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RESEARCH 1 NATURE OF INQUIRY AND RESEARCH What is research? It is a French word ‘reserchier’ which means to search and search again. A scientific approach to answer research questions A systematized effort to gain new knowledge A voyage of discovery A process of knowing the unknown A search for knowledge Art of scientific investigation Critical Realism sensations and images of the real world can be deceptive, and they usually do not portray the real world. Research is logical Two approaches: Deductive and Inductive FUNCTIONS OF RESEARCH Explains and describe the situation through observation, collecting data, and other methods. Explains the complex issues and answers the questions Why? and How? Evaluate and Predict behavior or event future Tries to phenomena future control Investigates the relationship of two or more variables / phenomena of a context CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH Realistic Logical Cyclical Objective Replicable Two Groups of Realism: Direct and Critical Direct Realism portrays the world through personal human space Research is a cyclical process because it starts with a problem and ends with a problem. The research designs and procedures are replicated and repeated to enable the researcher to arrive at valid and conclusive results. Why do we do research? What is the importance of research in our daily life? Errors in our ‘everyday life’ Overgeneralization Selective Observation Premature Closure Halo Effect False Consensus How do we do research? What are the methods of doing research? We do research through a scientific method by answering problems / questions. Scientific Method Is a systematic way / process of arriving an answer to a question through conducting an empirical, logical, and experimental procedure. 1. State Problem / Question 2. Form a hypothesis 3. Gather Data 4. Analyze and Interpret Data 5. Conclusion 6. Retest (If necessary) Seven Steps Process: of Research 1. Identify and develop your topic 2. Find background information 3. Use catalogs to find books and media 4. Use indexed to find periodical articles 5. Look for additional internet sources 6. Evaluate what you have found 7. Cite what you have found using a standard format Social Entrepreneurship / MSMEs Human Resources E-commerce / Financial Technology “You must accept the responsibility to behave ethically toward those who will be affected by your research“ - anonymous Ethics is the study of proper action. Research ethics concerns the responsibility of researchers to be honest and respectful to all individuals who may be affected by their research studies CREATING AND CHOOSING A RESEARCH TOPIC Research Topic -issue one wants to investigate -idea or subject the researcher he's interested in, or a problem in our society that requires solutions which research can help identify -general area of inquiry Research Topic: Education online Online behavior Research Title -prefaces is the study by providing a summary of the main idea -usually short and concise -the general problem of the research or the specific question that the researcher intends to answer, when rewritten in a statement form, can serve as the title. readiness purchasing Research Title: Online Learning Readiness of UST First Year High School during the CoViD19 Pandemic Influence of Facebook Advertising on the Online Shopping Behavior of Grade 12 ABM Students of the University of Santo Tomas How to choose a research topic: Strategies in Research Topic Choosing a The following strategies may help in selecting research topic: 1. Look into your personal experience 2. Read literature in field of study own your 3. Reflect on existing issues in society Narrowing Down a Research Topic Strategies in narrowing down a topic: Aspects – consider just looking at one facet of the research topic. Components – see if the different aspects of your research can be made more specific. Methodology – the way you collect data will determine how you will conduct data analysis Place – consider identifying the particular geographic unit of analysis you want to look into. Relationship – determining the kind of relationship you would like to investigate Time – identify the time period of the study. Type – consider focusing your research on a particular type of people, place, or phenomenon Combination – use one or a combination of the strategies mentioned above to narrow down your topic. General Topic Interesting; aligned with your STRAND Research Existing study about your topic Narrow Down By generating specific about your topic EXAMPLE: ideas Research Title Research title is an “orienting device” which aids the researcher in focusing his or her investigation. It helps convey to others the central idea of research. Drafting a research title is a key task in research as it will capture the essence of what you wish to do in your inquiry. Drafting a Research Title Identify the main ideas behind your research topic and how these are related to one another. Completing the sentence “My student is about…” can also aid in thinking of a research title as it asks you to capture the essence of your research in one sentence. Mention several features of your research such as its purpose, approach, and methods. Create the research as title as brief as possible and to avoid “unnecessary words” You may develop a single title or a two-part title. Characteristics of a Research Title A research title prefaces the study by providing a summary of the main idea and is usually short and concise. The general problem of the research or the specific question that the researcher intends to answer, when rewritten in a statement form, can serve as the title. A research title should have the following characteristics. 1. Summarizes the main idea of the paper. 2. A concise statement of the main topic. 3. Includes the major variables of the research study. 4. Self-explanatory 5. Describes or implies the participants of the study. Research Question Focuses the inquiry Stems from the research topic and asks specific things the researcher wants to find out Always phrased as a question How do we know if our research questions are good or not? 1. A good research question should be focused. 2. It should be researchable. 3. It needs to be feasible. 4. It should be specific. 5. The research question should also be complex enough. 6. The problem must be relevant to your field of study or society! ABM Strand Research Topics for Batch 2023 1. Social Entrepreneurship / Micro-, Small-, and Medium-Sized Enterprises (MSMEs) 2. Human Resources 3. E-commerce / Financial Technology REVIEW OF LITERATURE Related Literature RELATED Literature sources are books, journals, magazine, novels, proceedings, speeches, development plans, and many others. Related Studies These refer to published and unpublished research studies relevant to the studies at hand. Purpose of Related Literature 1. It gives the researcher several ideas on how to select and formulate his own research problems. 2. It helps the researcher identify studies that have been done related to the topic he is interested in. 3. It avoids possible duplication of similar studies. 4. It guides the researcher on the possible theoretical frameworks he can use for his current study. 5. It gives direction to the researcher on how he will create his own conceptual framework. 6. It gives a picture of a comparative analysis between variables used in reviewed materials and those used in the current study. 7. It allows the researcher to browse several kinds of research designs, sampling techniques, statistical procedures, questionnaires, and processes of presenting, analyzing, and interpreting data, from where he could base his own choice of his paper. Example Research Problem: What does social media do for the marketing business at this generation? By Literature Review, you will… Find out for yourself what’s already known about the topic Give your reader a critical overview of what you have found Find out what is missing (gap) Buying Selling Buying and selling SAME CATEGORY! How to Write a Literature Review Step by Step Guide by Scribbr Step 1: Search for relevant literature on your topic What different available? sources are Step 2: Evaluate Resources Synonyms Marketing and Select Gaps Trend and Patterns Theories Methods Results Recurring Citations: Authors Books Articles Step 3: Identify dabate, and gaps themes, Things to look for: Trends and patters: theories, methods, or results Themes Dabate and contradictions / conflicts Influential studies / pivotal publications Thematic Approach Most Common and Convenient Way of Structuring the RRL: Step 4: Outline your Literature Review’s Structure 4 Approaches o Literature Review Structure RRL may be grouped according to these categories: 1. Chronological 2. Thematic 3. Methodological 4. Theoretical Chronological Approach Older to Recent Example: Social Media’s Impact on Business Marketing at Today’s Generation Possible Tags: Business Marketing Social Media YouTube Instagram Facebook Generation Z Methodical Approach Survey Interview Discuss the scope e.g. the time period of your sources State your objective e.g. what new insight will you draw from the literature? Theoretical Approach Theory Theories Models Definitions Body Main Body 1. Summarize & Synthesize 2. Analyze & Interpret 3. Critically Evaluate 4. Structured Paragraphs Summarize & Synthesize Summarize Give an overview of the main points Make sure that your Literature Review has… Introduction Main body Conclusion Research Paper / Dissertation: Restate your research question Emphasize the timelines of the topic e.g. “many recent studies have focused on the problem of X.” Highlight a gap in the literature e.g. “while there has been much research on X, few researchers have taken Y into consideration.” Stand-alone Paper: Give background topic on the Synthesize Combine sources to overall point Similarities Differences make an & Perloff (2014) theorizes that the interactive aspects of social media may influence its impact on business marketing, and it mentions that many potential customers are active in their social media platform. Several empirical studies have shown that Facebook and Instagram are the dynamic platforms for advertising (Tiggermann & Slater, 2013; Meier & Gray, 2014). And at the same way, build communication with prospect customers (Smith, Hames & Joiner, 2013; Fardouly et al., 2015; Cohen, Newton-John & Slater, 2017), while a systematic review by Holland and Timmerman (2016) confirmed a relationship between social networking and business marketing for both the sellers and buyers. Analyze & Interpret Throughout the literature, there is consistent evidence that business marketing issues are influenced not by social media usage in general, but by engagement with the visual and interactive aspects of these platforms. Critically Evaluate However, in the era of rapid changing digital technologies, the mass media paradigm is no longer adequate for understanding how people engage with visual images, and the findings of older studies may not be relevant to younger generations. Use Well-Structured Paragraphs Business marketing issues have been widely associated with social media usage, particularly in new generations. The relation between media depiction and business marketing concerns is well-established; a metaanalysis by Grabe, Ward and Hyde (2008) concluded that… However, in an era of rapidly changing digital technologies… In light of this, researchers have become increasingly interested… Conclusion Review of Literature Research Paper / Dissertation Show how your research Addresses gaps Contributes new knowledge Stand-Alone Paper Summarize major findings & implications Make suggestions future research for Pay attention to: Typos Overusing passive voice Repetitive phrasing Informal language Etc. THEORETICAL AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORKS Theoretical Frameworks A general frame of reference used for observation, defining concepts, developing research designs, and interpreting and generalizing findings. Formulated from existing theories and serves as the foundation of the study. The present study can adopt the original model used by the cited theorist. Researcher may adopt one or more theories in a particular study. Combination of theories are allowed to provide uniqueness and/or originality to a particular research. Theories are developed by researchers to explain phenomena, draw connections, and make predictions. In the theoretical framework, you explain the theories that support your research, showing that your work is grounded in established ideas. Goals of Theoretical Framework To present and explain theories and models that other researchers have already developed. It also involves evaluating, comparing and selecting the relevant ones. most Theoretical Framework Strengthens the Study in the Following Ways: 1. An explicit statement of theoretical assumptions permits the reader to evaluate them critically. 2. The theoretical framework connects the researcher to existing knowledge. guided by a relevant theory, you are given a basis for your hypotheses and choices of research methods. 3. Articulating the theoretical assumption of a research study forces you to address questions of why and how. It permits you to move from simply describing a phenomenon observed to generalizing about various aspects of that phenomenon. 4. Having a theory helps you to identify the limits to those generalizations. A theoretical framework specifies which key variables influence a phenomenon of interest. It alerts you to examine how those key variables might differ and under what circumstances. Finding a Theory for the Study Look for a theory that connects with your main topic Example Topic: Human Resource Possible Theories: David Ulrich’s HR Model David Ulrich defined the basic scope for Human Resources to become a strategic partner for the top executives in the company. The roles are strongly interconnected, but they deliver the real value added to the company, which is seen and valued by both management and employees. This may serve as the foundation of your current study. You need to fully understand the whole theory before adopting it, the theory should then be related to the expectations and objectives of your study. Using Two or more Theories for the Study You may use more than one theory for your study. This allows it to be more original and unique. Example: Human Resource Theory 1: David Ulrich’s HR Model Theory 2: Transactional Theory of Work Stress and Coping by Lizard Lazarus The Transactional Theory of Stress and Coping (TTSC) it's a framework which focuses on assessments in order to evaluate damages, threats and challenges. The product or the result of this evaluation is a description of the process used to handle stressful situations. Using two or more theories required emerging of the assumptions and fundamentals of the theories. What they should be able to complement each other in connection to the goals and objectives of your study. Normally, the first sturdiest should be broader and more general than the succeeding theory is to facilitate a more feasible merging of concepts. Conceptual Framework Conceptual Framework is commonly referred to as the flow chart of the study their yard illustrates the bird'seye-view of how the study will progress. The diagram that goes with the narrative of the framework is known as the Conceptual Paradigm. Conceptual Framework guides the researchers and leaders on how the study will proceed after being presented with the Literature Review and Theoretical Framework of this study. Why should research have a conceptual framework? conceptual framework serves as a guide period it keeps you on track by presenting and simplifying the relationship between the variables and the goals of the study. Also, people who will read your research must have a clear guide to the variables in your study and where the research is heading. Just by looking at the conceptual framework, the readers can get the gist of the research concepts without reading the entire study. Different Types of Conceptual Frameworks Taxonomy In this type of conceptual framework, the phenomena p of your study is grouped together into categories without presenting the relationship among them. The point of this type of conceptual framework is to distinguish the categories from one another. Mathematical Description In this type of conceptual framework, the relationship between phenomena in variables of your study are described using mathematical formulas. Also, the extent of relationship between these variables are presented with specific quantities. Visual Presentation in this type of conceptual framework, the relationship between the phenomena and variables of your study is presented. Using this conceptual framework implies that your study provides empirical evidence to prove the relationship between variables. This is the type of conceptual framework that is usually used in research studies. How to Framework? Make Conceptual 1. identify the important variables of your study There are two important variables that you must identify in your study: the independent and the dependent variables. And independent variable is a variable that you can manipulate. It can affect the dependent variable. Meanwhile, the dependent variable is the resulting variable that you are measuring. You may refer to your research question could determine your research’s independent and dependent variables. Suppose that your research question is calling “Exploring the Significant Relationship Between the Quality ff Customer Relations and the Growth Rate of a Company” The independent variable of this study is the quality of customer relations while the dependent variable is the growth rate of a company. 2. Think how the variables are related Usually, the variables of a study have other regulation ship. If a change in one of your variables leads to a corresponding change to another variable, then they might have this kind of relationship. However, note that having a direct relationship between variables does not mean that they already have a cause-and-effect relationship. It takes analysis to prove causation between variables. Using our example earlier, the quality of customer relations may have a direct relationship to the growth rate of a company. However, we are not yet certain that the quality of customer relations is the sole reason for the changes in the growth rate of the company. 3. Create a visual diagram or a model (Conceptual Paradigm) Create a visual diagram that summarizes the relationships of the variables, the processes that will be conducted and the goal of your study. Usually, shape such as rectangles, circles, and arrows are used for the model. There are different ways and how will you make her aid visual diagram or model for a conceptual framework. The three most common models are the independent-dependent variable model, the input-process-output (IPO) model, and concept maps. 4. Provide a Narrative Delete the interconnections of the variables and the flow of the study The narrative should adequately relate the whole picture and context by which the study will transpire. The conceptual paradigm should be part of the narrative and not the other way around. Hence, it should merely be a figure in the narrative.