by weakness and pain in the hand and wrist. The median nerve, which runs
from the forearm to the wrist, becomes pressed or squeezed at the wrist.
The carpal tunnel – a narrow, passageway of ligaments and bones at the base of the hand, it
houses the median nerve and tendons. Irritated tendons or other swelling narrows the tunnel,
compressing the nerve.
- Shin Splints
• Shin Splints is a name often given for pain in front of the lower leg. However, shin splint
symptoms occur at the front inside of the shin, and can arise from a number of problems.
The most common cause of shin splints inflammation of the tibia (sheath surrounding the bone).
Traction forces on the periosteum from the muscles of the lower leg cause shin pain and
- rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
is a long-term disease that leads to inflammation of the joints and surrounding tissues. It can also
affect other organs.
Eventually, joint pain appears. When the joint is not used for a while, it can become warm, tender,
and stiff. When the lining of the joint becomes inflamed, it gives off more fluid and the joint becomes
swollen. Joint pain is often felt on both sides of the body, and may affect the fingers, wrists, elbows,
shoulders, hips, knees, ankles, toes, and neck.
Rotator cuff tears
Rotator cuff tears are tears of one or more of the four tendons of the rotator cuff muscles. A
rotator cuff injury can include any type of irritation or damage to the rotator cuff muscles or tendons.[1]
Rotator cuff tears are among the most common conditions affecting the shoulder.[2]
The tendons of the rotator cuff, not the muscles, are most commonly torn. Of the four
tendons, the supraspinatus is most frequently torn as it passes below the acromion; the
tear usually occurs at its point of insertion onto the humeral head at the greater tuberosity
Tension Headache
Frequency – days to weeks to daily
• Headache lasts hours or may be continuous
• Headache has at least two of the following characteristics: 1) bilateral location 2)
pressing/tightening (non pulsating) quality 3) mild or moderate intensity 4) not aggravated by
routine physical activity such as walking or climbing stairs 5) Pericranial tenderness.
A migraine is a severe, painful headache that is often preceded or accompanied by
sensory warning signs such as flashes of light “aura, blind spots, tingling in the arms and legs,
nausea, or vomiting.
 Migraine headaches result from a combination of blood vessel enlargement and the release of
chemicals from nerve fibers that coil around these blood vessels