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This chapter seeks to outline the research methodology utilized in this work.
That is to say that it showcases the nature, source and method used in collecting
data as regards to the subject under study. It runs through the research design,
types and sources of data, sampling and sampling techniques, description of the
research instrument, data collection techniques of direct observation and
interview and concluded with data analysis technique.
3.1 Research design
Research design refers to the plan for carrying out a study (McMillan, 2018).
Following the formation of the research problems and the elaboration of the
objectives, there is the need to outline the various stages and tasks to be
executed as part of the study. The research design will therefore serve as a
model for the research work. For the purpose of this study both qualitative and
quantitative approaches will be adopted especially the survey method. This is
because the survey method will allow a group of respondents to be selected
from the larger population through probability sampling. This will enhance
accurate inference about the larger population from a small sample. The survey
method will also enable many respondents to be reached within a short space of
time considering the size of the study area.
3.2 Source of Data
The data source for the study will be primary and secondary. The primary
source will include observations, interview and questionnaire administration.
The secondary will also include newspapers, existing books, institutional
documents, internet sources and other related documents.
3.3 Target Population
The residents of Asamabiri community in Bayelsa State are the target
population. Adults aged twenty years and above will be the main target. The
adults will include household heads, chiefs, assemblymen and other opinion
leaders. In all, one hundred households will be selected for the study because of
time and cost constrains.
3.4 Sampling Techniques
The Asamabiri community has a total population of 1810 inhabitants. To get the
individual respondents, a multi-stage sampling technique will be used. Given
the large size of the study area, the first stage will involve selecting three major
areas affected by the annual floods. This will then be followed by using random
sampling procedure to select households from each of the three major areas.
Thirdly, a maximum of one respondent will be selected from each household
and given a questionnaire to answer or interviewed where necessary using
interview guide. The adoption of the simple random procedure could be based
on the fact that the population is homogeneous in which all members are
identical and therefore a sample of one will be a representative of the population
regardless of the size of the population. The assemblyman, the chief, an
environmental officer, heads of Basic Schools and other opinion leaders will be
purposively selected and be interviewed.
3.5 Instruments of Data Collection
Structured questionnaires, interview schedule and personal observations will be
used to collect the primary data. The questionnaire will be made up of both
close and open-ended questions which will be self-administered. The
questionnaires for the individual households will be grouped into five sections,
namely, general issues, livelihood, socio-physical impacts, copying strategies
and demographic characteristics.
The survey method will be supported with direct observation. The interview
schedule will also be used to seek information from the assemblyman, chiefs
and other opinion leaders.
The adoption of the questionnaire, in-depth interview and direct observation
will help to establish reliability and validity of the data to be gathered from the
3.6 Data collection Procedure
Given the nature of the survey, it cannot be ruled out completely that people
within the community may be hesitant to welcome the interview team and also
freely respond to the questions especially when some of the questions are very
sensitive. It is therefore necessary to take steps to address these problems. The
first will be to seek official permission from the appropriate stakeholders. The
next is to make the respondents aware of the objectives of the study. The
questionnaire and the interview schedule for the study will also be pre-tested in
one of the selected communities. This will help in the identification of problems
to be encountered and remedies provided.
3.7 Methods of Data Analysis
The field data will first be processed by editing and checking to ensure that
everything is complete. These will then be fed into a computer to get cross
tabulation using SPSS and Microsoft Excel. Analysis of the output/data will
involve describing, summarizing and interpreting the data to be obtained from
each unit. Statistical tools such as the Z-test will be used to determine whether
differences existing between variables are statistically significant. These tests
will be needed to draw meaningful conclusions from the study. The data will be
presented using tables and charts and some inferences will be drawn on the
hypothesis to be tested.