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Chapter 28 Progressivism and the Republican Roosevelt
I. Progressive Roots
A. Origins w/ reformist of the Greenback Labor party and the __________________
B. Progressives thought society could no longer afford the luxury of a laissez faire policy.
C. Progressive Movement Goals
1) To protect social ________________________
2) To promote moral improvement
3) To create economic ________________________
4) To foster efficiency
II. Writers who Influenced Progressivism
A. Bryan Altgeld= exposed __________________________
B. Henry Demarest ______________= Took on Standard Oil Company w/ his book Wealth
Against Commonwealth
C. Thorstein Veblen= took on rich w/ Theory of the Leisure Class
D. Jacob ______________________= exposed New York slums How the Other Half Lives
1. Used religious doctrine to demand better housing and living conditions for the urban poor
2. Feminists added suffrage to list of reforms
III. Raking Muck w/ the Muckrakers
A. American __________________________, novelists, and critics who exposed corruption,
especially in business and politics
=President Theodore Roosevelt is said to have given the muckrakers their name
+Famous muckrakers included Upton _______________________, Ida Tarbell, Lincoln Steffens, and
Samuel Hopkins Adams
*Led to increased support for the progressive movement
B. Ida M. ____________________________
1. Pioneering journalist who published a devastating expose of the Standard Oil Company in
2. Her father had been __________________ by oil interests
3. Muckrakers wrote about insurance companies, tariff lobbies, beef trust, RXR barons, child
labor etc…
IV. Political Progressivism
A. Mainly middle-class men and women
B. Sought______ goals
1. to use state power to curb the trusts
2. To stem socialist threat by improving common person’s conditions of life
C. __________________________Primary elections= undercut power-hungry party bosses
D. Initiative= voters could directly propose legislation themselves
E. Referendum= place laws on the ballot for final approval by the people
F. ________________________= allow voters to remove elected officials
G. 17th Amendment= Direct election of US senators
A. Efforts at reforming local government stemmed from the desire to make government more
efficient and responsive to citizens
B. Some believe it also was meant to limit immigrants influence in local governments
1. Robert M. La Follette
A. “Fighting ___________________”
B. Under the progressive Republican leadership of Robert La Follette, Wisconsin led the way in
regulating big business
C. Took control from ________________________ corporations and returned It to the people
D. Regulated public utilities
V. Progressive Women
A. _________________________ were indispensable part of the Progressive movement
B. Settlement Houses (Hull House in Chicago= Jane __________________________)
C. Exposed middle class Women exposed poverty, political corruption, and intolerable working
and living conditions
=gave them __________________ and confidence to attack these evil
D. Women used their traditional role as wives and mothers to support their new activities (Child
labor, Hazards in Tenements, Pensions for mother w/ dependent children, safe food products)
E. Campaigns for factory reform and _______________________ attracted women foot soldiers
1. Unsafe unsanitary sweatshops
=Florence Kelley (former resident of Addams Hull House) became the state of Illinois’s first chief
factory inspector and a leading advocate for improved factory conditions
*Muller v. State of Oregon
A.Oregon established a ______________ that limited women to ten hours of work in factories and
=Muller, a laundry owner, challenged the legality of the law, arguing that it violated the “liberty to
B.Louis __________________________, one of the attorneys arguing the case, used extensive
sociological evidence in his brief (the Brandeis Brief= harmful effects of factory labor on women’s
weaker bodies ), which served as a model for later social reformers
* The Supreme Court held that the law was constitutional
VI. Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire
A. In 1911 the ____________________________ Shirtwaist Company in NY caught fire.
=Locked doors and other flagrant violations of the fire code turned the factory into a death trap
*_________ workers (mostly young immigrant women) were incinerated or jumped from the 8 th floor
VII. Temperance Movement
A. ______________________________was connected w/ prostitution, violence, and crime
B. 1900 NY and SF had one saloon for every 200 people
C. Women's _______________________________ Temperance Union (WCTU) founded by
Frances Willard would pray in saloons
=became largest organization of Women in the world
D. Some states and counties passed “dry” laws
*In 1919 the ______th Amendment will ban the consumption, sale, and transportation of Alcohol.
VIII. TR’s Square Deal for Labor
A. Teddy Roosevelt= Square Deal for business, labor, farmers, and consumers.
*Roosevelt’s 3 C’s
1. _______________________ of the corporations
2. Consumer protection
3. ______________________ of natural resources
B. 1902 Coal Strike
1. 1902= 140,000 coal miners in Pennsylvania went on strike for increased wages, a 9-hour work
day, and the right to ______________________________
2. Mine owners refused to bargain and coal supplies began to drop
=Roosevelt called in both sides and settled the ____________________
3. Thereafter, when a strike threatened public welfare, the federal government was expected to
step in and help
IX. TR Corrals the Corporations
*Roosevelt urged Congress to create the new Department of Commerce and Labor (1903)
A. Arm of this cabinet was Bureau of Corporations was authorized to _____________________
businesses engaged in interstate commerce
=Highly useful in helping to break the stranglehold of monopoly and in clearing the road for the era
of “________________________-busting”
*The Interstate Commerce Commission (1887) proved inadequate in stopping RXR Trusts
B. _____________________ Act of 1903= imposed heavy fines on RXR that gave rebates and on
the shippers that accepted them
C. Hepburn Act of 1906= restricted free passes
D. The ICC= for the _________________ time was given real power when allowed to nullify
existing rates and stipulate maximum rates
*TR believed there were “good” trusts and “bad” trusts
E. TR’s first battle was in _______________ w/ Northern Securities Company (RXR holding
company) owned by Morgan and James Hill
=tried to make monopoly of RxR in the Northwest
1. Supreme Court ordered Northern Securities Company to be dissolved
*Supreme Court ruled___________________, sugar, fertilizer, harvesters, and other key trusts illegal
X. The Jungle by Upton Sinclair
=Upton Sinclair wrote The ______________________ in 1906
A. The Jungle exposed the unsanitary conditions of the meat packing industry
B. _______________________ Inspection Act of 1906= the preparation of meat shipped over
state lines would be subject to federal inspection.
A. Passed by Congress in 1906.
B. Halted the _______________ of contaminated foods & medicines & called for truth in labeling.
XIII. Earth Control
A. Wasteful Americans thought natural resources were inexhaustible, some leaders knew things
had to change
B. _______________________ Land Act 1877= the federal gov. sold arid land cheaply on the
conditions that the purchaser irrigate the thirst soil w/in 3 years
C. Forest Reserve Act on 1891= let the president set aside public forests as national parks and
other reserves
=________ million acres were saved
D. Carey Act (1894)= distributed federal land to the states on the condition they irrigated and
settled it
E. Under Roosevelt conservation ______________________(TR’s most important contribution)
1. Newlands Act of 1902= Federal Gov could collect $ from _______________ of public lands in the
western states and use them for development of irrigation projects
=Roosevelt Dam (Ariz Salt River)
2. TR set aside ______________ million acres in federal reserves
*1902 banned ________________ trees from White House
F. Jack London’s Call of the __________________ (1903) and other books about nature and
urban youth were snatched up
G. The Sierra Club was found in 1892= preserving the wilderness (founded by John Muir)
H. Gifford ______________________ (TR chief forester) and John Muir are tied to conservation
XIV. Roosevelt Panic of 1907
A. Roosevelt was elected “in his own right” in 1904
=He declared he would not run for a _____________________term
In 1907 a short panic hit stocks
=blamed _________________________________, TR blamed those of great wealth for the
monetary crisis to relax on attacking trusts
Aldrich-Vreeland Act= authorized national banks to issue emergency currency backed by
various kinds of collateral
XV. Rough Rider Thunders Out
A. In 1908 TR would not seek ____________________________
=Hand picked William Howard Taft (Sec of War) to carry out his policies
B. _____________________ was the largest US President at 350 pounds
C. The 1908 election= Republicans (Taft), Democrats (William Jennings Bryant), Socialists (Eugene
V. Debs got 420,793 votes)
=Taft polled 321 electoral votes
=TR’s Legacies
1. _____________________________ crusade= tried to mediate between wildernesspreservationist and resource predators
2. Enlarged power and prestige of presidential office and developed technique of big stick of
3. Helped shape progressive _______________________________
4. Opened eyes of Americans to fact they shared world w/ other nations
XVI. Taft: A Round Peg in a Square Hole
A. ____________________= graduated second in his class at Yale, Lawyer, Judge (hostile to labor
unions), Sec of War
B. Taft had none of Roosevelt's sheer force of personality.
=Had none of the _________ of a dashing political leader
XVII. Dollar Goes Abroad as a Diplomat
A. ________________________ Diplomacy= Washington encouraged Wall Street bankers to send
their surplus dollars into foreign areas of strategic concern to the US
=especially in the Far East and in Panama Canal
1. By taking investors from rival powers bankers would strengthen American defenses and
foreign policies while creating prosperity at home
2. Manchuria was $ Diplomacies major effort ______________ controlled by Russia & Japan
=Taft felt this control of RXR would hurt Open Door of China
*Sec of State Knox tried to buy RXR and turn them over to China, but Japan and Russia refused
=Taft faced _________________________
Pumped dollars into Honduras and Haiti to keep out foreign $
VVIII. Taft the Trustbuster
A. Taft smashed _________________________
=Brought 90 suits against trusts as compared to Roosevelt’s 44 in 7 ½
1. In 1911 Supreme Court ordered the dissolution of Standard Oil company “constituted a
combination in restraint of trade and also an attempt to monopolize” Standard was ordered
to divide into 34 independent companies
New Monopoly Definition= doctrine held that only those that “unreasonably restrained trade
were ___________________________”
=ripped hole in governments antitrust net
XIX. Taft Loses Power
A. Taft was not popular with the American public nor ________________________ minded
B. By 1910, __________________________ had regained control of the House of
XX. The Republican Party Splits
A. Republican party had 2 wings…
1) Progressives, who wanted ____________________________.
2) Conservatives, who did NOT want change.
* President Taft was not able to hold the Party together…..He was too conservative for TR
XXI. 1912 Election
A. Republicans split in 1912 between Taft and ________________________ Roosevelt
B. Rep. Convention delegates nominated Taft
* Some Republicans formed a third party – The _______ Moose Party (Progressives and nominated TR
C. The Democrats = New Jersey Governor, Woodrow _____________________________
*Republicans split the vote and Wilson won the election of 1912