# Download Assumptions underlie each CVP analysis

Survey
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts
no text concepts found
Transcript
```The following assumptions underlie each CVP analysis
1. The behavior of both costs and revenues is linear throughout the relevant
range of the activity index.
2. Costs can be classified accurately as either variable or fixed.
3. Changes in activity are the only factors that affect costs.
4. All units produced are sold.
5. When more than one type of product is sold, the sales mix will remain
constant. That is, the percentage that each product represents of total sales will
stay the same. Sales mix complicates CVP analysis because different products
will have different cost relationships.
Lubona Company, maker of high-quality flashlights, has experienced steady growth over the last
6 years. However, increased competition has led Mr. Lubona, the president, to believe that an
aggressive campaign is needed next year to maintain the company’s present growth. The
company’s accountant has presented Mr. Lubona with the following data for the current year,
2018, for use in preparing next year’s advertising campaign.
COST SCHEDULES
Variable costs
Direct labor per flashlight
K 8.00
Direct materials
4.00
3.00
Variable cost per flashlight
K15.00
Fixed costs
Manufacturing
K 25,000
Selling
40,000
70,000
Total fixed costs
K135, 000
Selling price per flashlight
K25.00
Expected sales, 2018 (20,000 flashlights) K500, 000
Mr. Lubona has set the sales target for the year 2018 at a level of K550, 000 (22,000 flashlights).
Instructions
(Ignore any income tax considerations.)
a) What is the projected operating income for 2018?
b) What is the contribution margin per unit for 2018?
c) What is the break-even point in units for 2018?
d) Mr. Lubona believes that to attain the sales target in the year 2018, the company must incur
an additional selling expense of K10, 000 for advertising in 2018, with all other costs
remaining constant. What will be the break-even point in sales dollars for 2018 if the
company spends the additional K10, 000?
e) If the company spends the additional K10, 000 for advertising in 2018, what is the sales
level in dollars required to equal 2018 operating income?
Solution
(a)
Expected sales
Less:
Variable cost (20,000 flashlights x K15)
Fixed costs
Projected operating income
K500, 000
300,000
135,000
K 65,000
(b)
Selling price per flashlight
Variable cost per flashlight
Contribution margin per unit
(c)
Fixed costs ÷ Contribution margin per unit _ Break-even point in units
K135,000 ÷ K10 _ 13,500 units
Fixed costs ÷ Contribution margin ratio =Break-even point in dollars
K145, 000* _ 40%** _ K362,500
*Fixed costs (from 2018) K135,000