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Musculoskeletal System Review Sheet 1. List the four types of bones. • • • • Long bone – has a long, thin shape. ... Short bone – has a squat, cubed shape. ... Flat bone – has a flattened, broad surface. ... Irregular bone – has a shape that does not conform to the above three types. 2. List the six functions of the skeletal system. The human skeleton serves six major functions: support, movement, protection, production of blood cells, storage of ions, and endocrine regulation 3. List six things that affect bone growth. • • • • • • • • Calcium Levels Physical activity Tobacco and alcohol use Sex Size Age Race and family history Hormone levels 4. What is the role of Vitamin D and Calcium in bone growth? Calcium and vitamin D work together to protect your bones—calcium helps build and maintain bones, while vitamin D helps your body effectively absorb calcium. 5. Define “osteoblasts” and “osteoclasts”. Osteoblasts are specialized mesenchymal cells that synthesize bone matrix and coordinate the mineralization of the skeleton. Osteoclast, large multinucleated cell responsible for the dissolution and absorption of bone. ... Osteoclasts are formed by the fusion of many cells derived from circulating monocytes in the blood. 6. List the three types of joints. • • • synarthroses (immovable) amphiarthroses (slightly movable) diarthroses (freely movable) 7. List the three types of muscle tissue. • • • Skeletal muscle – the specialised tissue that is attached to bones and allows movement. ... Smooth muscle – located in various internal structures including the digestive tract, uterus and blood vessels such as arteries. ... Cardiac muscle – the muscle specific to the heart. 8. What is the primary function of skeletal muscle? Skeletal muscles enable humans to move and perform daily activities. They play an essential role in respiratory mechanics and help in maintaining posture and balance. They also protect the vital organs in the body. 9. Define tendon and ligament. Tendons - are the connective tissues that transmit the mechanical force of muscle contraction to the bones; the tendon is firmly connected to muscle fibres at one end and to components of the bone at its other end Ligaments - a short band of tough, flexible fibrous connective tissue which connects two bones or cartilages or holds together a joint. 10. What is a goniometer? an instrument for the precise measurement of angles, especially one used to measure the angles between the faces of crystals. 11. Define lordosis, kyphosis, and scoliosis. Lordosis is an exaggerated inward curve of the spine that typically affects the lower back, a condition called lumbar lordosis. 12. What is a bone scan used for? What diseases can it detect? A bone scan is a specialized radiology procedure used to examine the various bones of the skeleton. It is done to identify areas of physical and chemical changes in bone. A bone scan may also be used to follow the progress of treatment of certain conditions. Pagets disease 13. Define Osteoporosis. A condition in which bones become weak and brittle. 14. What are some risk factors for osteoporosis? • • Your sex. Women are much more likely to develop osteoporosis than are men. Age. The older you get, the greater your risk of osteoporosis. • • • Race. You're at greatest risk of osteoporosis if you're white or of Asian descent. Family history. ... Body frame size. 15. How can one prevent osteoporosis? 1. have a healthy and varied diet with plenty of fresh fruit, vegetables and whole grains. 2. eat calcium-rich foods. 3. absorb enough vitamin D. 4. avoid smoking. 5. limit alcohol consumption. 6. limit caffeine. 7. do regular weight-bearing and strength-training activities 16. Define osteomalacia. Osteomalacia refers to a marked softening of your bones, most often caused by severe vitamin D deficiency. The softened bones of children and young adults with osteomalacia can lead to bowing during growth, especially in weight-bearing bones of the legs. Osteomalacia in older adults can lead to fractures 17. Define Pagets Disease. Paget's (PAJ-its) disease of bone interferes with your body's normal recycling process, in which new bone tissue gradually replaces old bone tissue. Over time, bones can become fragile and misshapen. The pelvis, skull, spine and legs are most commonly affected. 18. Define osteomyelits. Osteomyelitis is inflammation or swelling that occurs in the bone. It can result from an infection somewhere else in the body that has spread to the bone, or it can start in the bone — often as a result of an injury. Osteomyelitis is more common in younger children (five and under) but can happen at any age 19. Define osteochondroma. Osteochondroma is an overgrowth of cartilage and bone that happens at the end of the bone near the growth plate. Most often, it affects the long bones in the leg, the pelvis, or the shoulder blade. Osteochondroma is the most common noncancerous bone growth. It most often occurs between ages 10 and 30. 20. Define osteosarcoma. Osteochondroma is an overgrowth of cartilage and bone that happens at the end of the bone near the growth plate. Most often, it affects the long bones in the leg, the pelvis, or the shoulder blade. Osteochondroma is the most common noncancerous bone growth. It most often occurs between ages 10 and 30. 21. Define Carpal Tunnel Syndrome and its management. Carpal tunnel syndrome, also called median nerve compression, is a condition that causes numbness, tingling, or weakness in your hand. It happens because of pressure on your median nerve, which runs the length of your arm, goes through a passage in your wrist called the carpal tunnel, and ends in your hand. 22. What is Phalen’s maneuver? What is the Phalen's Maneuver? The clinical term “Phalen's Maneuver” refers to a provocative test used in the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome. We also know this as a wrist-flexion test 1. Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) refers to a condition that puts pressure on a nerve in your wrist 23. Define Hallux Valgus. Hallux valgus is the most common foot deformity. It is a progressive foot deformity in which the first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint is affected and is often accompanied by significant functional disability and foot pain and reduced quality of life. 24. Define osteogenesis imperfecta. Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is an inherited (genetic) bone disorder that is present at birth. It is also known as brittle bone disease. A child born with OI may have soft bones that break (fracture) easily, bones that are not formed normally, and other problems. Signs and symptoms may range from mild to severe. 25. Define Muscular Dystrophy and treatments for this disease. Muscular dystrophy is a group of diseases that cause progressive weakness and loss of muscle mass. In muscular dystrophy, abnormal genes (mutations) interfere with the production of proteins needed to form healthy muscle. There are many kinds of muscular dystrophy. Treatment consists of steroids Medications, therapy, breathing aids, or surgery may help maintain function, but life span is often shortened. 26. List the two types of fractures. Open and Closed fractures 27. Define open and closed fractures. Open fracture (compound fracture): The bone pokes through the skin and can be seen. Or a deep wound exposes the bone through the skin. Closed fracture (simple fracture). The bone is broken, but the skin is intact. A closed fracture is a broken bone that does not penetrate the skin. This is an important distinction because when a broken bone penetrates the skin (an open fracture) there is a need for urgent treatment, and an operation is often required to clean the area of the fracture. 28. List the eight most common types of fractures. • • • • • • • • Stable Fracture Transverse Fracture Comminuted Fracture Oblique Fracture Compound Fracture Hairline Fracture Avulsion Fracture Greenstick Fracture 29. List the most common complications of fractures. • • • • • • • • Blood vessel damage Pulmonary embolism Fat embolism Compartment syndrome Infections Joint problems Uneven limbs Osteonecrosis 30. What is the treatment for a fat embolism? There is no specific treatment for a fat embolism. That is why prevention can reduce the length of hospital stays and lower the risk of complications and death. Some preventative strategies include : blood oxygen monitoring to help detect a fat embolism early, before symptoms become severe. 31. List the assessments of adequate blood flow to an injured extremity. The five main assessments that must be completed when assessing distal circulation are capillary refill, color, temperature, pulses and swelling. 32. List the emergency care for a fracture. 1. Stop any bleeding. Apply pressure to the wound with a sterile bandage, a clean cloth or a clean piece of clothing. 2. Immobilize the injured area. Don't try to realign the bone or push a bone that's sticking out back in. ... 3. Apply ice packs to limit swelling and help relieve pain. ... 4. Treat for shock. 33. List non-surgical management of fractures. Non-operative (closed) therapy comprises of casting and traction (skin and skeletal traction). Closed reduction is done for any fracture that is displaced, shortened, or angulated. Splints and casts made up of fiberglass or plaster of Paris material are used to immobilize the limb. 34. List the surgical management of fractures. • • Casting. Open reduction, and internal fixation- this involves a surgery to repair the fracture-frequently, metal rods, screws or plates are used to repair the bone, and remain in place, under the skin, after the surgery. 35. Define amputation. An amputation is the surgical removal of part of the body, such as an arm or leg. This topic may be helpful if you, a friend, or a member of your family, recently had or are planning to have an amputation. 36. List the complications of amputations. • • • • • heart problems such as heart attack. deep vein thrombosis (DVT) slow wound healing and wound infection. pneumonia. stump and "phantom limb" pain. 37. List teaching tips for a patient using crutches. Put the crutches under your arms. Relax your arms and let them hang down over the crutches. There should be a two inch space between your armpit and the top of the crutch with your hands hanging relaxed. The hand grips should be at the level of your wrist when holding the hand grips 38. Define gout. Gout is a common and complex form of arthritis that can affect anyone. It's characterized by sudden, severe attacks of pain, swelling, 39. List foods to be avoided when the patient has gout. • • • Beer and grain liquors (like vodka and whiskey) Red meat, lamb, and pork. Organ meats, such as liver, kidneys, and glandular meats like the thymus or pancreas (you may hear them called sweetbreads) • Seafood, especially shellfish like shrimp, lobster, mussels, anchovies, and sardines. 40. Differentiate between RA and OA. The main difference between osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis is the cause behind the joint symptoms. Osteoarthritis is caused by mechanical wear and tear on joints. Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease in which the body's own immune system attacks the body's joints. It may begin any time in life 41. List different meds given for RA and OA. RA • • • • • • celecoxib (Celebrex) ibuprofen (prescription strength) nabumetone (Relafen) naproxen (Naprosyn) naproxen sodium (Anaprox) piroxicam (Feldene) OA • • • • • • • • Ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) Ketoprofen. Piroxicam (Feldene) Meloxicam (Mobic) Diclofenac sodium (Voltaren) Celecoxib (Celebrex) Naproxen sodium (Naprosyn, Aleve, Anaprox DS) NSAID/calcium channel blocker. 42. List drugs given for back spasms. • • • • • • • 1) Methocarbamol. Methocarbamol (Robaxin) 2) Cyclobenzaprine 3) Carisoprodol 4) Metaxalone 5) Tizanidine 6) Baclofen. 7) Oxazepam and diazepam. 43. Define multiple sclerosis and drugs given for this disease. Multiple sclerosis (MS) affects the brain and spinal cord. Early MS symptoms include weakness, tingling, numbness, and blurred vision. Other signs are muscle stiffness, thinking problems, and urinary problems. Treatment can relieve MS symptoms and delay disease progression. • • • • • • • • Aubagio® (teriflunomide) Bafiertam™ (monomethyl fumarate) Dimethyl Fumarate (dimethyl fumarate - generic equivalent of Tecfidera) Gilenya® (fingolimod) Mavenclad® (cladribine) Mayzent® (siponimod) Ponvory™ (ponesimod) Tecfidera® (dimethyl fumarate) 44. Define Lyme Disease. Lyme disease is a bacterial infection you get from the bite of an infected tick. At first, Lyme disease usually causes symptoms such as a rash, fever, headache, and fatigue. But if it is not treated early, the infection can spread to your joints, heart, and nervous system.