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A Detailed Lesson Plan in Science
Prepared by: Georgina Valencia
I. Subject Matter
Topic: Digestive System
References: Science Learner's Module
Grade 8 Page 291-296
Materials: Cut-out pictures (Puzzle), video and diagram picture of the Digestive System
Values: Cooperation and Sportsmanship
II. Objectives
At the end of the lesson, the students will be able to:
a. Identify the parts and functions of the Digestive System.
b. Appreciate the importance of the Digestive System.
c. Present an analysis of the Digestive Process.
III. Procedure
A. Preliminary Activities
Daily Routine
Teacher's Activity
"Let us pray first. In the name of the Father, and
of the Son and the Holy Spirit. Amen"
Student's Activity
One student will lead the class
Good Afternoon Class!
Good Afternoon Ma'am!
Who's absent today? Where is your class
secretary? Please tell me who are absent today?
Okay! Very Good. Everyone's present today.
Are you all in your proper uniform? Please check
yourselves. Who are not in their proper uniform?
We should always follow our school uniform.
Yes. Ma'am.
Please check the alignment of your chairs and
please pick up the pieces of paper under your
Yes. Ma’am.
Review of the Past Lesson
Teacher's Activity
Last time we discussed about the Periodic Table
of Elements and what is its importance again?
Student's Activity
Ma’am our last topic was about the Periodic
Table of Elements.
Okay. What does the Periodic Table of Elements
Ma’am the Periodic Table of Elements contains
different kind of elements, with their symbols,
atomic mass and their groups
B. Motivation
Teacher's Activity
Ok Class group yourselves into 3-4 individuals
Direction: Inside the envelope are cut-out
pictures. Reform the pictures.
After solving the puzzle....
Student's Activity
The student will proceed to their group
What is your idea about the picture?
C. Presentation
Teacher's Activity
Our topic is all about the Digestive System but
before we start our discussion I have here a short
video about the Digestive System.
It's the Digestive System
Student's Activity
Yes Ma’am
You may take down notes as I will ask a question
D. Lesson Proper
Teacher's Activity
So, what does the video tell us? What are the
things that were mentioned there?
Yes! Very Good!
So, what are the various organs of the Digestive
System? Based from the video.
Student's Activity
Ma’am the various organs of the Digestive
System and its functions.
Ma’am. Mouth, Esophagus, Stomach, Small
Intestine, Pancreas, Liver, Gall bladder, Large
Intestine, Anus
Very Good. Okay now, I have here a diagram of
the Digestive System.
As you enjoy eating different kinds of food? Do
(Varied answer from the students)
you ask yourself how these foods be digested and
absorbed by the body?
What is the importance of our food in our body?
Ma’am It gives us the energy and nutrients to
grow and develop, be healthy and active, to
move, work, play, think and learn. The body
needs a variety of the following 5 nutrients protein, carbohydrate, fat, vitamins and minerals
- from the food we eat to stay healthy and
Okay Very good! Let’s start our discussion. What
is Digestion? Digestion is the process of reducing
food into smaller molecules that can be absorbed
by the body.
Based on the video that you have watched. How
Digestion does begin? Or where does Digestion
start? (PowerPoint Presentation) Let’s now trace
the flow of Digestive process of the Digestive
It starts from the mouth.
Digestion starts in the mouth where food is
broken down to smaller particles for easier
digestion. This is called Mechanical Digestion.
Chemical Digestion starts also in the mouth
because our saliva has an enzyme that helps
speed up chemical reactions. Enzyme present in
saliva such as amylase or ptyalin helps
breakdown carbohydrates.
The function of saliva includes moistening of food
and helping to create Bolus so it can be
swallowed easily
What do you think is the difference of
Mechanical Digestion to Chemical Digestion?
Mechanical Digestion is the physical breakdown
of food into smaller units by chewing while
Chemical Digestion is when we are using enzymes
to breakdown food.
What is an Enzyme?
Enzymes are a catalyst that speeds up chemical
reactions and speed up the breakdown of food
So, the enzyme present in the saliva is called
amylase or ptyalin that helps top breakdown
Next is the Esophagus, what is Esophagus?
Esophagus is a muscular tube connecting the
throat with the stomach. It is about 8 inches long
Food travels down the esophagus, through a
series of involuntary rhythmic contraction (waved
like) called peristalsis.
Next is a stomach, a stomach secretes acid and
enzymes that digests food.
So as food is in the stomach, it is mixed with
gastric juices, and after three hours it will form a
semi liquid called chyme.
When food is already in the stomach it triggers
the release of gastric juices to dissolves food, and
alerts the pancreas, liver and gallbladder to
produce pancreatic juice and transfers bile to the
small intestine.
So, class you might ask what is the importance of
pancreatic juice and bile>
The importance of pancreatic juice or enzymes
aids in the digestion of proteins, carbohydrates
and fats.
Liver produces bile and export it to the
duodenum, breakdown all the nutrients and bile
aids in the digestion of fats.
Gallbladder primarily store, concentrates and
releases bile.
Pancreas produces pancreatic juice, which
contains digestive enzymes and delivers it to the
Next is in the small intestine.
Small Intestine is responsible for the complete
digestion of all the macromolecules where 95%
of absorption occurs.
What are the three parts of the small intestine?
Okay, first is the duodenum which receives a
partially digested food and frothy liquid called
chyme from the stomach. Bile and pancreatic
enzyme help further breakdown of food in the
Ma’am the three parts of the small intestine are
duodenum, jejunum and ileum.
Second is jejunum, where carbohydrates and
protein pass into the blood.
Last is the ileum, where B12 and bile salts pass
into the blood.
So why do you think absorption takes the small
intestine as you can see in the internal structure
of the small intestine has a villi, that absorbs food
and pass into the blood.
(Showed picture of the intestinal structure of the
small intestine)
Lastly is in the large intestine or what we called
Large Intestine where waste that remain after the
digestion goes to the large intestine where
absorption of water occurs.
What are the three parts of the large intestine?
The remains after the digestion goes to the large
intestine where absorption of water occurs.
Ma’am ascending colon, transverse colon and
descending colon are the parts of the large
The remains after water has been absorbed are
now called Stool or Feces then it will be stored in
the rectum and excrete to the anus.
E. Practice Exercise
Okay class, since we already finished discussing the Digestive System from your groupings. Each group
will give two ideas of habits or ways in maintaining our Digestive System or organs healthy.
F. Generalization
Teacher's Activity
Okay Class Let us have a short recap about the
flow of Digestive process. Digestion starts in the
mouth wherein food is broken down into smaller
particles by chewing or mastication. This is called
Student's Activity
Mechanical Digestion
Chemical Digestion also start in the mouth
because our saliva has an enzyme called
Amylase or Ptyalin
Very Good! Amylase or Ptyalin aid in digestion of
What is the function of saliva in our digestion?
Saliva includes moistening of food and helping to
create Bolus so it can be swallowed easily.
When by this movement food moves into the
esophagus and enters the stomach called
From the stomach food mixes with the gastric
juices and turn it into liquidy mixture called?
Chyme enters the small intestine where all the
nutrients from the food we eat is absorbed by
our blood through the bloodstream and to the
Circulatory System
The small intestine signals the Pancreas to
secrete pancreatic juices, liver to produce bile,
and to cleanse and purifies blood coming from
the small intestine. Gallbladder to secrete bile
that helps in the digestion of fats.
Waste that remains after the digestion goes to
the large intestine where absorption of water
takes place. Stool or Feces stored in the rectum
and excrete to the anus
G. Application
Teacher's Activity
From your group again. Study and Present your
analysis about the flow of the Digestive Process.
Discuss it in front. Choose a representative in
each group. The leader will be the one to discuss.
IV. Evaluation
Student's Activity
(Student will present the flow of the Digestive
Identify the following statement. Write your answer on your paper.
1. It is the enzyme that is present in our saliva
2. It produces the bile.
3. It stores the bile.
4. It is the remains of the digestion after the absorption of water is called
5. Where absorption of water takes place.
V. Assignment
Read about the Common Disorder of the Digestive Health on your book.