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Reading Guide: Chapter 5
1. What are biological macromolecules?
2. What are the four classes of macromolecules?
3. What happens during dehydration synthesis?
4. What happens during hydrolysis?
5. What can speed up these reactions?
6. What is the ratio of carbon to hydrogen in carbohydrates?
7. What is the most common monosaccharide?
8. Glucose is used during [ cellular respiration/photosynthesis].
9. Excess glucose is stored as [ protein / starch ].
10. Why are glucose and fructose considered to be isomers?
11. How are disaccharides formed?
12. Name two common disaccharides: Lactose
13. What is a polysaccharide?
14. Why is starch found in seeds?
15. What is amylase?
16. How do animals store glucose?
17. What is a plant’s cell wall made from?
18. How do grazing animals break down cellulose?
19. Carbohydrates from what structural component of insects and crustaceans?
20. Which of the following are benefits of carbohydrates in the diet? (check all that apply)
___ Reduces cholesterol in the blood
___ Promotes regular bowel movements
___ Reduces the amount of sugar circulating in the blood
___ Reduces the risk of breast cancer
3.3 Lipids
21. Lipids tend to be [ polar / nonpolar ] and [ soluble / insoluble ] in water.
22. What are the two main components of a fat molecule?
23. If the fatty acid contains only single bonds, it is called
24. Unsaturated fats are [ solid / liquid ] at room temperature.
25. What type of cells store fat in animals? adipocyte
26. What are the examples of unsaturated fats?
27. Why are trans fats banned in some places?
28. What is a source for Omega-3 fatty acids in the diet?
29. Why do aquatic birds and leaves have a waxy covering?
30. Where are phospholipids found? Phospholipids are found in plasma membranes.
31. Why are phospholipids described as amphipathic?
32. How many carbon rings are found in a steroid?
3.4 Proteins
33. What is a catabolic enzyme?
34. (Table 3.1) Match the protein with its function:
____ Amylase
____ Hemoglobin
____ Keratin
____ Immunoglobulins
protect from foreign pathogens
structural component
digestive, breaks down starch
transport, carries substances in blood
35. What happens when a protein is denatured?
36. Proteins are made from what monomers?
37. The nature of the amino acid (polarity, acidity) is determined by what?
38. Why are some amino acids considered “essential?”
39. What type of bond joins amino acids together ? ___________________________________
40. The N terminal of a polypeptide contains an ______________________ group.
The C terminal contains a ______________________ group.
41. (Evolution Connection) Where is Cytochrome c found? ____________________________
How many amino acids are in human cytochrome c? ________
Differences in the cytochrome c sequence can provide clues about (check all that apply)
___ evolutionary relationships
____ protein function
_____ a common
Protein Structure
42. Enzymes bind to a specific _________________________.
43. The sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain is its _______________________
44. Sickle cell anemia is caused by a single change in what protein chain?
45. This change causes hemoglobin molecules to form ______________________________
which distort the blood cell.
46. What are the two secondary structures of proteins?
47. The three dimensional structure of a protein is called its ____________________________
48. The nature of the R groups causes the protein to [ fold / dismantle ]
49. Quaternary structures are formed from several _________________________.
50. What can cause a protein to denature?
3.5 Nucleic Acids
1. Why are nucleic acids important for the continuity of life?
2. Where is DNA found? _______________________________________________________
3. The cell’s entire genetic content is its: _______________________________
4. In eukaryote cells, DNA and histone proteins form ________________________________
5. RNA is mostly involved in what cellular process? _________________________________
6. DNA and RNA are composed of what monomers? _______________________________
7. What are the three components of a nucleotide?
8. What are the four possible bases found in a DNA nucleotide?
9. Purines have [ 2 / 1 ] ring(s). Pyrimidines have [ 2 / 1 ] ring(s).
10. Adenine and guanine are classified as _____________________________________
11. Cytosine and thymine are classified as ____________________________________
12. What sugar is found in DNA? ________________________
13. What is the difference between these sugars?
14. What is the shape of a DNA molecule? __________________________
15. If DNA has the sequence A A T T G C, what is the complementary RNA sequence?
16. A set of three bases is called a:____________________________________
17. What is the smallest of the four types of RNA?
18. DNA dictates the structure of RNA through what process?
19. RNA dictates the structure of protein through what process?