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Annex __
_______County, Iowa
Local Response Plan
For
Animal Disease
Emergencies
2008
This local response plan template was designed to assist Iowa counties in
preparing for, responding to and recovering from animal disease emergencies in
their locale. This template is designed as an annex to the county’s local emergency
operations plan. It is intended to provide suggestions for language and plan
components. Counties will need to identify key assets and hazards, participating
agencies, organizations, resources and determine factors unique to each
community. This template should also be used as a tool to identify and facilitate
stakeholder involvement in the local planning process .
Local plans should be developed in accordance with the State of Iowa
Comprehensive Emergency Plan. Details of this Plan can be found at
http://www.iowahomelandsecurity.org/Portals/0/CountyCoordinators/Planning/
2007HazMitPlanFINAL.pdf
Annex ___: Local Response Plan for Animal Disease Emergencies, ___ County, Iowa, 2008
2
I.
Purpose
The purpose of this Annex is to provide guidance for Iowa counties to prepare for and
respond to an animal disease emergency. It will aid in determining the resources,
organization and responder roles and responsibilities needed to assist and support the
necessary response in the most efficient and productive manner possible.
II.
Scope
This plan addresses emergency management activities that may be required to respond
to and recover from an animal disease emergency in ____County, Iowa.
III.
Situation
Animal agriculture is an essential component of the U.S. and Iowa’s economy.
Nationally, Iowa ranks number one in the production of pork and eggs and, second in
red meat production and agricultural exports. The impact of an animal disease
emergency in Iowa’s livestock or poultry could be devastating.
Animal disease emergencies can involve any number of diseases that may affect large
numbers of livestock, resulting in severe economic consequences. Diseases listed as
important concerns or emergencies are often referred to as foreign animal diseases
(FAD), highly contagious diseases (HCD) or diseases caused by high consequence
livestock pathogens (HCLP). Any of these diseases will hereafter be referred to as
animal disease emergencies (ADE).
The introduction of any of these diseases could result in high death rates or high levels
of illness in animals as well as loss of production, but also impact trade (both
domestically and internationally) of economically important animals and animal
products. Some of the diseases may have an impact on human health through illness or
mental health issues following the loss of animals and livelihood.
Not all animal disease incidents will require emergency response functions. Many
disease incidents are handled routinely by private practice veterinarians and/or
veterinarians employed by the State Veterinarian or Federal Area Veterinarian in
Charge (AVIC). The response needed will be determined by the disease agent suspected
or confirmed, the ability of the disease to spread, how it spreads (routes of
transmission), and the actions necessary to contain it. Response functions may be
initiated for an animal disease incident that meets one or more of the following criteria:
A.
The disease is listed in the International Animal Health Code, as designated by the
World Organization for Animal Health (also known as the Office International des
Epizooties [OIE]). These diseases are listed due to their potential for rapid spread
and/or major socioeconomic or public health consequences. Examples include footand-mouth disease, rinderpest, classical swine fever, highly pathogenic avian
influenza, exotic Newcastle disease. (The full list of diseases is provided in
Attachment A);
Annex ___: Local Response Plan for Animal Disease Emergencies, ___ County, Iowa, 2008
3
B.
The disease is considered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the State of
Iowa as high consequence livestock pathogens (The full list is provided in
Attachment B);
C.
The infectious disease outbreak falls outside of the domain of the state’s routine
prevention and response activities and capabilities;
D.
The disease has potential public health implications;
E.
The disease creates the potential to cause widespread personal hardship within the
agricultural community and/or is detrimental to the state or national economy.
The U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Iowa Department of Agriculture and Land
Stewardship (IDALS) have in place effective rules and regulations regarding the import
of animals and animal products. These help ensure that the health status of Iowa’s
animals remains at current acceptable levels. IDALS, in conjunction with the USDA
Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS), currently monitors animals, pre- and postharvest, for infectious disease conditions.
Rapid response to an ADE will be necessary to stop the spread of the disease and will
require interaction between local, state and federal agencies and personnel. The
response functions needed for an animal disease emergency will vary depending on the
disease involved, but may include: multi-agency coordination and planning, traffic
control, quarantine establishment and enforcement, resource management,
communications and public information, disease management, animal mortality
management, disinfection and decontamination, and worker/volunteer health and safety.
Veterinary support will be vital in response functions and will need to be integrated into
the Incident Command System. The situation will dictate where veterinary responders
(e.g., State District Veterinarians, Veterinary Medical Officers, Iowa Veterinary Rapid
Response teams) will be most valuable. These individuals will represent a direct conduit
to the State Veterinarians office and act as a designee. They should be looked to as a
resource to provide information and vital feedback to the command staff.
IV.
Assumptions
A.
If an ADE situation occurs in Iowa, the most probable means of discovery will be
by: livestock or poultry producers, private practice veterinarians, state or federal
inspectors at slaughter plants, and/or trace information from an animal disease
investigation in another state.
B.
Private veterinary practitioners will likely be the first responders to any animal
disease emergency situation. A veterinarian is required to immediately notify any
suspected ADE to the State Veterinarian or the Area Veterinarian in Charge
(AVIC)
Annex ___: Local Response Plan for Animal Disease Emergencies, ___ County, Iowa, 2008
4
C.
An ADE may occur by many natural pathways or could be introduced as an act of
terrorism.
D.
Diagnosis of an ADE in Iowa, the United States or the surrounding countries may
significantly restrict the intrastate, interstate and international movement of animal
(especially livestock) and animal products.
E.
Initiation and implementation of response functions for a suspected or positive
ADE will be at the discretion of the Iowa Department of Agriculture and Land
Stewardship and carried out by the State Veterinarian or official designee.
F.
The State Veterinarian and the USDA APHIS Area Veterinarian in Charge (AVIC)
will work in close coordination in any animal health emergency. There are
established protocols for investigating infectious animal diseases.
G.
Using the National Incident Management System, response to an ADE will operate
under a Unified Command structure involving the State Veterinarian and the
AVIC.
H.
Numerous local, State and Federal agencies will play a role in eradiating ADE.
Officials may define overlapping areas of responsibility requiring interagency
coordination for the duration of crisis and consequence management.
I.
State requests for county and municipal resources, including personnel, equipment,
and supplies, will be coordinated through the appropriate County Emergency
Management Agency whenever practicable.
J.
Immediate quarantine areas may be required where suspected or confirmed cases
may have originated. Special operational procedures (e.g., disinfection and
decontamination, record keeping) may be required.
K.
Facilities and transport vehicles suspected of being contaminated will need to be
cleaned and disinfected.
L.
The County Emergency Operation Center (EOC) may be activated to manage the
emergency.
M. Large numbers of domestic livestock and poultry, and possibly wildlife, may need
to be destroyed or controlled to prevent the spread of an ADE after it has been
confirmed in your jurisdiction.
N.
Depopulation of animals will be conducted in the most humane, expeditious
manner to stop the spread of the disease and limit the number of animals affected.
Annex ___: Local Response Plan for Animal Disease Emergencies, ___ County, Iowa, 2008
5
V.
O.
Carcass disposal method and sites will need to be rapidly identified, and will be
determined by the State Veterinarian, in coordination with the AVIC and the Iowa
Department of Natural Resources.
P.
Response measures for an animal disease emergency may involve the mutual aid
support from sister counties and municipalities as well as local private industry
support.
Q.
Animal disease emergencies may lead to long term economic impacts requiring
long term federal and state assistance programs for recovery.
R.
Owners losing animals in an animal disease emergency or persons responding to
the situation may require psychological counseling and support.
Organization
All emergency response activities will fall under the Incident Command System of the
National Incident Management System.
A.
Lead Agency
The Iowa Department of Agriculture and Land Stewardship (IDALS) is the lead
agency in the event an infectious animal disease outbreak. (A listing of State and
Federal contacts for ADE is found in Attachment 3).
B.
Support Agencies
1. State Agencies.
Additional state agencies may be required for support during an animal disease
emergency response in order to effectively contain, control and eradicate the
disease. The State of Iowa Emergency Response Plan, Annex W: Infectious
Animal Disease Disasters addresses interagency cooperation and responsibilities at
the state level. State agencies that may be included are: Iowa Homeland Security
and Emergency Management Division, Iowa Department of Natural Resources,
Iowa Department of Public Defense, Iowa Department of Public Safety,
Department of Transportation, and Iowa Department of Public Health.
2. Local Agencies.
Local emergency management officials will be actively involved in the response
and will be utilized. Each county should have a comprehensive emergency
operations plan, which provides the framework for the jurisdiction’s operational
response to natural and man-made disasters; this would include any response to a
suspected ADE. County and local governments will utilize their available resources
in any emergency response effort. Additional State assistance may be requested
through the Iowa HSEMD.
Additional support may be needed from local veterinary professionals, emergency
management, law enforcement, fire departments, emergency medical services,
Annex ___: Local Response Plan for Animal Disease Emergencies, ___ County, Iowa, 2008
6
public health, environmental health, departments of natural resources, livestock
producers, ISU extension, livestock associations, livestock producers, and other
animal related businesses.
VI.
Authorities
IDALS has the statutory authority to make all necessary rules for control and prevention
of infectious and contagious diseases affecting animals in the state, as stated in Iowa
Code Section 163. These actions are implemented by the State Veterinarian, under the
authority of the Iowa Secretary of Agriculture.
For movement restrictions involving people or any property that is not an animal or an
animal product, the State Veterinarian and the Iowa Secretary of Agriculture will work
in an advisory capacity to the Governor (or the Governor’s designee), who has statutory
authority over these areas as provided for in Chapter 29C of Iowa Code.
VII.
Roles and Responsibilities
A.
All Responsible Agencies
1. Compile a list of resources and contact information for county animal and
agricultural resources.
2. Ensure that standard operating procedures (SOPs) are developed, tested, and
adequately disseminated for all response activities assigned in this Annex.
3. Support response and recovery with all available resources.
B.
Local Emergency Management
1. Serve as lead local agency to coordinate all community support and response
resources, including personnel and logistical support, procurement of supplies,
equipment, vehicles, food, lodging and administrative support during an ADE.
2. Activate, staff and manage the operation of the County EOC.
3. Coordinate local communications with and between local agencies and
responders.
4. Assist with unified public information dissemination to industries and public
(through close coordination with IDALS public information officer)
5. Direct record keeping and message flow activities.
6. Coordinate activities with the IDALS should additional support or resources
be needed during an ADE response.
7. Support response and recovery with all available resources.
C.
Local Government Officials
1. The Local Government Officials are responsible for their respective city or
county emergency operations, including assuring continuity of resources.
2. The County Board of Supervisors is responsible for all county emergency
operations outside corporate city limits.
D.
Law Enforcement
1. Assist with establishment of quarantine perimeters, as required for disease
control for an ADE {minimum perimeters will be determined by the State
Annex ___: Local Response Plan for Animal Disease Emergencies, ___ County, Iowa, 2008
7
2.
3.
4.
5.
Veterinarian, but may initially be set at 6.2 miles (10 km) or more, depending
on the disease}.
Enforce animal movement restrictions and control established quarantine
zones.
Site security and conflict resolution as need to ensure the safety of
veterinarians, inspection, and all other responders should any conflicts arise
In deliberate disease introduction incidents, coordinate and assist with
investigation procedures with the Iowa Department of Criminal Investigation
and the Federal Bureau of Investigation. State and local law enforcement may
be called up by those agencies to aid in the investigation.
Support response and recovery with all available resources.
E.
County Public Works/ Municipal and County Engineers:
1. Assist with perimeter development (e.g., signage and barricades), rerouting
and logistic support.
2. Provide equipment and personnel necessary for animal disposal activities
3. Provide technical assistance as needed.
4. Coordinate with State Veterinarian and the Iowa Department of Natural
Resources (for acceptable burial locations). The IDNR has burial maps
generated for the entire state of Iowa indicating acceptable burial locations.
5. Support response and recovery with all available resources.
F.
Environmental Health Department(s)
1. Assist with environmental and health permitting issues.
2. Assist with air and groundwater pollution/contamination issues including
carcass disposal, cleaning solutions, and disinfectants.
3. Assist with vector (insect) control, when applicable.
4. Assist with management of lagoons, slurries and other byproducts of animal
operations.
5. Support response and recovery with all available resources.
F.
Fire Services
1. Coordinate decontamination sites for vehicles, property, and personnel.
2. Aid in possible rescue situations.
3. Support response and recovery with all available resources.
G. Emergency Medical Services (EMS)
1. Assist with responder health and safety issues that arise.
2. Support response and recovery with all available resources.
H. Local Department of Natural Resources and County Conservation officers
1. Coordinate resources and serve as liaisons for the state offices.
2. Assist with animal disposal and disposal resources.
3. Support response and recovery with all available resources.
I.
Human Services and, County Health and Public Health Departments
Annex ___: Local Response Plan for Animal Disease Emergencies, ___ County, Iowa, 2008
8
1.
2.
3.
J.
Assist with community outreach and education regarding the human health
risks associated with the ADE.
Coordinate and provide mental health services for livestock producers, their
families, response staff, or others affected by the ADE.
Support response and recovery with all available resources.
Iowa State University County Extension Personnel
1. Assist with unified public information dissemination to industries and public
(through close coordination with IDALS public information officer).
2. Support response and recovery with all available resources.
K. Local Livestock Industry Groups
(i.e., producer organizations, livestock markets, slaughter establishments, renderers
and other allied groups).
1. Serve as liaison on matters relating to livestock industries affected by ADE.
2. Identify individuals who may be qualified to assist in disease control efforts.
3. Develop a list of qualified appraisers.
4. Provide assistance to families affected by an ADE.
5. Provide support for disease control and eradication activities.
6. Provide appropriate information for dissemination to industries and public
(through close coordination with IDALS public information officer).
7. Support response and recovery with all available resources.
VIII. Concept of Operations
A.
Mitigation
1. Encourage biosecurity practices and emergency preparedness for agricultural
producers.
2. Encourage contingency planning for animal and agricultural businesses.
B.
Preparedness
1. Identify and compile a list of resources and contact information for county
animal and agricultural resources.
2. Develop a local response plan for animal disease emergencies.
3. Conduct planning and training sessions to identify areas of risk, response and
personnel needed, and applicability of the developed local response plan.
C.
Response
1. Response to an animal disease emergency will almost always involve local,
state, and federal agencies, all working together, using their authorities and
expertise to control the spread and eradicate the disease.
2. The anticipated response to a potential ADE will be as follows:
a) Detection. Initial notification of an ADE will most likely occur by the
producer or practicing veterinarian, or as a result of routine slaughter
surveillance or inspection, or from tracing of animal movements (trace-backs)
from an animal disease investigation. Immediate notification of a suspected
Annex ___: Local Response Plan for Animal Disease Emergencies, ___ County, Iowa, 2008
9
ADE to the State Veterinarian or the AVIC is necessary and required of
veterinarians.
b. FADD Investigation. The State Veterinarian or AVIC will dispatch a
Foreign Animal Disease Diagnostician (FADD) to investigate the situation.
The FADD, a specially trained state or federally employed veterinarian, will
consult closely with the State Veterinarian or AVIC regarding the situation
and actions required. The FADD will a) obtain samples and send them to the
National Veterinary Services Laboratory for diagnosis, b) discuss the need to
activate IVRRT for assistance, c) discuss the establishment for quarantine or
stop movement orders for the farm.
c. Disease Confirmation. Upon confirmation of a suspect or confirmed case
of an infectious or high consequence animal disease, the State Veterinarian’s
office will notify the County Emergency Management Coordinator (EMC) to
ask for local assistance in implementing the necessary disease control
measures and procedures.
d. Response Plan Activation. This local plan annex will be activated when
the lead agency contacts the local emergency management agency. Once
activated, appropriate representatives from the primary and support agencies
within the county should be present and incorporated into the incident
command structure. These may include: county supervisors, county boards of
health, law enforcement, public works, public information, fire or HAZMAT,
the local health department and human services agency.
Other representatives whose expertise, guidance and available resources may
be necessary include: the county attorney, agriculture industry partners
(livestock associations, county associations, trade associations), agricultural
extension or Iowa State University Extension personnel.
Existing resource sharing agreements or the Iowa Mutual Aid Compact
(IMAC) in response planning and implementation may also be useful and
needed for an animal disease emergency.
The response efforts needed will vary with the disease agent involved, but
may include movement restrictions, quarantines, decontamination,
biosecurity, euthanasia, carcass disposal, cleaning and disinfection, disease
surveillance, appraisal and indemnity, public information and education,
medical and mental health support.
In some situations, temporary housing for livestock may be necessary,
locations such as sale barns or county fairgrounds, may prove useful for
sheltering animals and providing food and water resources.
Annex ___: Local Response Plan for Animal Disease Emergencies, ___ County, Iowa, 2008
10
D.
IX.
Recovery
1. Document all costs associated with the response effort
2. Assess the impact on livestock operations, agribusinesses, and the community
3. Establish health and human services (e.g., mental health, financial) resources
for families impacted by the animal disease emergency
4. Coordinate return of resources obtained under mutual aid
5. Determine resource needs to sustain recovery
Acronyms
ADE
APHIS
AVIC
FAD
FADD
FADDL
HCD
HCLD
HSEMD
IDALS
IDPH
IDNR
IVRRT
OIE
USDA
X.
Animal Disease Emergency
Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service
Area Veterinarian in Charge
Foreign Animal Disease
Foreign Animal Disease Diagnostician
Foreign Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory
Highly Contagious Disease
High Consequence Livestock Disease
Iowa Homeland Security and Emergency Management Division
Iowa Department of Agriculture and Land Stewardship
Iowa Department of Public Health
Iowa Department of Natural Resources
Iowa Veterinary Rapid Response Team
Office International des Epizooties – World Organization for Animal Health
United States Department of Agriculture
Review and Modification:
This plan shall be regularly reviewed and amended as appropriate by emergency management on
an annual basis with changes submitted for approval by the ______ County Commissioners (or
suitable authorities).
Annex ___: Local Response Plan for Animal Disease Emergencies, ___ County, Iowa, 2008
11
LIST OF ATTACHMENTS
A-1.
OIE (World Organization for Animal Health) Listed Diseases
A-2.
USDA High Consequence Livestock Pathogens and Toxins
A-3.
High Consequence Livestock Pathogens by Animal Species
A-4.
State of Iowa Official Contacts for Animal Disease Emergencies
A-5.
State Veterinarians and Federal Veterinarians in Iowa
A-6.
Quarantine Structure for an Animal Disease Emergency
A-7.
Incident Command Structure for an Animal Disease Emergency
A-8.
Cleaning and Disinfection (C&D) Overview
A-9.
Animal Disease Emergency Carcass Disposal Methods
A-10. Potential Response Resources Needed for Animal Disease Emergencies
Annex ___: Local Response Plan for Animal Disease Emergencies, ___ County, Iowa, 2008
12
Attachment 1. OIE (World Organization for Animal Health) Listed Diseases
http://www.oie.int/eng/normes/mcode/code2006/en_chapitre_2.1.1.htm
Multiple species diseases
Anthrax
Aujeszky’s disease
Bluetongue
Brucellosis (Brucella abortus)
Brucellosis (Brucella melitensis)
Brucellosis (Brucella suis)
Crimean Congo hemorrhagic
fever
Echinococcosis/hydatidosis
Foot and Mouth Disease
Heartwater
Japanese encephalitis
Leptospirosis
New world screwworm
(Cochliomyia hominivorax)
Old world screwworm
(Chrysomya bezziana)
Paratuberculosis
Q fever
Rabies
Rift Valley fever
Rinderpest
Trichinellosis
Tularemia
Vesicular stomatitis
West Nile fever
Avian diseases
Avian chlamydiosis
Avian infectious bronchitis
Avian infectious laryngotracheitis
Avian mycoplasmosis (M.
gallisepticum)
Avian mycoplasmosis (M.
synoviae)
Duck virus hepatitis
Fowl cholera
Fowl typhoid
Highly pathogenic avian influenza
Infectious bursal disease
(Gumboro disease)
Marek’s disease
Newcastle disease
Pullorum disease
Turkey rhinotracheitis
Bee diseases
Acarapisosis of honey bees
American foulbrood of honey
bees
European foulbrood of honey
bees
Small hive beetle infestation
(Aethina tumida)
Tropilaelaps infestation
of honey bees
Varroosis of honey bees
Cattle diseases
Bovine anaplasmosis
Bovine babesiosis
Bovine genital campylobacteriosis
Bovine spongiform
encephalopathy
Bovine tuberculosis
Bovine viral diarrhoea
Contagious bovine
pleuropneumonia
Enzootic bovine leukosis
Hemorrhagic septicemia
Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis/
infectious pustular
vulvovaginitis
Lumpky skin disease
Malignant catarrhal fever
Theileriosis
Trichomonosis
Trypanosomosis (tsetsetransmitted)
Infectious hematopoietic necrosis
Spring viremia of carp
Viral hemorrhagic septicemia
Infectious pancreatic necrosis
Infectious salmon anemia
Epizootic ulcerative syndrome
Bacterial kidney disease
(Renibacterium salmoninarum)
Gyrodactylosis (Gyrodactylus
salaris)
Red sea bream iridoviral disease
Lagomorph diseases
Myxomatosis
Rabbit hemorrhagic disease
Mollusc diseases
Infection with Bonamia ostreae
Infection with Bonamia exitiosus
Infection with Marteilia refringens
Infection with Mikrocytos mackini
Infection with Perkinsus marinus
Infection with Perkinsus olseni
Infection with Xenohaliotis
californiensis
Crustacean diseases
Taura syndrome
White spot disease
Yellowhead disease
Tetrahedral baculovirosis
(Baculovirus penaei)
Spherical baculovirosis (Penaeus
monodon-type baculovirus)
Infectious hypodermal and
hematopoietic necrosis
Crayfish plague (Aphanomyces
astaci)
Equine diseases
African horse sickness
Contagious equine metritis
Dourine
Equine encephalomyelitis
(Eastern and Western)
Equine infectious anemia
Equine influenza
Equine piroplasmosis
Equine rhinopneumonitis
Equine viral arteritis
Glanders
Surra (Trypanosoma evansi)
Venezuelan equine
encephalomyelitis
Fish diseases
Sheep and goat diseases
Caprine arthritis/encephalitis
Contagious agalactia
Contagious caprine
pleuropneumonia
Enzootic abortion of ewes (ovine
chlamydiosis)
Maedi-visna
Nairobi sheep disease
Ovine epididymitis (Brucella ovis)
Peste des petits ruminants
Salmonellosis (S. abortusovis)
Scrapie
Sheep pox and goat pox
Swine diseases
African swine fever
Classical swine fever
Nipah virus encephalitis
Porcine cysticercosis
Porcine reproductive and
respiratory syndrome
Swine vesicular disease
Transmissible gastroenteritis
Other diseases
Camelpox
Leishmanosis
Epizootic hematopoietic necrosis
Annex ___: Local Response Plan for Animal Disease Emergencies, ___ County, Iowa, 2008
13
Attachment 2. USDA High Consequence Livestock Pathogens and Toxins
USDA only agents and toxins
Livestock
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
African horse sickness virus
African swine fever virus
Akabane virus
Avian influenza virus (highly pathogenic)
Bluetongue virus (exotic)
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent
Camel pox virus
Classical swine fever virus
•
Cowdria ruminantium (Heartwater)
•
•
•
•
•
•
Foot-and-mouth disease virus
Goat pox virus
Japanese encephalitis virus
Lumpy skin disease virus
Malignant catarrhal fever virus (exotic)
Menangle virus
•
Mycoplasma capricolum /M. F38/M.
mycoides capri (contagious caprine
pleuropneumonia)
Mycoplasma mycoides mycoides
(contagious bovine pleuropneumonia)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Newcastle disease virus (VVND)
Peste des petits ruminants virus
Rinderpest virus
Sheep pox virus
Swine vesicular disease virus
Vesicular stomatitis virus (exotic)
USDA/HHS overlap agents and toxins
• Bacillus anthracis (Anthrax)
• Botulinum neurotoxins
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
• Botulinum neurotoxin producing
species of Clostridium
Brucella abortus
Brucella melitensis
Brucella suis
Burkholderia mallei (glanders)
Burkholderia pseudomallei (melioidosis)
Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin
Coccidioides immitis
Coxiella burnetii (Q Fever)
• Eastern equine encephalitis virus
• Francisella tularensis(tularemia)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Hendra virus
Nipah virus
Rift Valley fever virus
Shigatoxin
Staphylococcal enterotoxins
T-2 toxin
Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus
http://www.stanford.edu/dept/EHS/prod/researchlab/bio/docs/select_agent_list.pdf
Attachment 3. High Consequence Livestock Pathogens by Species
_______County Emergency Operations Plan – Annex ___: Animal Disease Emergencies, 2008
15
Attachment 4. State of Iowa Official Contacts for
Animal Disease Emergencies
Iowa Department of Agriculture and Land Stewardship (IDALS)
Dr. David Schmitt, State Veterinarian
Office: 515-281-8601
Cell: 515-669-3527
U.S. Department of Agriculture,
Animal and Plant Health Inspection (USDA APHIS)
Dr. Kevin Petersburg, Area Veterinarian In Charge (AVIC)-Iowa
Office: 515-284-4140
Cell: 515-669-6043
Iowa Homeland Security and Emergency Management Division
Main Number
515-725-3231
Center for Agriculture Security
Iowa Veterinary Rapid Response Team (IVRRT)
Mark Shearer, Coordinator
Office: 515-281-5798
Duty Officer: 515-242-0247
Cell: 515-537-3625 Cell
_______County Emergency Operations Plan – Annex ___: Animal Disease Emergencies, 2008
16
Attachment 5. State Veterinarians and Federal Veterinarians in Iowa
_______County Emergency Operations Plan – Annex ___: Animal Disease Emergencies, 2008
17
Attachment 6. Quarantine Structure for an Animal Disease Emergency
Establishment of quarantine zones and the stop movement of animals is under the strict statutory
authority of the State Veterinarian and the Secretary of Agriculture. The aim of isolation and
quarantine is to prevent a disease from spreading and to protect unexposed animals from
coming into contact with a disease agent. For effective response, all responder personnel
involved in an animal disease emergency should use consistent terms and vocabulary.
Terminology for animal diseases emergencies includes:
Infected Premise (IP)




The farm or area with the positive case (presumptive or confirmed)
Animals on an IP are considered exposed and will be subject to applicable disease control measures
Movement restrictions on people, vehicles, animals and animal products will apply
Establishment of the Infected Zone and Buffer Surveillance Zone will occur immediately
Contact Premise (CP)
 Any farm or area connected to the IP (eg., fenceline border, common traffic [vehicles, animals or
personnel])
 Animals on a CP with possible exposure will be subject to applicable disease control measures
 Establishment of the Infected Zone and Buffer Surveillance Zone will occur immediately.
_______County Emergency Operations Plan – Annex ___: Animal Disease Emergencies, 2008
18
Quarantine Structure for an Animal Disease Emergency (continued)
Suspect Premises (SP)
 A farm or area with potential exposure but no determined link to the IP or CP.
 Susceptible animals under investigation for ADE signs
At Risk Premises (ARP)
 A farm or area within the Buffer Surveillance Zone with clinically normal (no signs of disease)
animals
Free Premises (FP)
 Farms or areas outside the control areas and zones; no ADE cases have been reported
Control Zone (CZ)
 Consists of the Infected Zone and a Buffer-Surveillance Zone
 Size will be established by the State Veterinarian
 As a precaution, zone may be established before diagnostic confirmation is received
Infected Zone (IZ)
 Perimeter established around the IP and as many CP as possible
 Initially established at least 6.2 miles (or as determined by the State Veterinarian) around an IP
and/or CP
 Boundaries may be modified as needed.
 No animals or animal products can leave the zone
 Vehicles, equipment and people may be able to leave if strict biosecurity procedures are followed
(e.g., clean and disinfect, shower out) and depending on the disease agent involved
Buffer Surveillance Zone (BSZ)




Zone immediately surrounding the IZ; established at minimum of 6.2 miles outside IZ perimeter
Initially, may include the entire state; adjusted as the extent of outbreak becomes better known
Any Contact Premise outside the IZ should be included in the BSZ
Movement of animals may be allowed within the zone with a permit and appropriate biosecurity
measures, following approval by the State Veterinarian
Buffer-Vaccination Zone (BVZ)
 If vaccination procedures are available and allowed for the ADE response (as determined by State
Veterinarian or AVIC), BVZ will be established to strategically create a “firebreak” ahead of the
spread of the disease agent
 Zone will border the IZ and be surrounded by the BSZ
Surveillance Zone




Zone separating the Free Zone from the BSZ
Surveillance will focus on sites determined to be at the highest risk of infection.
The exact boundary of the zone will be established to assure containment of the outbreak.
Susceptible animals may be allowed to move within the zone, with a permit, but not out of the
zone
 Animal species not susceptible to the ADE can move within and out of the zone with a permit
Free Zone (FZ)
 Zone with absence of the disease under consideration
 Must meet the requirements for disease-free status, as specified in the OIE International Animal
Health Code
 Appropriate official veterinary control is applied for animals and animal products as well as for the
transportation of animals and animal products, to maintain free status in these areas
_______County Emergency Operations Plan – Annex ___: Animal Disease Emergencies, 2008
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Attachment 7: Animal Disease Emergency Incident Command System
Organization
_______County Emergency Operations Plan – Annex ___: Animal Disease Emergencies, 2008
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Attachment 8. Cleaning and Disinfection (C&D) Overview
C&D procedures are essential both during and after an animal disease event. When done
correctly, these measures can help prevent the spread of diseases. During an animal disease
emergency, C&D efforts will be needed to ensure the disease does not spread from the infected
premises to other locations.
Cleaning and disinfectant materials should be available at designated entry sites of the quarantine
zone. This should include brushes, buckets, hoses, water, disinfectant and, if possible, a pressure
washer. Equipment and vehicles should be cleaned and disinfected upon arrival and departure of
infected premises.
For personnel entering the infected premises, protective clothing, footwear and disposable gloves
(PPE) should be available. These items must be removed and disposed or cleaned and disinfected
before leaving the infected premises. When possible, a shower for all visitors/workers can be
effective in minimizing the transfer of disease agents off of the infected premises.
Cleaning and disinfection procedures will be needed for any vehicles or equipment leaving the
infected premises, as well as for any buildings, pens, or enclosures that infected animals were
located or in contact with.
Basic Steps for C&D
 Remove all visible dirt, manure, and debris.
 This is the most important step!!
 If not, removed completely the disinfectant will be ineffective!
 Apply water and detergent.
 Scrub with brushes, especially in corners or crevices.
 Rinse.
 Apply properly mixed disinfectant.
 Allow proper contact time to obtain effective kill of the pathogen.
Health and Safety
 Chemical disinfectants can have health hazards associated with their use.
 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) should be worn when working with these
chemicals. This may include eye protection, face protection, and filter masks under
some situations.
 Precautions should be taken to avoid other potential hazards, such as slips, trips and
falls, during C&D operations.
 Consult with the Safety Officer for the proper use and handling of cleaning and
disinfecting equipment and agents.
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Attachment 9. Animal Disease Outbreak Carcass Disposal Methods
The overall goal of depopulation and disposal activities during an animal disease emergency response is
to control and contain the spread of disease. Rapid depopulation of infected and exposed animals and
effective disposal of animal carcasses and materials are key components for a successful response to an
animal health emergency or disease outbreak. All animals will be treated humanely from the time animals
are identified as presumptive or confirmed positive, until they are depopulated. When depopulation
occurs, euthanasia must be performed as rapidly and humanely as possible.
Carcass disposal methods will be determined by the State Veterinarian in conjunction with the
Department of Natural Resources. Method selection will be based on a number of factors, including the
type and quantity of animals, the risk of disease spread, the health and safety of responders, the public and
the environment. In some cases a variety of methods may be used for a more efficient and effective
operation. Some of the possible disposal methods that may be used for animal disease emergencies are
listed and briefly described below.
Burial
On-premises burial is the preferred method of animal
carcass disposal in Iowa. Any burial action should be
coordinated with the Iowa Department of Natural
Resources to ensure the site is away from water
sources, public lands, steep slope greater than 15%
and in suitable soil. Listed below are some of the
trench characteristics for animal carcass disposal.
 Fourteen square feet of surface area is needed
for the burial of one cow carcass, or five pigs, or
five sheep
 A trench 6 foot deep x 300 feet long x 10 ft wide
(approximately 18,000 cubic feet) can hold
approximately 360 horses, or 400 cows, or 2,100
pigs, or 3,900 Sheep, or 30,000 Turkeys, or
90,000 Chickens
 Trenches should not be closer than 50 feet from
another trench
 Trenches should be covered with 3-6 feet of
cover soil below the natural contour to the top of
the carcasses; this cover soil should not be
compacted;
 The Global Positioning System (GPS) of each
burial site should be recorded.
A burial site must be inspected regularly after closure
to detect seepage or other problems that may arise.
Rendering
Rendering is the most economical method of
disposing of carcasses, however movement of infected
carcasses to rendering plant locations, may pose some
risk of disease spread, so preventive precautions must
be taken.
Composting
This method involves the above ground
decomposition of animal carcass over a period of
time. Composting may be done when soil conditions
do not facilitate adequate burial procedures. The
process can be complex and requires an appropriate
site, proper management and the proper supplies (e.g.,
wood chips, sawdust and biosolids). The composting
process and the natural decomposition of the animal
serve to reduce the disease agents present.
Landfill
The use of landfills for carcass and material disposal
may be option. The necessary equipment, personnel,
procedures and containment systems are already in
place and may be useful. Transport of the carcasses
can pose some risk of disease spread.
Incineration/Burning
This method of carcass disposal is very difficult,
expensive and resource intensive. In Iowa, open
burning of animal carcasses is not allowed.
Alkaline Hydrolysis
This process uses sodium hydroxide or potassium
hydroxide under heat and pressure to digest carcass
tissue. The resulting effluent typically has a pH level
of 11.4 to 11.7, and in most cases, can be discharged
into municipal sewage systems. The process does
require expensive equipment, therefore this method
has limited application in a disease outbreak situation.
_______County Emergency Operations Plan – Annex ___: Animal Disease Emergencies, 2008
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Attachment 10. Potential Response Resources Needed For
Animal Disease Emergencies
Personal Protective Equipment
□ Tyvek style coveralls with hoods (all sizes)
□ Disposable coveralls (all sizes)
□ Latex gloves (all sizes)
□ Nitrile gloves (all sizes)
□ Cloth gloves (all sizes)
□ Rubber gloves (all sizes)
□ Rubber boots (all sizes)
□ Disposable boot covers
□ Disposable hair bonnets
□ Disposable face masks (N95)
□ Face shields
□ Protective eyewear-goggles
□ Half-face respirators with high grade filters
□ Full face respirators with high grade filters
Biosecurity Supplies
□ Duct tape
□ Cloth tape 1” and 2”
□ Baby wipes
□ Paper towels
□ Antimicrobial hand soap
□ Finger brushes
□ Change of clothes – disposable garments
□ Disinfectant for boots and outerwear
□ Foot Baths (large and small)
□ Boot brushes
□ Hoof picks/boot picks
□ Buckets (for C&D)
□ Rubber trash can(s), 32 gallon, with lid
□ Portable decontamination basins (e.g., kiddy
pools) for C&D waste water containment
□ Fresh water containers, 5 gallon
□ Hand held pump sprayers (for C&D of
outerwear)
□ Biohazard bags for waste and clothes
□ Rags and towels
□ Tents or huts for dressing, heated if needed
□ Rest rooms/Portables
□ First aid kits
□ Tool kit, as needed
Cleaning and Disinfecting (C&D) of Vehicles,
Equipment or Facilities
□ Hoses
□ Long –handled brushes
□ Spray bottles
□ Liquid and/or gel antibacterial soap
□ Boot Brushes
□ Boot Bath pans
□ Large containers (to dispose PPE)
□ Trash bags
□ Bio-Hazard Bags
□ Paper towels
□ Disinfection solution
□ Detergent solution
□ Bucket or pail
□ Power washer/sprayer
Disposal Procedures
□ Excavators
□ Back-hoe type machinery
_______County Emergency Operations Plan – Annex ___: Animal Disease Emergencies, 2008
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