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```PRINCIPLES
OF COMMUNICATION
SYSTEMS
Second Edition
Herbert Taub
Donald L. Schilling
Professors of Electrical Engineering
The City College of New York
Jurgen - Know- Bibliothek
Spende der Siemens AG
an den FB Elefctrotechnik
McGraw-Hill Book Company
New York St. Louis San Francisco Auckland Bogota Hamburg
Johannesburg London Madrid Mexico Montreal New Delhi
Panama Paris Sao Paulo Singapore Sydney Tokyo Toronto
CONTENTS
':?
I
Preface
Chapter 1 Spectral Analysis
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
1.10
1.11
1.12
1.13
1.14
1.15
1.16
1.17
1.18
1.19
1.20
1.21
1.22
1.23
1.24
1.25
1.26
Introduction
Fourier Series
Exponential Form of the Fourier Series
Examples of-Fourier Series
The Sampling Function
Response of a Linear System
Normalized Power
Normalized Power in a Fourier Expansion
7
Power Spectral Density
Effect of Transfer Function on Power Spectral Density
The Fourier Transform
Examples of Fourier Transforms
Convolution
Parseval's Theorem
Power and Energy Transfer through a Network "
Bandlimiting of Waveforms
Correlation between Waveforms
Power and Cross Correlation
Autocorrelation
Autocorrelation of a Periodic Waveform
Autocorrelation of Nonperiodic Waveform of Finite Energy
Autocorrelation of Other Waveforms
Expansions in Orthogonal Functions
Completeness of an Orthogonal Set: The Fourier Series
The Gram-Schmitt Procedure
Correspondence between Signals and Vectors
Distinguishability of Signals
xvii
1
1
2
4
4
6
8
9
11
14
15
16
17
21
23
24
25
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
37
41
46
ix
X CONTENTS
Chapter 2 Random Variables and Processes
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
. 2.9
2.10
2.11
2.12
2.13
2.14
2.15
2.16
2.17
2.18
2.19
2.20
2.21
2.22
1
2.23
2.24
2.25
2.26
2.27
2.28
\
56
Probability
Mutually Exclusive Events
Joint Probability of Related and Independent Events
Statistical Independence
Random Variables
/
Cumulative Distribution Function
,
Probability Density Function
Relation between Probability and Probability Density
Joint Cumulative Distribution and Probability Density
A Communications Example
Average Value of a Random Variable
Variance of a Random Variable
Tchebycheff's Inequality
The Gaussian Probability Density
The Error Function
The Rayleigh Probability Density
Mean and Variance of the Sum of Random Variables
Probability Density of Z = X + Y
Correlation between Random Variables
The Central-Limit Theorem
Error Probability as Measured by Finite Samples
Signal Determination with Noise Described by a
Distribution Function
Random Processes
Autocorrelation
Power Spectral Density of a Sequence of Random Pulses
Power Spectral Density of Digital Data
Effect of Rudimentary Filters on Digital Data
The Complementary Error Function
57
57
58
59
60
60
62
64
65
68
72
74
75
76
77
80
82
83
85
87
89
Chapter 3 Amplitude-Modulation Systems
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
3.10
3.11
3.12
3.13
Frequency Translation
A Method of Frequency Translation
Recovery of the Baseband Signal
Amplitude Modulation
Maximum Allowable Modulation
The Square-law Demodulator
Spectrum of an Amplitude-modulated Signal
Modulators and Balanced Modulators
Single-sideband Modulation
Methods of Generating an SSB Signal
Vestigial-sideband Modulation
Compatible Single Sideband
Multiplexing
Chapter 4 Frequency-Modulation Systems
4.1
4.2
Angle Modulation
Phase and Frequency Modulation
91
95
97
99
100
105
107
113
,
113
115
118
120
122
125
126
127
128
130
134
137
137
142
142
143
/
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
4.10
4.11
4.12
4.13
4.14
4.15
4.16
4.17
4.18
4.19
4.20
4.21
4.22
CONTENTS Xi
Relationship between Phase and Frequency Modulation
Phase and Frequency Deviation
Spectrum of an FM Signal: Sinusoidal Modulation
Some Features of the Bessel Coefficients
Bandwidth of a Sinusoidally Modulated FM Signal
Effect of the Modulation Index p on Bandwidth
Spectrum of" Constant Bandwidth" FM
Phasor Diagram for FM Signals
Spectrum of Narrowband Angle Modulation: Arbitrary
Modulation
Spectrum of Wideband FM (WBFM): Arbitrary Modulation
Bandwidth Required for a Gaussian Modulated WBFM
Signal
FM Generation: Parameter-variation Method
An Indirect Method of Frequency Modulation
(Armstrong System)
Frequency Multiplication
Frequency Multiplication Applied to FM Signals
An Example of an Armstrong FM System
FM Demodulators
Approximately Compatible SSB Systems
Chapter 5 Analog-to-Digital Conversion
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
5.10
5.11
5.12
5.13
,5.14
5.15
5.16
5.17
5.18
5.19
Pulse-Modulation Systems .
The Sampling Theorem: Low-pass Signals
Band-pass Signals
Pulse-Amplitude Modulation
Channel Bandwidth for a PAM Signal
Natural Sampling
Flat-top Sampling
Signal Recovery through Holding
Quantization of Signals
Quantization Error
Pulse-code Modulation (PCM)
Electrical Representation of Binary Digits
The PCM System
Companding
Multiplexing PCM Signals
Differential PCM
DeltaModulation
Vocoders (Voice Cotters)
Channel Vocoder
..
Linear Predictive Coder
145
146
147
148
150
153
154
155
158
159
161
162
163
165
166
167
167
169
172
173
183
183
185
.188
193
195
197
199
202
204
207
209
211
212
213
219
226
229
232
236
237
240
XII CONTENTS
Chapter 6
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9
6.10
6.11
6.12
6.13
6.14
6.15
Chapter 7
7.1
,7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9
7.10
7.11
7.12
7.13
7.14
7.15
Chapter 8
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
Digital Modulation Techniques
Introduction
Binary Phase-Shift Keying
Differential Phase-Shift Keying
Differentially-Encoded PSK (DEPSK)
M-ary PSK
Binary Frequency Shift-Keying
Similarity of BFSK and BPSK
M-ary FSK
Minimum Shift Keying (MSK)
Duobinary Encoding
A Comparison of Narrowband FM Systems
Partial Response Signaling
Amplitude Modulation of the Partial Response Signal
Mathematical Representation of Noise
Some Sources of Noise
A Frequency-Domain Representation of Noise
The Effect of Filtering on the Probability Density v
of Gaussian Noise
Spectral Components of Noise
Response of a Narrowband Filter to Noise
Effect of a Filter on the Power Spectral Density
of Noise
Superposition of Noises
Mixing Involving Noise
Linear Filtering
J
Noise Bandwidth
Power Spectral Density of nc(t) and njit)
Probability Density of nc(t), ns(t), and Their
Time Derivatives
Representation of Noise Using Orthonormal Coordinates
Irrelevant Noise Components
Noise in Amplitude-Modulation Systems
Advantage of the Superheterodyne Principle: Single Channel
Single-Sideband Suppressed Carrier (SSB-SC)
Double-Sideband Suppressed Carrier (DSB-SC)
Double Sideband with Carrier
Square-Law Demodulator
The Envelope Demodulator
249
249
250
255
258
259
267
271
276
282
282
286
298
303
304
310
315
315
317
320
321
323
324
325
326
328
333
334
336
339
340
341
346
346
348
349
353
357
359
365
CONTENTS Xiii
Chapter 9 Noise in Frequency-Modulation Systems
9.K
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.6
9.7
9.8
371
An FM Demodulator ''
Calculation of Output Signal and Noise Powers
Comparison of FM and AM
Preemphasis and Deemphasis, Single Channel
Preemphasis and Deemphasis in Commercial FM
Phase Modulation in Multiplexing
Comparison between FM and PM in Multiplexing
Effect of Transmitter Noise
371
374
378
380
383
386
388
390
Chapter 10 Threshold in Frequency Modulation
10.1
. 10.2
10.3
10.4
10.5
10.6
10.7
10.8
10.9
10.10
10.11
10.12
10.13
10.14
10.15
10.16
Threshold in Frequency Modulation
Occurrence of Spikes
Spike Characteristics
Calculation of Threshold in an FM Discriminator
Calculation of Mean Time between Spikes
Effect of Modulation
.
The Phase-Locked Loop
Analysis of the Phase-Locked Loop
Stable and Unstable Operating Points
Spike Suppression
Second-Order Phase-Locked Loop
Output SNR of a Phase-Locked Loop'
The FM Demodulator Using Feedback
Threshold Extension Using the FMFB
Bit Synchronizer
Carrier Recovery
394
>
Chapter 11 Data Transmission
11.1
11.2
11.3
11.4
11.5
11.6
11.7
11.8
11.9
11.10
11.11
. 11.12
11.13
11.14
11.15
11.16
11.17
Probability of Error
The Optimum Filter
White Noise: The Matched Filter
Probability of Error of the Matched Filter
Coherent Reception: Correlation
Phase-Shift Keying
Frequency-Shift Keying
•
Noncoherent Detection of FSK
Differential PSK
Four Phase PSK (QPSK)
Use of Signal Space to Calculate Pe
Calculation of Error Probability for BPSK and BFSK
Error Probability for QPSK
The Union Bound Approximation
Bit-by-Bit Encoding versus Symbol-by-Symbol Encoding
Relationship between Bit Error Rate and Symbol Error Rate
394
397
400
402
404
407
411
415
418
419
422
424
427
429
431
434
441
441
444
446
450
452
454
455
457
459
459
460
463
464
468
469
474
475
XIV CONTENTS
11.18
11.19
11.20
Probability of Error in a Quadrature Partial
Response (QPR) System
Probability of Error of Minimum Shift Keying (MSK)
Comparison of Modulation Systems
Chapter 12 Noise in Pulse-Code and Delta-Modulation
Systems
/
12.1
12.2
12.3
12.4
12.5
12.6
12.7
12.8
12.9
12.10
12.11
12.12
12.13
12.14
PCM Transmission
Calculation of Quantization Noise
The Output-Signal Power
The Effect of Thermal Noise
The Output Signal-to-Noise Ratio in PCM
Delta Modulation (DM)
Quantization Noise in Delta Modulation
The Output-Signal Power
Delta-Modulation Output-Signal-to-Quantization-Noise
Ratio
Delta Pulse-Code Modulation (DPCM)
The Effect of Thermal Noise in Delta Modulation
Output Signal-to-Noise Ratio in Delta Modulation
Comparison of PCM and DM
Chapter 13 Information Theory and Coding
13.1
13.2
13.3
13.4
13.5
13.6
13.7
13.8
13.9
13.10
13.11
13.12
13.13
13.14
13.15
13.16
13.17
13.18
13.19
13.20
13.21
13.22
13.23
Discrete Messages
The Concept of Amount of Information
Average Information, Entropy
Information Rate
Coding to Increase Average Information per Bit
Shannon's Theorem, Channel Capacity
Capacity of a Gaussian Channel
Use of Orthogonal Signals to Attain Shannon's Limit
Efficiency of Orthogonal Signal Transmission
Coding: Introduction
Parity Check Bit Coding for Error Detection
Coding for Error Detection and Correction
Block Codes
Upper Bounds of the Probability of Error with Coding
Block Codes—Coding and Decoding
Examples of Algebraic Codes
Burst Error Correction
Convolutional Coding
Decoding a Convolutional Code
Probability of Error of Convolutional Codes
Comparison of Error Rates in Coded and
Uncoded Transmission
.
.
Automatic-Repeat-Request (ARQ)
477
481
481
487
487
489
490
491
493
495
496
498
499
501
501
503
504
505
511
511
512
514
516
517
518
519
522
523
527
529
532
533
533
535
541
549
556
562
564
575
575
578
CONTENTS XV
13.24
13.25
13.26
13.27
13.28
13.29
13.30
N
Performance of ARQ Systems
An Application of Information Theory: An Optimum
Modulation System
A Comparison of Amplitude-Modulation Systems with the
Optimum System
K Comparison of FM Systems
Comparison of PCM and FM Communication Systems
Feedback Communication
Trellis-Decoded Modulation
Chapter 14 Communication System and Noise
Calculations
14.1
14.2
14.3
14.4
14.5
14.6
14.7
14.8
14.9
14.10
14.11
14.12
14.13
14.14
Chapter IS
Resistor Noise
Multiple-Resistor Noise Sources
Networks with Reactive Elements
An Example
Available Power
Noise Temperature
Two-Ports
Noise Bandwidth
Effective Input-Noise'Temperature
Noise Figure
Noise Figure and Equivalent Noise Temperature
An Example of a Receiving System
Antennas
System Calculation
Telephone Switching
15.1
Elemental Phone System
15.2
Central Switching .
15.3
A Simple (Human) Exchange
^
15.4
The Strowger Automatic Dialing System
15.5
15.6
Hierarchy of Switching Offices
15.7
The Crossbar Switch
15.8
Common Control
15.9
Switching Matrices
15.10 Multiple Stage Switching
15.11 Two- and Four-Wire Connections
15.12 Time-Division Multiplexing
15.13 • Analog Time-Division Switching
15.14 Time Slot Interchanging (TSI)
15.15 Comparison of TSI with Space Switching
15.16 Space Array for Digital Signals
15.17 Combined Space and'Time Switching
15.18 Mobile Telephone Communication—The Cellular
Concept
580
583
585
587
588
589
594
610
610
612
612
614
615
617
618
620
621
622
624
625
626
629
635
635
637
639
641
645
647
650
651
653
657
661
664
665
668
671
671
672
677
XVI CONTENTS
Chapter 16 Computer Communication Systems
682
Introduction'
16.1
Types of Networks
16.2
Design Features of a Computer Communication Network
16.3 "'Examples of Computer Communications Networks
16.3-1 TYMNET
16.3-2 ARPANET
16.3-3 Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)
16.3-4 Local Area Networks (LAN)
16.4
16.4-1 Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)
16.4-2 Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA)
16.4-3 ALOHA
16.4-4 Slotted ALOHA
16.4-5 Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA)
16.5
The Poisson Distribution
16.5-1 The Interarrival Process
16.6
Protocols
16.6-1 The First Layer: The Physical Layer
16.2-2 The Second Layer: The Data-Link Layer
16.6-3 The Third Layer: Network Layer
16.6-4 The X.25 Protocol
'
16.6-5 The Forth or Transport Layer
16.6-6 The Fifth or Session Layer
16.6-7 The Sixth Layer: The Presentation Layer
16.6-8 The Final, Seventh Layer: The Application Layer
17.1
17.2
17.3
17.4
17.5
17.6
17.7
17.8
17.9
17.10
720
Introduction
Use of Spread Spectrum with Code Division
Multiple Access (CDMA)
.
Generation and Characteristics of PN Sequences
Acquisition (Coarse Synchronization) of a FH Signal
Tracking (Fine Synchronization) of a FH Signal
Acquisition (Coarse Synchronization) of a DS Signal
Tracking (Fine Synchronization) of a DS Signal
Index
682
683
687
691
691
692
694
695
696
696
697
698
703
704
710
711
712
712
713
715
715
716
716
716
717
720
721
726
727
-729
732
738
741
744
745
.
751
```
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