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WHAT IS A MINERAL? WHERE DOES A
MINERAL COME FROM?
Bellwork
CH. 13.1- MINERALS AND
ROCKS
WHAT ARE MINERALS?
A mineral is a naturally occurring, inorganic
solid that has an orderly crystalline structure
and a definite chemical composition
Occur in Nature
 Must be formed within Earth, on the surface, or
within organisms
Be Chemically Inorganic
 Can not have any carbon-carbon or carbon-hydrogen
bonding
Solid w/ an orderly Crystalline structure
 Atoms and ions are arranged in an orderly and
repetitive manner
 Each mineral has a unique crystal structure
Definite Chemical Composition
MINERAL FORMATION
Minerals can form by
crystallization from
magma or lava, from
precipitation related to
evaporation or
hydrothermal solutions, or
from exposure to high
pressure and temperature,
or they can be produced by
organisms
Crystallization from magma or lava
 Magma cools inside the crust, or lava
hardens on the surface
 Crystallization occurs
 Size of the crystals depends on several
factors
 Rate at which it cools
 Ex: slow cooling = large crystals
 Location in/on Earth
 Lava cools much faster
Precipitation
Occurs when the liquid in
a solution evaporates and
the remaining solids
crystallize
Ex: when water from the
ocean evaporates, salt
crystals can form
 Pressure and Temperature
 when a mineral is subjected to great
changes in temperature or pressure,
it’s atoms may rearrange
 Causes it to become a different type
of mineral known as a polymorph
 Example
 When carbon crystallizes, it forms
graphite (in your pencil)
 When carbon crystallizes under high
pressure and temperature, it forms a
diamond
Produced by Organisms
Organisms like mollusk
shells and coral produce
calcium bicarbonate, which
helps to make the hard
structures on their bodies
MINERALS ARE
CATEGORIZED INTO
GROUPS BASED ON
THE ELEMENTS OR
COMPOUNDS THEY
CONTAIN