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```Name:___________________________________________________________________ Period:________________________ Date: __________________
Chemistry: States of Matter
Matter :
Property
Shape
Volume (amount)
Arrangement of
particles
Interaction of
particles
Drawing
Solid
Liquid
Gas
Changing states
 Substances can exist in all three states (e.g. water can be ice(solid), liquid or gas (water vapor).
 The state of a substance depends on the temperature.
 Changes of state are brought about by changes in temperature
Particle theory
 All solids, liquids and gases are made of very small particles.
 Particles are always moving.
 Particles are held together by forces (bonds)
State
Forces
between
particles
How freely can
particles move?
How far
apart are the
particles?
Model
diagram
Solid
Liquid
Gas
Using particle theory to explain:
Expansion (getting bigger on heating): Particles gain thermal energy when heated.
This makes the particles move more – making the particlesmove further apart from
each other – the substance expands.
Compressing (squashing): Solids and liquids do not compress because there is no
space between the particles. You can compress (squash) a gasbecause there is lots
of space between the particles, so they can be pushed together.
Density (how heavy something is for its size): Very dense materials (likemetals) have
lots of particles paced together into a small space (volume).
Density: the density of a substance tells us how much of a substance is packed into
a certain volume. To calculate density of an object you need to know: mass (g) and
the volume (cm3)
Density = Mass
volume
Units for density are g/cm3
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