* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project
Corporate Social Responsibility and the Social Enterprise Author(s): Nelarine Cornelius, Mathew Todres, Shaheena Janjuha-Jivraj, Adrian Woods and James Wallace Source: Journal of Business Ethics , Aug., 2008, Vol. 81, No. 2 (Aug., 2008), pp. 355-370 Published by: Springer Stable URL: https://www.jstor.org/stable/25482219 REFERENCES Linked references are available on JSTOR for this article: https://www.jstor.org/stable/25482219?seq=1&cid=pdfreference#references_tab_contents You may need to log in to JSTOR to access the linked references. JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact [email protected]. Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at https://about.jstor.org/terms Springer is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Journal of Business Ethics This content downloaded from 126.96.36.199 on Mon, 15 Nov 2021 08:29:50 UTC All use subject to https://about.jstor.org/terms Journal ofBusiness Ethics (2008) 81:355-370 ? Springer 2007 DOI 10.1007A10551-007-9500-7 Corporate Social Responsibility and the Social Enterprise ABSTPJVCT. In this article, we contend that due to their size and emphasis upon addressing external social concerns, the corporate relationship between social enterprises, social awareness and action is more complex than whether or not these organisations engage in corporate social responsibility (CSR). This includes organisations that place less emphasis on CSR as well as other organisations that may be very proficient in CSR Nelarine Cornelius Mathew Todres Shaheena Janjuha-Jivraj Adrian Woods James Wallace ABBREVIATIONS: CSR: Corporate social responsi bility; CI: Corporate identity; HP^M: Human Resource Management; HRD: Human Resource Development; OI: Organisational Identity; SME: Small to medium sized enterprise Introduction initiatives, but are less successful in recording practices. In this context, we identify a number of internal CSR markers that may be applied to measuring the extent to which internal CSR practices are being observed. These considerations may be contrasted with the evidence that community based CSR activities is often well devel oped in private sector small to medium sized enterprises (SMEs) (Observatory of European SMEs, 2002), a situation which may be replicated in social enterprises especially those that have grown from micro-enterprises embedded in local communities. We place particular emphasis upon the implications for employee manage ment. Underpinning our position is the Aristotelian informed capabilities approach, a theory of human development and quality of life, developed by Sen (1992; 1999) and Nussbaum (1999) which has been developed further, in an organisational context, (e.g., Cornelius, 2002); Cornelius and Gagnon, 2004; Gagnon and Cornelius, 1999; Vogt, 2005. We contend that the capabilities approach offers additional insights into CSR in social enterprises in general and internal CSR activity in particular. Our article concludes with proposals for future research initiatives and reflections upon social enterprise development from a capabilities perspective. According to the United Kingdom (UK) govern ment's Department of Trade and Industry (2002: 7) a social enterprise is: "a business with primarily social objectives whose surpluses are principally reinvested for that purpose in the business or in the commu nity, rather than being driven by the need to max imise profit for shareholder and owners". Therefore, social ends and profit motives do not contradict each other, but rather have complementary outcomes, and constitute a 'double bottom line'. This implies that effective financial management for social pur poses is a key feature of sustainability (i.e. the financial stability of an organisation to trade over the long term). Although a policy based definition, it is consistent with more academic definitions of social enterprise (see for example, Borzaga and Defourny, 2001) Underpinning this argument is the notion of the double bottom line (of economic and social accountability) and increasingly, the 'triple bottom line' (environmental accountability also). Thus, the latter term encapsulates how socially responsible companies aim not only to generate profits and social benefits, but also positive environmental outcomes KEY WORDS: capabilities theory, corporate social (Elkington 1999; see also Henriques and Richard business, social enterprise son, 2004). However, the focus of attention among these scholars is largely the social impact of social responsibility, human resource management, small This content downloaded from 188.8.131.52 on Mon, 15 Nov 2021 08:29:50 UTC All use subject to https://about.jstor.org/terms 356 Nelarine Cornelius et al. enterprises on the communities they serve, plus external stakeholder responsibilities: there is less emphasis on internal social responsibility. In short, in this article we argue in favour of a stronger focus upon the investigation of internal CSR policies and practices in social enterprises. Our reasoning is that the strength of the community 1999; Gagnon and Cornelius, 1999; Vogt, 2005). We argue that there is potential in the capabilities approach as an ethics-centred, foundational approach with regards to the ethical reasoning that could inform CSR and social enterprise theory and development in general, and internal CSR in par ticular. In order to support this position we draw social mission in many third sector organisations may upon the research literature to identify a number of be so embedded in the corporate ethos that less attention may be paid to internal matters. This view basic markers of internal CSR practices. In doing this we suggest evaluation frameworks for CSR is supported by Foote's work within the charity practice in social enterprises, in order to evaluate, sector where she found that "ethical inconsistency in internally, the degree to which social enterprises people management...arising from the clear appli meet the 'triple bottom line' and further, what kind cation of strong and explicit organisational values to external client groups but...limited influence on people management strategies within the organisa tion" (2001: 25). We therefore draw attention to investment in employees, over and above financial reinvestment targeted towards the local community and to de velop the firm as a whole in terms of its service provision. We pose the question: what frameworks might social enterprises employ to ensure that attention is paid to internal CSR, especially con cerning employees' organisation and career devel opment and quality of life needs? In order to locate our research conceptually we present first, a brief review of some of the literature related to CSR, especially regarding its philosophical underpinnings. We argue that CSR is a crucial consideration for all social enterprises, including nascent social enterprises, and such organisations need to effectively communicate this area to their stakeholders. Also, we consider the role of employee management and development in small to medium enterprises (SMEs). Further, we explore whether social enterprises may experience similar trends to SMEs in terms of size and funding, attitudes and practices regarding employee management and development and ethical behaviour. We therefore identify human resourcing issues in SMEs that relate to these areas and consider their applicability to so cial enterprises. After a short discussion of the social enterprise sector, we contend that one option for the conceptual development of employee management and development policy and practice is the Aristo telian-informed capabilities approach (Cornelius, 2002; Cornelius and Gagnon, 2004; Cornelius and Skinner, 2005, 2007; Nussbaum, 1999; Sen, 1992, of evaluation frameworks are suggested by the capabilities approach. The article then concludes with some final assertions and observations. Philosophical underpinnings of CSR Windsor (2006) indicates that the developmental history of CSR includes three competing approaches, namely ethical responsibility theory, economic responsibility theory and corporate citi zenship conceptions. The first two viewpoints are characterised by competing moral frameworks and political philosophies. For Windsor (2006: 98) building on the thinking of Rorty (2000) there is an unresolved debate within ethics itself "where moral philosophy is trapped between Kant (i.e. duties) and Dewey (pragmatism)". Swanson (1995) (in Maignan and Ralston (2002) expresses a similar viewpoint. He argues that CSR initiatives stem from three philosophical outlooks, namely utilitarian, negative approach and positive duty approaches. For the first, CSR is viewed as a performance objective in terms of profitability and return on investment. The neg ative duty approach addresses the adoption of socially responsible practices, when firms are required to conform to stakeholder norms. Finally, the positive duty approach includes socially respon sible behaviour pursued by firms as a means in its own right as opposed to it resulting from external pressures. The implication is that CSR practices may be located in different assumptions and presuppositions: philosophical and more specifically, ethical. Takala and Pallab (2000) support this view and distinguish between 'process' and 'deed'. In the former, this This content downloaded from 184.108.40.206 on Mon, 15 Nov 2021 08:29:50 UTC All use subject to https://about.jstor.org/terms Corporate Social Responsibility and Social Enterprise 357 refers to legal constraints or licenses to act in a par ticular way and this may sanction behaviour on an conceptualise and pursue CSR. However, occupy individual, collective and/or organisational level, while 'deed' describes moral actions resultant from the voluntarist nature of private companies engaged with ethical issues, Garriga and Mele (2004) identify four clusters of ideas. These are instrumental theories personal choice. Consequently the lack of consensus means com paring underpinning ethical Does "means" here ing a more pragmatic position, understandable given (where social acts are pursued purely for economic ends), political theories (and responsible use of imply "averages", and if so it may be clearer to say "averages" assumptions and presuppositions may be power), integrative theories (the corporation focuses particularly informative. Takala and Pallab (2000) distinguish between juridical and ethical responsi ethical responsibilities of corporations to societies). Indeed, Garriga and Mele (2004) propose that there bility in business ethics. The latter encapsulates an active pursuit of morally sound behaviour as a means in itself (action over and above basic legal require ments). A firm may initially mimic good behaviour as these are the 'rules of the game', but over time the firm "internalises ethical practices... for their intrinsic value and voluntarily commits itself to environmentally safe actions" (Takala and Pallab, 2000: 114). on social demands) and ethical theories (based on should be 'a new theory on the business and society relationship, which should integrate these four dimensions'. (2004: 53) Takala and Pallab (2000: 109) cite the importance of firms considering internal aspects of CSR where "employees have to be socialised into the fact that along with the firm, they are equally responsible for morally right, pro-environmental actions". Individ uals within the firm, then, should be empowered to Corporate social responsibility (CSR) behaviour and values may change as a result of the adoption of actions with implicitly alternative philosophical underpinnings. Indeed, CSR trends are noted in Waddock's (2004) extensive overview of CSR across four decades. He highlights practical applica tions arising from theoretical developments (e.g., how companies have increasingly incorporated codes of conduct and ethics in their operational activities, the pursuit of social and environmental reporting standards, and the increased acceptance of internationally recognised certification, such as ISO 9000 for product quality and AA 1000 stakeholder engagement). The adoption of these practices orig inates in efforts of firms to be more accountable to stakeholders, and to measure outcome of their activities in more standard ways. This external CSR orientation is pursued for concerns of stakeholders (government, regulatory bodies, customers, pressure actively evaluate and decide upon ethical issues in the workplace. With a specific focus upon Aristotle, Kaptein and Wempe (2002: 77) summarise the qualities of moral virtues as "desirable...and imply a moral norm, are expressed in actions...are constantly, albeit often latently present, and can be influenced by the subject". Aristotelian, or more broadly, virtue ethics would seem to have affinities with social enterprise and organisations in the social economy, focusing upon addressing moral concerns in society via various actions (such as outreach projects, social and public services) to address social inequality and exclusion (e.g., Moore and Beadle's (2006) work on the application of Maclntyre's virtue-goods-prac tice-institutional proposal for the evaluation of the charity, Traidcraft). The challenge for many social enterprises is to engender similarly socially respon sible practices internally, to reflect their external achievements. groups). However, some scholars have questioned the robustness of both the operational assumptions and practices associated with CSR. Haigh and Jones (2006) identify six sets of factors which appear in the literature as promoting social responsibility; intra organizational factors, competitive dynamics, insti tutional investors, end-consumers, government regulators and non-governmental organisations. They conclude that instrumental economic benefits predominate in the decisions made regarding how to Social enterprise: trends and issues The history of social enterprise extends as far back to Victorian England (Dart, 2004; Hines, 2005). The worker cooperative is one of the first examples of a social enterprise. Social enterprises prevail through out Europe, and are most notable in the form of social cooperatives, particularly in Italy, Spain and This content downloaded from 220.127.116.11 on Mon, 15 Nov 2021 08:29:50 UTC All use subject to https://about.jstor.org/terms 358 Nelarine Cornelius et al. increasingly France (Duccie et al., 2002; Mancino and Thomas, 2005). Front line social enterprises in the U.K. generate ?18 billion in annual turnover and employ 775,000 people (www.dti.gov.uk 2002). In addition, recent research conducted by the Social Enterprise Unit (working under the DTI) suggests that there may be more than 15,000 social enter prises in the U.K., registered as either companies training, translating and interpreting services for non-native Standard English speakers, counselling and training for those with mental health problems and drug abuse issues. Social enterprise offers several advantages. Spear (cited in Borzaga and Defourny, 2004) draws attention to how social enterprises combat social exclusion, revitalise deprived areas, communities and locales. Social enterprises further hmited by guarantee (88%) or as industrial and more, provide work for the unemployed and provident societies (12%) ? three quarters of which are based in London alone (Small Business Service, generally offer innovative products and services previously overlooked by the private and public sectors, especially for hard-to-reach groups. The potential of social enterprises to enhance the com munity capacity and quality of life has been recog DTI, July, 2005). Social enterprises offer a range of contributions to local economic development "providing goods and services which the market or public sector is nised by governments, including the U.K. unwilling or unable to provide, developing skills, government, who have sought to both encourage creating employment... creating and managing workspace...and enhancing civil public involve ment" (Smallbone et al., 2001: 5). As a result of and fund the activities of many social enterprises. these contributions, recent legislation passed by the DTI (in 2005), recognises the Community Interest Company (CIC). This new legal form enables vol Interest in the development of front-line social enterprises is exemplified in the work of Jan-Khan (2003), who highlights institutional failure to address racism and ethnic tensions, particularly in the wake of the Bradford Riots in the north of England (1995 untary organisations to register as a company with hmited liability, generating profit for the benefit of and 2001). He points towards the existence of "a strong and vibrant black and minority ethnic vol the community (www.dti.gov.uk/cics). This new form of incorporation ensures that should the untary sector which has served the specific needs of organisation cease, assets will be preserved for the benefit of the community, as opposed to being dis tributed to individual members. Further, social enterprise 'brokers' have now emerged in this sector. [these] communities in their own geographically based areas" (Jan-Khan, 2003: 33). Even where government agencies have been involved in com munity capacity building projects (through regen eration budgets), Banks and Shenton (2001) caution These organisations develop, support and provide knowledge exchange and networking arenas for against agendas not in line with the community and social enterprises that deliver front-line services, and distribute government and other agencies funds to 297) assert that "we need to question whose purpose social enterprises (e.g., Social Enterprise London (2001, www.sel.org.uk), the Social Enterprise its substantive needs. Consequently, they (2001: capacity building is serving and ensure that local residents are not mere 'puppets' in the regeneration game played out by large national, regional and local agencies". Some social enterprises address local Coalition (1999, www.socialenterprise.org.uk) the Community Action Network (founded in 1998, www.can-onhne.org.uk) and the various Regional Development Agencies (PJDAs). In the U.K., the Labour government, through community concerns more effectively, serving to remedy micro socio-environmental issues at grass roots level, through local knowledge. Social enterprises are a welcome answer to such bodies as the DTI and the Regional Devel addressing human development issues that other opment Agencies (RDAs), has sought to support the development of the social enterprise sector. This is based upon the view that social enterprises fill service sectors and government agencies cannot (or will not) tackle. Bennet and Iossa (2005: 1) draw attention to how "it has become common for the government to provision gaps overlooked or neglected by the pri contract out the provision of public services" to both for profit and non-profit firms. Importantly, in a vate and public sectors. Social enterprises address a gamut of human development and empowerment concerns such as homelessness, employment skills comparison of both sectors, they assert that even where non-profit organisations care more about This content downloaded from 18.104.22.168 on Mon, 15 Nov 2021 08:29:50 UTC All use subject to https://about.jstor.org/terms Corporate Social Responsibility and Social Enterprise 359 social benefits, this does not necessarily translate to a responsive to social issues, and "need to understand, more favourable social benefit than that generated by to anticipate and to respond to the emerging social issues prior to their becoming legal issues" (Carby Hall, 2005: 224). This not only highlights the legal requirements for enterprises to treat their employees in a socially responsible way, but also echoes Takala for-profit firms. Since many social enterprises exist predominantly to address social ends (one key feature of the triple bottom line), it could be argued that the prevalence of their CSR policy and practice require close and Pallab, that politico-legal compliance and investigation. Emanuele and Higgins (2000) con governance issues are necessary, but insufficient with tribute to this agenda by challenging the assumption that non-profit organisations can offer comparatively lower wages, because they are more pleasant places regards to internal CSR. Some researchers, reflecting on the ethical chal lenges within human resource management (HRM), to work. The authors emphasise that employees in suggested that an exploitative element has charac this sector are often second income earners, and tericstised some of the predominant approaches, in therefore are less concerned with lower wages and terms of the strategies, policies and procedures for the reduced benefits more characteristic of the private sector. They highlight how the voluntary sector is often a job entry point for new employees, who later management of employees, especially within the context of some developments over the past two move on to other sectors offering more fringe benefits, better financial security and healthcare include greater insecurity and risk (less secure employment), deregulation of decision-making (contravening procedural norms of justice) and decline in management integrity. Sennett (1999) programmes. They conclude with the assertion that "we must begin to exert the same pressure for 'corporate responsibility' among non-profit employers, as we demand in the private sector" decades (Winstanley et al., 1996). The developments emphasises further aspects of the modern organisa tion, where labour is seen as purely contractual and (Emanuele and Higgins, 2000: 92), implying that the social enterprise sector needs to treat its employees better. Distinguishing between external and internal workers are shed or added in response to market demand. Within this context, Greenwood (2002: CSR may be beneficial, with social enterprises clearly focusing upon serving communities and ethical theories [towards HRM] are not made overlooking crucial internal human resource issues. 261-262) observes that the "assumptions underlining explicit... [where]... the role of stakeholder theory in this debate has been overlooked". Greenwood (2001) also notes that in the few instances where Employee welfare and business ethics Ethics and human resource management Those working within a social enterprise model require the necessary business know-how to gener ate financial surpluses for social ends. However, we question whether there is sufficient focus upon, for example, investment in employees, which could be ethical concerns of HR are studied, this is usually at the micro-level of selection fairness, ongoing evaluation and compensation systems. Through a discussion of utilitarian and Kantian approaches, Greenwood (2002) asserts that stakeholder theory requires greater application to studying HPJS4 and ethics, by virtue of the fact that it adopts a wider (macro) perspective. The author also cautions that 'softer' HR practices (whilst appearing more ethical than 'harder' HR practices), result in greater diffi regarded as an important marker of internal CSR practice. Carby-Hall (2005) investigated internal CSR practices in commercial companies, consider ing common law applications of employer's corpo practices (treating employees as a means to a profit employees, "confidence, trust and consideration to in sheep's clothes because we know to approach with caution". The implication here is that both forms of rate social responsibility of respect towards enable the contract of employment to be carried out effectively" (Carby-Hall, 2005: 208). He (2005) concludes that corporate lawyers need to be more culty in identifying the unethical nature of such able end). He (2002: 272) observes this point in stating, "surely a wolf provides less threat than a wolf HR (hard and soft) may be enacted unethically: the latter may simply be more active in employing ethical rhetoric, but without the associated practices. This content downloaded from 22.214.171.124 on Mon, 15 Nov 2021 08:29:50 UTC All use subject to https://about.jstor.org/terms 360 Nelarine Cornelius et al. Bartels et al. (1998: 799) adopt a comparatively more optimistic stance. Through a survey of 1078 Wilkinson (1999) argues that the ambiguity sur rounding HR policies in small businesses derives human resource managers, they found a statistically from the start up process. Often, as business evolves significant negative relationship between the around the founder in a largely incremental manner, strength of an organisation's ethical climate and the HR practices will follow in the same vein. The personality and experiences of the owner will seriousness of ethical violations. Here they distin guish between ethical climates as a part of the wider organisational culture. In those instances where it is necessary to improve the ethical responses of employees, they highlight the importance of changing the wider ethical climate via training, ethics codes and reward systems. Bartels et al. (1998) examined the relationship between ethical climate and HRM. Their approach focuses predominantly upon large private sector organisations: over 45% of respondents worked in therefore have the most significant influence on HR policy development in business (Mazzarol, 2003). Previous attempts to understand HR practices in small businesses have oscillated between polarised views of the 'small is beautiful' position creating harmonious working relationships (Bird, 1989) to 'bleak house' scenarios (Rainnie, 1989; Wilkinson, 1999) emphasising poor (and even exploitative) working conditions. companies with over 1000 employees. It is therefore SMEs face further emotional challenges in creating HR practices. The 'small is beautiful' necessary to gain a stronger sense of these issues approach has led to researchers applying familial within smaller organisations including those in the analogies when describing human relations in third sector. The literature addressing human resource management and development yields some interesting findings that support our contention for the importance of addressing the weakness of HRM policy and practice in smaller organisations. This matters, as many social enterprises are small (Department for Trade and Industry, 2002 and discussed more fully later in this article). Hill and Stewart (2000: 105) observe, "there is a substantial body of evidence to suggest that SMEs do not have the human resource development (HRD) expertise, infrastructure and general resources which larger organisations more frequently enjoy". The growing research attention on HR and SMEs has arisen out of criticisms highlighting the focus on large organisations at the expense of smaller businesses (Williamson, 2001). Researchers have increasingly found that smaller businesses are less smaller businesses (Ram and Holliday, 1993). This seems to indicate harmonious and close emotional relationships between employer and employee. In reality, experiences in small firms are far more turbulent, with positive experiences equally balanced with often cited examples of high levels of staff turnover, emotional exploitation of staff, and informal support from family members. This behaviour invariably emerges in smaller organisa tions where HR policies are often under-developed and sporadically applied. The emotional entangle ment of the founder and the business often creates difficult working conditions for individuals in small business. As founders are central to business, they are firmly embedded at the core and the source for business values. Their commitment to the business will be overwhelming, and they can unknowingly transfer these expectations onto other members of likely it is to have a formally developed and staff. The emotional proximity between the em entrenched HRD practice, due to a combination of ployer and employee creates difficulties for staff to assert their independence in the business, further factors described by Cassell et al. (2002) as 'resource poverty'. Woodhams and Lupton (2006) support this complicated by the presence of informal HR view, but argue that the size and 'take up' is mod practices. Notions of reciprocity amongst employee and employer relations combined with the input of informal support from other sources of social capital erated by further factors, namely the presence or absence of an HR practitioner, ownership of the firm (small businesses are often family owned) and location of the industrial sector. This is further compounded by difficulties defining SMEs and the further complicate the scenario, creating feelings of dissatisfaction, fear of exploitative behaviour combined with a sense of obligation and personal recognition of the heterogeneity of small firms commitment to individuals and the business (Kotey and Sheridan, 2004; Reid et al., 2002). (Janjuha-Jivraj, 2003, 2004). This content downloaded from 126.96.36.199 on Mon, 15 Nov 2021 08:29:50 UTC All use subject to https://about.jstor.org/terms Corporate Social Responsibility and Social Enterprise 361 cannot be simplified to singular issues, The nature of and 49% with 10 or less. Indeed, recent work on social entrepreneurs and social entrepreneurship the owner will have a significant influence on suggests that they share many of the challenges faced employment issues and further development will largely depend on whether an individual in senior by commercial entrepreneurs (Bornstein, 2004; Dees, 1998a, b). The research field is increasingly acknowledging the relationship between CSR and SMEs (supported by the DTI, Castka et al, 2004). Writing within predominantly a European context Understanding the nature of HR in small firms management will implement policies, taking on the role of'champion' (Cassell et al., 2002). There are situations where HR policies are imposed on small firms, typically, when they are embedded in supply (but drawing also upon research in North America), chains required to develop these policies to work with larger partners (Cassell et al., 2002). Despite Government initiatives such as Investors in People (aimed to encourage small firm to focus on their researchers acknowledge the paucity of business staff) research based on hundred firms in the U.K. has shown reactions have been mixed (62% declared little or no involvement with IIP). Investing in ethics applied to small firms (Quinn, 1997; Spence, 1999; Vyakarnam et al., 1997). Spence (1999) con tends that business ethics research focuses largely on large-scale organisations, and findings from these studies are assumed to fit the SME context without human resource programmes moves down the list as modification or understanding of the particularities of smaller organisations. Within the context of CSR founders and owners deal with financial performance activities it is somewhat ironic that SMEs are per of the business. Cassell et al. (2002) examined the ceived to be less active in this area, as many of them impact of implementing human resource policies in small firms, and identified these problems: increased costs of maintaining initiatives (e.g., dealing with reward structures), initiatives creating more harm on do engage with members of the local community morale than good (appraisal systems) and lack of awareness about how to implement programmes when they are committed to policies (e.g., equal opportunities). The final situation, often cited anecdotally by small firms, is the fear of investing in programmes that improve their employee's capabil ities and employers find these individuals move to other jobs, transferring the benefits (and sunk costs) of training to another company. These experiences create challenges in encouraging formal HR policy implementation in small firms. This is combined with a lack of suitable models in applying policies to match the highly centralised and informal manage ment structures and decision-making processes operating in numerous SMEs. There are notable exceptions, such as the 'open systems' approach suggested by Harney and Dundon (2006: 50), allowing for flexibility and dynamism by being sensitive to the particularities of specific cases. and work on a social-welfare basis with employees and families. Indeed the history of numerous SMEs is a combination of profit maximisation along with being firmly embedded in their local communities. Habisch (2004) argues the lack of research relating to CSR activity and SMEs originates from the practices of small firms, with owners not investing time in reflecting on their own social practice. Instead, much of this behaviour is covert and often tacit. This creates further problems in terms of sustainability of CSR practice and capacity building. Much of this experience is embedded in the tacit knowledge of the organisation and much of this is lost with the change of ownership and management. Exceptions are seen when businesses are firmly embedded in networks based on social and/or ethnic ties (Janjuha Jivraj, 2003). Policy makers and business support agencies have increasingly recognised this void in provisions and policies aimed at SMEs. The European Commission adopted a position on CSR engagement amongst SMEs in 2002; "Many SMEs already practice social and ecological responsible management even if they are not familiar with the CSR concept of Ethical behaviour, CSR and the social enterprise The majority of social enterprises registered as CICs are likely to be small or micro (according to EU and DTI definitions), 89% with less than 49 employees regularly communication about their practices. For many SMEs such practices are simply a consequence of responsible entrepreneurship" (Observatory of European SMEs, 2002). The fragmentation between SMEs practising social responsibility and recognising This content downloaded from 188.8.131.52 on Mon, 15 Nov 2021 08:29:50 UTC All use subject to https://about.jstor.org/terms 362 Nelarine Cornelius et al. and subsequently accruing benefits of these activities was considered important enough to be registered as a key commitment in the EC 2002 Green Paper (entitled A European Framework for Corporate Social Responsibility'; To stimulate CSR practices among SMEs). Foote (2001) addresses ethics and HRM in the U.K. and Irish Charity sectors. The central thrust of her argument is that whilst charitable organisations have a clear external emphasis and applied values in addressing socio-environmental concerns, they tend to overlook the well-being of their employees. Via primary qualitative research interviews with six and four HR managers in England and Ireland respec CSR practices. It is therefore pertinent to identify the various aspects that comprise internal CSR. Features and markers of internal CSR Castka et al. (2004) highlight the plurality of char acteristics contributing to these respective areas. In internal CSR, they observe that this dimension is comprised of human capital management, health and safety standards, quality of management, adoption to change and innovation, managing environmental impacts, natural resources and managing finances. Welford (2005) reports upon the findings of a survey conducted in the comparison of CSR among 450 large listed companies operating in Europe, North tively, Foote (2001: 33) notes that respondents spoke of the "tendency among employees to expect charitable treatment from the organisation for America and Asia. A central finding is that internal themselves as well as client groups manifesting itself in excessive expectations about flexibility of treat Europe and to a lesser extent, North America employees expected more flexible treatment, this was not seen as a priority or viable from manage enterprises, Welford (2005) nevertheless articulates a clear set of CSR markers (i.e. internal and external ment's perspective. This is despite the fact that some volunteers "were working much harder than many aspects, accountability and citizenship). We contend that these internal aspects, as well as accountability employees for no remuneration and were having to comply with certain laid down standards of hours and citizenship may have applications to the smaller and attendance" (Foote, 2001: 34). These findings lead to the consideration that social enterprises themselves may also lack appropriate emphasis upon available resources). The following tables summarise these respective areas (Table I). In reference to the above table, Welford (2005) good ethical HR practices and effective internal highlights several internal codes ranging from ment and enforcement of rules". Thus whilst aspects of CSR are well-developed companies in (Welford, 2005). Focusing upon large multinational social enterprise (with modifications based on TABLE I Internal aspects of CSR (adapted from Welford, 2005) Internal aspects of CSR Source of guidance Code/Theme Non-discrimination policies in the workplace UN Universal Declaration Non-discrimination of Human Rights Equal opportunities Statements ILO Conventions 100,110 and 111 Equal Opportunities and implementation plans Statement on normal working hours, maximum ILO Conventions 1, 30, & 47 Fair Wages overtime & fair wage structures Staff development, in-house education UNESCO project on Technical and Vocational Education and vocational training Vocational Education (UNEVOC) The right of freedom of association, ILO Convention 98 Association collective bargaining & complaints procedures Protection of human rights within the UN Global Compact Human Rights company's own operations This content downloaded from 184.108.40.206 on Mon, 15 Nov 2021 08:29:50 UTC All use subject to https://about.jstor.org/terms Corporate Social Responsibility and Social Enterprise 363 non-discrimination through to human rights pro tection. These internal aspects can be applied to as sess the extent to which internal CSR practices are observed within the social enterprise. The following table summarises the respective CSR elements associated with accountability and citizenship. As illustrated in Table II, we find a number of CSR performance indicator areas ranging from stakeholder engagement, through to education and promotional campaigns. In addition Graafland et al. (2003) identify the varied instruments that may be applied by SMEs to ensure CSR practices. These include a clear code of conduct (communicating ethical standards throughout the organisation), auditing (to measure, evaluate and report environ mental and ethical impact) and annual social reports (thus improving accountability). The respective tools are used to address external CSR practice. Graafland et al. (2003) then consider other tools of use in or ganising the responsibility to internal stakeholders (i.e. the employees). They emphasise the importance of appointing a confidential and impartial person to address any labour concerns, but overall, "the pres ence of an ethics committee is a clear signal to the organisation's members [of instilling an ethical workplace environment]" (Graafland et al., 2003: 49). A final internal practice is that of staff training, which may serve to improve ethical awareness within the firm. This final point raises the centrality of providing employees with the freedom and ability to respon sibly engage with ethical issues. If the firm is to effectively engage in external CSR practices, it will need the support of its internal stakeholders. Capabilities theory and capabilities building - towards an integrated approach to CSR? One approach which is likely to be particularly useful in bringing together internal and external aspects of CSR is capabilities theory. The capabilities approach has been developed by Amartya Sen (1992; 1999) and Martha Nussbaum (1999), where capabilities refers to individual's freedom to achieve what they have reason to value. The right to fully function and flourish, to develop the capacity of individuals and communities - built on explicit ethical principles that promote dignity and quality of life - are central features of capabilities approach. Applying more recently to the professional work environment, Vogt (2005) demonstrates how capa bilities theory is congruent with Csikszentmihalyi's (1997) theory of 'work flows'. The latter theory considers the importance of creating a work envi ronment conducive to creative work outputs (architectural design, the availability of work creches), while Vogt) demonstrates how capabilities building is a more robust approach to the develop ment of human potential and the enhancement of social capital in the workplace, because it considers wider influences (the socio-cultural context) outside of work. Vogt's (2005: 119) central concluding assertion is that "capabilities theory...entails more TABLE II CSR accountability and citizenship indicators (adapted from Welford, 2005) Accountability Source of guidance Code/Theme Commitment to reporting CSR and/ Global Reporting Initiative Reporting or sustainable development Policies & Procedures for engaging Industry best practice, AA1000 standard Stakeholder Engagement in two-way dialogue Citizenship Source of Guidance Code/Theme Direct support for third-party social and/or Industry best practice Third parties sustainable development Educational programmes for the Industry best practice Education promotion of corporate citizenship External campaign programmes for raising social Activities of 'leading edge' companies Campaigns and sustainable development issues This content downloaded from 220.127.116.11 on Mon, 15 Nov 2021 08:29:50 UTC All use subject to https://about.jstor.org/terms 364 Nelarine Cornelius et al. than providing an optimal work environment; it functionings may vary from elementary ones, such as requires also affording employees the opportunity to being adequately nourished and being free from flourish away from the workplace". This implies that avoidable disease, to very complex activities or per sonal states, such as being able to take part in the life of a community and having self-respect' (1999: 75). development needs to be considered in its totality. Whilst the capabilities approach addresses devel tions upon human development, Hill (2003:117) Robeyns however, observes that: 'Given that we have little direct information about people's capa asserts from a Marxist-feminist perspective that as an evaluative framework, "it does not analyse the role bility levels, we could start by taking group inequality in achieving functionings as indicative of of institutional power in causing or perpetuating inequalities in capabilities'. (2003: 85). To restate, opment by considering the impact of social institu For Hill (2003) democratisation is a crucial process Sen (1992) argues that freedom consists in the expansion of the capabilities of persons to lead contributing to the development of capabilities, but that meaningful changes in the distribution of power He also makes the distinction between realised disadvantaged groups often rests ultimately upon institutional frameworks available for resolving functioning (what a person actually does) and the capability set she has (her real opportunities). The two give different kinds of information: '...the inequalities in individual opportunities to achieve". often meet substantial resistance. The success of conflict. Hill (2003: 131) concludes that we can "develop an approach to human empowerment that ties social outcomes to actual institutional arrange ments". This consideration may be applied specifi cally to social enterprises, where a newly emerging sector may ask to what extent do social enterprises enable human empowerment but also, do social enterprise structures and their interaction with institutions such as government enable the enhancement of capabilities for client groups and employees? One suggestion is that capacity building - which remains core to the development of social enter prises, and largely focuses on business and com mercial skills ? is necessary to enable greater likelihood of commercial survival. However, deep ening and enhancing a social enterprise's under the kind of lives they value and have reason to value. former about the things a person does and the latter about the things a person is substantially free to do. The growth and development in terms of achieved functioning of both employees, and of the clients and communities, and how CSR is configured by a social enterprise to enable this, would be one useful start point. Nussbaum (1999) and Sen (1999) have identified different levels of capabilities which operate as an ensemble and are in essence, indivisible. These are basic capabilities (which put simply, are the innate abilities individuals possess) which can be developed into internal capabilities (through education and training for example) and combined capabilities. This is where factors such as the law or organisational policy enable the exercise of internal capabilities. awareness and community oriented values, and Further, key to the capabilities approach is voice and agency, explicitly political dimensions, where the opportunity to be heard is seen as key to enabling individuals and groups to help to shape the agendas especially from a capabilities theory perspective. The that in turn will shape their futures. The linkages to standing of its commercial mission and ability could to be mirrored by equal effort that centres on social scope of the capabilities approach with regards to understanding development, well-being and quality of life is enormous, and some ideas within capabil ities theory may be particularly useful with regards to the development of coherent internal and external CSR development. These include functioning, basic, internal and combined capabilities, instrumental freedoms, and economic and non-economic goods. HRM policy and practice have been made by management scholars (Cornelius, 2002; Cornelius and Gagnon, 2004; Gagnon and Cornelius, 1999; Cornelius and Skinner, 2005, 2007; Vogt, 2005). Further, the capabilities approach points towards the facilitation of a humane, dignity centred environ ment that enhances the well-being of employees, which may be interpreted as enhancing the The concept of functioning, Sen argues, 'has dis formal and informal social environment, within the tinctly Aristotelian roots, (and) reflects the things a workplace and well as allowing employees space to person may value doing or being. The valued nurture home and community life. This content downloaded from 18.104.22.168 on Mon, 15 Nov 2021 08:29:50 UTC All use subject to https://about.jstor.org/terms Corporate Social Responsibility and Social Enterprise 365 The development of capabilities is enabled We suggest that if Garriga and Mele's call for more through instrumental freedoms (1992, 1999). They have a dual purpose, as both the ends and means of development, and can be regarded as what helps to bridge the aspirations of capabilities with action to enable change. The instrumental freedoms are the balanced CSR theory and practice is to be met, it requires a theory that is multidimensional, but sufficiently parsimonious in its account to range between these elements, and capabilities theory is likely to meet these requirements. Importantly, a principal determinant of individual initiative and similar rationale and language can be applied for both internal CSR and external CSR: functioning, basic, social effectiveness: they are central to the achieve ment of reasoned choices. (Sen, 1992, 1999). internal and combined capabilities instrumental Examples of instrumental freedoms include rights freedoms and distribution of goods are important for and agency (collective and political action) and the communities served by social enterprises and the transparency guarantees (clarity of process). Ethics audits - a necessary pre-cursor to effective CSR? Garcia-Marza (2005) highlights the importance of ethics audits 'as a catalyst for company dialogue and in general, for management of the ethics of a company'. (2005: 57). Indeed, professional bodies such as the Chartered Institute of Management Accountants in the U.K. have developed principles based rather than rules-based codes of ethics for its members as these 'may be circumvented' (Coghlan, employees within social enterprises and evaluation within these capabilities areas undertaken also. By implication, HRM policy needs to be scrutinised in terms of whether the capabilities of employees are enhanced or diminished by them. But what might this mean in terms of HRM policy and practice development? Given our earlier discussions of the diversity of small organisations, a one size fits all approach is unlikely to be fruitful. Although there are areas that if paid attention to are likely to add value to any organisation, it is likely that focusing on the constraints of a small organisa tion (such as resources that may be made available 2001: 1 and www.cimaglobal.com/codeofethics). Therefore from both an academic and a practice for formal people management purposes), the nature perspective, development of responsible practice is built on clear ethical principles. By extrapolation, for social enterprises in particular which have defined social missions, ethical policy and ethical principles small organisation, are likely to constitute critical design features. However, a core organising feature is a clear ethical position and policy with regards to are the bedrock upon which CSR policy should be developed: ethical policy and mission should precede CSR policy and practice. In this way, the capabilities approach provides a clear philosophical and ethical position, from which both ethical policy and CSR policy can then be developed. In other words, an ethical policy is key to building social responsibility of ownership as well as the evolving needs of the the formal and informal management of people. Further, this ethical position should be further encapsulated within clear, CSR principles with regards not only of the conduct of employees towards client groups and the core ethos of the organisation, but also the responsibilities of the organisation towards employees, and employees to each other. This presents the most challenging aspect capacity. Further, Garriga and Mele's (2004) proposal for the need to develop approaches that integrates for social enterprises due to limited resources and opportunities to reflect on deeply embedded values instrumentality, politics, social demands and ethical agreements reflecting employment practices may be responsibilities, could, be met through the applica resisted as a natural reaction by entrepreneurial tion of the capabilities approach. Like Takala and Pallab, we support the importance of a clear ethical position, but argue that both juridical (politico-legal) and ethical reasoning and responsibility should and will be regarded as important by all organisations (albeit that the former is compromised without clar ity regarding the latter), including social enterprises. such as ethical frameworks. Furthermore, formalised management. However, there is the opportunity to encourage these practices through external contracts and business development partnership. For small businesses wanting to operate in supply chains (pri marily within the public sector) they are required to develop and implement formalised HR policies as part of their practice, the same conditions may be This content downloaded from 22.214.171.124 on Mon, 15 Nov 2021 08:29:50 UTC All use subject to https://about.jstor.org/terms 366 Nelarine Cornelius et al. applied to social enterprises in terms of internal CSR activities. Much of this may, in practice, require We would encourage research from a range of paradigmic positions. For example, Froggett and systematic documentation as policy of existing good practice, as an important starting point. Chamberlayne (2004) illustrate the capacity of interpretive biographical methods to enhance Concluding Remarks understanding of the intersection of personal and organisational social enterprise narratives, In this context they identified competing discourses of We have contextualised our article within the cur rent U.K. government's agenda for pursuing CSR in SMEs, but have sought to develop this agenda by highlighting the need to pursue internal CSR practices in social enterprises. Our reasoning has been underpinned by Aristotelian philosophy as well as capabilities theory. We have identified a number of important issues facing SMEs with regards to their HR practices, and further indicated that such issues may also be relevant in social enterprises. Our ideas are propositional and conceptual and as such, would benefit from further elaboration. We social enterprise, where personal narratives are less evident as a result of the preferred organisational narratives, also reporting how biographical methods help to identify previously unrecognised contradic tions and tensions within social enterprise employ ees. Research on social entrepreneurship is limited (though see Bornstein, 2004; Dees, 1998a, b), and understanding the development of social enterprises would benefit from further research in this area, extent to which social enterprises address internal especially concerning the relationship between approaches to social entrepreneurship, associated leadership and governance approaches and their implications for CSR. enterprises need to consider internal features of approach, Vogt (2005) poses questions encouraging CSR, as well as external CSR, so that they can fully address external community concerns in a sustainable organisations to consider how successfully they are propose future research avenues to identify the CSR. Our central assertion has been that social (socially and economically) manner and address internal ethical issues and moral obligations. Future From a more explicitly capabilities oriented applying capabilities building to the workplace. These include questions such as 'does our company provide adequate health insurance to all employees? research along these lines would be a useful step in further clarifying the issues raised above. However, a sizable gap in the literature needs to be addressed, Are adequate safeguards in place to protect namely the extent to which internal CSR policies the starting point for assessing the extent to which and practices are evident in social enterprises. With particular reference to the above frameworks, we instrumental freedoms within the organisation, not employees from harassment, sexual assault or other forms of violence?' These very questions could mark social enterprises build capabilities and embed therefore propose that one research question of interest would be to what extent are social enter only within its HRM policies and practice but also within its corporate governance. Research devel prises more or less 'CSR robust' when compared oped in studies of large-scale enterprises could also with commercial enterprises of comparable size? More specifically, that future research could apply be adapted to SME social enterprises. Maignan and Ralston (2002) compare the extent and content of business communications about CSR in France, Welford's (2005) and Graafland et al. (2003) internal Holland, the U.K. and the U.S. They propose four the frameworks identified earlier, including CSR measures, as well as consideration of whether this framework may be elaborated from a capabilities perspective, given the surface level resonance be tween these measures and the capabilities approach. The implication of these applications is that further research can be respectively informed empirical findings, thereby furthering our knowledge of social enterprise perceptions of CSR and also the extent to which the above markers of CSR are met in social enterprises. questions, centring on the extent to which business discusses CSR in their websites; which principles are employed to justify CSR initiatives; which mana gerial principles are used as CSR initiatives and which stakeholder issues are presented as the main targets for CSR practices? A number of potential research avenues are therefore suggested. Prior interpretive research could generate themes to be applied to survey questionnaires that measure the extent to which CSR practices, and of what kind, This content downloaded from 126.96.36.199 on Mon, 15 Nov 2021 08:29:50 UTC All use subject to https://about.jstor.org/terms Corporate Social Responsibility and Social Enterprise 367 are observed in social enterprises. Particular CSR gaps can be identified, where social enterprises may reputation given its range of stakeholders. Reputa tion is not something that can be created through prove lacking in specific CSR practices. Findings clever marketing and image manipulation, but obtained from an extensive CSR survey would help to inform government policy in the move to help develop social enterprises that truly observe socially responsible practices inside and outside the organi sation. resides in the culture and behaviour of the organi sation and its members. Thus, the effective man agement of CSR, both internal and external, is an important component within the development of corporate reputation. And the Cooperative Bank Further question concerns the extent to which social enterprises effectively balance internal and example highlights how this corporate identity can external CSR and related to this, how explicitly is ponent, especially for third sector organisations. the CSR agenda communicated (if at all) to all Finally, there are scholars within the field of measurement of CSR that are concerned with the employees within the organisation. These questions are posed and need to be addressed, because we hypothesise that social enterprises may overlook the centrality of internal CSR practice. From a capa bilities perspective, this then has direct implications for the extent to which employees have the means to fully function and flourish. The wider implication of this is that social enterprises will then be curtailed in their ability not only to build the capabilities of the communities that they serve but also their staff who deliver their services. and indeed needs to contain a strong ethical com robustness and balance of what is being measured in terms of a double or triple bottom line (Graafland et al., 2004; Van Marrewijk et al., 2004; Van der Woerd and Van den Brink, 2004) and mainly, the focus is on the external measurement of CSR. Much has been written in the field about capabilities and the challenges for measurement but a review of this extends beyond the scope of this article. An obser vation is that Sen (1992) recognises that 'much of the debate on the alternative approaches to evaluation Further, an important link that may be missed by relates to the priorities in deciding what should be at many social enterprises is the impact of their CSR the core of our normative concern' (1992: 85) and that 'some capabilities are harder to measure than others and attempts at putting them on a 'metric' may sometimes hide more than they reveal'. (1998: 81). For us, there is therefore not only scope in exploring CSR, from a capabilities perspective with regards what could determine the normative con cern of social enterprises, in terms of internal and external CSR, but also what the implications of a capabilities approach would be for evaluation and measurement of social justice in workplace settings. practice on how the organisation is perceived. There is a growing literature on corporate identity and corporate reputation (e.g., Balmer and Greyser, 2002; Wilkinson and Balmer, 1996). Although much of this literature has been developed in a conventional commercial context, Balmer has also undertaken research on organisations such as the Corporative Bank and the Corporative Society of the U.K. (Wilkinson and Balmer, 1996). This is an interesting case, as the Cooperative Bank needs be seen as competent, trustworthy and credible as a bank, while also being true to its roots in coopera tion: an interesting lens on the double bottom line very pertinent to social enterprises. Balmer and others have distinguished between corporate iden tity, which may just be an image an organisation wishes to convey, its organisational identity, which is not as explicitly managed but will nonetheless be References Balmer, J. M. T. and S. A. Greyser: 2002, 'Managing the Multiple Identities of the Corporation', California Management Review 44(3), 72-86. recognised by those in and outside the organisation Banks, S. and F. Shenton: 2001, 'Regenerating Neigh bourhoods: A Critical Look at the Role of Commu He argues that their needs to be synergy between Bartels, K. K, E. Harrick, K. Martell and D. Strickland: and is embedded in culture, values and ethos. OI and CI for any organisation to be seen as authentic and trustworthy and importantly, for there to be clarity about how to understand and manage nity Capacity Building', Local Economy 16(4), 286-298. 1998, 'The Relationship Between Ethical Climate and Ethical Problems within Human Resource Manage ment', Jowrad/ of Business Ethics 17(7), 799-804. This content downloaded from 188.8.131.52 on Mon, 15 Nov 2021 08:29:50 UTC All use subject to https://about.jstor.org/terms 368 Nelarine Cornelius et al. Bennet, J. and E. Iossa: 2005, 'Contracting Out Public Service Provision to Not-For-Profit Firms', Centre for Market and Public Organisation, University of Bristol, pp. 1-29. Elkington, J.: 1999, Cannibals with Forks: Triple Bottom Line of 21st Century Business (New Society Publishers, New York). Emanuele, R. and S. H. Higgins: 2000, 'Corporate Bird, B.: 1989, Entrepreneurial Behaviour (Scott Foreman Culture in the Non-Profit Sector: A Comparison of and Company, Glenview Ilinois). Bornstein, D.: 2004, How to Change the World: Social Business Ethics 24(1), 87-93. Enterprises and the Power of New Ideas (Oxford Fringe Benefits with the For-Profit Sector', Journal of European Commission: 2001, Green Paper on the University Press, Oxford). Borzaga, C. and J. Defourny: 2001, The Emergence of Social Enterprise (Routledge, London). Corporate Social Responsibility of Business, Brussels, Carby-Hall, J.: 2005, "Wherefore Art Thou Oh Social Responsibility of the Enterprise?' The United King dom Experience', Managerial Law 47(6), 205-234. Foote, D.: 2001, 'The Question of Ethical Hypocrisy in Cassell, C, S. Nadin, M. Gray and C. Clegg: 2002, 'Exploring Human Resource Management Practices in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises', Personnel Review COM 366 final, 18.7.2001 quoted in Habisch, A. (2004). Human Resource Management in the U.K. and Irish Charity Sectors', Journal of Business Ethics 34(1), 25-38. Frogget, L. and P. Chamberlayne: 2004, 'Narratives of Social Enterprise: From Biography to Practice and Policy Critique', Qualitative Social Work 3(1), 31(6), 671-692. Castka, P., M. A. Balzarova and C. J. Bamber: 2004, 'How can SMEs Effectively Implement the CSR Agenda? A UK Case Study Perspective', Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management 11(3), 140-149. Cornelius, N.: 2002, Building Workplace Equality: Ethics, Diversity and Inclusion (Thomson Publishing, London). Cornelius, N. and S. Gagnon: 2004, 'Still Bearing the Mark of Cain? Ethics, Diversity and Inequality Measurement', Business Ethics: A European Review 13(1), 21-A0. Cornelius, N. and D. Skinner: 2005, 'An Alternative View through the Glass Ceiling: Using Capabilities Theory to Reflect the Career Journeys of Senior Women', Women in Management Review 20(8), 595-602. 61-77. Gagnon, S. and N. Cornelius: 1999, 'From Ethics 'By Proxy' to Ethics In Action: New Approaches to Understanding HRM and Ethics', Business Ethics: A European Review 8(4), 225-235. Garcia-Marza, D.: 2005, 'Trust and Dialogue: Theoreti cal Approaches to Ethics Auditing', Journal of Business Ethics 57(3), 209-219. Garriga, E. and D. Mele: 2004, 'Corporate Social Responsibility Theories: Mapping the Territory', Journal of Business Ethics 53(1-2), 51?71. Graafland, J., B. van de Ven and N. Stoffele: 2003, 'Strategies and Instruments for Organising CSR by Small and Large Businesses in the Netherlands', Journal Cornelius, N. and D. Skinner: 2007, 'An Empirical, Capabilities Theory-Informed Study of the Career Greenwood, M. R.: 2001, 'The Importance of Stake Journeys of Senior Women and Men', British Journal of Management, forthcoming. Csikszentmihalyi: 1997, Finding Flow: The Psychology of Engagement with Everyday Life (Basic Books, New York). Greenwood, M. R.: 2002, 'Ethics and Human Resource Management: A Review and Conceptual Analysis', Dart, R.: 2004, 'The Legitimacy of Social Enterprise', Nonprofit Management and Leadership 14(Summer), Habisch, A.: 2004, 'Social Responsibility, Social Capital 411-424. Dees, J. G: 1998a, 'The Meaning of Social Enterprise' www.gsb.stanford.edu/csi/SEDefini tion.html#top. Dees, J. G: 1998b, 'Enterprising Non Profits', Harvard Business Review 76(1), 55-66. Department for Trade and Industry: 2002, 'Social Enterprise: A Strategy for Success', available at www.dti.gov.uk/socialenterprise. Duccie, G, C. Stentella and P. Vulterini: 2002, 'The Social Enterprise in Europe', International Journal of Mental Health 13(3), 76-91. of Business Ethics 47(1), 45-60. holders According to Business Leaders', Business and Society Review 106(1), 29-49. Journal of Business Ethics 36(3), 279-290. and SMEs', in L. J. Spence, A. Habisch and R. Schmidpeter (eds.), Responsibility and Social Capital, the World of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (Palgrave MacMillan, Basingstoke), pp. 25-34. Haigh, M. and M. T. Jones: 2006, 'The Drivers of Corporate Social Responsibility: A Critical Review', Business Review 5(2), 245-251. Harney, B. and T. Dundon: 2006, 'Capturing Complexity: Developing an Integrated Approach to Analysing HPJVl in SMEs', Human Resource Manage ment Journal 16(1), 48-73. This content downloaded from 184.108.40.206 on Mon, 15 Nov 2021 08:29:50 UTC All use subject to https://about.jstor.org/terms Corporate Social Responsibility and Social Enterprise 369 Henriques, A. and J. Richardson: 2004, The Triple Bottom Line: Does it all Add up? (Earthscan, London). Hill, M. T.: 2003, 'Development as Empowerment', Feminist Economics 9(2&3), 117-135. Hill, R. and J. Stewart: 2000, 'Human Resource Development in Small Organisations', Journal of Euro pean Industrial Training 24(2/3/4), 105-117. Hines, F.: 2005, 'Viable Social Enterprise - An Evaluation of Business Support to Social Enterprises', Social Enterprise Journal 1(1), 13?28. Jan-Khan, M.: 2003, 'The Right to Riot', Community Development Journal 38(1), 32-42. Janjuha-Jivraj, S.: 2003, 'The Sustainability of Social Capital within Ethnic Networks', Journal of Business Ethics 47, 31-43. Ram, M. and R. Holliday: 1993, 'Relative Merits of Family Kinship and Culture in Small Firms', Sociology 27(4), 629-648. Reid, R., T. Morrow, B. Kelly and P. McCartan: 2002, 'People Management in SMEs: An Analysis of Human Resources Strategies in Family and Non-Family Businesses', Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development 9(3), 245-250. Rorty, R.: 2000, Philosophy and Social Hope (Penguin, London). Sen, A.: 1992, Inequality Reexamined (Oxford University Press, Oxford). Sen, A.: 1999, Development as Freedom (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge). Sennett, R.: 1999, The Corrosion of Character: The Personal Janjuha-Jivraj, S: 2004, 'The Sustainability of Informal Ethnic Business Networks', in L. Spence (ed.), The Social World of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises: Social Capital and Responsibility (Palgrave, London). Kaptein, M. and J. Wempe: 2002, The Balanced Company (Oxford University Press, Oxford). Kotey, B. and A. Sheridan: 2004, 'Changing HRM Practices with Firm Growth', Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development 11(4), 474?485. Maignan, I. and D. A. Ralston: 2002, 'Corporate Social Responsibility in Europe and the US: Insights from Consequences of Work in the New Capitalism (Norton, New York). Smallbone, D., M. Evans, I. Ekanem and S. Butters: 2001, 'Researching Social Enterprise', Centre for Enterprise and Economic Development Research, Middlesex University. Small Business Service: 2005, 'A Survey of Social Enterprises Across the UK', Available: www.sbs.go v.uk/SBS_Gov_files/press/PRE_SurveyofSEsacros suk.pdf. Spence, L.: 1999, 'Does Size Matter? The State of the Art in Small Business Ethics', Business Ethics: A European Business Studies 33(3), 497-515. Mancino, A. and A. Thomas: 2005, 'An Italian Pattern of Review 8(3), 163-174. Swanson, D. L.: 1995, 'Addressing a Theoretical Problem by Reorienting the Corporate Social Performance Social Enterprise: The Social Cooperative', Nonprofit Management and Leadership 15(3), 357-369. Model', Academy of Management Review 20(1), 43-64. Takala, T. and P. Pallab: 2000, 'Individual, Collective and Businesses: Self-Presentations', Journal of International Mazzarol, T.: 2003, 'A Model of Small Business HR Growth Management', International Journal of Entrepre neurial Behaviour and Research 9(1), 27-49. Social Responsibility of the firm', Business Ethics: A European Review 9(2), 109-118. Van Marrewijk, M., I. Wuisman, W. de Cleyn, J. Timmers, Virtue in Business: Agents, Goods, Practices, Institu V. Papapanaan and L. Linnanen: 2004, 'A Phase-Wise Development Approach to Business Excellence: To tions and Environments', Organization Studies 27(3), wards an Innovative, Stakeholder-Oriented Assessment Moore, G. and R. Beadle: 2006, 'In Search of Organizational 369-389. Nussbaum, M. C: 1999, 'Women and Equality: The Capabilities Approach', International Labour Review 138(3), 227-249. Observatory of European SMEs: 2004, European SMEs and Social and Environmental Responsibility, 2002/ No. 4 (European Commission: Enterprise Publica tions, 2002) cited in Habisch, A. Quinn, J. J.: 1997, 'Personal Ethics and Business Ethics: The Ethical Attitudes of Owner/Managers of Small Business', Journal ofBusiness Ethics 16(2), 119-127. Rainnie, A.: 1989, Industrial Relations in Small Firms (Routledge, London). Tool for Organizational Excellence and CSR', Journal of Business Ethics 55(2), 83-98. Vogt, C. P.: 2005, 'Maximizing Human Potential: Capabilities Theory and the Professional Work Environment', Journal of Business Ethics 58(1-3), 111-123. Vyakarnam, S. B., A. Myers and D. Burnett: 1997, 'Towards an Understanding of Ethical Behaviour in Small Firms', Journal of Business Ethics 16(15), 1625 1636. Waddock, S.: 2004, 'Parallel Universes: Companies, Academics, and the Progress of Corporate Citizen ship', Business and Society Review 109(1), 5-42. This content downloaded from 220.127.116.11 on Mon, 15 Nov 2021 08:29:50 UTC All use subject to https://about.jstor.org/terms 370 Nelarine Cornelius et al. Nelarine Cornelius and Adrian Woods Wilkinson, A.: 1999, 'Employment Relations in SMEs', Employee Relations 21(3), 206-217. Brunei Business School, Williamson, I. O.: 2001, 'Employer Legitimacy and Recruitment Success in Small Businesses', Entrepre neurship, Theory and Practice 24(1), 27. Brunei University, Elliott Jaques Building, Uxbridge Campus, Uxbridge, Middlesex, UB8 3PH, U.K. Windsor, D.: 2006, 'Corporate Social Responsibility: E-mail: [email protected] Three Key Approaches', Journal of Management Studies 43(1), 93-114. Van der Woerd, F. and T. van den Brink: 2004, 'Feasi bility of Responsive Business Scorecard - A Pilot Mathew Todres King's College London School of Medicine, University of London, Study', Journal ofBusiness Ethics 55(2), 173-186. Welford, R.: 2005, 'Corporate Social Responsibility in Europe and Asia: Critical Elements and Best Practice', Corporate Social Review 13, 31-47. Department of General Practice and Primary Care, 5 Lambeth Walk, London, SE11 6SP, U.K. Wilkinson, A. and J. M. T. Balmer: 1996, 'Corporate and Generic Identities: Lessons from for Co-operative Shaheena Janjuha-Jivraj Business School, Bank', International Journal of Bank Management 14(4), University of Reading, 22-35. Winstanley, D., J. Woodhall and E. Heery: 1996, 'The Agenda for Ethics in Human Resource PO Box 218, Whiteknights, Reading, Berkshire, U.K. Management', Business Ethics: A European Review 5(4), 187-194. Woodhams, C. and B. Lupton: 2006, 'Does Size Matter? Gender-Based Equal Opportunity in UK Small and Medium Enterprises', Women in Management Review 21(2), 143-169. This content downloaded from 18.104.22.168 on Mon, 15 Nov 2021 08:29:50 UTC All use subject to https://about.jstor.org/terms James Wallace School of Management, University of Bradford, Emm Lane, Bradford, West Yorkshire, BD9 4JL, U.K.