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HAPPY THURSDAY F1 Bellwork: computer 1. Turn in HW – Page 110 2. You have 10 minutes for the Virus Quiz – Read the instructions for Part A and Part B! 3. Copy the following paragraph and fill in the blanks. *Use Page 108A to help* A retrovirus gets its name from the fact that when it infects a cell, a retrovirus reverse of how transcription uses ______ to produce _______. Which is the _______ DNA RNA works. _______ AZT HIV is the most infamous retrovirus, and there is no cure. ______ reverse works as a medicine to block this enzyme, _________________ _______________, from working. transcriptase Unit 8 – Viruses & Microorganisms Definitions Due Wednesday (2/10/16) All Parts Due Wednesday (2/17/16) 9. Gram Staining 16. Lyse 1. Antibiotic 2. Bacilli Shaped 10. Host 3. Bacterium 4. Bacteriophage 5. Binary Fission 6. Cocci Shaped 7. Capsid 8. Conjugation 11. Human 18. Immunodeficiency 19. Virus (HIV) 20. 12. Immunization 21. 13. Influenza 22. 14. Lysogenic Cycle 23. 15. Lytic Cycle PG 106 17. Microorganism Parasite Pathogen Retrovirus Spirilla Shaped Vaccine Virus Collect Today Page 110 – Virus Cycle Sort Virus Quiz Assigned Page 111 – Virus Cycle Comic Strip (TOMORROW) Chart MAKEUP Quiz (TOMORROW) Page 106 – Notecard ALL PARTS (Wednesday) Most Missed MAKEUP Quiz – Taxonomy (Next Friday) Late Page 109 – Retrovirus Coloring Page (-30%) PG 111 Comic Strip • Create a comic strip to describe a viral reproduction cycle. – If you are at a “1 OR 3”, you are doing the lysogenic cycle. – If you are at a “2 OR 4”, you are doing the lytic cycle. • Your comic should be 6 “slides”, colored, and be the cycle in STORY format • You must include 6 words from your vocab list (highlight, underline, or circle them in your comic) • Minimum of 5 COLORS! • DUE FRIDAY!!! PG 108 Essential Question How is the structure of bacteria related to their function? Standard 11C – summarize the role of microorganisms in both maintaining and disrupting the health of both organisms and ecosystems. A prokaryote is a unicellular organism lacking a membrane-bound nucleus or organelles. Robert Hooke and Anton van Leeuwenhoek, with the invention of the microscope, “opened our eyes to the hidden, living world around us”. Prokaryotes are divided into two very different groups: eubacteria and archaebacteria. Eubacteria is the larger of the two kingdoms. Eubacteria live everywhere. Eubacteria are usually surrounded by a cell wall. Its two main functions are to protect the organism from injury and to determine its shape. The cell walls of eubacteria contain peptidoglycan. Archaebacteria lack the peptidoglycan of eubacteria and also have different membrane lipids. Some scientists believe that archaebacteria may be ancestors of eukaryotes because the DNA sequences of key archaebacterial genes are more like those of eukaryotes than those of eubacteria. Archaebacteria can be found in some extreme environments including oxygen-free areas, thick mud, the digestive tracts of animals, and extremely salty or hot water. Prokaryotes are identified based upon their shape, the chemical nature of their cell walls, the way they move, and the way they obtain energy. Bacterial shapes: • Bacilli – rod-shaped • Cocci – spherical • Spirilla – corkscrew-shaped Gram-positive and Gramnegative are the two different types of cell walls. Gram staining is a method used to tell them apart. Bacterial movement: • Some are propelled by flagella which are whip-like structures. • Some lash, snake, or spiral forward. • Others glide slowly along a layer of slime-like material they secrete. • Some don’t move at all. Bacteria use two processes to release energy: cellular respiration, fermentation, or both. Two factors hold the growth of bacteria in check: the availability of food and the production of wastes. Binary fission is when a bacterium divides in half through mitosis. Both resulting cells are genetically identical. Conjugation is also called “bacteria sex”. DNA is passed from one bacterium to another through a pilus Bacterial Conjugation Bacteria Collection Timer -You will have 7 minutes to collect a sample. -You can swab whatever you want….stay on the 1st floor (English Hallways, Cafeteria, Cafeteria Hallway ONLY!!!). -You will work with a partner. -Use a Q-tip to “swab” your contaminated area and gently streak it onto your petri dish. (Ask me to show you how) -Throw away the Q-tip. -Cover your petri dish. -Flip your covered petri dish upside down and label the bottom with “Period # and your group members’ initials”. -Tape the edges, leave it upside down, and give it to me. -If you are not back in this room in 7 minutes, you will be counted tardy to class.