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Unit 5 Biology past paper questions
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Questions
Q1.
The cardiac output of the patient's heart is investigated.
The heart beats 70 times in a minute.
The stroke volume of each contraction is 0.075 litres (L).
Calculate the cardiac output of the patient's heart.
cardiac output = ........................................................... L minute−1
(Total for question = 2 marks)
Q2.
Figure 1.7 shows changes in blood pressure in the aorta and the left ventricle during the cardiac cycle.
Figure 1.7
Calculate the heart rate using information from Figure 1.7.
........................................................... beats per minute
(Total for question = 3 marks)
Q3.
The actual diameter of a healthy alveolus is 0.2 mm.
The observed diameter of the healthy alveolus, in another photomicrograph, is 10 mm.
Calculate the magnification of the image.
(2)
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(Total for question = 2 marks)
Q4.
A student investigated the effect of caffeine on the heart rate of the water flea, Daphnia.
Figure 3 shows a Daphnia and the location of its heart.
The student placed a Daphnia in a Petri dish containing pond water.
The student observed the Daphnia under a light microscope.
The student counted the number of Daphnia heartbeats per minute when the Daphnia was in pond water
containing differing concentrations of caffeine.
The results are shown in Table 2.
(i) Calculate the mean number of heartbeats for the Daphnia in 0.05% caffeine concentration.
(2)
mean number of heartbeats = ........................................................... beats per minute
(ii) Calculate the percentage increase in the mean Daphnia heart rate between 0.00% caffeine
concentration and 0.01% caffeine concentration.
(3)
percentage increase = ........................................................... %
(Total for question = 5 marks)
Q5.
A spirometer measures a person's breathing rate.
A fitness trainer uses spirometer traces to assess the fitness levels of a client.
Trace A shows an open circuit spirometer trace of the client at rest for 30 seconds.
Calculate the respiratory minute ventilation at rest.
respiratory minute ventilation at rest = ........................................................... L minute−1
(Total for question = 2 marks)
Q6.
Figure 2 shows two types of epithelial cell.
Table 2 contains information about the two types of epithelial cell.
Calculate, using information from Table 2, the surface area to volume ratio (SA/V) for the columnar cell
from the lining of the bronchi.
(2)
SA/V = ...........................................................
(Total for question = 2 marks)
Q7.
Substances may enter or leave cells by active transport and passive transport mechanisms.
Compare how substances move into and out of cells by both active and passive transport mechanisms.
(6)
(Total for question = 6 marks)
Q8.
The graph shows the relationship between the concentration gradient and the rate of movement of
oxygen and glucose molecules into the cell.
Line A shows the movement of oxygen molecules across a red blood cell membrane using simple
diffusion.
Line B shows the movement of glucose molecules across a red blood cell membrane using facilitated
diffusion.
Compare, with reference to the graph, simple and facilitated diffusion.
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(Total for question = 3 marks)
Q9.
Complete Table 1 to show the functions of the ureters and bladder.
(2)
(Total for question = 2 marks)
Q10.
Figure 2 shows two types of epithelial cell.
Table 2 contains information about the two types of epithelial cell.
Complete Table 3 to show the differences and similarities between active transport and endocytosis.
Active transport has been completed for you.
(3)
(Total for question = 3 marks)
Q11.
A patient visits a hospital to have some routine tests carried out on their heart.
There is a poster, showing a section of a human heart, on the wall.
Complete the missing labels, X and Y, on the poster.
(Total for question = 2 marks)
Q12.
There are changes in blood pressure during the cardiac cycle. These changes are brought about by the
contraction and relaxation of heart muscle.
Table 1.1 refers to two phases of the cardiac cycle.
Complete Table 1.1 by stating whether the atria and ventricles are contracted or relaxed in each of these
phases.
Table 1.1
Figure 1.7 shows changes in blood pressure in the aorta and the left ventricle during the cardiac cycle.
Figure 1.7
(Total for question = 2 marks)
Q13.
Figure 7 shows the structure of a nephron in a kidney.
Figure 7
Complete the table to show the names of C and D.
(2)
(Total for question = 2 marks)
Q14.
Figure 7 shows the structure of a nephron in a kidney.
Figure 7
Aldosterone is a hormone that is secreted by the adrenal glands when blood pressure drops.
Figure 8 shows kidneys and adrenal glands.
Figure 8
Describe how aldosterone increases blood pressure.
(3)
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(Total for question = 3 marks)
Q15.
Figure 1.4 shows the structure of a cell surface membrane.
Figure 1.4
Amino acids are required inside the cell for protein synthesis. Amino acids cannot pass through the
phospholipid bilayer.
Describe, using information from Figure 1.4, how the amino acids enter the cell.
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(Total for question = 2 marks)
Q16.
Figure 4 shows a longitudinal section of a human heart.
Figure 4
The fibrous layer separating the atria from the ventricles does not conduct electrical impulses.
Describe how the electrical impulses spread from
to
in Figure 4.
(3)
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(Total for question = 3 marks)
Q17.
Figure 1 shows the effect of anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) on the rate of urine production.
(i) Describe the changes in the rate of urine production, when no ADH is injected, from 0 to 120 minutes.
(3)
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(ii) Explain the effect of ADH on the rate of urine production.
(2)
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(Total for question = 5 marks)
Q18.
Pulmonary disease destroys alveoli.
Figure 6 shows the effect of destroying alveoli on the total surface area of the lungs.
Describe the relationship between the number of alveoli destroyed and the total surface area of the lungs.
(1)
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(Total for question = 1 mark)
Q19.
Figure 1a shows epithelial cells that line the respiratory airways.
Figure 1a
Figure 1b shows the detailed structure of one goblet cell.
Goblet cells produce mucus.
Mucus contains large molecules of a protein called mucin.
Figure 1b
Describe the function of the cilia on the ciliated epithelial cells.
(2)
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(Total for question = 2 marks)
Q20.
Cell surface membranes control the movement of substances in and out of cells.
The diagram shows part of a cell surface membrane.
Active transport is a cell transport mechanism.
Describe the process of active transport across a cell surface membrane.
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(Total for question = 4 marks)
Q21.
Discuss how the structures in the lungs are adapted to enable them to carry out their function.
(6)
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(Total for question = 6 marks)
Q22.
Blood can be typed using the ABO system.
Blood typing is vital for successful blood transfusions.
Discuss the ABO system and its importance in blood transfusions.
(Total for question = 6 marks)
Q23.
The kidneys are organs of excretion and osmoregulation.
A person has kidney failure when many of their kidney nephrons are damaged.
Renal dialysis (haemodialysis) is one way to treat kidney failure.
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of renal dialysis in treating kidney failure.
(Total for question = 6 marks)
Q24.
Figure 7 shows the structure of a nephron in a kidney.
Figure 7
Kidney failure occurs when 50% or more of the nephrons are damaged. Patients with kidney failure may
be treated with kidney transplantation.
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of treating kidney failure with kidney transplantation.
(Total for question = 6 marks)
Q25.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) affects the heart and blood vessels.
Coronary heart disease and strokes are types of cardiovascular disease.
High levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in the blood is one risk factor for CVD. Statins are
one type of drug used to treat CVD.
Discuss the use of statins to treat CVD.
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(Total for question = 6 marks)
Q26.
Figure 5a shows the external structure of a human heart.
Figure 5b shows a blocked coronary artery.
Figure 5a
One risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a high fat diet. This may lead to fatty deposits in the
wall of the coronary artery. Fatty deposits could eventually lead to the coronary artery becoming blocked.
Explain how a blocked coronary artery may lead to a heart attack.
(4)
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(Total for question = 4 marks)
Q27.
The kidneys are organs of excretion and osmoregulation.
Patients with kidney failure may have dialysis to treat their condition.
During dialysis blood is taken out of the body and passed through a dialysis machine.
The dialysis machine contains partially permeable membranes that separate blood from dialysis fluid.
Figure 1.8 shows part of a dialysis machine.
Figure 1.8
The concentration of ions in blood plasma is continually monitored by osmoreceptors in an area of the
brain.
When the concentration is too high, antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is released from the pituitary gland. The
ADH is carried in the blood and acts on the kidneys.
Explain how ADH is involved in osmoregulation in the kidneys.
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(Total for question = 4 marks)
Q28.
A student investigated the effect of caffeine on the heart rate of the water flea, Daphnia.
Figure 3 shows a Daphnia and the location of its heart.
The student placed a Daphnia in a Petri dish containing pond water.
The student observed the Daphnia under a light microscope.
The student counted the number of Daphnia heartbeats per minute when the Daphnia was in pond water
containing differing concentrations of caffeine.
The results are shown in Table 2.
Figure 4 shows the equation for cardiac output.
Explain how caffeine changes the cardiac output of the Daphnia.
(4)
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(Total for question = 4 marks)
Q29.
Figure 7 shows how sodium ions and chloride ions move into and out of the ciliated epithelial cells lining
the bronchi of the lungs.
Figure 7
Explain how the chloride ions leave the ciliated epithelial cell at point 2.
(4)
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(Total for question = 4 marks)
Q30.
Figure 3 shows some of the structures in the thoracic cavity.
Explain how the movements of the rib cage and diaphragm enable a person to inhale.
(4)
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(Total for question = 4 marks)
Q31.
Figure 2 shows two types of epithelial cell.
Table 2 contains information about the two types of epithelial cell.
The walls of a glomerulus in a kidney nephron consist of squamous epithelial cells.
Explain how the SA/V ratio of these cells helps them to filter blood efficiently.
(2)
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(Total for question = 2 marks)
Q32.
A pharmaceutical company is investigating the effects of Drug X on urine production.
Drug X affects the activity of anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) as shown in the graph.
Explain the effect that Drug X would have on urine production.
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(Total for question = 4 marks)
Q33.
The kidneys are organs of excretion and osmoregulation.
(i) Explain the importance of excretion.
(2)
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(ii) Explain the importance of osmoregulation.
(2)
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(Total for question = 4 marks)
Q34.
Figure 1.4 shows the structure of a cell surface membrane.
Figure 1.4
Figure 1.5 shows the structure of a phospholipid molecule.
Figure 1.5
(i) Explain how the properties of the phosphate head cause it to face the watery exterior and interior
areas.
(2)
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(ii) Explain how the properties of the fatty acid tails cause them to face away from the watery exterior and
interior areas.
(2)
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(Total for question = 4 marks)
Q35.
Figure 6 shows the changes in blood pressure throughout the circulatory system.
Figure 6
(i) Explain two changes in arterial blood pressure, shown between points W and X, in Figure 6.
(4)
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(ii) Calculate, using information in Figure 6, the percentage decrease in blood pressure in the capillaries
from point Y to point Z.
(3)
........................................................... %
(Total for question = 7 marks)
Q36.
Gas exchange occurs at the alveoli.
The diagram shows part of the respiratory system.
The folded walls of the alveoli and their proximity to the capillary network support efficient gas exchange.
Explain two other characteristics of the alveoli that support efficient gas exchange.
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(Total for question = 4 marks)
Q37.
Figure 2 shows the cross sections of normal alveoli of a healthy person and damaged alveoli of a person
with a respiratory disease, such as emphysema.
Figure 2
Explain why a person with emphysema produces less ATP than a healthy person.
(3)
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(Total for question = 3 marks)
Q38.
The two most important blood grouping systems for humans are the:

ABO system

rhesus system.Table 4 lists the antigens and antibodies present in people of different ABO blood
groups.
The rhesus system relates to the presence or absence of D antigens on the surface of the erythrocytes.
Explain why, in an emergency, anyone can be given a transfusion with blood of type O rhesus negative.
(3)
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(Total for question = 3 marks)
Q39.
Figure 1.7 shows changes in blood pressure in the aorta and the left ventricle during the cardiac cycle.
Figure 1.7
Explain why during ventricular systole, the pressure in the right ventricle is different from the pressure in
the left ventricle.
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(Total for question = 3 marks)
Q40.
A pharmaceutical company is investigating the effects of Drug X on urine production.
Drug X affects the activity of anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) as shown in the graph.
The pharmaceutical company also investigates the effects of Drug X on the concentration of glucose and
protein in urine.
Explain why glucose and protein are not present in the urine.
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(Total for question = 4 marks)
Q41.
Pulmonary disease destroys alveoli.
Figure 6 shows the effect of destroying alveoli on the total surface area of the lungs.
Explain why it is important for the walls of the alveoli to be moist.
(2)
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(Total for question = 2 marks)
Mark Scheme
Q1.
Q2.
Q3.
Q4.
Q5.
Q6.
Q7.
Q8.
Q9.
Q10.
Q11.
Q12.
Q13.
Q14.
Q15.
Q16.
Q17.
Q18.
Q19.
Q20.
Q21.
Q22.
Q23.
Q24.
Q25.
Q26.
Q27.
Q28.
Q29.
Q30.
Q31.
Q32.
Q33.
Q34.
Q35.
Q36.
Q37.
Q38.
Q39.
Q40.
Q41.
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