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NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS OF RUMINANTS
IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
by
Leonard C. Kearl
A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree
of
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
in
Animal Science
Approved :
UTAH STATE UNIVERSITY
Logan, Utah
1~82
Utah State University
[email protected]
All Graduate Theses and Dissertations
Graduate Studies
5-1982
Nutrient Requirements of Ruminants in Developing Countries
Leonard C. Kearl
Utah State University
Follow this and additional works at: https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/etd
Part of the Animal Sciences Commons
Recommended Citation
Kearl, Leonard C., "Nutrient Requirements of Ruminants in Developing Countries" (1982). All Graduate
Theses and Dissertations. 4183.
https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/etd/4183
This Dissertation is brought to you for free and open
access by the Graduate Studies at
[email protected] It has been accepted for
inclusion in All Graduate Theses and Dissertations by an
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more information, please contact
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iii
.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The author grateful I y express es
appreciation to all those who have
contributed to the publication of this
book.
\.1 i thout the support of, and
Information provided
by,
dedicated
animal scientists throughout the world,
this
objective
would
not
have
been
achieved. Special thanks are extended
to S. K. Ranjhan (Philippines), V. D.
Hudgal
{India),
R.
Hutagalung
(Malaysia), F. J. van der Merwe and H.
H. He issner {South Africa) and R. E.
Roffler (USA) for
challenge to rev i ew
thanks to Drs.' Ross Smart, James
Bennett and Rex Hurst, co mmittee
members , for their willingness to review
the manuscript and offer helpful
suggestions for its improvement and
guidance in classroom studies .
accepting the
the manuscript.
Their comments and suggestions immensely
improved the quality of the finished
product.
Thanks are extended to the editors of
many publications from which information
was drawn, without which the tables of
requirements would be meaningless.
Appreciation is extended to Or. Lorin E.
Harris for his encouragement and support
to
this project and the many
opportunities that were given to me.
Also , thanks to Or. George Stoddard ,
chairma n of my graduate committee , for
his support, guidance and encouragement
for the duration of this project; and
And,
thanks to the staff at the
International Feedstuffs Institute for
contin ual support throughout the 3 years
this material was being collected and
assembled .
A special thanks is extended to
Rosemarie Obray for her expertise and
patience in typing, reviewing and
compiling the information.
Also, to
Lois Cox for editing the publication.
And finally, to my wife Dorothy who
a cco mpanied me on several trips in
pursuit of · in format ion and to her
consta nt support during periods of
discouragement.
This project was partially financed by
the Techn leal Assistance Bureau , UnIted
States Agency for International De velopment (USAIO), and the United States
Department of Agriculture (USDA).
\lashington, D.C.
Leonard C. Kear 1
COMTEMTS
Page
ACKNOW L EDGEMENTS
iii
LIST OF TABLES
xi i
LIST OF FIGURES
ABSTRACT
xiv
xvi i
INTRODUCTION
SECT I ON 1 o WATER REQU I REHENTS
SECTION 2 o ENERGY o
Partition of Feed Energy
Gross Energy (GE)
Digestible Ener gy (DE)
Metabolizable Ene r gy (ME)
Net Energy ( NE)
Othe r Ener gy Te r-ms
SECTION 3o PROTEIN
Non-Protein Nitrogen (NPN)
Nitrogen Utilization
SECTION 4o MINERALS
Calcium
Deficiency Symptoms
Sources
Phosphorus
Deficiency Sym p toms
So urces
Req uir ements
Pot ass i urn •
Oef i c i ency Symptoms
Sources
Sodium and Chlo r i ne
So ur ces
11
15
16
23
25
25
26
26
27
27
27
27
28
28
28
29
vi
CONTENTS (Cont. )
Page
Magnes i urn
29
Deficiency Symptoms
Sources
Su 1 fur
29
29
29
Deficiency Symptoms
Requirements
30
30
30
Micro Minerals ( Trace)
30
Sources
Cob a It
Deficiency symptoms
Sources
Copper
Oef ic i ency symptoms
Sources
30
30
30
31
31
31
31
I ron
Oef i c iency symptoms
Sources
Iodine
Deficiency symptoms
So ur ces
Manganese
Deficiency symptoms
Sou r ces
Ho lybdenum
Deficiency symptoms
Selenium
Deficiency symptoms
Zinc
31
31
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
33
33
33
33
Deficiency symptoms
Sources
33
34
vii
CONTENTS (Cont.)
Page
Other E1ement s
Chromil.m
Fluorin e
Tin •
Toxic Minerals
SECTION
5.
VITA/IINS
Vi tam i n A •
De fie iency Symptoms
Vit crnin 0.
De fie iency Symptoms
Sou r ces
Vi tam in E •
Deficiency Symptoms
VI tam in K •
De fie iency Symptoms
Vitamin B Complex •
Vi tc.n in C •
34
34
34
34
34
3S
3S
3S
3S
3S
35
36
36
36
36
36
36
De fi e iency Symptoms
36
SECT ION 6. DRY IIATIER INTAKE
37
SECTION
7.
SHEEP
Dry Hatter Intake
'Water Tolerance
Eating Habits •
Nutrient Requirements
Energy
Maintenance
Growth
Pregnancy
Lac tat ion
Protein
4S
46
48
48
49
49
49
49
49
so
so
viii
COIITENTS (Cont.)
Page
Maintenance, growth and early pregnancy
Lactation
Minerals •
CalciU'TI
Phosphorus
Iodine
Cobalt
Copper
Sel en i liTl
Zinc
Vi tern ins •
Vitamin
Vi tan in
Vitamin
Early-\oleaned Lambs
Energy
Maintenance an d growth
Protein
Maintenance and growth
Breed i ng Rams
SECT ION 8. GOATS
Dry Matter Intake
Growth
Late Pregnancy
Lac tat ion
Preweaned Kids
\Jater To 1er ance
Eating Habits •
Nutrient Requirements
Energy
Maintenance
Growth
Pregnancy
Lac tat ion
50
51
51
51
51
51
52
52
52
52
52
52
52
52
53
53
53
53
53
54
59
59
60
60
60
60
61
61
62
62
62
63
63
63
jX
CONTENTS ( Cont. )
Page
Prete in
Maintenance
Growth
Pregnancy
Lac tat ion
Minerals
Vi tern ins
Vi tam in
Vi tan in
Vitamin
Othe r vitcmi n s
SECTI ON 9. MULTI-PURPOSE CAITLE
Growth
lactation
Reproduction
Ear 1y Pregnane y
Late Pregnancy
Work
Nutrient Requ i rements
Energy
Maintenance
Growth
Pregnancy
Lac tat ion
Work
Prete in
Maintenance
Growth
Pr eg n ancy
Lactation
Work
Cr ossbred Catt 1e ( Bos i nd icus x Bos ~)
64
64
64
64
65
65
65
65
65
66
66
71
71
71
72
72
72
73
73
73
73
75
75
76
77
77
78
79
79
80
80
81
SECTION 10. OOHEST IC BUFFALO
89
Growth and Fatten lng
90
91
Reproductio n and Product ion
CONTENTS (Cont.)
Page
Males
Females
91
92
92
Estrus
Estrus cyc le
93
Pregnancy
93
93
94
Lactation
Work •
94
97
98
98
Dry Matter Intake
Water To 1er ance
Eating Habits •
Nutrient Requirenents
Energy
99
Ha i ntenance
99
Growth
Pregnancy
100
101
101
10 3
Lac tat ion
Work
Protein
Main ten a nee
Growth
Pregnancy ( 1ast
103
roonths)
Lac tat ion
\.lark
Minerals •
104
1OS
1 OS
106
106
107
Calcilnl
107
Phosphorus
108
SECTION 11. COIIPOS1T10N OF FEEDS
Classes of Feeds by Chemical
and Genera 1 Usage
International Feed Name
Country Feed Names
International Feed Number
11S
and Physical Characteristics
Tables of Feed Composition
locating Feed Names in the Tab 1es of Feed
Composition
Data
115
116
116
116
116
116
118
Arithmetic Models Used to Calculate Data
118
xi
CONTENT (Cont.)
Page
Digestible Energy
Metabolizable Energy
Net En e rgy
Total Digestib l e Nutri ents
Digestible Prot ei n
Vitamin A
Beta- Carotene ( Pro-Vitamin A) Equivalents
Based on the Rat
SECTION 12. DIET FORIIULATION
System for Simple Diet Formul ation
Factors to be Considered in Balancing Diets
Dry matter intake
Prate in
Energy
Calcium
Phosphorus
Other mineral s
Vitamin A
Othe r vi tam ins
Diet Cal c ulation
Quality Control
118
119
119
119
119
12 1
121
123
124
124
124
124
124
124
125
125
125
125
125
129
REFERENC ES CITED
133
APPENDIXES
151
Appendix 1.
Appendix 2.
Appendix
3.
Appendix 4.
Appendix
VITA
s.
Tables of Feed Composition
Mineral Requirements, Toxic Levels and
Symptoms of Taxi city •
Ex amp 1e Rations
Corrrnon English Feed Names and Scientifi c Names
Abbreviations Used in Publication
15 3
36 1
367
377
387
389
xi i
LIST OF TABLES
Table
Page
1. Diet Concentration and Efficiency of Utilization for
Maintenance and Gain by Cat t 1e.
10
2. Equations Used to Estimate Digestible Protein (Y) Fr om
Total Protein (X) for Three Animal Kinds and Four Feed
C 1asses
14
3. Theoretical Upper Limits for NPN Supplementation to Cattle
Diets .
19
4. Theoretical Upper Limits fo r NPN Supplementation to Sheep
0 i ets •
19
S. Locations of Mineral Deficiencies of Ruminants in Developing
Countries
6. Cha r acteristics of a
24
Cattle Mineral Sup pl ement .
25
]. Detection of Speci fi c Mineral Deficiencies o r Toxicities
in Cattle .
26
B. Latin American Studies on Effects of Mineral Supp l e mentation
on I ncr eased Ca 1vi ng Percentages
28
9. Metabolic Body \Ieight Using llkg0.73 and llkg0.75
41
11
Good
11
10. Dry Matter Intake of Hereford and Bo r an Steers on a High
P 1ane of Nut riti on .
41
11. Oai ly Nutrient Requirements o f Sheep
55
12. Daily Nutrient Requirements of Goats
67
13. Nutrient Constituents of Goats Milk at Different Fat Levels
(Nutrients/kg Milk)
14. Daily Nutrient Req u i r ements of Cattle
69
82
15. Nutrient Constituents of Cattle Milk at Different Fat leve ls
( Nutr ients/kg Milk)
16. Daily Nutrient Requirements of Buffal oes
87
109
17. Nutrient Constituents of Buffaloes Milk at Di ff erent Fat
Levels (Nutrien ts/kg Hi lk).
11 3
18. Feed Classes by Physical and Chem ical Cha r acteristics
117
19 . Regression Equations to Estimate Tot a 1 Dige st i b 1e Nutrients
Nutrients .
120
xiii
lIST OF TABLES (Cont.)
Table
Page
20 . Conversion of Beta- Carotene to Vitamin A for Different
Species
121
21 . Feed Composition a nd Cost Pe r Metric Ton o f Some Selected
Feeds •
22. Cost Per Unit of Me t abo 1 i zab 1e Energy a nd Tot a 1 Pr ate in
126
126
23. Converting Feeds From a Dr y Matter Basis t o an As-Fed
Basis •
24. Proximate Compositio n and Energy Contents of Some Common 1y
Used African Fee ds. Data Expressed on an As-Fed and Dry Basis
( Moist ur e Fr ee)
130
1 S4
25. Mi ne r al and Vitamin Co n tent of Some Commonl y Us ed Afri can
Feeds. Data Expressed o n an As-Fed and Dry Basis (Moisture
Free) •
178
26 . Proximate Composition and Ene rg y Conten ts of Some Com monly
Us ed Asian Feeds . Dat a Ex pr essed o n an As-Fed and Dry Basis
(Moisture Free)
202
2]. Mineral and Vitamin Cont ent of Some Commonly Used Asian
Feeds. Data Ex pr esse d on an As-Fed and Dry Bas is (Moisture
Free) •
226
28. Proximate Co mpositio n and En ergy Cont ents o f Some Common 1y
Used Latin Ameri ca n Fee ds . Da ta Expressed on an As-Fed and
Dry Basis ( Moistur e Fr ee) •
2 SO
29. Minera l and V itam i n Content of Some Commonl y Used Lat in
American Feeds. Data Exp r essed on an As- Fed and Dr y Basis
(i'lois t ur e Free)
30 . Proximate Com position and Energy Contents o f Some Common 1y
Used Middle East Feeds. Data Expressed on an As-Fed and Dry
Basis (Moi sture Free} •
31.
Mineral and Vitamin Cont ent of Some Commonly Used Mi ddl e
East Feeds . Data Expressed on an As-Fed and Dry Basis
( Moisture Free)
274
298
322
32 . Composition of H i ner a 1 Supp 1emen ts. Data Expressed
on an As-Fed and Dry Basis ( i'lo ist ur e Free) .
346
xiv
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure
Page
1. Approximate partition of dietary energy by cattle at
rna i ntenance intake.
2. Biological partition of dietary energy.
9
3 . Protein metabolism flow for most animals other than birds.
13
4. Schematic summary of nitrogen uti 1 ization by the ruminant.
16
5. Schematic illust r ation of the replace ment of prot ei n with
nonprotein nitrogen (NPN) and the effect on ruminal ammonia
accumulation and NPN utilization.
18
6. Schematic illustration of method for calculating efficiency
of nonprotein nitrogen {NPN) util i zation. •
18
]. Influence of nonp r otein n it rogen {NPN) s upplementation on the
quantity of non ammonia nitrogen {NAN) reac h ing the abomasum of
sheep .
20
B. Influence of prote i n supplementation on the quantity o f
non anmon i a nitrogen (NAN) reaching the abo masum of sheep . •
20
9. Dry matter intake as a function of 1 ive weight in dairy beef
steers fed all-concent r ate or 10-20% roughage diets.
37
10. Dry matter intake {g/'Wk.g0. 75) response of s heep when f ed
diets composed of a bas a 1 concentrate mixtu r e d i 1uted from
5 to SO% at 5% increments with each of th r ee dilue nts; (A)
oak sawdust; (B) oak sawdust with cons tant 3% kaolin clay;
(D) same as A except nitrogen was kept constant at 17.4%
total protei n. Dry matter intake (Y) increased as the
digestible ener gy (X) increased to 2.47 kcal/g , Y- 4.57 +
31.74X {r "'" 0. 61 ). Dry matter intake decreased as
digestible energy increased above 2.4] kcal/g, V • 14].5026.13X(r~0 . ]6).
38
11. Hypothetical r elat ion between ca lori c density and feed
i nt ake.
39
12. Hypothetical relation between maximum daily intake and
biologi ca l weight.
39
13. Dry matter intake and gain of catt le as inf luenced by the
metabolizable ene rg y of the diet.
40
14. Regr essio n 1 ine and equation for estimating total prote in
from digestible protein.
51
XV
LIST Of FIGURES (Cont.)
Figure
Page
15. Metabolizable energy requ i red t o satisfy the demands of
pregnanc y in 265 kg (initial we ight) beef heifers.
72
16. Comparison of the lofgreen and Garrett (1968) and the Moe
and Fiatt (1969) systems of expressing energy requirements.
75
17 . Live weight gains in relation to protein content of diets
containing 11 .
18 and 25% acid detergent fiber (ADF)..
78
18 . Nitrogen required to satisfy the demands of pregnancy.
79
19. Nitrogen requirements in produc ts of co ncept ion in c ows
producing calves weighing approximately 45 kg .
106
20. Selection of the optimum nutrient density in broiler
feeding. Upper solid line is weight gain (g/bird); lower
solid I ine is feed cos t s for equiva l ent gain (left hand
units); the dotted line is the profit (weig ht gain minus
feed cost in terms of weight ga i n) .
121t
21 . A typical feed label .
132
x vi I
ADSTI\ACT
Nutrient Requirements of RU'Ilinants
in Dev eloping Countries
by
Leonard C. Kearl, Docto r of Philosophy
Utah State University, 1983
Major Professor: Or. George E. Stoddard
Departmenta Animal, Dairy and Veter i nary
Sciences
This book was assembled using the latest
information for campi 1 ing the nutrient
requirements of sheep, goats, ca ttle and
water
buffalo.
Because
of
the
complexity of the interactions betwee n
an animal. its diet, its physiologi ca l
state, and the envIronment; the values
depicting the nutrient requirements are
estimates and not absolutes.
These
values, however, are considered to be
adequate to meet the minimum requirements of healthy animals maintained i n a
thermoneutr a 1 environment.
The mean energy and prate in va 1 ues used
in the nutrient tables were arrived at
from com bining values found in the
1 iterature and those pro vided in
personal co mmuni cation with animal
nutr itionlsts in many developing countries.
In some cases, only two or- thr-ee
observations we r-e found for- estimating
the values used.
Futu r- e r-esear-ch in
ruminant nut r- ition should be designed to
provide infor-mation needed to confi r m ormodify t he values presented her-e.
Feed composition tables representing
feeds commonly found in latin Ameri ca ,
Africa, Asia and the Middle East have
been Included for an easy refer-ence when
formulating diets.
Units of expression
of data in the tables of feed composition and animal nutr ient r-equirements
ar-e presented using three systems1
metabolizable ener-gy (M E), net ener-gy
(NE); total digestible nutrients (TON)
and Scandinavian fe ed units (FU).
Conver-sion factors fr-om SE to ME, TON,
etc., are pr-esented in Section 1 for
those who need this infor-mation.
Also,
a I ist of abbreviations used appear in
Appendix 5.
A br-ief discussion showing three methods
of calc ulating rations by hand are
presented.
Each of these methods
per-mits some consider-ation for- ca l c ulat11
ing a
1east-cost 11 r-ation .
It is
important, however, that the person
formulating a diet has a knowledge of
the animal's nutrient requirements, an
under-standing of the digestibility and
utilization of feeds and the var-ious
combinatio ns required to formulate a
diet adequate to supply all the needs of
animals.
Examples of hand ca l c ulated
rations appear in Appendix 3.
Adulteration of feedst u ffs is a common
complaint f r om 1 ivestock producers in
many developing countr-ies. This problem
has been encountered at various times
throughout most regions of the world .
In Section 12, some suggestions are
offered as a means to establish quality
control regulations and to set standards
for all manufactured feedstuffs offered
for- sale.
(407 pages )
INTRODUCTION
Animals occupy a sig nif icant place in
pr ovid ing high quality food for hum ans.
Of the total number of animals in the
world, approximately 60% a r e found in
d eve loping co untries
{Cu nha,
19 82) .
These areas, however, account for on 1y
22% of the total world producti o n of
meat. milk, and eggs.
People 1 iving in
developing co untries want and need
animal products in their diets.
be cause the
animals found
low levels of
i nad e quate to
But,
indigenous species of
in these regions h ave such
production, supplies are
meet daily human nutrient
requirements.
Ex c eptions to this
generalization occur in some areas . For
example,
the calvin g per centages of
Sanga cat tle in Northern Namibia average
approximately 90% when maintained under
very diffi c ult co nditions (persondl
communication, van der Merwe).
The pr oduction systems generally f o und
in developing countries are based upon
mixed farming in which c rop-1 ivestock
Integration is the tradition.
Such a
system does not ne cessari ly give the
max i mum output from animal or l and, but
it will give an optimum return. Also, a
mix e d-farming system is in r e lati ve
harmony with the environment.
It has been estimated (FAO, 1979} that
1 i11estock production should i nc r ease by
~.]%annually between 1980 and 2000 to
meet the needs o f the human populat ion.
Adequate feed resources to accomplish
this increase will depend upon the wise
use of forage ( grazed and preserved) and
of crop and agro-industrial by-products ,
p 1us greater use of feed grains and
conce ntrat es.
In many areas, manag ement
(feeding) systems should be developed to
cont rol abuses of range and othe r fe e d
r esou r ces and to maximize the uti 1 i zation of forage available to small
farmers .
The FAO (1979) estimates that,
in 90 developing co untries, sheep and
goat numb e rs will increase from 791.5
m;11;on (1980) to 1,172.9 m;11;on (2000)
head.
This is a
approximate 1y 2%.
yearly
growth
of
Obviously, some means of optimizing the
available human , land, animal and feed
r esources must be activated i f the
projected goals are to be met.
In addition, al l available, relevant scient ifi c
techno 1ogy w i 11 have to be app 1 i ed .
Per
animal production can b e inc r eased
through improved management ski 11 s and
by meeting animal nutrient requirements
with locally avai I able f eed resources.
Wanapat ( 1981) after r evie wing 1 i vestock
r esearch work in Thailand concluded:
The majority of cattle and water
buff alo are rais ed by small vi l lage
f armers at a subsistence management
level where feeds are dependent on
subsequent cropping systems.
Pattern of seasons greatly influences the availability of feeds
which
in
turns
affe cts
the
pe rformance of the animals . (p 2 11 )
Bas ed on the re v iewed I it e rature, it
is strongly felt that more researches in water buffalo nutrition
need to be imposed in both basi c and
applied , particular ly on loca llyavai I able low-quality roughages,
agro-industrial products and other
by-products uti 1 ization. Since the
majority of buffaloes are owned by
small farmers, the impro ve ment of
buffalo produ ction by means of
i nc reasing feed quantity and quality
w i 11 have a great impact on the
vi llage economy. (p 221}
Anima I research has been conducted in
many of the developing co untries t o
ascertain the nutrient requirements of
sheep, goats, catt le, and water buffalo.
Some of this information has been
gathered , evaluated, and summarized.
From the available data, nutrient
requirements have been established
recommending the amounts of nutrients to
be fed to animals to achieve a desired
response (growth, milk yield, etc.).
This book has been written to provide a
basis fo r ca l cula ting diets that will
meet the minimum r eq uirements necessary
to ma in tain body weight and(or) prov id e
f o r growth , pregnancy, I act at ion and
work. Considerat i o n has b ee n given to
providing the es senti a l nutri ent s that
pr omote r e gu la r estrus in f e mal es an d
ensure normal growth by the fetus .
\.later, e n ergy, protein, and minerals
must b e pr ovided in adequate, b ala nced
amounts i f optimum results are to be
ac hi eved in terms of m ai nt enance .
growth, p r oduct i on , and r ep r oduction.
Generally , the exact amo unt o f ea c h
nutri e n t i s not k n own. Th e r e f o r e , the
estimates of requi r e ments presented he r e
should be conside r ed as the minimums
needed to meet the various ph ysiological
demands made on the an im als.
~he r e
val ues from seve ra l compa r abl e expe r i ments were ava i lab l e,
they were
ave r aged . Since breed, st rain. and sex
affect growth rate , feed conve r sion , and
ca r cass co mposition, these f acto r s also
influen ce nutrient r equirements .
Va ri atio n s in nutrient requirements ar e
t o be expected between individual
a nimal s o f the same weight and b r eed
even while they perform the same
fun ct i o n.
Th e nutrient va l ues presented
in this publi ca tion repr esent ave rag es
of th e information availab l e. Eac h farm
manag e r s h o uld be aware of the inevitable va ri ations b etwee n animals and
b etween ana l yses of feed samples when
he/she applies the info rm ation from
these feeding standards.
Nutrient
requirem ents are to be u sed as a guide
in es t ablishi ng a f eedi ng regime for
each specific li ves tock enterprise, and
not as abso 1 ut es .
Th ey do not rep 1 ace
the expertis e of the farmer in mat chi n g
the nutrient intakes t o the performanc e
of his / her
a nimals.
These nutrient
requir ements c an be used as a beginning
poi nt when fo rmu I at i ng a diet f o r any
livestock ope rat io n, a nd to estimate
feed r equirements f o r any period of
tim e.
On a nati onal scale, the nutri e nt
r equirements ca n b e used to estimate
import o r expo rt requirements of f eed
ingredients.
The information gi ven in these nut ri en t
r e quirem ents should be applicable to
feed/nut r ient tables found in developing
co untries.
Information on the major
nutrients , ene rg y and pr a te in , h ave been
d eri ved fr om r esea r ch con ducted througho u t the r egions mentioned above.
In
most cases ,
the requirements f o r
mi nerals have b een ex tr apolated fr om the
Ministry o f Agriculture. Fisheries and
Fo o d ( MAFF) and the National Research
Cou n c il (NRC) reports.
Composition
va lu es of fe eds com mon ly f ound in the
target areas a r e incl u ded , along with
some sug ges t ed diet f o rmulations f o r
each an im al c l ass.
The aim bas been to est ima te the
r equireme nt of each ruminant species f o r
seve r a l essential nu trients f o r maintenance . growth, pregnancy , lactation and
work. Thi s has been accomp lis he d by a
c r i t ica l re view of t h e 1 iteratur e ,
person a l co ntact with scientists in the
developing co untri es , and ext r apolating
min e r a l and v it am in i nf o rmati o n from
nutrient r equir ement tables estab li s hed
in develop e d cou ntries.
The b es t
estimates o f r e qu irements were d eriveQ
fr om the info r mation obtaine d f r om these
so ur ces .
It is fully recognized that
the r e quir ements presented here will
need to be modi fi ed as mo r e research is
co nduc ted o n the se ani mals .
One of the
aims of this p ubli ca tion is to s h ow
where more knowl edge i s needed and to
enco ur age the r esea r ch tha t wi 11 provide
su c h know 1edge.
The met ri c system has been used i n this
book as a way to minimize the r isk of
e rr o r s. Several syste ms o f ex pr essing
the ene rg y values have b ee n used. This
was don e to make the information more
meaningful to i ndi vi duals in developing
co untries who r ely on different fe eding
units.
Th e first requi rement for balan cing a
die t is to establish guidelines as to
h ow mu c h of each o f the various
nutri e nts
is
n eeded
to
supply
nou rishm ent to an anim al in amo unt s that
wi 11 m eet its r e quirements for
mal ntenan ce , growth, pr o duct i on, and
reproduction. This information is gi ven
in the tables that express the da ily
amounts to be fed to an animal.
Th e need to nutritionally balance livestock and poultry rations was recognized
many years ago. Thaer (1809) was among
the first to compare the feeding values
of different animal feeds when he
published his book 11 Hay Equivalents.''
He compared the amounts of different
feeds that would be nutritionally
equivalent to 100 pounds of meadow hay.
Bouss i ngau 1t ( 1843) expanded this work
by tabu 1 at i ng com par isons of the
nitrogen co ntents of feeds.
Wolff
(1861) pub lished tables co ntaining
information on c rude nutrients, nutrient
requirements, digestibi I i ty, and feed
prices.
Later, he pr oduce d tables
co ntaining information on mineral
co mposit io n (18 71) and digestible
nutrients (1894).
This had become
possible through the standardization of
the 11Weende 11 methods for analyzing feeds
made by Henneberg and Stohmann ( 1864 ).
Independent studies by Armsby (1903} and
Kellner (1905) resulted in the publi cation of tables of feed composition that
co ntained information on the nutrient
conte nt and energy values of feeds.
Many feed composition tables in man y
areas of the war I d have been pub I I shed
since that time.
Variations occur i n the nutrient
requirements of animals and also in the
amounts of nutrients co ntained in
different feeds, often of the same type
(alfalfa, corn, sorghum, etc.). Th ese
va riations must be kept in mind when
applying feeding standards to specific
situations.
The recommendations
contained in the tables presented herein
are a guide to be used by farmers i n
achieving the optimum production from
their 1 ivestock. They do not replace
the need for the farmer to adjust the
intake of feed to meet the performance
level expected from his animals . Data
from these nutrient requirement tables
c an also assist government planners in
estimating the import-export needs
within the i r country.
For nutrient requirements to have
practica l value,
they must be
accompanied by and used with tables of
feed composition that identify the
nutritive compositions of the f eeds
available to formulate a diet.
This book has been prep ared as a
c ompanion to the Asian (Harris et al.
1982), Korean (H an et a1. 1982 ) , Latin
American (McDowell et al. 1974) and
Middle East Tables of Feed Composition
(Kearl et al. 1979); and should be a
valuable aid in prepar ing nutritionally
adequate diets using forages, agroindustrial by-products and other sources
of feed.
It wi 11 provide an excellent
resource for use in the c 1 ass room, by
the feed industry, extension service
officers, and by farmers.
The main objective of a farmer is to
optimize the production of marketable
products from the resources avai I able.
To do this, cash c rops having high
potential yields are grown when
possible.
Usually, however, areas
within each farm un it are unsuitable for
intensive crop product Jon. These c an be
utilized for forage product io n. Also,
many c rop residues make excellent feed
for ruminant animals. The function of
management (small holder or corporate
manager) in any farm operation is to
maximize profit.
To do this, it is
oftentimes necessary to integrate
animals and cropping systems.
Throughout many developing cou ntries,
the primary feed resour ces for rum in ant
animals are crop residues and agroindustrial by-products. These feeds are
low in energy. Generally, an animal's
intake of energy determines its
product io n rate.
In beef product Jon,
voluntary intake of feed is of extreme
importance, especially with low energy
diets for which digestibility is the
1 imiting factor. Horton and Ni c holson
(1981) report that 350 kg steers (Hereford) fed a diet containing 7.7% total
protein (TP) and com prising 37.7% wheat
straw, 56.3% barley grain, 2% tallow, 2%
molasses, .5% salt, .5% phosphate
supplement and 1% vitamin and mineral
premix achieved gains of approximately
1 kg/d.
These results indicate that
1 arge amounts of straw, and perhaps
other low quality feeds, can be uti 1 ized
in catt le fattening diets. It has been
suggested (Anonymous,
1965) that
irrespective of th e diet fed to growing
catt le their daily dry matter intake
(DMI)
is
regulated
by
their
heat
production, which i n turn is affected by
several
factors
such as
rumen
mi c roflora, ambient air temperature, and
composition of the diet.
For maximum utilization of a diet, the
nutrients required by the animal must be
present in the amounts needed. Energy
is the most critical nutrient needed in
meetIng the requirements for pr oduction
(meat, m ilk, fiber or work).
Protein
requirements are influenced by the
micro-organism activity and ·the pH level
in the rumen.
Under some conditions,
ruminants are able to satisfy their
nitrogen requirements almost exclusively
by synthesizing protein from organic
compo unds s u ch as urea.
In many
count rie s , it is common practice in
preparing practi cal diets, to satisfy
approximately 30% of the total protein
requirement in the form of n o n-prot ein
nitrogen. 'W'hen using urea as a source
of nitrogen, however, it is advisable to
have a readily available source of
carbohyd rate.
Because of this, ani rna l s
fed diets high in crude fiber do not
respond well when supplemented with nonprotein nitrogen.
Ruminants are ab 1e to meet most of their
vitamin requirements through microbial
synthesis.
The exceptions are vi tam ins
A,
0 and E.
Minerals,
howe ver ,
especially the macro elements, must be
provided in the diet in sufficient
quantities to meet the animals' needs.
Trace minerals, which are very important
for optimum production by the animal,
are usually provided in a good trace
mineral (TM) salt mixture fed free
cho i ce.
Often, however. sources o f a
good TM salt are difficult to find in
many areas.
Some means of providing
these essent i al nutrients to livestock
producers throughout each de veloping
country should be established. This may
require cooperation among the feed
industry, government and producers.
The term requirement refers to the
amount of nutrient that must be supplied
to meet the maintenan ce and production
needs of
healthy
animals not
experiencing environmental stress.
These requirements will va ry according
to the size of the animal and the le vel
of production or reproduction.
Th i s
publication outlines the nutrient
requirements for sheep, goats, cattle
and water buffaloes.
In most cases , the
level of nutrient recommended wi l l
satisfy minimum requirements for
maintenance and(or) production for the
physiological function indicated.
In 1 i ght of the above, it appea r s that
ruminant feeding systems can be
developed for use in many developing
areas of the world based on local feed
and animal resources.
Although other
factors must be taken into account
before recommending a system, the
highest priority must be given to the
socio-economic impact on the rural
people in developing co untri es.
Feeding
systems are on 1 y one factor in any
production and distribution system.
Attention must be given to financial
assistance, marketing, manufacture and
packaging (slaughtering animals), and
othe r factors associated with the t otal
farm production system.
A 11 such
elements contribute to improving the
system and dictate how much the producer
will benefit.
The author was impressed by the paucity
of information suitable for inclusion as
nutrient requirements. Huch resear c h
has been reported in the 1 i terature. but
too frequent 1y the data are for ani mal s
receiving specific diets1 and body
weights, dry matter co nsumptions or
performance ratings are unspecified.
To enhance the usefulness of the
information presented in t he 1 iter ature,
it is suggested that methods of research
and reporting the results be
standardized.
SECTION 1. WATER REQUIREMENTS
The amount of water cant a i ned in any one
species of animals is rem arkably
I t has been suggested that
the body of an animal may lose vi r tua l ly
consta nt.
all i ts fat and a bout o ne-half of its
pro t ein and su r vive, but a loss that
exceeds appr oximately 10% of its water
may r esult in death.
The propo r t i ons of
body wate r in the gastro-intest ina l
tract o f rum inants is ve r y high.
An ani rna 1 1 s primary sources of wate r ar e
its f ood and voluntary wate r
intake.
Sma l l amounts of water a r e derived fr om
va ri ous metabolic (oxidation) processes
in the body .
\late r
is l os t
from the
body th rou gh excre ti on by way of u r ine
and feces, from va pors in re s pira t i on,
and fr om the skin in the form of sw eat.
Th e body has a r ema r kable ab i l i ty to
r-egulate i t s r etention o r exc r etion of
wate r. This i s exemplified by i nc r eased
exc reti o n of water b y way o f the kidney
during periods of heot stre ss when water
intake may be excessive.
Our i ng pe r i ads
of dr o ught- r estricted wate r in t ake , the
discha rg e of ur i n e is drasti ca l ly
c urt aile d .
I t must be emphasized that l ar g e variati ons occur amon g individual animals i n
their wat e r req u ire ments.
Such
differe nces ar e i nfluenced by the natur e
o f feed co n su med, environmental tempe r atu r e and humid ity, a nd physiological
co nditi o n s . Adding pr ote in, miner als,
an d salts t o the diet may increase water
r eq uirement s as the body must expel l the
metabolites and excess salts through the
kidney by wa y o f the ur ine.
The body compos itio n va ri es between 40
and 65% water depend i ng on a ge,
co nditi on ( f atness}. species and br eed .
On a fat -fr ee basis,
mus cle tissue
com pris es 70 to 75% water. The bodies
o f new born and yo ung ani rna 1 s c ant a in a
higher pe r ce nt age of wate r than do thos e
o f matu r e animals o f th e sa me breed .
\later performs va rious func tion's in the
body.
1 t is a temperature regulating
medium, transpo r ts digesta through the
gastro-intestinal tract,
ca rri es
nutrients throughout the ca r dio-vascular
system an d i s a c anst i tuent o f a 11
I iv in g ce lls.
It also t r ansports most
waste produ ct s to the po int o f discharge
from the body and acts as a solvent for
many mi n e r als and othe r essential
nutrients.
\later must b e pr- ovided each animal t o
meet physiolog ical functions o f i ts
body. The many f actors that influence
water requirements make it diffi c ult to
recommend specif ic allowances.
For
instance, n ew tissue g r owth in yo ung
an imal s co ntain s app r oxi mately 75%
water; an d it ha s be e n suggested tha t
nonlactating adult cattle nee d between 3
and 8.5 kg water f or each kg of dry
matter cons um ed .
T hese amo unt s should
be increased b y appro x imately 50% for
pregnant animal s during t he last p art o f
the gestation period.
L actat i on
r equi r es an additional . 87 kg water for
eac h kg of milk produced. These amounts
are for temperate zones a nd mu st b e
modified f o r ar id an d t ropical r e g ions .
Th e r e is a n interdependency between
water and dry mat te r in takes .
Wh e neve r
the intake o f one is redu ced , the
vol un tary i ntake o f th e othe r
is
affecte d .
Sh ee p and cat t 1e r espo nd
qui ck ly to a r edu c ed wate r intake.
Camels, a nd to a lesse r extent goats,
tolerate l o ng er periods of water
deprivation without adverse affects on
dr y matter i n take. Ultimately , how ever ,
the need f o r water beco mes apparent in
all species as a re duction of DMI.
Eac h
area hav i ng i ts own unique envi r onment ,
breeds o f ani mals , and feed re so ur ce s
must deterrn i ne the o ptimum r equi r ements
co mpatibl e with the available supp l y .
Am bi ent tempe r ature a ff ects an animal ' s
requi r ement fo r wate r.
I n coo l weather
(< 10 C) th e wate r i nt ake for catt l e (Bas
taurus) may b e as low as 3 kg/kg
Th e demand f o r water w i 11 in c rea se to
app r oximate l y 8 kg/kg OMI when the
tem pe r at ur e r ises above 32 C.
Th e re is
some evide n ce that t nd ia n br ee d s (Bas
orr
indicus) , on the average, consume l ess
~han the amounts suggested above
for the European breeds.
'Wate r containing nitrates, alkal ines ,
sa l ts or other conta minants may be
unsuitable for animal use.
Yater
containing 10,000 ppm of so lu ble salts
for example , may be toxic to some
animals . 'Whenever possible, the water
supply should be clean , free f r om toxic
substances and available ad libitum to
animals at all times.
SECT ION 2. ENERGY
Partition of Feed Energy
Energy can be defined as the capacity to
do work.
This can involve physical
act i vity, biochemical processes, nerve
impulses, o r transmission of substances
across membrane barriers.
En e rgy can refer to hydr o-ca rbons us ed
to transport people and products, to run
fac t o ries, or food that sustains 1 iving
o rganisms.
Quantitatively, energy is
the most important i tern in an ani rna 1 1 s
diet.
All animals require ene rg y.
The
amount wi II vary according to their
physiological functions and environmental conditions.
The partiti~n of
energy has be en adopted fr om NRC (1966a).
There are complex interrelationships
among the va ri ous energy fractions of a
food during their utilization by an
animal.
The partition o f f ood energy
during digesti on and metabolism is
graphically
illustrated
in
figures
1 and 2.
Gross Energy (GE)
Gross energy is the tot a I heat generat ed
by oxidation of a feed sample in a bomb
calo rimeter.
There is no co rrel ation
between the amount of GE in a feed and
its uti 1 izat ion by an animal.
Gross
energy does, however, provide a r efe rence point from which GE digest ibil ities
can be calculated.
Digestible Energy (DE )
Digestible energy desc ribes the proportion of GE not rec ove red in the fe ces .
Metabolizable Energy (M E)
Metabolizable energy refers to the
energy avai l able to maintain the body
functions of an animal including minimum
activity and the heat increment (H I).
Approximate 1y 75% of the ME requirement
for rna i ntenance is used to support
fasting metabolism (FH).
Fasting metabolism is c alculated as a function of
the body surface area of the animal.
By
using a conve rsi on factor, body size can
be converted from body weight to surface
a r ea or 11 metabolic body size••W Lg0 .75.
The FM
per
24
h •
70
kcal(Wk 0 . 75).
9
Fasting metabolism requirements vary in
respect to the age and physiologi c al
fun ct ion of the ani mal. Vander Mer we
(personal co mmunication) suggests values
of 58 and 80 kcal per \J kgO· 75 for mature
sheep and cattle, respectively (these
values are supported by data from
Blaxter [1962]).
Voluntary act i vity and
other factors account for approximately
all the remaining 25% of the maintenance
requirement.
Therefore, the energy
required for maintenance per 2lt h • 1.33
x 70 kcal(Wk~0.75).
All ME r emaining
after satisfying the maintenance
requirement is available for production.
Metabolizable energy is determined by
subtracting the urinary losses, losses
from methane product ion and endogenous
sources from DE.
Net Energy ( N E)
Net
the
and
HI)
for
energy is determined by subtracting
losses due to digestion fermentation
nutrient metabolism (heat incr e ment
from ME.
Net energy is available
maintenance (NEm) and production
It is calculated by taking the GE of the
(llEpl•
feed consumed and subtracting the GE in
the feces . Because small amounts of the
fe ca l energy come from e ndogenous
sources (mucosa ce lls, mic r oflora
re si dues , etc.), this term i s sometimes
referred to as apparent digestib le
energy.
the need s of fasting metabolism,
activity of ma i ntenance , and temperature
co ntrol (above o r below c r i t i cal
temperature).
The tlEP is used for
growth , fattening, or in the production
of milk, eggs , wool. fetus and adnexa,
o r in work.
The NEm is utilized to satisfy
Production requirement
at maintenance
0
Metabolizable
energy
I
70
Gross
energy
Energy of basal
metabolism
I
60
Digestible
energy
~
60
Energy lost
in urine
100
I
30
Activity at
<
maintenance
I
15
I
3
Energy lost
in feces
I
35
Energy lost
as heat
Heat
increment
Energy lost
in gas
1
10
I
7
FIgure 1. Approximate partition of d let ary ene rgy by cat t 1e at maintenance intake.
Balle and Forbes (1974)
found
that
ruminants maintain a co nstant energy
balance by altering
food
intake
in
It is d Iff i cu 1t to com par e research and
other reports when they use different
units to express nutritive values.
response to chan ges in phys i o 1og i ca 1 and
envi ronmenta l factors. Food intake is
1 inked to energy requirements, providing
that the amount of digestible energy in
the diet is above a c riti cal low point.
Other Energy Terms
Use of the conversion factors that have
been developed to convert one unit to
another is time consuming and subject to
erro r.
Nevertheless, the following
conversion factors may help those who
need to conve rt the energy values shown
in the tables into another form1
The for egoing has partitioned the energy
fra ct ions of feed into several
categories according to the calor i c
system. There are, however, several
methods being used throughout the world
f or eva 1 uat i ng feeds and expressing the
energy requirements.
Among these are
the Starch Equi valent (SE), Scandinavian
Feed Unit (SFU or FU ), Oat Unit (OU),
and Total Digestible Nutrients (TON).
The use of different feed units to
express the nutritive va 1 ue of feeds and
the nutrient requirements o f animals
cause s co nsiderable confusion among
professional, technical, and lay people.
kg digestible dry organic matter (DOH)
• 1. OS kg TON
kg starch equivalent
• S.082 Meal DE
• 4.167 Mea l ME
• 1. 1S kg TON
• 1 .1 kg OOM
kg TON
• 3.62 Mea l HE
1 kg Sca nd inavian Feed Unit
(FU or SFU)
• 2.82 Meal HE
kilo joule (kJ)
1 kcal
Mea 1 DE
•
.239 keal
- 4. 184 kJ
• .82 Heal ME
True net energy -
True metabolizable
energy
Gross
energy
intake
Urine energy :
1. food origin
2. endogenous •
(body I
energy from :
gas (met hane)
food residues
metabolic (body)•
a. mucosa
b. microorganisms
c. d igestive enzymes
4. heat of fermentation
(digest ive origin)
Fecal
1.
2.
3.
Product ion ("" me tabolizable
energy minus maintenance
minus heat increment energy) :
1. gain
2. produc ts ( "' milk , eggs)
3. work energy
True maintenance :
1. FM "'ca tt le 80 Kcal wk 0.75 c
9
sheep 58 Kcal wk 0. 75 c
9
2. activity 1.33 (FM)
3. feces. me tabolic (body) " FE ..,.,
4. endogenous. urine (body) aUE
5. body temp. con trol
I
//
Heat increment ~- Used
(:waste or
or
maintenance) :
Wasted
1. digest ion °
2. metabolism
•Feces, metaboliC {body). and urme. endogenous (bodyl energy must be replaced, so they are part of the true mamtenance
requ•rement for energy and are listed under mamtenance also.
bThe heat of fermentatiOn occurs in the d1gestive tract but !I ll convent•onal!y listed as pan of the heatmcre ment (digest•on).
SO 11 IS Shown tWICe
evan der Merv e (personal commun•ca uon)
Figure 2. Biologi ca l partition of dieta r y energy (a dapted from NR C,
There is growing evidence that the
Starch Equ iva lent, Total Digestible
Nutrient and several other systems used
to assess the energy va lues of feeds are
not accurate over a wide range of forage
and c oncentrate feeds .
It appears
evident that the effi c iencies with whi c h
energy in a diet is utilized by an
anima 1 to meet its energy requirements
for maintenance, growth, and 1act at ion,
are not the sum of one added to another.
Experimental work conducted in the
United Kingdom and reported by the
Agricultural Research Council (ARC.
1965) indicates efficiency of energy
utilization increases as the energy
density of a diet i n creases.
This.
increase howeve r, is not a constant rate
and i t varies with the ph ys i o logi cal
fun ctio n of the animal.
In the United
King d om equations were developed to
predict the metabolizabl e energy
utilization f or maintenance (Km) and
fattening
(Kf) (Cuthbertson,
19 69).
1966a).
These are:
Km = 54.6
+ 6.75!!!
d
and
Kf • J,O + 18.4!!!
d
where,
!!! •
Meal ME/kg of dry matter in the diet
d
Work done in Belgium using 600 lactat i ng
da i ry cows being fed 55 different diets
(Brabander et al. 1978) com pared the
metabolizable energy system with the
Starch Equivalent system for estimating
the energy value of feeds.
The total
energy intake was c alculated for each
c ow using both ME and SE systems.
Th ese
values were compa r ed with each cow 1 s
energy requirements for maintenance and
pr o du ctio n.
Results
of
these
10
comparisons
indicate that the values
estimated
using the HE system more
nearly f i t the actua l energy
requirem ents than do those calculated
using the SE system.
In most cases ,
ene r gy requirements estimated by the SE
system re s ulted in underfe e ding the
cows.
From these results.
it was
with some
(TDU - FU)
of those
formulate
conversions to other- systems
provided f or the convenience
using the info rmation to
animal diets.
In formulating diets, conside ration must
b e given to the energy-density of the
diet (Meal ME/kg OM).
Lofgreen and
concluded that the HE system is more
Garrett
accurate than the SE system in assessing
the energy intake of dairy cows .
technique, found the ef ficiency with
whi ch diets were uti 1 ized by fattening
catt le varied according to the energy
density.
The NRC {1976) . using these
data as a base,
calculated the
effic i ency of utilization of diets
va rying in energy-density from 2.0 to
3.2 Meal ME/kg OM for maintenance and
growth to b e as shown in table 1.
Hi 11 ( 1977) found that diets for mu 1a ted
for dairy cows using the HE and SE
systems for estimating the energy
requirement were similar in results when
fed to 1ow producing anima 1 s, but those
formulated using theSE system grossly
(1968),
using the
slaughter
under estimated the ene rgy requirements
of high-produ cing cows.
Relative to
high rough age diets fed to young calves
and animals gaining weight at a moderate
r-ate, the ME system estimated a lowerenergy requirement than did the SE
system .
In older- animals making rapid
weight gains, the ME system estimated
slightly more energy for- a given weight
gain than did the SE system.
Ea ch
syst e m, the total digestible nutrient
and others being used to es timate th e
energy content of feeds. uti 1 izes
estimations taken from the chemical
compos it ion of feeds and are subject to
some error.
The co nce ntrate to r oughage ratios shown
in this illustr ation ca n be used as a
guide when formulating diets to meet the
energy-density requirements suggested in
the nutrient requirement tables for
catt le and buffalo .
These va lues may
possibly apply to sheep and goats.
Additional information is needed,
however, to co nfirm this.
The tabulated feed energy values in th i s
book are given in the ca lor-ic system,
In view of the information previously
presented, it is suggested that the
ca lori c system (DE. ME, NEm + p) be
established as the preferred system for
expressing energy values both as they
reI ate to the energy co ntained in feeds
and the energy requirements of ani mal s.
Table 1. Diet Concentration and Efficiency of Utilization for Maintenance and Gain
by Cattle
Eff icienc~ of Uti 1 i zat ion
HE
Concentration
(Hea l /kg OH)
2.0
2. 3
2.6
2.8
3.0
3. 2
Source 1 NRC, 1976.
ConcentrateRoughage Ratio
0:100
25:75 to 30:70
50:50
70:30 to 75 :25
85:15 to 90:10
90:10
Mai ntenance
Growth
(%)
(%)
58
61
63
6.
66
68
25
3.
39
.2
•••s
11
SECTION 3. PROTEIN
Protein is an essential nutrient for
anima 1 s. Th is nutrient, however, cannot
be synthesized in sufficient quantities
by animals to meet their requir e men ts.
Fortunately, it is sy nth esi zed by plants
and sto red in plant ce lls.
Through this
means, a sour ce of protein is provided
for use by ruminants.
Proteins va r y
widely in their c hemi c al composition and
physical characteristics.
All proteins
contain varying amounts o f am in o acids ,
wh ic h are their basi c st ru ctural
component. Amino acids are combinations
of the elements ca rb on,
nitrogen,
and
oxygen.
hydr o g e n,
Some.
mainly
methionine, cystine, and cysteine, also
contain sulfur.
The average nitrogen
content of amino acids is 16%.
Amin o
acids are essential constituents of all
living cells and are s y nth esi zed from
raw materials by all plants.
Animals
are unable to synthesize amino acids in
quantities ne c essary to satisfy their
body needs. Therefore, som e amino acids
must be provided in the di e t.
An animal 1 s body tissues are constant l y
c hanging their amino acid co mposition.
Measurable nitr ogen is found i n the
feces, even when an anima 1 is receiving
a nitrog en-free diet.
Urinary nitrogen
losses also occur during such a period.
Through the us e of isotopically labeled
amino acids, it has been shown that the
prate ins incorporated into body tissues
are co nstantl y undergoing c h ange, and
that the urea found in ur i n e is a
natural by-produ c t of amino acid
catabolism.
Mammals. and perhaps other
species, withdraw individual amino acid
molecules from a "domestic pooP 1 of
amino acids for use in p r otein synthesis
throughout the body.
Some amino acid
molecules released during amino-acid
11
cata bolism enter this domesti c poo1 11 ,
the by-product of this process, ur ea, is
excreted in the urine.
Other minor
losses of protein occur in hoofs, ha i r,
horns, etc.
The dietary protein intake
must be suffi c ient to replenish all of
these losses (fecal, urinary, hair,
hoofs. etc.) and, in young, pregnant and
lac tating animals, to provide for tis sue
growth , fetal development and the
p r oductio n of milk.
The protein need s o f ruminant animals
present a unique s it uat io n due to the
transformation actio n of the rumen
m ic roflora.
Resear c h has shown that
ruminants can produce satisfac torily on
d iet s in which all the supplemental
nitrogen is in the form of urea.
Th e
performance of animals r eceivi ng di ets
without natural protein is general l y
less th an those r ece i v ing more varied
diet s .
Be c ause all naturally occu rring
plants and their pr o du c t s co ntain some
prote in, therefore, all prac ti ca l diets
co ntain some pro tein .
No n-protein
nitrogen (NPN ) can be utilized in
ruminant diets.
The usual
le vel
recommended is approx imate 1y 30% of the
tot a 1 prate in requirement.
Protein hydrolyzed i n the gastrointestinal tract of animal s yields about
20 different amino acids.
Several (10)
of these ar-e considered to be esse nt i a 1
for o ptimum growth in nonruminant
animals. Ruminants, howe ver, bec ause of
amino acid synthesis by the rumen microorganisms are not solely dependent on
dietary sources of these nutrients.
Lewis and Mitchell (1976), in rev iewing
the nitrogen requirements of r-uminants,
sugge s ted that animal performance may be
inhibited by the absence of adequ a te
diet a ry amino acid intake.
They also
indi ca ted that uptake of amino acids by
the host animal wi 11 vary according to
the composit ion of the diet being
co n sume d.
It is recognized that it is
extremely difficult to identify the
sour c e of amino acids (u nc hanged dietary
protein,
bacterial
and protozoal
products i n differing porportions) as
the y ente r the low er digestive tract of
the rumin ant.
Studies by Brookes et al.
(19]3), \lake\ ing et al. (1970) , Mitchell
(1974), llilliams and Smith (197 4), as
cited by Lewis and Mit c hell (1976),
indicate that deficienci es o f ' methionine
and thr-eonine (under some ci r c umstances,
12
at least) could limit animal (ruminant)
performance.
It was suggested, however,
that further information is needed on
amino acid requirements in ruminants
before recommend at ions, or real progress
in nitrogen utilization can be achieved .
An animal's requirement for protein is
based on the prate in stored in: its
its products such as m i 1 k, eggs,
or wool; the products of conception; and
t he metabolic losses in feces,
body;
endogenous losses in urine and by other
losses (hair, skin, hoofs, etc.).
To
maintain an animal
in protein
equilibrium, these losses must be
offset.
The sum of these becomes the
protein requirement for that animal.
Figure 3 i 11 ustrates
protein metabolism.
the
pathway
in
Because prate in can be used as a source
of energy whenever an animal experienc es
an energy shortage, it is difficult to
determine precise protein requirements.
Protein is deposited in an animal's
tissues during its growing period, but
this situation is very limited in mature
animals. Therefore, protein in excess
of requirements is subject to deamination, in which theN atoms a r e split
from the carbonaceous molecule. The Nfree moiety is then utilized as a source
of energy, and the N l s exc r eted with
the urine in the form of urea (other
than birds). Protein fed in excess of
an animals' needs may result in a
decrease in dry matter intake (Chandler
et a l., 1969).
Protein requirements can be determined
through nitrogen balance studies .
In
these studies, healthy adult animals are
fed an adequate amount o f ene rg y and
other nutrients in diets that co nt ain
different levels of protein. The minimum protein intake that will support
nitrogen equilibrium is the maintenance
requirement. Gu i 1bert and Laos 1 i ( 1951)
found that the requirements for protein,
calc ium and phosphorus for va riou s
species of animals at physiological
equivalent ages were similar when
exp ressed as a percentage of the TON
requirement.
It was assumed that a
relationship exists between the energy
requirement and the requirement o f some
other nutrients. This point of view is
shared by others (Crampton , 1956;
Crampton and Harris, 1969) . They calculated the following percentages to be
acceptable for beef cattle : digestible
protein as a percentage of the TO~
requirement at different stages of
mature body weight were 13.6 to 30; 11.6
to 40; 10.2 to 50; 9.7 to 60 and ].5 to
100. For sheep, the percentages were:
15.5 to 30; 12.9 to 40; 10 . 5 to 50 and
10 to 60. The protein r equi r eme nt for
lactation is easily calcu lat ed by determining the amount of prate in present in
the milk and multiplying this by 1.25.
Dairy animals seem to adapt very well to
a wide r ange of prate in intakes without
any il l effects.
The protein co ntained
in milk, h oweve r, r ep resents a dire ct
I ass of prate in by the body and obviously this must be replaced. Th e primary
reason for maintaining protein at the
m i'n i mum requirement is one o f economy.
There s e ems to be ample ev id ence that
the level of stored protein a ff ects the
uti 1 ization of the protein and the other
ingredients in a diet.
As ea rly as
1869, Stohmann devised an equation to
illustrate the relationship among the
va riabl es associated with incr eas ing
digestibilities as the percentage of
dietary protein increa sed.
Later,
Mitchell (1942) developed an equation to
express the relationship between the
apparent digestibi 1 ity of protein and
the:! percentage of protein in forage.
Adeneye and Oyenuga ( 1976) found that.
in sheep receiving a diet adequate in
energy, an increase in the leve l of
dietary protein improved the digesti b i 1 it y of pr ate in and the uti 1 i zat ion
of dry matter, digestible protein,
digestible energy, and metabolizable
energy. Akinsoyinu et al. (1976) fed 5
diets containing protein l evels ranging
from .5 to 21% total protein to mature
castrate male goats. They found the
apparent digestibility of total protein
rose from 58.67 %on the low protein
diet to 88.2% for the diet co ntaining
16.5% total protein.
Gill and Negi
(1971) reported that total protein
13
Proteol y tic enzymes
Urinary excretion
of N (as urea)
Endogenous ur inary loss
creatine N, etc.
Protein of milk
eggs, wool, hair, etc.,
lost to body
as oroduction
Tissue anabolism
(myosin, creatine,
metabolic enzymes, etc .)
Figure
3.
Protein metabolism flow for most anima ls other than bird s.
digestibility increased significantly
with increases in protein intake, when
adult male sheep were fed diets of grass
and isocaloric concentrate mixtures .
Osuji and Devers (1<379) found a significant increase in digestibility of nitrogen, urinar y N output, and retention of
N as the protein concentration in diets
fed to Barbados 1 ambs was in c re ased.
Table 2. Equations Used to Estimate
Digestible Protein (Y) From Tota l Protein
(X) for Three Animal Kinds and Four Feed
Classes
Jahn and Chandler (1976) compa red
performan ces of calves fed diets
containing varying c ombinations of
protein and acid detergent fiber (ADF).
They observed a significant positive
interaction between protein and AOF in
the diet. showing that the protein
requirement increased as the ADF intake
increased. It was determined that a 100
kg calf gaining .75 kg/d would need 306
g TP /d at 11 % ADF, 37 4 g/d at 18% ADF,
Catt le
Cat t 1e
Catt I e
Catt 1 e
and 525 g/d at 25% ADF.
The energy
requir ements did not seem to be affected
by the protein level of the diet.
'When the protein dietary level that
satisfied all of the requirements for
amino acids has been reached, the
digestibi lity of additional protein is
reduced.
The apparent digestibility of
proteins is directly related to the
percentage of total protein contained in
the diet (Holter and Reid, 1959; Knight
and Harris. 1966; Preston, 1972). Th e
interact ion of the va r ious nutrients in
a mixed diet complicates the procedures
used in calculating the cont ributi o n
that each individual constituent will
make toward s satisfying the nutrient
requirem ent for which it was originally
intended. Th e uti 1 i zat ion of prate in,
when fed in sufficient quant ities to
meet the minimum protein r equirement is
not equal to the sums of the protein
utilization coefficient of each
ingredient con tain ed in the diet.
Equations have been deve 1oped to pr edict
the digestible protein from total
protein for several classes o f feeds and
different species of ani mal s (Knight and
Harris. 1966).
Th ese equations are
given in table 2 and were used to
estimate the digestible protein values
that are presented in the feed
composition tab 1es (Appendix I) .
Animal
Kind
Feeda
C1ass
Goats
Goats
Goats
Sheep
Sheep
Sheep
Sheep
Regression
Equations
= D. 866
0, 850
• 0. 9D8
= D. 918
E
& 2
y
y
X -3.D6
X -2 . 11
X - 3.77
X -3.98
• 0. 933 X -3.44
• D. 908 X -3.77
• D.916 X -2. 76
• D.897 X -3 .4 3
• 0. 932 X -3. D1
= 0. 908 X -3.77
= D. 916 X -2. 76
asee table 18.
Protein is required by all animals for
maintenance , growth, production, and
reproduction. Small amounts are stored
in the blood, muscle, and other or-ganic
parts of the body. Thi s res e r ve can be
called upon to provide the essential
needs of an animal for a short time, and
is often so u sed during pregnancy and
lactation (Blaxter and Wainman, 196lt),
Prolonged protein deprivation, however.
will result in a dec rease of protein in
the blood, muscle and vital organ
tissues, and a 1oss of appet it e. 'Weight
loss will occur in growing and mature
animals, and milk production will be
inhibited. Changes that occu r in the
blood plasma can be determined by analysis. Blood serum from animals o n a diet
adequate in protein contai n s 3 t o 3 . 5 g
albumin, It to 5 g globulins. and 10 to
20 mg urea N per 100 ml.
Blood serum
from animals receiving prot ein deficient
diets for extended periods show a marked
decline in these constituents .
Albumin
1 evel s are often 1 ess than 2.5 g and
urea N less than 7 mg/100 ml.
1
It has been suggested by several
investigators (Crampton , 1956; Crampton
and Harris , 1969; Gui I bert and Loosl i ,
1951) that a relationship exists between
an animal's intake of ene r gy and its
r equi rem ent for other nutrients,
particularly protein, calci um and phosphorus.
Th e relationship varies,
however, dep end ing upon the age of the
animal, which affects the balance of its
body canst i tuents.
In some cases the values given as
nutritional r equi rements, especially for
digestible protein, have been calculated
using a relationship between the
metabolizable energy requirem ent and the
requirement for digestible protein.
Experiments with catt le indicate that a
minimum of 11% total protein is r equi r ed
to attain efficient digestion and
fermentation in the rumen when r oughageco nce ntrate diets are fed .
Low protein
i ntake equates with a lowered digestibility of the total diet , causi ng a
reduct i on in dry matter int ake and
dec r ease d animal performance.
To
achieve optimum utilization of the diet,
it may be advantageous to have roughageco ncent rate diets provide 11 to 12%
protein, even though this may be
slightly more protein than the requirement specified for cer tain classes of
animals.
Such a protein l evel may
maximize feed intake and produ ction
efficiency, and thus lower the per unit
cost of produ ci ng meat, milk, fiber or
work.
Non-Protein Nit rogen (NPN)
In most developing countries, the
primary source of a low-cost nitrogen
supple ment is urea, or urea containing
products. Ur ea is a white c ryst a l! ine
compound synthesized from ca rbon dioxide
and ammonia.
l t is a I so the end product
of protein decomposition and is the main
so 1 i d component of mamma 1 ian urine. The
chemical formula of urea is CO(NH2)2.
Pure urea compounds contai n about ,.6. 6%
nitrogen, or 291% total protein equivalent.
To fa ci litate the use of these
products in formulating diets, the
s
following information is presented.
Commercial urea generally contains 42%
urea or 262% prate i 11 equ iva 1ent.
Non-protein nitrogen (NPN) products have
been included in ruminant diets for
nearly a half centu ry.
\./hen properly
used they ca n provide a safe and
economica l source of dietary nitrogen .
Urea
is generally utilized more
efficiently when the nitrogen content of
the diet is low and the energy (soluble
ca rb ohydrate) content is high.
Hany
cereal grains are well adapted to have a
protein-equivalent enrichment by NPN
products.
\./hen low protein roughages
are the primary ingredients of a diet.
however, added urea is not as eff i ci ent I y uti 1 i zed because energy becomes
the 1 imiting factor for bacterial g r ow th
and reproduction.
Caution should be
taken when formulating diets using urea
to ensure that the amount ingested i s
not in excess of the amount that ca n be
utilized by the rumen micro-organisms .
Urea is rapidly hydrolyzed by the enzyme
ure ase .
\./hen ur ea i ntakc is greater
than the ability of the micro-organisms
to utilize it, high concentrations of
ammonia are produced .
The excess
ammonia is absorbed from the rumen into
the blood where it is transported to the
1 iver. \./hen the abi 1 ity of the I iver t o
conve rt the ammonia to urea is exceeded,
high concentrations of ammonia occur in
the peripheral blood wh ere the ammonia
concentrat ion may reach toxic levels and
result in ur ea poison ing and death.
\Jhen used, urea should therefore be made
avai I able to animals in small amounts
sever a 1 times each day. Urea may be fed
to all classes of ruminant animals after
the rumen is fully developed.
Prior to
this time, NPN products will not be
fully utilized.
Non-protein nit rogen com pounds occur
naturally in plants and animals and
co nsist primarily of amino acids
{gl utami c, aspartic, alanine, glycine
and pro I ine), amines. am ides, nitrates
and purines.
Alkaloids are also
constituents of NPN compounds found in
certain plants and are of interest
because of their poisonous properties.
16
These, however , w iII not be pre sente d
h e re since many exce llent r eviews are
avai I able in the 1 iterature .
Non-p r otein nitrogen such as urea,
biuret, ammonium acetate and d i ammon i urn
phosphate are useful sou r ces of nitr oge n
fo r r uminant animals. Their use, howeve r, dep e nds upon the abi 1 ity of the
rumen micro-organisms to inco r porate
them
in
tissues .
forming
The per
their
ow n
c ellula r
unit co sts of the
Nitroge n Ut ili zat ion
It is diff ic ult to assess basic amino
acid requirements of ruminants because
the dietary supply of these nutrients
does n o t represent that whi c h is
ultimate l y made avai I able to the host
animal throughout its digestive process .
Th e produ c ts leav i ng the rumen includ e
d ie tary prote in that has esc aped
degradation , as well as bacte rial and
protozoa 1 materia 1s.
It has been est i -
d i f f e r ent NPN co mpounds make urea th e
mated
mos t cost ef f i cient in terms of maint en-
dietary p r otein escapes deg r ad a tion in
high-energy die ts.
The balance is
degraded to ammo n ia (Ro ffler and Satte r,
1975 a) by mi c r o bial activ i ty.
Aschemati c illustrati o n of the pathway of
nitrogen uti 1 izati on has been suggested
ance and production in ruminant s and ,
when used proper 1 y, t he danger of
ammonia toxicity is very small.
T he following discussion is limited to
co nsidering urea as a sou r ce of nitr oge n
for maintenan ce , produ c tion and reproduction in sheep , goats , ca ttle and
wate r buffalo.
that
about
40 % (20 to SO%) of
by Satter and Roff1er (1978) (f i gu r e 4).
Urea is hydro 1yzed by the enzyme urease
with the producti on of ammonia: CO(NH)
+ H 2 0 • 2NH 3 + C0 2 • This rea c tion
Protein that escapes bacterial breakdown
in ration
Figu r e 4.
Rumen
Schematic summary of n i trogen utilization by the ruminant (adapted from
Sa t te r and Roff1e r, 1978) .
17
occurs rapidly and, in the absence of
f ermentable energy, the danger of
ammonia toxicity may occur.
Some
evidence indicates that ur ea poisoning
occu r s more frequently at high ru mina!
pH l evels .
Dietary ene rg y in the form
of eas il y ferm e n table ca rb ohyd r ates
pr ovi de s a source of energy f o r the
r ep r o du c ti o n and growth of th e mi c r oorganisms , and at the same time reduces
the pH le vel , thus lowering the danger
of toxicity.
\.I hen ammonia product ion exceeds the
util iz a t ion abil i t y o f the mi c roo rganism s ,
it is abso rb ed from the
r eticulorumen into the blood. and carried
to the liver where it is eit her recycled
byway oft hesaliva ,or is exc r eted in
th e urine as urea.
Some ammonia may
enter th e low e r intest in a I tract where
i t is a b so r bed i n t o th e blood an d
f o ll ows the same pathway as r eferr ed to
above.
Fortunat e ly, within cer t ain 1 imits, the
degr a dati o n activities of th e mi croo rganism s t hat produ ce a mmoni a are
balance d by their ability t o sy nth es ize
the ammonia into microbial protein.
To
perform the se activities , the microorganisms require a so urc e o f energy.
Synth esis takes p lace mo re rap idly and
with greater efficiency when the diet ar y
sour ce o f energy i s eas i I y fermentable
carbohydrates such as are co nt ai ned in
c ereal grains.
Wh en e nerg y is the
1 imiting factor in microbial synthesis,
excess ammonia accu mulates in th e rumen .
As the mi c rob es transform dieta ry
protein, the end pr o duc ts repre se nt the
amino acid constituents of the bac teria.
These in c lude both essential and n o nessential amino ac ids.
Thus, the
protein (amino acid} that enters the
rum in ant 1 s abomasum and becomes avai 1able for d i gestion and absorption , bears
I itt le resemblan ce to the qualit y or
quantity of the diet ary protein entering
the rumen.
This is an advantage when
the di e t co ntains l o w quality pr otein s,
but i t may be a disadvantage wh e n the
dietary protein is o f exce l len t quality.
If the diet i s low in nitrogen , there
may be a net gain of nitrogen and/or
protein during rumen fermentation. \Jhen
the diet is r ic h in nit r ogen, ho weve r,
some protein may be lost in the mic r obial produc ti on of ammonia, resulting in
less protein ente r ing the an i mal • s
intestines than was p r esent in t he diet.
Whe n ammonia production in the rum e n
exceeds the abi l ity of th e mi c r oorganisms t o conve r t it to mic r obial
protein , one of two things may occu r.
First , the amount of energy ava i I abl e
may be inadequate to sustain opt imum
bacter i a growth and reproduction . Or,
second, the amount of N present in th e
diet may be too high for com p lete
uti I ization by the rum en mic r oorganisms . Roffler and Satte r (1975a)
have suggested that in c r easing dietary
TP ca uses the rum ina I concent rati o n o f
am mo n i a to r eac h 5 mg NH - N/100 ml
3
ru men f l uid sooner on low energy diets
than with high energy die ts.
Th ey
postulate this may be due to the
presence of excessive amounts of ammonia
when l o w quality d iets are fed . Und e r
these c ir c um sta n ces, the a dditi o n of
dietary NPN would not be beneficial.
When ca ttle were fed di ets co ntaining
77 - 5% TON,
the amount of ammonia
co n ve rted to m ic robial pr otei n be ca me
ze r o at a rumina! concentration o f 5 mg
NH -N/100 ml o f rumen fluid .
The total
3
protein co ntent of this d iet was 13. 5%.
These authors concl ud ed that the
efficiency of ammonia ut ilizat ion is not
co n stan t, bu t va r ies w i th the rum i n a!
ammo n ia co nce ntrati on wh ich , i n turn, is
depe ndent upon the energy-prate in rati o
in the d iet.
When NPN supple men ts are included in the
di et , the amount of true protein
escaping ruminal degradation is reduced .
In othe r words, the per ce ntage of
dieta ry nitrogen subject to degradation
is in c reased.
Roffler and Satter
(1975a} suggested that, f o r each unit o f
true protein r eplaced b y one equivalent
un it o f NPN, the point at which rumina!
ammo n ia r eache s 5 mg NH -N/100 ml rumen
3
fluid would dec r ease .4 pe r cen t age units
of protein e qui valent.
In f i gure 5. ) . )
percentage un i ts o f prate in we r e
I
8
100 r --r777TTrr- - - - - , - T > 20
90
•
15 g
j
responded equally we ll t o NPN supplementati o n c ompar e d t o natural protein,
while only 8 6% of the sheep re s ponde d
s i mi 1ar ly .
z
" z'
%
~
~
12
14
16
%TP in R1tion OM
90
18
F i gu r e 5. Sc hemati c illustration of the
replacement of protein with nonprotein
nitrogen (NPN) and the effect on rumina!
ammonia acc umulation and NPN utilization
(adapted from Roffler and Satter,
1975a)
~ 60
~
..
5
z
z
replaced by NPN,
Hen c e, the point at
which rumin a l ammonia ex c eeds the
bacte'rial r e pla c ement was shift e d 1.)
30
percentage units().) x .4 = 1 . ) 2) from
1 ) . )% back to 12 % total protein. Und e r
th e se c ir c umstan c es , 12 % TP represents
the upper I imi t for NPN supplement at i on
(figure 6).
Thus, a rumina! ammon i a
c oncentration of 5 mg NH 3-N/IOO ml rumen
fluid would require a diet containing an
equivalent total protein level of 12%.
Table 3 shows the theoreti c al 1 im i ts of
NPN supplementat i on to cattle diets with
va r ious energy-prate in ratios.
Studies by Satter and Roffler (1978)
comparing the ut i 1 ization of NPN by
c attle and sheep found that rumina!
ammonia co ncentrations are more var i ab 1e
in sheep.
Using 31 diets with energyprotein ratios ranging from 4 to 26% TP
and 44 to 81% TON, they found the le v el
at which ruminal ammonia begin s to
accu mul ate (S mg NHJ N/100 ml) in sheep
is about 2 percentage units lower than
in ca ttle fed similar diets. Evidence
indicates that sheep do not respond to
NPN supplementation as well as cattle .
In compa rin g 41 studies in volving 300
lactating c ows receiving diets containing NPN and 6 7 studies using Boo grow i ng
sheep, Roffler and Satter (unpubl i shed
data) found that 97% of the cows
10
11
12
13
14
%TP in R1tion OM
Figure 6. Schemati c i l l u stration of
method for cal c ulating e ffi c i ency of
nonprotein nitrogen ( NPN) uti 1 ization
(adapted from Roffler and Satter , l97Sa)
Area A • represents the actual uti I ization of ammonia derived from the NPN
supp 1ement.
Area B • represents the potential uti 1 izat ion of su pplement al NPN when used to
raise t he TP equivalent from 10 to 1 3%
{since area A is about 25% of area 6,
the utilization efficiency of the NPN is
app r oximate 1y 25%.
Area C • represents the range (10 to 12
%) through which NPN was utilized by the
rumen micro-organisms for mic rob ial
protein synthesis.
19
Table 3. Theoreti cal Upper limits for NPN Supplementation to Cattle Diets
Percent TON in DH
Per c ent TP in OM
Before Addition of NPN
55-60
60-65
65-70
70-75
75-80
80-85
- - - - - - - P e r c e n t TP Including NPN---------
8
9
10
11
12
Source:
None
None
None
None
None
10.0
10. ~
10.8
11. 2
None
10 . 9
11.3
11.7
12. 1
12.5
11.2
11.6
11 . 0
12. ~
12.8
II.~
11.8
12.2
12.6
13.0
Roffler an d Satter ( 1975a ) .
Suggested upper
1 imits for
supplementa-
tion of NPN in sheep diets a r e given in
table
10.5
10.9
11.3
11.7
12. 1
4.
that
ca n
be
converted
to
microb ia l
protein , NPN and prot e!in are nearly
equal in the production of amino acids .
for use by the host animal.
When
It h as been suggested (Roff l er and
mi c robia l protein synthesis r eaches its
Satter,
maxi mum, excess ammonia fl ows from th e
rum e n. This o cc urs primar ily when NPN
1975a) that,
as
l o ng as
the
d i etary protein r em ains below the amount
Table 4, Theoretical Upper Li mit s fo r NPN Supplementation to Sheep Diets
Per ce nt TON in OM
Per cent TP in OM
Be f o r e Addit i on of NPN
55-60
60-65
65-70
70-75
75-80
80-85
Per c ent TP Incl uding N P N - - - - - - - -
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
7. ~
7.8
8. 2
8.6
Non e
None
None
None
9.0a
7. 6
8.0
8. 4
8.8
9.2
7. 9
8.3
8. 7
9.1
9. 5
None
None
None
None
None
None
9. ~a
9. 8•
8.~
8.1
8. 5
8.9
9. 3
9. 7
10.1
8.8
9.2
9.6
10.0
10 . ~
8. 6
9.0
9. ~
9.8
10.2
10.6
None
None
None
None
None
None
10.6·
11.0 '
10. 2.
aoietary TP where rumina I NH ) b egins to acc umulate when o nl y plant prot ei n is ir
d ie t (courtesy R.E. Roffler. 1982; University of Idaho. Moscow; unpublished data).
20
products are consumed in excess of the
micro-organisms•
ability to synthesize
additional protein. True proteins, however, will escape rumina! degrad~tion
and
pass
from
the
rumen
into
the
intestines wh ere the amino acids are
available for absorption and synthesis
i n to animal tissue .
Figures 7 and 8 illustrate the flow of
non-ammonia nitrogen (NAN) reaching the
abomasum of sheep when NPN and true
%TP in Ration OM
prote i ns are used in supplementing sheep
diets. In figure], when NPN forms the
primary source of nitrogen ,
the passage
of NAN to the abomasum is quite rapid
until
the total
reaches about
protein equive1lent
9%.
As the amo unt of TP
equivalent increases to 23%, the r e is no
noticable increase in the amount of
fiAt~
r each ing the obomas um.
I n f igure B,
however , when the TP equivalent is primarily true protein, the amount of NM~
i ncrl!ases 1 i nea r 1 y, a 1 though not <~5
rapidly at the lower TP l eve ls as when
NPN is the primary source (figure 7).
th r oughout the range of TP val ucs studied .
This seems to indi cate that the
inc r eased flow o f NAN from tht rum en to
the abomasum r ep r esents that portion of
true protein that escapes degradation by
the ammonia-uti 1 i zing mic r o-organisms.
4 0 ~~--------------~----·
Y• 7.85 + 1.56X +12.92 Xo X •% TP
Xo • 0, WHERE X~ 8.5
Xo • 1, WHE-RE X> 8.5
1.53 x 3 (r2 • .80)
XJ • XoX
. .<:. · · · ·:~·~·· . ~·· · ·~:~.:.~-~:~~·;.:~::··~
... .
• Forage
• Purified
%TP in R1tion OM
Figure 7. Influ ence o f nonpr otei n
nitrog e n (N PN ) supplementation on the
quantity of nonammonia nitrogen {NAN)
reach ing the abomasu m of sheep (adapted
from Roffler and Sat t er, 197Sb),
Figure 8. Influence of protein supplementation on the quantity of non<:~mmonia
nitrogen (NAN) r each ing the abomasum of
sheep (adap ted from Roffle r and Satter,
1975b).
Roffle r et al. (1976) fed steers basal
diets containing ene rgy-protein rat ios
of (TQN,TP) t r ial 1, 81,1 1.1 ; trial 2,
54,6.0; and trial J, 58,6.5.
1\ean
rumin n l ammonia concent ration r eac h ed S
mg NH3-N/IOO ml rum en fluid at protein
eq ui v.Jlents of 12.0, 9,3 and 9.4% in
trial 1, 2 and 3, r espect i vely.
The results from this experiment suppo rt
the assumption that microbial protein
synthesis is unaffected by r umina\
ammoniu concentrations in excess of 5 mg
NH3-N/lOO ml rum en fluid.
Also, the
data indicate the addition of NPN to the
diets in trial 2 and 3 would be very
benefi c i a l, but in trial 1 it would have
less noticable ef f ects although some
benefits should be der ivcd •
Burroughs et al . (1975) suggest ed that
the nutri ent requirements for lac tating
c ows is a b alance between animal
r equirements f o r metabolizable ami n o
acids and those supplied by th e diet.
In estimating the abil i ty of mi cro o rg ani sms to uti I i ze urea a measurement
called urea-fermentation-potential (UFP)
was developed.
\./hen UFP values were
assigned to 100 f eedst uffs it was f ound
t h at approx im ately 20% a r e capable of
being b en efi ted by the addition of urea
o r othe r forms of NPU when used in
21
ruminant diets.
Th e conclusions reached
from these experimental studies ind icate
that on ly those feedstuffs o r diets that
contain less natural (t ru e) protein than
1 3 to 1~.5 % of the TON are benefited by
adding NPN.
When the natural protein to
TON ratio falls below 13 to 1~.5 % of
TON 9 sup pi ementat ion by urea w i 11 be
beneficial, but less so than natural
protein.
PJ •
total g of rumen degraded
prate in/kg feed OM whose ammo nia
con tributed to the total rumen
pool (g total protein in I kg
feed x fraction degraded).
15 •
abomasal protein required to
satisfy the metabolic f ecal
pr o tein of body or ig in (1.92 x
Burroughs et al. ( 1975) have developed a
system for determining the metabolizable
protein (HP), metabolizable amino acids
(HAAs) and urea-ferm e ntut ion-potentia\
of feedstuffs.
The formulae that
predict th ese values using maize (corn)
grain ar e:
.90,..
fra ction of undegraded protein
truly digested post-ruminally.
.80 •
fra c tion of microbial protein
truly digested post-ruminally.
1. MP ( g/kg feed OM) •
(P1 X . 9) + ((p2- 15)
X
.8)
X
.8)
Co rn MP 71.8
(38
X
. 9) + ((62- 15)
2. MAA (g/kg f ee d Or1) •
(.9 Pl x AA% P 1 )/100 + ([.8 P2- 12)
x AA ~ P2 )/100
Corn H Lysin e 4.6
( .9
X
=
X 38 X 2.5)/100
10)/100
((.8
X
62 -
12)
6. 25/ .8 ) .
This system is still in its formative
stages and r e quires add it io!"la I resea r ch
data prio r to its w ide spread accept ance.
It is, however, attempting t o
establish guidelines for esti mating t he
prate in requirem ents of r urn i nant s based
o n available ami no acids. Poultry and
swine producers have used a similar
system in formu 1at i ng diets for sever a I
years with a great deal of success.
Using the steer-feeding trial data from
Roffler e t al . (1976). in which the
basal diets contained energy-protei n
ratios of 81o11.1,
and
applying
Burroughs et al.
J. UFP
(g/kg feed OM) •
(1.0. Tm4- PJ)/2. 8
Cor n UFP 11.8 •
(1.0. x 91- 62)/2 . 8
where,
g of undegraded alpha-amino
prate in entering abomasum fr or.~ 1
kg f eed DH (g total protein in 1
kg feed x fraction undegraded).
g of abomasal m ic r obi al prot ein
limited tog of rumen degrad e d
protein and .104 times the g of
TON in 1 kg f ee d OM (smaller
value o f two).
the
5.,6.0 and 58o6.5.
suggestions
(1975) ,
of
we find the
natural protein to TON values to be
13. 7 , 11.1 and 11.2 %. respectively.
Under these co nditions i t would appear
that the addition of a urea supplement
to th e 81:11.1 diet would be marginal.
The addition of urea to diets 54:6 and
58:6.5. however. should provide the N
necessary for optimum bacterial activity
and incr-eased uti 1 ization of the diet.
This suppo rt s the findings of Roff l er et
al. ( 1976) as pr-eviously reviewed .
It is often difficult for extension
workers and farmers to know when and how
much NPN should be added to supplement
diets va r ying in compositio n from high
roughage to high co ncentrate.
A 1so, the
requirements of the animal to meet its
physiological needs for optimum performance in producing meat, milk, fib er or
zz
work must be considered. The addition
of NPN compounds to ruminant diets has
become commonplace in many areas .
Justifi cation of such management
practices. however, is not always
apparent.
Therefore, in formulating
diets for sheep, goats, catt 1 e or
buffaloes, the following suggestions are
taken from Satter and Roffler (1978}1
When 1 iberal amounts of grain and
good quality forage are fed to
lactating cows or fattening cattle,
then NPN can be utilized in ration s
containing not more than 12 - 13
percent crude prate in (dry basis).
For cattle receiving only small
amounts of grain , the upper limit
for NPN uti 1 i zat ion w i 11 be a r ound
10- 11 percent c rud e protein .
Cattle that are grazing, or fed
only low energy forages, will
utilize urea only in rations
conta ini ng less than 9 - 10 percent
crude protein.
Sheep will reach
the upper 1 imit for NPN uti llzation
at dietary protein levels about 2
percentage points lower than those
described for cattle. (p 48)
It must be kept in mind, however, that
under different dietary conditions NPN
can be utilized efficie ntl y at total
protein levels higher than those
suggested above.
As previously stated,
NPN products should be provided to the
animal on a continuing basis and
throughly mixed in the diet.
Generally,
an adaptation period of 2 to 3 weeks is
required for the micro-organisms to
adapt to diets containing urea.
23
SECTION 4. MINERALS
Minerals are found in all I iving matter.
At least 15 minerals are considered to
be essential for animal good health.
These are: calcium (Ca). chlorine (Cl),
cobalt (Co), copper, (Cu), iodine (1),
iron (Fe). magnesium (Mg). manganese
(Mn), molybdenum (Mo). phosphorus (P).
potassium (K) , selenium (Se) , sodium
(Na) , sulfur (S). and zinc (Zn). Recent
expe rimental
work
indicates
that
chromium , vanadium, nickel, tin , and
silicon may be essential for optimum
performance by domestic animals.
The many digesti ve and metaboli c
interactions among these minerals make
it extremely difficult to accurately
assess quantitative requirements for
each . To be useful to an animal, each
mineral must be in a form that is easily
abso rb ed from the gastro-intestinal
tract.
Generally, this is the ionic
form .
Th e interactions o f ce rt ain
minerals with othe r materials in the
gastro-intestinal tract may prevent or
greatly inhibit the absorption of these
or other mineral elements.
Conversely .
the excretion of specific min eral
elements may be inhibited by comparable
inte ra ctions. Because of these int eractions, a substantially high level of
almost any essential mineral element may
increase the requirement for o ne o r more
of the ot hers.
Fluorine, selenium,
molydenum, copper. and to a lesser
extent l ead , calcium, and mercury may
cause toxicity in animals.
An i mbalance of minerals in the diet of
animals (involving either toxi c ity o r
deficiency) inhibits the production of
1 ivestock in many areas of the world
(tableS).
Not a l l animal nutritionists
in the countries o r regions co n ce rned
agree with the broad assumption
indicated by the informatio n contained
in this table.
The final judgment as to
conditions prevailing in a local area
will rema in with the nutritionist or
feed
formulator
in the s pe cific
locality.
The most obv ious requirement for
minerals in animal metabolism is the
development of the skeletal structu re.
Calcium and phospho rus are the princi pal
minerals in bones, but several microelements, principally zinc, molybdenum,
and manganese , are also essent i al.
Many, i f not all, of the enzymatic
systems of the body require one or more
mineral ~lements to activate the
enzymatic processes that cata bolize
various metabolites . These metabol i c
fun c tions would not proceed normally in
the absence of these essential mineral
elements. Minerals a r e necessary for:
the blood to proceed with oxygen-carbon
dioxide exchange, the contr action of
muscles, the transmission of n e rve
impulses, and the maintenance of the pH
level of various body fluids.
Host
every body process depends on some
biochemical function,
and these
activities are dependent on the presence
of al l the essential mineral cleme nts.
See table 6 for c h a rac t eristics of a
good cattle mineral supplement.
Minerals can be stored in the bones and
other tissues of animals and. when the
diet is deficient in ce rtain minerals,
the body will call upon these reserves
to meet
its needs for growth.
production, and reprodu ction .
The
various symptoms o f prol ong ed deficiency
are often common to ma ny minerals.
These inc lud e:
anorexia (loss of
appetite) and r educed rate of gain, or,
in extreme conditions , loss of weight.
dull hair coat, bone deformation. and
possibly some damage to the I i ve r- and
other- internal organs.
Speci fie mineral
requirements are difficult to pinpoint
since exact needs are d epe ndent on
che mi cal forms and numerous mineral
interr elat ionsh ips. Specific deficiencies are r eviewed under the heading of
individual miner al elements (table 7).
The calcium and phosph orus requirements
for different species of animals are
presented in tables
11, 12, lit and 16.
24
Table
5.
Locations of Mineral Deficiencies of Ruminants in Developing Countries
Requir ed Elements
Calcium
Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Gautemala, Guyana, India,
Mexico , Panama, Peru, Philippines, Senegal, Surinam, Uganda, Venezuela.
Magnesium
Argentina , Brazi l, Colombia, Costa Rica , Guatemala , Guyana, Haiti ,
Honduras, Jamaica, Kenya, Pe r u, Surinam , Trinidad, Uganda, UnionS .
Africa, Uruguay.
Phosphorus
Antigua, Argentina, Boatswana, Brazil , Ceylon, Chile, Colombia, Costa
Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, Egypt, Ghana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti , Honduras,
India , Jamaica, Kenya, Malagasy Republic, Malaysia, Mexi co , Ni ca ragua,
Nigeria , Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Ri co , Senegal , Somalia, Southern
Zimbabwe, Surinam, Tanzania, Uganda, Union S. Africa, Uruguay ,
Venezuela, Zaire
Potassil.m
Brazil, Haiti, Panama, Uganda, Venezuela
Sodium
Brazil, Chad , Colombia, Guatemala, Kenya, New Guinea, Nigeria, Northern
Zimbabwe, Panama, Senegal, Surinam, Uganda, Union S. Africa , Venezuela
Sulfur
Brazi 1, Ecuador, Uganada
Cobalt
Argentina , Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Egypt, El Salvador ,
Guyana, Haiti, India, Katanga, Kenya, Mexico, Nica r agua, N. Afri ca ,
Peru, Surinam, Uganda, UnionS. Africa , Uruguay, Zaire
Copper (o r
Mol ybdenun
toxi c ity)
Argentina , Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Guyana, Haiti, India,
Kenya, Malaysia, Mexi co , Panama, Peru, Zimbabwe, Senegal, Sudan,
Surinam, Tanzania, Union S. Africa, Uruguay
Iodine
Worldwide
Iron
Brazil, Costa Rica, India, Panama
Manganese
Argent i na, Brazi 1, Costa Rica, Panama, Uganda, Union
s.
Se l enlun
Bahamas, Br azil , Costa Rica, Ec uador, Guyana,
Paraguay , Peru , Uganda, Union S. Africa, Uruguay
Honduras,
Zinc
Argentina, Brazil, Costa Rica, Guyana, India , Panama, Peru , Puerto Ri co ,
Uganda Venezue 1a
Africa, Burma
Mexi co ,
Toxi c Elements
F luo r ine
Al ge r ia, Ar ge n tina, Guyana, India, Mexico, Morocco ,
Tanzania, Tunisia, Union S. Africa
Manganese
Brazi 1, Costa Rica, Peru , Sur i n am
Selenili'Tl
Argentina , Brazil, Central Afri ca n Republic, Chad, Chile, Colombia,
Ecuador, Honduras, India, Iran, Kenya , Madagascar, Mexi co , Nigeria, N.
Africa , Pe r u, Puerto Rico, S udan, Un i 6n S. Afri c a, Venezuela
Source• /'\c:Dowell (1976)
Saudi Arabia ,
25
Table 6. Characteristics of a "Good 11 Catt l e Mineral Suppl ement
1.
Final mixture should co ntain a minimum o f 6 to 8% total P.
In areas wher e
f o rag es are consiste ntl y lowe r than .2% P. mineral supplements in the 8 to 10% P
r ang e are prefe rr ed .
2.
Calcium-phospho r us r a tio should not substantially exceed 2:1.
3.
A signifi cant proportio n (i.e., 50%) of the t r ace mineral r eq uir eme nts of Co,
Cu , I, Hn and Zn should be provi ded.
In known trace-m i nera l - deficient regions,
100% of specifi c t r ace mine r als shou l d be p r ovided.
4.
High quality min e ral salts should be used to ens ur e bi ological l y avai I able f orms
of each mineral eleme n t.
Avoid or include only m in im al amounts of minera l sa l ts
co nt ai ni ng toxi c elements (i.e., ph os phat es co ntaining high F conce ntr a tions) .
5.
Formulation shou l d be suffi ciently palatab l e to a llow adequate co nsumption
r e 1 at ion to r equi r eme nts.
6.
Th e supplement should be b acked b y a reputable manufactu r er wit h quality control
guarantees re 1at i ve to requirements .
].
The parti cle s iz e must allow adequate mi xin g without smalle r s i ze particle s
sett ling out.
Source:
McDowel l et al.
in
( 1980).
These value s we r e taken from publi c ations such as th e NRC and the ARC.
Tabl es l i s ting f e ed composition values
incl ude some mineral elements other than
calci um and pho s phorus.
Th ese values
c an be us ed t o determine the a moun t of
eac h element present in a di e t.
A
knowl e dge of the app r oxi mate requir ement
for
a nd av ailabi l i t y of s p ecific
elements will li e with the nutritionist.
Ap pen d ix 2 co nt ai n s informa ti o n on requir e me nt s. taxi c I eve 1 s and sy mpt oms of
toxic ity for s eve r a l m i ne ral elements.
Calcium
Most o f the calc ium retai n e d in the body
is in the b ones (estima ted 98%).
The
r e maining 2% f ound in th e b 1oo d and soft
tissues is vital to nu me r o us c ru cia l
fun ctio ns. Ca l cium an d ph osp h o ru s a r e
i nt e r re 1ated in numerous bod y functions
suc h as b o ne de v elopment.
Ca l c ium in
the blood plasma is homeostati ca lly
r e gul a ted wit h in a very n arrow range.
When larg e ca l c ium demands ar e mad e on
the b ody such as during late pregnan cy
o r l actat ion.
t h e body will rec all
ca 1c i urn from the bon es t o meet its more
pressing n eeds. The calcium and phosphorus d i etary intakes must match the
animal's c h anging r e quirements f or
maintenance, growth. and(o r ) pr od uction
and r epr oduct i on .
Deficiency Symptoms
Young animals on diets defi c ient i n
calciu m for prolonged per iods e x hibit
retarded bon e growth (rickets) and an
unthrifty appearan ce.
Adult animals in
n egative calcium balan ce for long
periods develop osteomalacia. a co ndition in which the bones beco me so ft and
p o r o u s and a r e eas i 1 y fra ct ured. Milk
pr o du ctio n is also reduced in lactating
animals. At so me futur e time these
lo sses must be replen is hed.
26
Table
7. Detection of Specific Mineral Deficiencies or Toxicities in Cattle
Critical Lev ela
Dietary
E 1ement
Level
Tissue
lnd icat i ng
De fie iency
Calcium
t·tagnes i urn
• 18-.6%
Phosphorus
Potass i urn
• 18-.43%
.6-.8%
• 1%
PI asma
Serum
Urine
P1asma
8 mg/100 m1
1-2 mg/100 m1
2-10 mg/100 m1
4.s mg/100 m1
Sal i va
100-200 mg/100 m1
liver
• OS mg/kg
2S mg/kg
300 g/ day
10 g/100 m1
13-15% saturation
6-10 mg/kg
.2S- .S mg/kg
.04 mg/100 m1
Sod i lJll
SuI fur
Cob a 1t
Copper
.1 %
. os-. 1 mg /kg
Li ve r
Hi I k
Iodin e
I ron
Hemoglobin
Transferrin
li ve r
Liver
PI asma
20-40 mg/kg
.as-. 1 mg/kg
10-50 mg/kg
Manganese
Selenium
Zinc
Critical lev el
I ndicating Toxi c ity
Cop pe r
Fluorine
Manganese
Mo I ybdenum
Selen i un
1000-2000 mg/kg
6-20 mg/kg
S mg/kg
Liver
Bone
Hair
700 mg/kg
4 soo-s sao mg / kg
70 mg/kg
Liver
S-1 S mg/kg
aReference for critical leve ls: McDowell et al. {1976) .
There is very little information on the
maximum amount of ca l c ium that an animal
can tolerate .
It
appears
that
most
animals are able to excrete large
amounts of excess calcium in the feces.
The r e is some evidence, however, (NRC,
1978a) that excess calc i um has an
antagon i stic effect on several othe r
m inerul elements, i ncluding phosphorus,
mangan ese, and possib l y zinc.
Sources
Calcium is present in moderate amounts
Most
in most good quality fo r ages.
cereal grains contain low amounts of
Some o i 1 c akes.
calc i urn, as do straws.
fish me a 1 and meat and bone meals are
good sources of calcium.
Calcium
supplements available in most r egions
in c lude steamed bone me al, dicalcium
phosphate,
ground 1 imestone,
and
defl uor i nated phosphat e .
Phosphor us
The major f r action of body phosphorus is
present in the skeleton.
The soft
tissues and body fluids utilize approximately 20 to 25% of the available bod y
phosphorus.
Blood contains about 35 to
40 mg phosphorus per 100 mi. Phosphorus
levels in blood plasma are sensitive to
deficient dietary levels and quickly
27
dec I ine to subnormal levels.
Because of
this, symptoms of phosphorus deficiency
become ev l dent at a much ea r 1 i er stage
Deficiency Symptoms
than do those of ca lcium deficiency .
failure.
Conception rates a r e low with
cattle calving about once every othe r
year.
The estrus cycle is irregular
and, a ft er calving, i t does not resume
Many of the skeletal deficien c ies
typical of phosphorus shortages are
similar to those for calcium .
Th ese
in c l ude ri ckets in young anima ls,
osteomalacia in adult animals , loss of
appetite, weakness, and death.
Oftentimes , animals will exhibit abno rm al
feeding behavior such as eating wood,
rags, bones, soi I, etc .
unti I body phosphorus levels have been
restored.
As evidence o f this, phosphorus supplementation has dramati cal ly
Sources
The most devastating economic rt:sult of
phosphorus deficiency is r ep r oductive
increased fertility levels in grazing
animals
in
many
parts
of
the
world
(table 8).
Seven years of research conducted in
Utah (Butcher, personal communication)
using Hereford cattle has shown thut
conception and milk production was
satisfacto ry when the animals were fed
dietary levels of phosphorus at
approximately 67% of the NRC r ecom mendations.
The phosphorus l eve l in the
bones of these co ws, h oweve r , was
significantly lower than in the cows
re ceivi ng levels as r ecommend ed by the
NRC (1976).
Animals receiving l eve l s at
approximat e ly SO% of the NRC recommendation for 15 months exhibited sympt oms of
bone fractures, loss of appetite, and
death in some animals.
The surviving
animals, when placed on diets con taining
approximately 67% or 100% of NRC
r eco mm en dat ions made complete recovery.
Befo r e this information can be r e li ed
upon in establishing recommended levels
o f di eta ry phosphorus, additional
supporting data must be forthco ming.
It has been suggested that, for short
periods of time, the phosphorus intake
co uld be redu ced by 10 % from the NRC
(1976) recommendations. Due to int e ract io ns among calcium, vitam in 0, and
phosphorus, the i ntake of the former two
should be ve ry closely con tro l led during
periods of reduced phosph o rus intake.
Th e recommended levels of phosphorus
should b e resumed at the earliest
possible time.
Forage crops are gen e rally poor sources
of phospho rus. Good 1 egume forages when
consume d in l arge quantities, however,
may provide the major intake o f this
element.
Cereals and their by-products ,
oi I meals , fish meal, meat and bone meal
are good sources of phosphorus.
Phosphorus supplements include di cC:Ilci um
p hosphate, defluorinated phosphate, rock
phosphate , and bone mea 1.
Requirements
Phosphorus requirements are dependent
up on the rate of growth, stage o f
pregnancy, milk production, and age o f
the animal. Requirements are given in
the nutrient requirement tables for each
species.
Potassium
Potassium is found primarily in body
cel l s and bone.
It plays a role in
ca rb o hydrate metabolism and neural
functions .
General! y,
forag es contain more
potassium than is required by ruminant
ani mals.
When high co n centrate di ets
are fed, however, potassium supplementat ion may be necessary because most
cereal grains and oi 1 meals are low in
potass i l.ITl.
28
Table 8 . Latin American Studies on Effects of Mineral
Catv i ng Percentages
Supplementation on
Increased
Control +
Mineral
Country
Control a
Supplement
Reference
Bolivia
67 .5
55.0
49 . 0
25.6
50.0
62.2
42.0
25.0
57 .o
43.0
48.0
86 . 9
8o.ab
n . ob
72.ob
47. 3b
84 . oc
68. ad
8o.ob
75. oe
79.0c
64. ob
64- ob
96.4°
Bauer (1976. unpub 1 i shed data)
Con rad and Mendes ( 1965)
Guimaraes and do Nasci mento ( 1971)
Brazi 1
Braz i 1
Brazi 1
Colombia
Panama
Panama
Peru
Phi 1 ippines
Thai 1and
Uruguay
Uruguay
Grunert and Santi ago ( 1969)
Stonake r ( 1975)
Ri os Ar auz ( 1972)
Poultney (personal cOI'TITlu ni cat ion)
Echevarria et al. ( 1974)
Cal ub and Am r i 1 ( 1979)
Tumwasorn et a 1 • ( 1980)
de Leon Lora ( 1963)
Schie r smann ( 1965)
Sou r ce: McDowell et al. 1980; McDowell and Conrad, 1977.
3 Control ani mals received only com mon salt (NaC l).
beonemeal.
cco mplete mineral mixture.
dDicalcium phosphate+ triple superphosphate.
eoicalcit.n phosphate+ copper sulfate.
Deficiency Symptoms
Animals consuming diets l o w in potassium
dec rease their da i 1 y dry matter intake,
and show muscular weakness, stiffness in
the h ind legs, pica , anorexia , coma, and
possibly death.
Sources
Green f o rages (especially leguminous
plants) potassium chloride, and potass i urn iodate.
Sod ium and Chlorine
Sodium is found primarily in bone,
extracellular fluid and so ft tissues.
It plays an important role in acid-base
equilib rium, the regulation of f luid
(nutrient) exchange through osmotic
pressure, neural
functions,
and
metabolic activities.
Host feeds contain some sod i urn and
chlo rine, but the main dietary source is
sodium chloride, plain salt.
Animals can tolerate large amounts of
salt without harmful effects, provided
they have access to an unlimited supply
o f water.
Host excess salt is excreted
via the urine. Salt poisoning has been
reported when excess amounts have been
fed and water supplies ha ve been
r estr i cted.
Symptoms include excessive
thirst, mus cular weakness, and ede ma.
29
Sodium and ch lorine excreted in milk is
a substantial part of the total requir~
ment of lactat ing animals.
Less sodium
and chlorine
per unit of d r y matter
feed intake is required in non-lac tating
an !ma l s .
Sources
calcificatio n of soft tissues ( Blaxt er
and Rook 1954; Hoare et al. 1938, c ited
by Rook and Starry, 1962). Convulsions
occu r and calves fall on their sides.
Death may occur during a co nvulsion.
Frothing at the mouth may occur with
in c reased salivation .
Grass tetany
symptoms are s imi lar in adult co ws (Rook
and Sterry,
Natural feeds contain va rying amounts of
each of these minerals.
Additional
sodium and chlorine is provided by
feeding salt free c hoice either in block
or granular form, or mixing at approximately .5% level in a complete f eed.
1962).
Sources
Ce real
grains (.16 to .2 % OM),
brans
(.4
to .6%),
cereal
grasses (.15
to
Magnesium
. 25%) and leguminous forages (.4 to
. 6%).
In c ases such as hypomagnes i c
tetany , magnesium oxide (MgO) can be
used to supplement the diet.
Hagnesi um is found in the bone and soft
tissues of the body.
Its major r ole is
in neuromuscular functions and ca rbohydrate metabo l ism. Th e adult animal body
contain s abo ut .OS% magnesium by weight.
Approximately 60% of the body's
magnesi um i s stored in the bones of
matur e catt l e (Rook and Sta rry , 1962).
Th is re se r ve, however,
is s low ly
metabolized and, during periods of
sudden low magnesium dietary intake,
h ypo magnesem ia (g r ass tetany) can occur.
Young animals are able to mobilize
magnesium r eserves much more rapidl y
than older animals.
Usual l y the co mmon
forages fed to 1 ivestock contain more
magnesium than is required by ruminants
(1.0t.6).
Dairy cows have been supplemented with .6% magnes iu m without
appa r ent harmful effects except for
occasio nal diarrhea.
Sulfur is an essential component of
methionine. cystine , and cystiene.
These amino acids are present in a l l
animal tissues.
Su lfur is also involved
in other body compounds.
When non p rotein nitrogen (NPN) is used to
replace n atu r al protein, supplemental
sulfur is needed.
It has been s hown
t hat sulfur conta ining amino acids were
synthesized b y rumen micro-organ i sms
through the reduction of inorgani c
sulfur.
So me common feedstuffs s uch as
co rn silage are low in sulfur.
Animals
on diets contain ing large quantiti es of
co rn silage or NPN should be supplemented with inorganic sulfur.
H any
studies have been conducted using
different sources of su 1 fur, sever a 1 of
which have given good results (Good ri c h
Sulfur
et
The magnesium requirement is approximately .0 7% in the diet of calves,
i nc reasing to .2% in lactating cows fed
concentrates and forage {NRC , 1978a).
Deficiency Symptoms
In experimentally induced magn esium
deficiency using young calves, the
following symptoms were observed :
anorexia, hyperemia, excitability , and
al.
1967;
Thomas et
al.
1951).
Elemental sulfu r has been used as a
supplement in ruminant diets, but the
r esults have been disappointing (Johnson
et al. 1971). Several other sulfu r
compounds have bee n used expe rim entally
as a dietar y source of sulfur.
Bouchard
and Conrad (1973) , suggested that
inorganic sulfur from sodium, calcium,
potassium , or magnesium sulfate at a
level of . 2% sulfur can sustain optimum
sulfur balance when fed in a co mplete
diet to high-producing dairy cattle .
30
Inorganic
sulfur
should
be
added
ruminant diets that co nt ain
Without
adequate
sulfur,
to
urea.
the ru men
micro-organisms will not be able to
e ff ectively uti I ize the nit r ogen present
in the diet. Heir et a l. (1968). using
sh eep, found a ratio of 10 parts
nitr ogen to 1 part sulfur was sati sfactory for synthesis of the ami no acids
methionine and cystine.
Bouchard and
Con rad {1973), using dairy cattle, found
a ratio of 12 p arts nitrogen to 1 part
sulfur was adequate to maintain maximum
d r y matter intake
cattle.
in lactating dairy
Deficiency Symptoms
metabolism, bio c he mical functions, and
skeletal formation.
The soft tissues
( 1 i ve r, pancreas, spleen , a nd kidney)
are the primary storage sites for
c ob a 1 t, copper ,
iron, manganese,
molybdenum, selenium , and zinc .
Iodine
is found in the thyroid gland. Re c ent
evidence indicates that flu orine,
c h r omium, and si 1 icon may be essential
for optimum growth, product ion, and
reproduction in rumin ant anima ls.
Ranjhan (1980) reports that when sh e ep
grazing poor qualit y pastures were
supplemented with c opper, c obalt, and
iodine, their ave r age weight gain was
180 g/wk mo r e than those in the control
group.
intake, slow growth, and a d ec r ease in
milk production.
A brief descripti o n of the fun c ti o n,
deficiency symptoms, and so ur ces of each
of these eleme nts followsz
Sources
Cobalt
Most natural feedstuffs conta in adequate
to meet the dietary needs of
ruminant animals wh en al l the nitrogen
co mes from natural sou r ces.
Except ions
to this are some varieties of grasses.
Legumes are ri ch in sul fur.
Supplemental sources include p otassium
sulfate, sodium sulfate, calcium
sulfate, ammonium sulfate, and magnesium
sulfate. Others are e l e me ntal su lfur
and methionine hydroxy analog.
Cobalt
is essential
for
rumen
mi c ro-organism de v elopm e nt.
Thes e
mi c ro- organisms require cobalt in order
to sy nthe size. vitamin e 12 • To be effec tive, cobalt has to be admi nist e r ed
orally; injec tions are ineffective in
overco ming cobalt deficiencies.
Co b alt
is concent rat ed primarily in the kidney
and I iver.
Deficiency symptoms i nc lude r educed feed
sulfu r
Requirements
The sui fur r equirement can be
approximated by taking the m1n1mum
protein requirement a nd calculating a
nitrogen to sulfur ratio of 1011 for
non-lac tating and .2% of the DHI for
lactating a n imals (NRC, 1978a).
Micro Minerals (Trace)
Th e eight trace elements constitute
approximately . 3% of the as h content of
the body, and yet, they pl ay a vital
role in the normal pro cesses of
Def iciency symptans .
Deficiency symptoms i nc lude loss of appetite ( r es ul ting
in weight loss), retarded growth, and
decreased m i 1 k product ion .
Long term
symptoms Include emaciation, r ough hair
c oa t, anemia, muscular incoordination,
stumb l ing, and death.
Sources .
Throughout the world, most
natural feedstuffs generally contain
sufficient cobalt to satisfy the needs
of ruminant animals. Areas of cobalt
deficiency are found i n Australia,
West e rn Canada, Republic of South Africa
and several areas in the United States.
Cobalt oxide, cobalt carbonate , cobalt
sulfate, o r cobalt chloride mixed at the
rate o f 57 g per 45 kg o f salt, will
satisfy the cabal t requirements.
The
31
suggested dietary requirement for cobalt
is .1 ppm of dry matter intake.
Copper
Coppe r is essential in the formation of
blood hemoglobin, apparently acting as a
catalyst, as it does not enter into the
hemoglobin molecule ( r ed blood cells).
The element also plays a part in se veral
enzyme systems, hai r (wool) pigmentation, reproductio n, and lactation.
A minimum r equi r eme nt is difficult to
esta b 1 i sh for copper because its absorpt i on and uti 1 i zat ion are dependent upon
interactions among molybdenum, sulfur,
and perhaps othe r mineral elements.
Underwood ( 19]1) suggests that environmental fa cto rs may influ e nce the
uti 1 ization of coppe r.
In England, for
instance , although the coppe r co ntent of
their forage was found to be in the
normal range, l ambs were born with a
nervous disorder, neonatal enzootic
ataxia , or commonly known as 11 swayb ack . 11
The NRC (1978a) suggested that a daily
intake of 4 ppm (dry matter basis)
satisfies requirements ~nder some
conditio n s, but 10 ppm are a mor e
practical minimum requirement.
The
requirement for copper increases with a
high molybdenum intake.
It is estimated
that cattle can tolerate levels as high
as 70 to 100 ppm for long p e riods and
higher levels f o r a few wee ks without
harmful effects.
Sheep, on the other
hand, are sensitive to coppe r poi son i ng
and in some areas a daily intake of 10
ppm in the dry matter may r es ult in
symptoms of copper toxicity.
Deficiency symptoms. Early indications
of coppe r deficiency are non-specifi c
(e.g. unthriftiness, loss of weight, and
de c reased milk product ion).
As the
deficiency becomes more prolonged,
animals exhibit diarrhea, r apid weight
losS. change in colo r and textu r e of the
h air (wool). fragile b ones, stiffness,
swelli ng in the leg joints , reproductive
disorders, staggering walk, anemia and
death.
Sources .
Forages conta i n only small
amounts of copper:
concentrates,
however, are good sour c es of copper.
Feeds grown on cop!)er-deficient (i.e . ,
feeds grown on cal c areous [high pH]
soils) so i ls are likely to be deficient
in copper. Copper supplements include
coppe r sulfate, copper ox id e, coppe r
carbonate , and copper g I uconate.
A good
trace mineral salt mixture f e d fr ee choice provides sufficient copper under
most co nditi ons.
Iron
Iron is a vital constitue nt of
hemoglobin and is a component of certai n
enzymes associated with oxygen transfer .
Iron is stored i n the l ive r, sp l een ,
k idneys, and bon e marrow. Young animals
require more iron ( 100 ppm OM) than do
adult animals (SO ppm OH).
Young
animals are generally born with some
iron reserve, but their rapid growth
exhausts these r eserves within a few
days. The i r on content in milk is very
l ow , therefore, young animals need
access to f orage or concent rate fe eds at
an early age to avoid anemia .
Adult
animals are seldom affected with i ron
deficiency, except in cases of severe
blood loss through hemorrhaging o r
blood- sucking parasites.
It has been
proposed that 100 ppm i r on in the dry
matter of f eeds are adequate to me et the
iron requ i rements of young animals ,
while 50 ppm are adequate for adults.
Host animals, how eve r, are very tolerant
of iron and le vels of 1,000 ppm may not
be harmful when other minerals are
present In adquate quantities.
Deficiency symptoms .
Approximate 1 y 50%
of body iron is present in hemoglobin.
Low iron intake affec ts the f ormat ion of
hemoglobin, causing anemia.
Thi s
disease is manifest in paleness of body
tissues , difficulty in breathing and
death.
Sources . Host green forages and co ncentrate f eeds are good sources of iron.
There are several iron supplements
available.
Resear ch (Amme rman et al.
32
1967) indicates that the soluble iron
compounds from ferrous sulfate and
ferric citrate are more available for
Iodize d salt (or t ra ce mineral salt
containing iodine) should be fed to
ensure adequate iodine intake.
utilization by animals than those from
sever a I other iron compounds .
Manganese
Iodine
The primary requirement for iodine is
for the synthesis of hormones by the
thyroid gland,
These hormones regulate
the rate of energy metabolism within the
body.
The thyroid gland can collect
iodine
from
that
gastro-intestinal
absorbed
tract
from
the
in varying
amounts to meet its requirements. The
uptake of iodine by the thyroid gland
may vary from 20 to 30% or more of the
dietary intake.
I odine is excreted in
milk and intake needs depend to some
extent on the amount of m i 1 k produced .
Approximately .25 ppm in feed dry matte r
will meet the iodine requirements of
young and non-lactating animals, and of
pregnant animals during the ea rly months
of pregnan cy . Some feeds such as kale ,
r ape and turnips are goitrogenic in that
th e y inhibit the absorption of iodine
from the gastro-intestinal tract.
When
these f eeds comprise approximately 25%
of the d iet , the iod i ne levels should be
increased to .5 ppm (OM) for young and
non-lac tating animals and to 1.0 ppm
(OM) for lactating animals and those in
the las t trimester of pregnancy. When
the diet contains SO to 100 ppm iodine
(OM), as when iodine co mpounds are fed
to prevent foot rot, toxic signs may
appea r .
Under these conditions , car-e
must be taken co ncerning the amount of
iodine pr-ovided by other- dietar-y
sour-ces.
Deficiency symptoms . · Prolonged iodine
deficiency will result in an enlar-ged
thyr-oid gland. Excess iodi ne will cause
watery eyes, excess sal iva format ion,
water-y n asal discharge, and coughing.
Feed int ake and growth rat e will be
retarded.
Sources . Host forages and concentrates
are good sources of iodine (except when
grown on iodine deficient soils).
Manganese is essential to bone formation
and possibly plays a r ole as an
activator in enzyme systems involved in
amino acid metabolism, fatty acid
synthesis, and cholesterol metabolism.
I t is essential in the normal processes
of growth, produc tion , and reproduction.
Most ruminants can tolerate quite large
amounts of manganese, as high as 1,000
ppm (OM) of dietary intake, without
harmful effects. It has been reported
that,
when 16 to 17 ppm dietary
manganese wer-e fed over a 12-month
per-iod, calves were born with neonatal
deformities.
These inc 1 uded weak 1 egs,
general weakness, enla rg ed joints,
stiffness, twisted legs, and general
unthriftiness (Rojas et al., 1965).
Current 1 y, the suggested manganese
dietar y r- e quirem ent is 40 ppm (OM).
Deficiency symptoms .
General symptoms
of manganese deficiency include impaired
growth, skeletal abnorma l i ties, low
fert i 1 i ty, and frequent abo r t ions.
SoUPces .
Some cere a 1 s such as corn and
barley co nt ain small
amounts of
manganese
(S
ppm
and
15
ppm.
respec tively). Cereal by-produ c ts, oil
mea 1 s. and forages (grass and 1 egume)
contain adeq uate amounts of manganese to
meet the dietary requirements of
ruminants.
Tra ce mineralized salt
usually contains about .25% manganese.
This should be fed to ensure adequate
intake of manganese.
Molybdenum
Molybdenum is essential for some
enzymatic functions.
It also is
important to stimulate the activity o f
rumen micro-org anisms .
Although the
molybdenum r equirement o f beef catt le is
unknown, i t is probably very low.
Approximately .01 ppm (DH) in the diet
JJ
wi II probably satisfy the molybdenum
r equ ir ements if coppe r and s u 1 f ur do not
inte rf ere.
Molybdenum and co pper are
antagonistic to each othe r in t he animal
body.
Sui fur seems to provide some
r e ac t ion in the body that inc r eases the
excretion o f mo l y bden um when it is
co nc entrated at high levels .
During
periods of low co pp e r int ake , even low
molybdenum levels may b e to x i c.
As
copper intake i nc reases. so do es the
animals'
tolerance f o r mol ybde num.
In
areas wher e soi l molybdenum l eve ls are
h i gh and the uptake of molybdenum by
plants is significant, ca r e mu st be
taken to pr ov ide suf fi cie nt co pp e r and
sulfur in the d i e t to redu ce the t oxic
e ff ects of molybde num.
Deficiency symptoms . Toxic symptoms are
of more co nce rn re lative to molybdenum
intake levels than are deficiencies.
Tox icity symptoms are similar to those
exhibited in copper d e fi ciency . Host
feedstuffs co ntain sufficient molybd enum
to me et the dietary r equirements of
anima l s.
Selenium
Unt i 1 r ecent 1 y, sel en i urn was co ns idered
solely from the poi nt of vie w of its
toxicity, but n o w its esse nti ality
relati ve to its interac tion with vitamin
E has be e n established (NAS,
1971).
Selenium is an antioxidant.
Its r o le in
the b ody is not co mpletely known.
It
is, however, involved in th e ab so rpt ion
and(or) r etention o f v itam i n E.
It is
an integra l compone nt of glutathion
peroxidase.
Selenium pr o bably has other
esse nti al fun ctio ns in the enzymatic
processes. The requirement for se 1en i um
in ruminants i s approximately .1 ppm
(O M).
Deficiency symptcms .
Selenium def ic iency occurs over large ar eas o f the
United States and elsewhe r e in the
world ,
Se l enium deficient fe e ds are
generally grown on acidic soils. "'White
muscle disease 11 (nutrit i ona l mus c ular
dystrophy) is a disease that usually
occurs in yo ung animals.
Anim al s
suffer in g from this disease exh ibi t
deterioration in cardiac and skeletal
mus c l es . paralysis of the hind legs,
dystrophic tongue and heart failure.
The above symptoms are usually acco mp anied by diarr hea and r ed uced gr owt h.
Selen ium toxicity occ ur s in some regions
o f the world .
Toxic levels of selenium
may be as low as 3. 5 ppm (O M) of the
diet.
L eve ls of protein , s ulfur, and
a r senic i ntakes infl uence th e tox i c
potential o f selenium.
This diseas e i s
often cal l ed "alkali disease" and is
classified as "a c ute" o r "chronic."
Symptoms exh ibi ted in acu t e alkali
di sease in c lud e dullness, mild ataxia, a
rapid weak pulse, letha r gy , labo r e d
r es pir a t io n, di a rrh ea, and death.
In
chronic selenium toxicity (c hr o ni c
alkali disease) symptoms include los s of
appe tite;
emaciat io n;
so re feet1
defo r med , c ra cked and elongated hoofs ;
l oss of hai r from tai l; li ve r c irrhosis;
neph ri tis and in ext r eme c ases, death.
Sod ium se l e nit e has been used in di e ts
f ed to rats and c h ickens to co rr ect
cer t a in se lenium deficiencies.
At this
t ime ,
i t is n o t re co mmended that
selenium be added to mineral supplements
or d ie ts fed to animals because the
margin betwe e n the toxic level and the
dieta r y level r e quired to prevent
def i ciency symptoms is small.
Zinc
Zinc is found in all animal tissues .
Excess zinc i s accumulated in the bones.
It is found in seve ral enzymes in th e
body.
It also act s as a co-fa cto r for
many ot h e r enzymes. The zin c requirement for dairy c attle is estimated to be
40 ppm (DH) in the d iet.
High levels of
zinc have b ee n f ed to ca ttle without
ad ve rse effects.
Extr emely high levels
(700 to 1700 ppm) of z i nc intake have
caused a redu c ti o n in feed co nsumpt io n
and l o we red f eed / ga i n r atios .
Deficiency symptoms.
Sy mpt oms o f zinc
defi ci en c y
include swollen fe et;
1 i stless ness; scaly les_i ons; alopecia; a
34
general dermatitis that is most severe
around
the
legs,
neck,
head,
and
nostr i 1 s; and other · par akarot i c 1es i ons4
SoUl"aes .
It
Zinc is widely distributed.
is found in yeast and the bran and
germ of cereal grains.
Tin . The addition of tin to purified
diets b eing fed to rats ca us ea a signifi ca nt increase in growth rate (NRC,
1980).
Th e se studies suggeste d that tin
may be an essential nutrient in mamm al
nutrition . Furth e r studies a r e n eeded
to eva l uate the importance of this
element in practical feeding conditions.
Other Elements
Toxic Minerals
Elements of nutritional importance and
considered by some to be essential for
g r owth, productio n , and reproductio n are
discussed below.
Chr omiwn .
Chromium may play a role in
lipid and prot e in synthesis.
It was
found to be essential for normal glucose
utilization in the rat (NRC,
F ~ ur oine .
Fluorine
is
1980) .
distributed
throughout the body, but is concentrated
in the bones and teeth. At the p r esent
time, its importance in the diet is for
the prev e nti o n of dental disorders.
Its
role in me taboli c functions of the body
h as not been established.
Fluorine is a
ve r y toxic element and dietary levels
above 20 ppm (DH) may ca use fluorine
toxicity.
'When excessive fluorides are
ingested during the time of tooth format ion, the teeth be co me discolored and
pitted and are susceptible to excessive
wear, whi c h induces sensitivity to cold
water. Appetite declines r es ulting in
slow growth.
In advanced stages of
fluoro s is, the bones and j oints become
malformed, por ous and very brittle.
Ce rtain mineral elements a r e used in
high co ncentration in some industrial
and agricultural products. When animals
are exposed to these p r oducts , intake is
o ften sufficient to ca use acute
poisoning and possibly death.
Four
eleme nts com monly used for this purpose
that co nt r ibute to pois o ning and death
loss in ruminants are; cadmi u m , lead,
me r cu r y , and copper .
Sources of lead
are paint , used moto r oil , disca r ded oil
filte r s, sto r age batteries, and certain
types of grease .
Cadmium is found in
cad mium dust and fe eds co ntaminated with
cad mium dust and r ecyc led wa s te
materials such as sewage sludge in whi ch
cadmi urn may be concentrated . Merc ury is
found in several medi c ines used to treat
animals and in grains treated with
mercury fungicides .
Copper i s commonly
found in footbaths, co pper-containing
anthelmint i cs and fungicides.
Mineral defi cie n cies or tox i cities,
particularly in borderline cases , rarely
produce cli ni cal signs speci fie only to
a given mineral.
Chemical analyses are
then ne cessa ry to adequately identify
the ca usative insufficiencies.
35
SECTION 5. VITAMINS
Vitamins ar e essential nutrients f or all
animals. Poultry and swine diets must
co ntain minimum quantities of several
different vitamins to ensure optimum
growth, produc tion, and r eproduction .
Ruminant animals, howe ve r, due to th e
m ic r obia l activity within the rumen are
able to synthesize most of the essential
vitamins. Th e exceptions a r e vitamins
A,
0 a nd E.
may be the case at the end of the 1 ong
dry winter se ason in the Southern
hemisphere.
Grazing animals and tho se
f e d gr ee n hay and{or) good qu a l i t y
silage a r e n ot l ikely to experien c e
vitamin A deficiency.
Penned ani ma ls
rec ei vi ng high concentrate diets ove r
long periods may be subject to v itamin A
defi cie ncy .
Under these ci rcumstanc e s,
a good quality vitamin A supplement is
rec onwnended.
Vitamin A
Vitamin D
Carotene,
a vitamin A prec ursor,
is
prese rit in most all fresh green f o r ages
and In hays that hav e been cut and c ur ed
Most young green
i n good condition.
f orage feeds are good sour ce s of
c arotene.
As they mature and beco me
we at he r e d,
how eve r,
the ca r otene
is
leached from these plants.
During
periods o f dr o ught and plant dormancy it
may be n ecessa r y to provide rang e
animals with a vitamin A s upplem e nt.
Vitamin A ca n be supplied as either
inter mus c ul a r Injec tions of th e fatsoluble vi t amin o r a dietary supplement .
Deficiency Symptoms
One of the earl ie st symptoms of vitamin
A def ici en cy i s a lessened ability to
see I n dim 1 i g ht, commo n 1 y c a 11 ed 11 n i g ht
bl indness. 11
Cattle may ex hibit a
condition where the skin is s ca ly and
the ha i r appears coa rse and in disarray.
Int e rmed iate stages of vitamin A
defi c iency are excess ive watering of th e
eyes, cloudiness of the co rnea and
drying of the conjunctiva { zeropthalmia)
This may lead to blindness ln young
animals caused by a cons tri c tion of the
optic ne r ve canal . Vitamin A defi ciency
ca uses inferti lity i n breeding an ima ls.
Pregnan t ani mal s may abort or the fetus
is bo rn dead, weak, or bl ind.
Severe vitamin A deficiency in adult
animals is unlikel y to occu r except in
c ases of pro lo nged deprivation.
This
At l eas t
t en different forms o f v it amin
Th e two most important
f or ms ar e ergocalci f e ral {0 2 ) and
choleca l c iferol (D 3) .
Vitam i n D is
seldom found in pl ants except in sundried forages and the dead l ea ves of
gr o wing plants.
0 a r e known .
Deficiency Symptoms
A deficiency of vitami n D in young
animals re s ults I n a bone malformation
cal led ri c kets.
This co ndition is
br ought about by an imbalance in the
depos i t i on of c al cium and phosph o rus
during bone formation.
This ca uses the
b o nes to be weak and subje ct to
deformities and fractur es .
Some animals
may ex hibit a swell l ng in the leg joints
and ar ch l ng of the b ack .
Sources
Adult rum in ants rec e ive adequate amounts
of v itamin D from sun-c ured hay and(or)
silage in the winter months and from
sola r irradiation while grazing.
When
forage is of poor quality, i t may be
advisable to suppl eme nt young growing
animals and pregnant animals with
vitamin D during winter months in some
areas.
Injectable forms are often
combin e d into a multiple vitamin mixtur e
with vitamins A and D.
36
Vitamin E
Vitamin E is ve ry widely distributed in
feeds. Green forages are good sources
of a- t ocopherol, the mos t common and
active of eight naturally occu ring forms
of the compound .
Vitamin E l evels
de c rease with the maturity of plants.
and the concentration is 20 to 30 times
mo r e
in
portions.
leaves
than
in
th e
stem
Losses in c uring dry hays can
be as high as 90%, but losses incurred
during ensiling or dehydration are quite
small. Cereal grains a r e good sou r ces
of vitamin E.
Deficiency Symptoms
Sym pt oms o f vitamin
not been report ed in
periods of e xcess
therapeutic do ses o f
r equired .
K deficie n cy have
r uminants.
Our i ng
iv e blood loss,
vitami n K may be
Commercial supplements
Vitamin 8 Complex
are available.
Deficiency Symptoms
Mus c ular
active role
in the formation of
proth r ombin , which is impo r tant in the
blood-clotting process.
Its function in
the metabolic process has not been
dete rm i n ed.
dystrophy
disease) occurs
in
(white
mus c le
young calves
and
lambs consuming diets deficient in
vitamin E. This disease affects the
ca rdi ac and skeletal muscles, usu a lly in
young animals. When the hea r t muscle is
a ff ected, death may be sudden.
When
skeletal muscles a re
a f f ected,
s tiffn ess , unnatural postures an d conformat ion abnormalities may occ ur.
Ther e appears to be an in t e ra ctio n
between vitamin E and selenium. Vitamin
E o r t race amounts of selenium c an
prevent muse u\ ar dystrophy i n s hee p and
cattle .
Th ere is no ev i d e n ce to
substantiate this assu mpti on, but
selenium or vitam in E administered as
pr escribed above may be b ene fi cia l in
treating other ruminant animals f o r this
disease.
Th e exact r elations h i p be t we en
se 1 en i urn and vi tam in E is not known.
Selenium is ex tremely toxic and routi ne
u se of this mineral element as a dietary
additive is not recommended.
Vitamin K
number o f compou nds are known to hav e
vitamin K activity.
V i tamin K is
pr esent in most 1eafy green mat e r ia l s
and fish meal.
It is also synthesized
b y rumen b acte ria . Vitamin K p lays an
These vitamins include thiamine,
ribo fl avin , n i a ci n ( ni coti n amide),
pyr i doxin e (86) • pantothenic ac id, foli c
ac id (fo l acin), b io t in, cho line. and
vitami n 8 12 •
These vita mins are
extre mely impo rtant in f o rmulating di ets
f o r n o nrumin ant animal s, but th e y are
sy nthesiz e d in a normal, h eal thy
ruminating animal
in quantities
suf f icie nt to me et the r equirement s of
the host animal.
Th e r efo r e , th ese
vitamins a r e n ot cons id e r e d Important
wh e n calc ulating diets for rum i nant
animals. Under some co ndit ions, vitamin
s
may be deficient i n rum inan t s.
12
Ge nerally, this is due to a l ack of
co balt in the diet.
Und e r these
circ umstan ces, trace minera l salt
containing cobalt should be provided to
the animals.
Vitamin C
Vitam i n Cis synthesized f r om glucose in
all species studied exc~pt man and othe r
primates, guinea p igs, and a few birds
i f vitamin A is present and ava i lable in
adequate amo un ts.
Deficiency Symptoms
Deficien c y symptoms are unknown among
ruminant an i ma l s.
37
SECTION 6. DRY MATTER INTAKE
To maximize the utilization of
feedstuffs, the quantity and quality of
the diet that is actually consumed must
be known.
dependent
These two factors are I argel y
upon the feed
r esources
available and the environmental stresses
under which the animal exists.
'When
animals are maintained under normal
(thermo-neutral) conditions,
dry matter
intake is influenced pr i mar i I y by body
size, energy density of the diet, and
rate of digestion or fermentation. This
partly, at least, accounts for the
reason why legume hays are more readily
consu med than grass hays of similar
quality.
Preston and 'Willis (1970) report that
young cat t 1 e (200 kg BW) w i 11 consume
approximately 2.8 to 3% of their body
weight when entering into an intensive
feeding program but that DMI as percent
of body weight will gradually decrease
as the animal inc reases in size (figure
9}.
These r es ults indicate a generally
accepted tr end , but they are subject to
type of forage, its physical form,
caloric density, etc., fa ctors that have
a profound effect on the relative OM I.
The 11 intake curve 11 in figur e 9 was
modified by the inclusion of growth
promoting additives.
In many less developed cou ntri es ,
traditional methods of managing 1 ivestock co ntribut e to retarded growth
during the animals' adolescent age.
This is part ic ularly true during the
long dry periods that occur in the
tropics or during the winter in
temperate zones.
Often, however,
animals will show an amazing resilience
and when adequate nutrition is provided,
they will
make rapid growth
(compensatory growth) for variable
periods of t ime.
The reasons for
compensatory growth are not quite clear,
but Sheehy and Senior (1942) and
Winchester and Howe (1955) (cited by
Preston and \.li 11 is, 1970} suggested that
animals previously underfed eat more
during the ir period of real I ment ation
than do previously unrestricted animals
of the same weight receiving identical
diets.
Saubidet and Verde (1976)
co ncluded that compensatory growth could
not be attributed to increased DMI, but
was probably a result of a lower metabel izable energy maintenance requirement
responding to lower body weight at the
initiation of the refeeding period.
Blaxter (1962) concluded that the
relationship of feed quality (energy per
unit of weight) and OMI is associated
with the rate at which food ente r s and
leaves the rumen.
\.I hen feed
is
available, animals will stop eat ing when
they have reached their physical
capacity or their energy requiremen ts
have been met.
2.8
""
~
2.6
:::;
0
... 2.4
...
~
]
2.2
2.0
200
400
300
Live Weight, kg
Figure 9. Dry matter intake as a
function of I ive weight in dairy beef
steers fed all-concentrate or 10-20%
roughage diets (adapted from Preston and
Willis, 1970).
38
Intake can be stimulated by increasing
the energy requirement through Increased
production (meat, milk, fiber) or
physical
1974).
activity (Baile and
Fonnesbeck et al.
Forbes,
(1967)
reported that when horses were taken off
a hay-grain diet and placed on an all
hay diet,
increased
OM consumption
to
gradually
compensate
for
reduction in energy density .
diet,
however,
the
A bulky
is practical only for
ani mal s at main tenance because
energy density
its 1ow
limits the amount of
~ 90
A·
d~ 80
D·
~
.E
!!!
~
~
8
0
70
60
50
L---~7---~~--~----77~
c
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
Digestible Energy (kca l/g diet)
ingested energy available for produc-
tion.
Pelleting forages and other bulky
feeds w i 11 increase the energy density
per unit of weight and permit a larger
energy intake (laredo and Minson, 1975).
Animals gradually increase thei r energy
intakes to meet the r equi r ements for
maintenance, growth, and(o r) production.
Many investigators have shown that
increasing the energy level of a diet
within certain I imits , results in a
lower CHI (Baile, 1971; Peterson and
Baumgardt,
19]1 ).
Rattray et al. (1973) found the OHl of
white-faced ewe
lambs fed diets
co ntaining 2.58 and 2.35 Meal ME/kg OM
for maintenance , growth, and pregnancy
were 401,
DH/d ,
463;
787,
980;
656,
864
g
above 2.47 kcal/g
(r
:
1970)
0.]6)
v •
(adapted
147.50 from
26.1 3X
Baumgardt
0
r espectively.
Clancy et al. (1976) reported that
wether sheep and
lactating ewes
generally consumed increasing amounts of
dry matter when for age-concentrate diets
cha ng ed from a ratio of 83: 17 to 49:51,
but OM I de c reased when the diet ratio
was
Figu r e 10. Dry matt e r intake (':]/\4kg0. 75)
resporlse of sheep when fed diets
co mposed of a basa l co ncentrate mixture
diluted fr om 5 to SO% at S% in c r ements
with each of three di luents; (A) oak
sawdust: (B) oak sawdust with co nst a nt
3% kaolin clay; (D) same as A except
nitrog e n was kept constant at 17.4%
total protein.
Dry matter intake (Y)
in c r eased as the digestible e n e rgy (X)
i n c reased to 2.47 kcal/g , Y • 4 . 57 +
31.74X (r • 0.61).
Dry matter intake
decreased as digest i b 1e energy in creased
21•79.
Bull
et al.
and re aches a maximum when the diet
provides approxi mately 2.5 Meal ME/kg OM
and dec lines gradually to about SO% of
this value when the energy density is
eithe r 1 or 4 Heal HE/kg OM (figure 11).
( 1976) foun d
that l actating cattle responded in this
same man ner when the energy d ensi ty in
the diet was increased.
Dinius and Baumgardt (1970) found that
OM I increased I inearly as the energy
density of the diet increased from
app r oximately 1 to 2. 5 kcal DE/g and
decreased 1 inearly above 2.5 kcal DE/g.
Th is information is shown in f igure 10.
The above graphi ca l information can be
exp ress ed algebrai c ally by the equation
F • -. 388 + 1.11 HE (Hea l /kg OH)- . 222
ME2, where F ,. estimated dry matt er
intake as a pro port ion of maxi mum da i 1 y
intake.
When Ariza-Nino and Hughes (1976)
plotted maximum dry matter intake
against the metabolic body weight
(llkg0.75) (figure 12), they were able to
A r i za-N i no and Hughes ( 1976), however,
suggested that the OMI is curvil iniar
exp r ess the resultant cu r ves algebra-
ically as OHI • .1 (llkg0.75),
39
~
,1-.-0-------------------------,
c
2.0
1.0
3.0
4.0
Caloric Density: Meal ME/kg OM
(Meal/kg) ( f igu re 13) and the amount of
fiber present.
A 1so, pa 1 a tab i 1 it y w i 11
i nf I uen c e the amount of a feed that is
consumed . 'w'hen preparing tables to be
used
in calculating the nutrient
requirements of ani mals, however , i t
becomes necessary to estab 1 ish some
means of determining the amount of each
nutrient that i s needed for maint enance,
production, and repr o duction.
Therefore, the following equations have been
developed to predict the maximum OMI at
va rious body weights, production levels,
and energy density of catt le diets:
Figure 11. Hypothetica l relation betw een
ca loric density and feed i ntake (adapted
from Ariza-Nino and Hughes, 1976).
When the
combined,
above
two equations are
the DMI can be calculated for
an animal of a given weight and, a diet
can be formu I a ted containi ng the proper
Correction f actor
ene rgy density:
to
adjust
for diet
F • -.08333 + .85 ME- .1666 (ME) 2
energy-density to satisfy the energy
r eq uir ements.
Modif i cat ions of the
e quations previously discussed were used
in calcu l ati ng the OMI va lue s shown in
the nutrient requirement tables.
Examples of how these equations ar e used
fol l ows:
Using a roughage-concentrate diet, 2 .. 5
kcal HE/g OH, f e d a 200 kg steer.
It a pp ea r s from information ava il able
that
OM I
factors.
bility o f
1s
dependent
upon
several
\,/kg 0. 75 = 53. 18
Among these are the digestithe
diet,
it s
ME density
.1 05 x 53. 18 = 5 .584 kg OMI
F = -.08333+.85 (2.5)-.1666 (2 .5 ) 2 =1
~r----------------------------,
1 x 5.584 • 5.584 kg maximl>'ll daily OMI
c
Adjustment for 200 kg heifer (plus 3%)
5.584x 1.03 =5.751kg maximl>'ll da ily OMI
Usi n g a roughage diet,
fed a 200 kg steer.
1.7 kcal HE/g DH .
F= -.08333 +.85 (1.7)-. 1666 (1.7)2=.88
Biological Weight: Wkg0.75
5.584 x .88 = 4.91 kg maximl>'ll daily OMI
Figure 12. Hypothetical r elation b etween
maximum daily intake a nd biological
weight (adapted f rom Ariza-Nino and
Hughes. 19 76).
Adjustment f or 200 kg he i fer (p lus 3%)
4 . 91 x 1.03 =5.06 kg maximun daily OM I
40
Using a high concentrate diet. 3 kcal
KE/g DK . fed a 200 kg stee r.
F•-.08333 + . 85 (3)- .1666 (3) 2 •.97
).)84 x -97•5.42 kg maximum daily DHI
Adjustment for 200 kg heifer ( p 1us 3%)
) . 42
X
1.03 -s.sa kg maximum daily OM\
This procedure adjusts the DHI intake
according to body size and the bulkiness
(energy density} of the diet.
Using
these methods, the amount of OM I can be
adjusted to meet the needs of animals at
Roger son et a 1. ( 1 968) compa red the OM I
and the growth response of Hereford and
Beran stee r s f ed a high concentrate diet
ad 1 ibitum and found that the Hereford
steers consumed conside rably more OM
than did the Baran steers for all
wei ght s from 200 to 450 kg.
Up to a
ce rtain point, the difference in DMI was
progressive with advancing animal
weight.
Daily weight gains were also
higher in the Herefo rd than the Saran
steers (table 10) .
Meissner (personal
communication) found that Afrikaner and
Brahman cattle had lower intakes of
co ncentrated diets than comparable
ca ttle of the European breeds.
On
forage diets the differences (DHt) were
less noticeabl e.
each farm.
6.0 , - -- - -- - -- - - ,
Ka ru e (197 1 ) found that Baran steers
consumed approximate 1y 2% o f t ne i r body
weight daily ove r a 10 week period . It
was suggested that DHI may drop significa ntly below the above levels when
animals are subject to grazing poor
quality dry forage.
The r esu l t s of
these f eedi ng trials indi cate that DHI
by animals in tropical areas is less
than those of animals from temperate
zones.
Milf ord an d Minson (1964).
however, r eport that DM I was not
affected b y physical properties of the
forage (leafiness, protein content,
etc.) unti 1 the total protein level
dropped bel ow 6%.
1.0
2.5
3.0 3.25
Energy Density of Diet, Meal ME/ kg
Figu r e 13. Dry matter intake and gain of
cattle as
influenced
by
the
metabolizable energy of the diet (Kearl
et al. 1976).
Those who wish to calculate dry matter
intake and other values using metabolic
body weight (Wkg0.7S) or (Wka0.73) will
find these values presented
;r,
table
9.
Thonney et al. (1981) designed an
experiment to determine the r el at i o n sh i p
between DHis of large and small cattle
represented by Hoi stein and small-framed
Angus stee r s. These animals were fed to
final weights of 341 to 522 kg for Angus
and 431 to 631 kg for the Holsteins.
All animals were individually fed and
weighed at regular intervals .
They
found that changes in the DMI. ave r age
daily gain (ADG) and d r y matter/unit of
gain (OM/g) occurred with increasing
body weight gain, but did not differ
between the two br eeds. ADG dec I ined by
. 18 kg/d and DH/g increased by 2. 2 kg
OM/kg of gain with each 100 kg
in body weight.
increase
41
Table9.
Het abol i c Body Weight Using 1,/
kg
0.73 and II
kg
0.75
Body Weight
Tens
Hundred s
II O. 73
100
200
300
400
sao
600
II 0. 75
0
100
200
300
400
sao
600
10
20
40
30
s. 4
so
60
70
0
28 . 8
4?.8
64.3
79.3
93.4
106.7
12.0
8. 9
33 . 0
30 . 9
34.9
49. 6
53.0
51.3
67.4
69.0
65.9
80.8
82.2
8) . 6
96.1
94.7
97.4
108 . 0 109.3 110 . 5
14.8
I 7. 4
19.9
38.8
36 .9
40.6
54 . 6
56 . 3
57 . 9
72 .o
70 . 5
73 . 5
as . 1 86 . 5 8? . 9
98.9 100 .1 101. I
Ill. 8 113 . I 114.4
0
Jl. 6
53.2
72. I
89 .4
105 .7
121.2
s. 6 9. 5 12.8
34.0
36.3 . 38 . 5
ss. 2 5J. I 59. I
77 . 4
75 . I
73 . 9
94.4
91. 1 92 . 8
107.0 108.9 II 0. 5
122.7 124.2 125.7
IS. 9
40.7
61.0
79.2
96 . I
112.0
127.2
ao
90
22 . 2 24 . 5 26.7
46. I
42 . 5 44.3
59.6
61.2
62.7
75.0
?6. 4
77·9
89 .2
92.0
90.6
102.8 I 04 . I I 05.4
115.6 116.9 118. 1
18. 8
21. 6
24.2
26.8
42 . 9
45.0
47 . I
49. I
64.8
62.9
66.6
68.4
80 . 9 82 . 6
84.4
86. I
97 . 7 99.3 100.9 I 02.6
11 3.6 liS. I 116. 7 11 8. 2
I 28.7 130 . 2 131. 7 133.2
29 . 9
51. 2
70.3
8?.8
I 04.2
119 . 7
I 34.6
Tab le 10 . Dr y Ha tter I ntake of Her e f o r d and Ba r an Steers on a Hi gh Plane o f
Nutriti o n
Dry Hatter
Int ake
( g/ kg)
Live
weig ht
(kg)
ISO
200
250
300
350
400
to
to
to
to
to
to
200
250
300
350
400
450
Average
Da ily Gain
( g/kg)
He r e ford
Boran
23.5
21.3
20 .2
18.6
17 .a
22 . 8
19.5
16.7
14 . 5
12.9
11.9
So ur ce: Rog e r son et al. ( 1968)
Herefo rd
Bo ra n
1. 09
1.03
.96
I. 01
• 74
• 53
.47
• 33
.34
• 25
• 23
42
Shat tachar ya and Hussain ( 1974) reported
that the OMI of Awassi sheep fed diets
containing Barley, hay, sun-cured and a
concentrate mixture (Barley, grain,
Soybean, meal solvent extracted and
molasses) and a mineral mixture, at
ratios of 25<75 , 50•50, and 75•25
increased at each higher level of
roughage.
When tallow was added to the
75:25 diet to make it isocaloric with
the 25175 ratio diet, OHI was decreased.
Increasing ambient temperatures (32 C)
and humidity (88%) also decreased OM I .
\later intake , however, increased with
increasing ambient temperature and
hLmidi ty.
These findings suppo rt the assumptions
made by Baumgardt et al. (1976) who
stated:
... , it is clear that any attempt
to estimate the val untary intake of
ruminant rations will have to take
into consideration energy concentration and physical form of the
diet along with level o f ene rgy
demand of the ani mal. ( p 467)
In further studies by Baumgardt et at.
(1976) and Bullet al. (1976) , it was
shown that neutral detergent fiber (NDF)
levels in a feed and the bulk density
are highlv correlated with dry matter
intake {r z . 91 and .9 3 , r espectively) .
Robles et at. (1981) found that, as the
fiber {cell wall) content of diets
increased, the OM I decreased.
When
diets containing 48, 56, and 64% cell
walls were fed to sheep, the DMI was 75,
60, and 51 g/\.Jkg 0. 751 d respectively.
Dry matter intakes were 1739 and 1155
g/d on the 48 and 64% cell wall diets,
respectively. The lower daily intake
was also reflecte d in the retention time
and excretion rates, these b ein g 28. 9,
29.9, and 37.6%/h; and 2 . 73 , 2.o8 , and
1.95%/h of OH 1 for sheep fed diets
containing 48, 56, and 64%cell walls,
respectively.
Rumen volume, ce ll walls
present In the rumen conte nts, and time
required for passage of feed through the
digestive tract all increased as the
fiber co ntent of the diet increased.
Energy intake appeared to be adequate in
the 48 and 56% cell wall diets, but was
deficient for maintenance in the 64 %
(C\1) diet.
Robles et al. (1981) cone 1 uded that ce 11 wa 11 digestion appeared
to be c l osely related to the rate that
feed passed through the intestinal tract
and that intake I imitations appeared to
be incidental to these two f actors.
These findings agree with Blaxter 1 s
(1962) suggestion that the relationship
of feed quality (energy per unit of
weight) and OMI is associated with the
rates at which food ent~rs and leaves
the rumen.
The OMI values shown in the tables (11,
12, 14 and 16) have been calculated
using the maximum amount of low energy
feeds possible to meet the energy
requirements for that particular situation.
It must be kept in mind, however,
that all other nutrients (protein ,
minerals, etc . ) must be supplied in
adequate amounts . When diets containing
a higher energy density than those shown
(up to 2.5 Hea l HE/kg OM) for each
specific level of production, less feed
(OM I) w i 11 be needed to meet the energy
requirements.
For example , a 30 kg
sheep requires 1.19 Heal HE to satisfy
its maintenance requirements (table 11 ).
This could be achieved by feeding .75 kg
of a diet containing 1.6 Meal HE/kg DH,
or . 52 kg of a diet containing 2.3 Heal
ME/kg OM.
According to the formula,
f • -.666 + 1.333 ME .2666 HE 2 and a
OHl of 70.0 g OH/IIkg0.75, .75 kg is the
maximum DH a 30-kg sheep wi 11 consume of
a diet containing 1.6 Meal ME/kg DH.
This amount {.7 5 kg) of DH will provide
1.18 Heal ME, which will meet the maintenance r equi rem ent of a 30 kg sheep
(1.19 Heal ME).
In some cases , f eed
alteration such as grinding, pelleting,
etc., may be required for a 30-kg sheep
to eat ,75 kg of such a low quality
feed.
Vander Merwe and Meissner
(personal communication) suggest that,
in drylot. this type forage may r equi r e
grinding and{or) pelletlng to achieve
this amount of OHI.
They do report,
however, that indigenous sheep adapted
to conditions on free rang e . can
43
maintain themselves very well when
grazing forage which shows such low HE
concentrations (1 . 6 HE/kg DH ) in cut or
handpl ucked samples .
Also. the tabu l ated data (nutrient
tables) give the maximum OM I of diets
co nt ai ning t he minimum a mo un t of
metabo li zable energy/kg that ca n be f ed
to mee t
the r equire ments of the
particular anim al and the physiological
function bein g performed.
Ha ving the
table i n this particular f o rmat s hould
fa c i 1 itate qu ick determinations of the
type diet required for ma inten ance and
physiological functions where the energy
requirements are minimal. For instance ,
the ME r e quirement of a SDO-kg steer
ga;n;ng 250 g/d ;s 16.1 Heal (table 14).
This size animal can meet its ME
requirements by consuming 8. 9 kg of a
diet co ntaining 1.8 Meal ME /kg OM.
By
looki ng up the ME con t e n ts of l ocal
f ee d s in the feed compos i t i o n tables,
several fe e d s may be found that wi l l
meet t hese requir ement s when fed alone.
An example , Alfalfa (hay, s un- c ured )
2.19; Napi erg rass (ae rial part, fresh )
1.8; Peanut (hay , sun-cured} 2.08; and
Balanites , Egyptian (browse, f r esh} 2. 02
Meal ME/kg OM. Some example r at ions are
shown in Appendix 3.
45
SECTION 7. SHEEP
FAO (19?9) estimates the number of shee p
in
90 de ve loping co untries t o b e
approximately I.OO million h ea d.
Th is
provides a vast r esource of potential
food,
fiber
Sheep
are
and hides
found
for
human us e.
vi rtu al ly wher eve r
people r eside (the possible exception is
the polar reg ions).
Sheep adapt well to
temperate, arid, and humid regions. but
produ c tion systems in each have uniqu e
Tho se engaged in
and p ec ul iar features.
sheep product i o n must have a knowledg e
and an awareness o f how their s p ecific
locatio n and
pres e nt
day co nditions
affect th ei r manag eme nt and marketing
Th e breeding habits o f sheep are such
that they usually pr oduce offspring once
during a year . Some expe r imental work
i s being done to c hemically c ontrol
estrus in ewes. Under that system, ewes
may be bred to produce I arnbs three times
in two years.
At present, this prac tice
is not recommended f o r range co nditions.
Sheep produce single and multi-birth
Iambs.
I t i s not uncommo n in deve 1oped
cou ntries for large flocks of she e p to
produce a 1 amb crop of 12S to 1 SO %.
Occasional l y, a ew e will gi ve birth to
fi ve or more lambs .
potentials.
The tabular data presented as nutrient
requir e ments
of
sheep
have
be e n
determined by sorting, cl assifying, and
summarizing source information.
Some
data were conf l i cting, some were
i n decis ive,
and some were based on
1 imited expe ri ence in a l oca lity.
Host
of the in format ion used, however, was
based on sound resear c h and wid e
appllcat ion.
In this b ook s h ee p
pr o duc tion has b een viewed in l i ght of a
wide regional b asis and, whenever
possible, without in d ivid ual co untr y
interpretation.
Profits from sheep
rais i ng will depend greatly upon the use
of pro ve n (or research-inducted)
practices to produce meat, milk and
fiber.
Sheep (Ovis aries) are extremely
variab l e intheir exter nal c harac teristics such as shape of horns and ears,
l e ngth and s ize of the tail, head shape,
and fl eece co lor.
Also, breeds differ
mar ked 1 y in size and weight.
Sheep
belong to the family of hollow-horned
ruminants, which includes cattle, goats,
buffaloes and others.
Sheep and goats,
however, sometimes are difficult to
distinguish (from a taxonomic point of
view) because they overlap in some
physical cha ra cte r istics .
The species
are distinct, however, in that they will
not c rossbreed.
The findings present e d in this se c tion
summarize material from s c ientifi c
pub I ications , books, symposiums, and
personal c ontacts with an i mal scientists
i n many developing co untri es who deal
with the nutrient r equ ir ements o f sheep.
Th e i nformation pr esented here must be
co nsider e d s ubj ect to r efinements as
additional scientifi c information
becomes available.
Scientists i n d ev el oping c ountries are aware of the paucity
of nutr ; ent r e quirem ent i nformat ivn
available on the indigenous bre eds of
sheep and are wa r king to overcome this
problem.
Workshops and symposiums are
being conducted where information
co ncerning research on intensive and
extensive sheep feed i ng systems is
presented.
Proceedings from such
c onferences assist in disseminating thi s
knowl e dge to those engaged in the
practical aspects of sheep hu sband ry.
Dietary regimes for feeding sheep i n
developing co untries are heavily
dependent on data extrapolated from
va 1ues derived from research on improved
breeds of sheep.
Generally, these
animals are larger and more produ c tive
than the indigenous breeds found in
~~v~~~~~ n(h ~~ ~~!~~~:;) :~:i 1 1a~tee ~~~~~
0
ence the respons es gained from th ese
anima ls.
In contrast, most indigenous
sheep are maintained on diets low in
46
energy: o ftentimes below maintenan ce
requ ir ements.
Env i ronmenta 1 factors
(feed , disease, foundation breeds,
management and c 1 i mate) have produ ce d
sheep that can survive under extreme ly
adverse
co nditions.
Such
sheep are
smalle r (usually 40 to SO kg mature body
weight) and grow more slow 1y than do the
European b r eeds.
Eviden ce seems to
in dicate that
dif f e r ences between sheep indigenous to
developing countries and the impro ved
European breeds in body size,
reproduc-
tion ca pabi lities , water requirements ,
disease, g r azing habits, carcass
com posit ion , milk and wool production
and the available fe ed r esources warrant
separate treatment of the nutrient
requirements of these animals.
As far as possible values for energy and
protein r equirements contained in table
11 have been developed from info r mation
co lle cte d from resear c h conducted in
developing co untri es using the indigenous breeds o f sheep as ex p e r ime nt a l
s ubj ects.
Dry Matter Intake
Ory matter intake by sheep dep ends on
the type of diet they are o ffered.
It
has been shown (Louca et a!. 1982) tha t
when offered diets (ad 1 ibitum )
consis ting of different fo r ages, the DHI
was1
barley hay, lt5.1; alfalfa hay, 67;
acacia, 3 0 . 1; sudax h ay , 21.7; and
barley straw, 44.1 g DM /IikgD. 75.
These Dt11 va lues r esemble thos e found by
othe r investigators and cited by Louca
et al. (1982) f or sheep consuming
diff e r e nt types of diets: a l falfa hay
69 and alfalfa silage 75 (Jones et al.
1972); alfalfa silage 83 a nd maiz.e
si I age 48 (de Simiane et al. 198 1);
berseem h ay 70 (Sharma and Hurdi a,
197ft); dry grasses 51 (Sharma and
Ra j ora , 1 977); hyparrhen i a hay 35
(Gihad , 1976); r ice straw plus co nce nt r ate 47 (Gi h ad, 1980) ; barley straw
plus barley grain 47 (Cuddeford and de
Waa rd, 1981 ); and cassava lea ves 53,
p i geon pea plus stems 28 , lue cae na
leaves 54 and groundnut vines 5 4
(Devendra, 1981) g DM/d/\lkgD. 75.
Stern et al. (1978a) found that Awassi
and Assaf ewes co nsumed approximat e 1y 65
g /d/llkg0.75 of a 2.56 Mea l ME/kg diet
dur ing the late gestation period. Van
Niekerk et al. (1965) f o und th at old
wet her sheep weighing approximately 35
kg cons um ed 1.12 kg of alfalfa hay o r
alfalfa hay plus maize daily, and 1.41
kg of alfalfa meal or a lf alfa me a l plus
rna i ze. Th is is approximate I y 78 and 98
g DM/d/llkgO · 75, o r 3.2 and 4.0 % o f LB\1 .
Lac tating Awassi and Assaf ewes during
the fi r st month of lactation (Eyal and
Felman ,
1978) consumed
19 7 g
DM/d/Wk gO. 75 . Th e average m i 1 k produ c tion during this period was ) . 25 kg/d.
The OM consu r:tp tion and milk yield
declined to 150, 2.75 ; 97, .8; and 79 ,
55 g/d/llkg0 .75 and kg/d f or the 2nd,
ltth and 7th months of la ctat i on,
r e spect i ve 1y.
Hadjipanayiotou et a l. (1975) found the
DHI o f young ewe l a mb s to be 69 .4 and
67.9 g/d/wk o. 75 when fed diets of straw
9
plus soybean meal or straw plus mo l asses
and urea.
\.Jhen straw was the sol e
ingred i ent in the diet, consumption
dropped to 39.6 g DM / d / \1 kgo. 75.
In a
simi 1 a r experiment, they found that
adu lt n o n-la ctating ewes weighing
app r ox imate 1 y 57 kg co nsumed 55.2, 45.1,
a nd 51.4 g DM / d /1ikg0.75 when fed di e ts
containing straw , b a rl e y and urea;
s traw, molasses and urea; a nd straw a nd
barley. respectively.
These latter
va lues co mpare fa vorably with studies in
South Afri ca (van der Herwe et al. 1962)
co mparing chopped and pel\ e ted a 1fa I fa
where the DH I was found to be 4lt
g/d/ l·l kg0.75 f o r cho pped alfalfa and 74
g/d/Wkg0.75for pelleted alfalfa di ets.
These data indicate that physi cal f o r m
influe nces the daily DHI.
Si ngh and Bhatia (1982) report e d that
male sheep { r ams) co nsumed 3 . 8 1 kg
DM/100 kg bodywe i ght (120 g DM /IIkg0.75)
when fed khejri (Prosopis cinera r ia)
leaves.
The rams lost weig h t during
47
this period , while male goats (bucks)
consumed 3. 3 9 kg DM/100 kg body weight
and gained weight.
The digestible
protein and TON values were 1.5 and
24.91%,
and 4.65 and 31.56 % for the
sheep and goats, respectively.
The
digestibility coefficients of all the
nutrients were lower in sheep compared
to goats.
Khan and Ghosh (1981) suggest ed that
sheep weighing 35 kg will consume
approximately
OH/W_kg O. 75).
1
kg
Oyenuga
OM/d
and
(69 . 5
g
Ak i nsoy i nu
( 1976, citing Adu et a 1. 1974) suggested
a value of 66 g OM/Wkg0.75/d .
Cuddeford and de \.laard ( 1981) found the
OH I of young sheep to be 51.7
g/d/Yk 9 0 . 75 .
This was slightly less
than the 53 . 5 g/d/Wkg o . 75 consumed by
young goats . Th e average daily gain was
.54 and .61 kg for sheep and goats ,
respe ctive ly .
The d iet consisted of
barley st r aw supplemented with ur ea and
co n tained a tota l p r otein level of
12.87 %.
is dependent upon the type of diet being
offered and its physical form.
The
average of 32 values pr eviously disc ussed is 54.7 g OM/ Wk 0.75.
Nutritionists
9
will have to adjust intake to energy
density and quality of the diet.
Piete r se e t al. (1970) f ound that when
wether she ep were fed diets contai n ing
four I eve l s of urea and three 1 evel s of
maize plus poor quality rough age
(Eragrost is curvula) (with the roughage
coarse ground and fed ad 1 ibitum) the
OM I increased as urea was added , up to
approximately 1% of the ration.
'When
urea equalled 2% of the ration, however ,
the DH I was reduced. 'With each inc rease
in con c entrate, in all treatments , the
OMI inc reased.
The ratio of concentrate
(maize} to roughage was approximately
016.5, 1: ].2 and 1:4.1.
Bhatta c harya
and
Harb ( 1973a) found
the
OM I of
yea rl ing Awassi sheep declined from 74.8
to 64 . 6 g/d/Wkg0.75 when dried cit ru s
pulp replaced a l l the co rn grai n in a
bala nced diet.
( Th e four test diets
co ntain ed co rn to cit ru s pulp r atios of
60<0 , 40o20, 20.40 , a nd 0:60.)
Gihad ( 1981) found that sheep f ed tropica l g r ass hay cons umed 3 5 g DM /Wk 0.75
9
wh i le t hose f ed straw supplemented with
conce ntrate consumed 61 g OM/ Wk 9 0 . 75 .
Bhattacharya and Harb (1973a} found that
Awassi lambs averaging 34 kg body weight
consumed 1071, 1035, 936 , and 924 g OM
daily of four diets co ntaining a ra tio
of co rn grain and(or) citrus pulp in the
following proportions (C:CP} 60:0 ,
40o20, 20:40 and 0:60% of the di et.
The
average OMI for the four diets was 70 g
OM/w k 0.75/d ,
9
Th e values indicate t hat the voluntary
OMI of s h eep is inf lu e nced b y the type
of di e t th ey a re be ing offered.
Good
qu a lity f orages are consumed at a level
a ppro xi ma tely SO% higher than are the
poorer qu a 1 it y feeds.
Fro m an average of the values available,
i t appea r s that the OH I of young sheep
or non-lactating ewes consuming di ets
contain ing va ri ous levels of forag e and
conce ntrat e mixtures va r ies from 22 to
98 g OM/d/Wkg 0 . 75.
As can be seen, OM 1
The OM I , as used to ca l c ulat e max imum
intake , i~ the amount an animal will
consume when fed diets containi ng good
quality ingredients.
Adjustments have
been made {u p or down) to compensate for
variations in the energy level of the
diet. Feeds having extremely low int ake
values have been deleted
from
consideration in deriving the average
value used to ca1cu1 ate the OM I as shown
in table 11.
Twenty of the values previous 1 y
discussed represent a cro s s section of
typical diets that ma y b e used to f eed
sheep I n d eve loping co unt r i es .
Th ese
twenty ave rag e 64.4 g OM /wk 0. 75 ,
9
a
value that co mpares favo r ab l y with 66.3
(Rattray et al. 1973) , 58.9 (NRC , 1975) ,
and 70.1 (M AFF . 1979) g OH/W<g0.75.
To establish a basis f o r calcu lating the
OHI, the ave r age Meal HE/kg OM of 15
1dent if i ab 1 e feeds used in the above
described expe r iments, was estimated to
be 1.78 Heal.
Using the equation
48
F • -.666 + 1.3 33 HE - .2666 HE 2 and
substituting 1.]8 Heal for the HE value,
a value of .86 was calculated for F.
Dividing the 64.4 g DH/IIkgO . 75 by .86, a
value of 74.9 g DH /11k 0.7 5 was found to
9
11 ideal 11 diet
be the maxtmum OMI ustng an
cant a 1n i ng 2.50 Heal ME/kg.
must be a v ailable to meet body
requirements and provide for produc tion
(meat , milk, fiber).
The amount will
vary acc ording to age, body condition,
produ c tion
level,
and
ambient
temperature.
This value
was used to c alculate the data shown in
Khan and Ghosh (1981) report that DHI by
table 11.
sheep is drasti c ally curtailed during
periods of water deprivation.
They
found that on the 3rd day of water
deprivation, DMI was reduced to about 2%
of norma 1.
Sheep 1ost approximate 1 y 6%
of their body weight per day when water
was withheld 72 to 96 hours.
Khan and
Ghosh ( 1981) compared this to a loss of
1.5% for goats experiencing the same
experimental conditions.
Ranjhan ( 1980) suggests a DHI
of J3-_1 g/W k90 . 75 when growing lambs
wetghtng 15 to 35 kg are fed diets
containing high levels of concentrates
(2.3 Heal HE/g DH/ IIk 0 0 . 75).
Eyal (1978 ) found tha-t
Felman and
Assaf male lambs
(20 to 57 kg, 8\1) reared on pelleted
all-concentrate diets containing soybean
mea 1 or herring mea 1 consumed 81.3 g OM/
w k 9 0 . 75 /d.
Be c ause of the physical
charac teristics of these diets, DMI
probably exc eeded normal expectations.
A
OM I value of 90 g OM/ WkgO· 75 has been
used to calculate the values used
in
table 11 for the late stages of
pregnancy, and the last 8 weeks of lactat ion.
Dry matter intake may dec r ease
substantially during the l ast 10 to 15
days of gestation, perhaps due to
abdomen distension or hormonal c hanges,
or both.
This may result in some body
weight loss during this period. ·
L actating ewes w i ll consume much larger
amounts of dry matter than their nonlactating counterparts.
Eyal and Felman
(1978) found that, during the first and
se c ond months, 1 actating ewes c onsumed
197 and 150 g OM / d /llk~ O . 75.
An average
of these two values •s 174 g/W'kg 0. 7 5 .
Papas
(1977)
lactating
reported
Chois
ewes
the
to
DHI
be
It was also reported that daily water
intake of Morwari sheep was about 13% of
body weight during summer months.
This
reduces to about 6 to 7% of body weight
during the winter.
Gihad ( 1981) suggests a water intake o f
2 ml/g DMI f or sheep consuming tropi c al,
natural-grass hay.
Growing and fattening sheep require about 2 to 3 kg of
water for each kg of OM I. Water intakes
by pregnant lambs and ewes should be
expected to increase by approx imat ely 50
to 100% above the requirement for
growing sheep during the 3rd, 4th, and
Sth months of gestation. During early
lactation, water intake ls likely to
increase by about SO%.
As product ion
decreases during late lactation, the
amount of water provided c an be reduced.
of
19 3
g/ \olk 9 0 . 75 . Stern et al. (1978b) found
that 'ewes with twin 1 ambs consumed 9.6%
more OM than those with single lambs.
The ave rag e DMI for ewes with single
1 ambs was estimated to be 138 g
OH /Wk 9 0.75 .
This value was used for
predi ct ing DHI values shown in table 11.
Sheep can tolerate 2 to 3
deprivation, but for best
should be available on a
The water should be clean
free of alkal ines.
days of water
results, water
demand basis.
and relatively
Eating Habits
Bell (1978, cited by Gihad 1981), found
Water Tolerance
Like most animals, water is a required
nutrient of sheep.
Sufficient water
that sheep grazing rangeland spent 60%
of their time grazing grass. 30%
selecting forbs, and 10% eating browse.
Comparative values were as follows:
grazing grass 70 and 20%, grazing forbs
49
20 and 20%; and grazi ng brows e 10 and
60% , for c attle and goats , respectively.
This indicates that ca ttl e and shee p ar e
co mpeting mor e f o r the same sou r ces of
food , whe r eas catt I e and goats or shee p
and goats would be more highly
co mp ati bl e grazing the same area.
Sheep generally prefer to graze in the
early morning and late in the afternoon ,
and are o ften sighted gr azing one day•s
walking distance fr om wate r . Genera lly ,
sheep are good gr azers and will ad apt to
man y types of management systems , f eed
resour ces , and envi r onmenta l conditions
including the tropi c s, arid and sub- arid
regions, and temperate zones.
Nutrient Requirements
r e quirements for animals grazing
pastures where limited physical exe r cise
is r eq uir ed ; add 50% for open ran ges
with long distances to ava i lable water;
and 75% when ext r emely rugged mountain
o r harsh desert environments pr evai 1.
GrCNth . Gr owth energy r equirements a r e
ca l c ulat ed a t 9. 7 kcal ME /g gain or . 83
kca l
ME/g
9
o. 75
for
all
b ody
6;
11.2 a n d
. 85;
11.3 and . 86 and
10.5 and . 8.
Th e average body weight of
t he sheep i n this expe riment was 32 kg.
Averaging th ese values give the ME
r e qu irem e nt f o r gain of . 78 kcal HE/g
gain/wk 9 0 . 75
gain/Wk
Energy
g a in /llk
weights and increments o f activ ity. Van
der Herwe et al. (1962) in co mparing
cho pped and pelleted alfalfa hay f ed to
lambs f o und the ME required per g of
gain and g gain / WkgO. 75 to be 7.9 and
9
0.75
Th e va lu e .8 3 kcal ME/g
is
the
values , 7. 9 a nd . 6 ;
and . 86 ;
average o f
11.2 and . 85 ;
sev e n
11. 3
10 . 5 and . 8 {van der Herw e et
Maintenance .
The maintenan ce e nerg y
v alues given in table 11 ar e th e average
determin ed from 9 separate r eports that
I isted the kca1 ME / Wkg 0. 75 r e quir ement
a l. 1 962) ; 7.9 an d . 91 (Oyenuga and
Akinsoy inu, 1976 ); 7.9 and .9 1 (Oiatunji
et a l. 197 6 ); and 11 .5 and .9 ( Eng e ls,
1 972) k ca l ME /g ga in o r kca l ME/g
as< 97 (Steyn, 1974) ; 79 (Hofmeyr,
19 72); 98 (Ranjhan, 1980); 88 ( Benjamin
gain/ WkgO. 75 taken fr om the 1 i teratu r e .
e t al. 1977); 10 2 (Agriculture Res ea r ch
Institute, 1977); 110 (Olatunji et al.
Pl~egnancy .
Energy r e quirements for
pregnanc y hav e be e n det e rmin ed from s ix
separate r e ports, all o f which c ite
significant inc r eases during the l ast
six weeks of pregnan cy .
The values
sh o wn in table 11 r ep r esent 1]1 % of
maintena nce requirement . This wa s th e
ave rage of the six (% above mainten ance
requirements) values r eported: 17 3
1976);
101 (NRC ,
1981); 7J (ll ilk e and
van der Merwe, 1976); and 92 (Boshoff
a nd Vosloo, 1976).
These nine va lues
ave rag e 93 kcal ME /Wkg0.75.
This va lu e
i s sl ig htly l ess than the 98 k c al
ME / Wkg0. 75 re comme nd e d by th e NRC
(1975).
The values shown in tabl e 11
were esti mated using 9J k ca l ME/Wkg0. 75
and applied to animals during minimal
physi ca l exercise .
Eng el s (1972)
reported that the HE requirem e nt for
yo ung sheep graz i ng pasture was 166 kcal
ME/ Wk 9 0 .75 .
Benjamin et al.
(1977)
reported HE r equirements of 153 and 88
kcal HE / \Jkg0 . 75 f o r grazing she e p co mpared to sheep individually ca ge d within
the cv nfi fles o f the pasture.
Wh e n
animals are subject to different gr azing
c onditions, addit io na l energy may b e
required. Ther e f o r e , three additional
maintenance requirem ent l evels bas ed on
the activity of th e animal are r ecom mended. Add 25% above basi c maint enance
(Steyn, 1 974) , 160 (Oyenuga and
Akinsoyinu, 1976), 173 (Stern et a l.
1 978 b), 177 (Adu et al. 1974, c ited by
Oyenuga and Akinsoyinu, 1976) , 163 (Eyal
and Felman, 1 978) , and 179 (Aki nsoyinu,
1974,
cited by Rajpoot et al.
198 1).
NRC ( 1975) suggests a multiplying factor
of 1.5 for single lambs and 2 for twin
lambs times maintenance to derive the ME
requ:rtm~nt during t he last 6 wet!k~ of
pregnancy.
The se v alues are slightly
l ower th an those reported from
d evelo ping co untr i es and used in
pr eparing the tabulated HE requirements
(ta bl e 11) for the last 2 months of
gestation.
Ra ttray (1974), however,
so
r epo r ted that the ME requirement of
Targhee ewes was 1.5 times maintenance
in
late pregnan cy (100 to 140 days).
The amo un t
gradually increased from 1.3
va ries from about 1100 t o 1300 kcal/kg
of 4% FCM.
For each additi.> n al kg o f
m i 1 k produ ce d above one , add 1250 kcal
of HE.
t o 1. 9 times maintenan ce.
Th e pregnancy r equi r ements pr esented
table
11
in
based o n a la mbing
per ce ntage of 100 a nd are to be used
during th e last 60 days. Stern et al.
( 1978 b ) f ound that ewes bea r i ng tw i n
1 ambs co nsumed an ave r age of 9 . 6% more
fe ed than ewes bearing single l amb s .
Laatation.
(1973b)
Protein
are
Bhatta c harya
found the average
and
Harb
pr o du ctio n
(milk yield) o f 2589 sheep grazing
rang ela nds i n lebanon and Syria was
1.1 kg per da y for a three mo nth p e riod
f ol l ow ing weaning. Fa t averaged 6.8%.
Thi s fat va lu e compa res fa vorable with
an average valu e of ].1% r epo rt ed by
Ste rn et at. (1978b) for milk fr om
Awassi and Assa f ewes maintained in
individual pens. A study con du cte d in
Cyp ru s (Ag r icultur e Research In stitute,
1977) with Chi os ewes f ound their milk
cont ai ned an average o f 6.6% fat.
In calc ul ating the HE requir ement s f or
ewes in ea r ly lactation, the pr oduction
1 evel has been assu med to be 1 kg of
milk / d. As milk yields de c l ine du r i n g
the latter stages of lactation, t h e
dai l y HE r equirement will b e r educed .
The HE ma i ntenan ce r equi r ement for
lactating ewes has be en estimated as:
102 (Ag r icultu r e Research Institut e ,
1977). 96 (Eya1 and Fo 1m a n, 1978) , and
117 (Pa pas , 1977) kca 1/Wkg0.7S .
The
average of these was 105 kcal HE / 1J k 0 .75
9
The f ac t o r used to ca lcul a te HE f o r
1 act a t ion was based on thr ee va lues; 206
(Oye nuga and Akinsoyinu,
1976 ) , 216
(S t e rn et a1. 197 8b) , and 213 (Pa pas,
1977) kca1 HE /Wk 9 0.75. Th e ave rag e of
th ese being 212 kcal ME/'Wk 0.75ass um ing
9
1 kg of m i l k con ta i ns a mean fat va lue
of 6.8%.
Dur ing the last eig ht weeks of
lact at io n, the tabulated v alues ca n be
redu ce d by 33% to compe ns ate for a
redu ced mil k y ield.
Th e metab olizab l e
energy r equirem ent f or 1 kg o f milk is
simila r in sheep~ cat tl e~ and goats~ and
The protein r e qui rem ents are gi ve n as
digestible pr otei n ( DP) in th e tables
and have be en de te rm ined from value s
found i n the literatu r e o r supplied in
pers onal co mmuni catio n with in ve stigators from various deve l op ing co untries.
In most c ases, the DP r e quir ements have
b ee n ca l c ulated using an ene r gy/p r otein
rat io . Th ese r atios vary according t o
the age and ph ysiological state of the
an imal.
To as sist in f o rmu lating diets, the OP
valu es hav e been conve rt ed to t o tal
protein ( TP ) using the eq u at i on: Y •
1.115 X + 3. 82 where X • dig es tible
protein(% of dr y matte r ) andY • total
protein( % o f d r y matter} ( fi gure 14).
The total protein va l ues thu s derived
c an be c ompared direc tly with those
ap pearing in the f eed co mp ositio n
tabl es.
The t otal protein val ues li sted
may vary depend ing upon the ene rg y
co ncentration o f the di e t being offered.
Th e above equation was developed using
dat a derived from animals f ed h ig h
r oughage d i ets ( table 2).
Maintenance., grotJth and early pregnancy .
Two r epo rt s ,
gi v ing the DP as 1.79 (Gi ll
an d Neg I, 1971) and 1. 65 (Bha tt ac h a r ya
an d Harb, 19 73 b) g/Wk o. 75 wer e found.
9
The average of these va lues is 1.72 g
DP/ Wk 0 . 75, whi ch wa s transla ted to an
9
estimated 1 8 .5 g DP / Mca l
ME for
maint enanc e only.
Bhattac harya and Harb ( l973b) f o und th e
DP r e quirement of Awassi sheep we ighing
between 29 and 39 kg t o b e approximately
23.5 g OP / Hcal ME.
Th is va lu e agrees
c 1ose1y with that of the NRC (1975) ,
ap pr oximately 24 g DP/H ca l ME, and has
been used t o ca l c ulate the OP r equirements for maint ena nce , growth and early
pregnancy shown in table 11.
51
20
,•/'
,.,•
.
,•
15
~
·~
.t
. ·'
,•
,• •'
~
..•'..•'·"
10
"~
••
Y = 1. 115X + 3.82
where:
X= digestible protein
and
Y = Total pr otein
0
~o----~----~1~0-----1~5----~20
Digestible Protein in %
Figure 14.
Regression line and equation
for estimating total
protein from
digestible protein (adapted from Knight
and Harris, 1966).
Lactation .
Papas { 1 977) reported dally
DP requirements f o r a 60 kg ewe
producing 1 kg or 2 kg of milk/d to be
134 and 230 g, respectively. Digestible
protein for lactation was ca l c ulat ed
using the energy/protein ratio.
For
e wes in their first six weeks of
1 a c t at ion, a rati o of 30 g OP / Mcal HE
was used.
Papas ( 1977) found the DP
requir e ment for a 60 kg ewe to be 29.3
g/Mcal ME.
The DP requirement was
reduced to 27 g DP /Hcal ME during the
last eight weeks o f lactatio n.
This
value was also used for the last six
weeks of gestat io n.
Minerals
Sheep require minerals in macro and
mi c ro a.r.ou:-~t~ to meet their nutrit ioral
requirements.
These include sodium,
chlo rine, calcium , phosphorus, magnesium. sulfur, potassium, cobalt, copper ,
iodi ne, iron, manganese, molybdenum,
zinc and selenium.
Forages usually
contain sufficient potassium, iron,
magnesium, sulfur and ma ngan ese t o
satis fy th e requirements for these
minerals. A· good trace mineralized salt
made availa bl e fre e c hoice will usually
provide sufficient s odium c hlorine,
iodine, manganese, coba l t, iron, co pper
and zin c t o satisfy the requirements of
sheep in c ases where their diets may be
deficient.
Salt (sodium and chlo r i ne) is usual l y
add e d to the diet eith e r mixed in the
rati·on or fed free cho ice. The exceptions a r e a re as where the soi l, and
su bs e qu e ntly the plants, co ntain high
level s of alkali and ar ea s bordering the
sea coa st.
Adult sheep wil l c onsum e
ab out 10 g of salt/d.
Yo ung an ima ls
should be provided wi th 5 g/ d.
Calci um.
The aerial parts of most
plants used as animal feeds are a good
sour c e of calci um.
Forages, especially
those co ntaining large portions of
legumes, wi 11 usually supply adequat e
amounts of calci um.
Sheep can tolerat e
a wide range in cal c ium intake providing
the ca l c ium to phosphorus ratio (Ca:P)
is greater than 1:1. Excess ive phosphorus may promote the development of
urinary ca lculi.
A dietary ratio of
Ca:P of 111 to 1.5:1 is cons idered
adequa t e to meet metabolic r e quir e ments
without antagonistic effects.
Diets
co ntaining .2 to .4 % c alcium are
conside red adequate.
Phosp horus. The aerial parts of forage
plants ar e usually low in phosphorus.
Plant intakes of this mineral are
influenced by the availability of
phosphorus in the so i 1. When sheep are
fed low quality forage, either as
pasture or hay, they should also be
given grain or a phosphorus supplement.
The seeds of most plants are a good
source of phosphorus.
On the other
hand, seeds have a very low ca lcium
co ntent. Adec;uate diets co nta in . 18 to
. 2 7% phosphorus .
Iodine . Some reg ions of the world have
soils deficient in iodine and consequent I y so are the p 1ants grown on these
soils.
Also, some plants co ntain
52
goitrogeni c substances that inhibit the
utilization o f ava i lable iodine.
Problems o f
b y fe e ding
this nature can be overcome
a t race mineralized salt
co n tain ing iodine.
Cobat t.
Coba l t i s requir e d f or the
sy nth esis of vitami n s 12 by the r um en
microflora. Usually legumes and grasses
will contain sufficient cobalt to meet
th e r equi rem ents of sheep.
It is good
management , howeve r, to
feed a mine r al -
Vitamins
The no rm al diets f e d to sheep wi ll
usually co nt ain ample amo un ts of
v i ta min s A, D and E. The B-complex an d
K v it amins ar e synt hesized by the rum en
microflora, and v it amin Cis sy n t hesized
in the tissue of sheep.
On r a r e
occasio ns, du e t o a disease called
polio-encephalomalacia, thiam in e may be
destroyed.
Under these conditions,
supp 1ement s may be required.
ize d salt contai ning cobalt.
Copper .
Good qu ality forag es usually
contain sufficient copper to meet the
requirements of sheep (app ro ximately
S
mg/d}.
In terac t ions among copper and
othe r mine r al co nstituents in the diet
(n otab ly molybdenum and inorganic
s ulf ate) may, however, n ecess i tate
add in g coppe r .
Shee p a r e l ess tolerant
o f excess cop pe r than catt l e , and ca r e
must, therefore, be taken to avoid
co pp e r toxicity .
When the dietary
intake of molybdenum and su l f ate is low,
toxic ity may occu r in lambs r ece i v ing 20
to 30 ppm of copper in the di et.
Se Z.eniwn.
Se le nium is an essential
mineral in the diet of sheep to prevent
(or cont r ol} muscular dystrop hy.
Plants
grown in many a r eas {e.g . eastern and
northwestern se c ti ons of the United
States} may be deficient in selenium.
Dietary levels of .1 ppm a r e probably
adequate to meet the requirements for
this min e r al. Care must be take n when
adding this mine r al in a di e t because
levels o f ove r 7 ppm ma y be t oxic.
Vitamin A.
Host g r een forages contain
la rge amounts of vita min A.
T h is
v i ta m in is stored in the I iver and fatty
tissues o f sheep and ca n be dr awn upon
fo r 6 to 12 months to meet the animals•
r equ ir ements.
Under norm a l grazing
con d i tion.s, deficiencies are seldom a
problem except long periods o f drought
in the southern hemisphere.
If n eeded,
Vitamin A can be admi ni ste r ed o r a l l y
(directly o r by mixing in the feed) o r
b y i ntramus cu l ar inject ion .
Vitami n D.
Usually the exposu r e o f
shee p to dire ct sunlight and(or)
including sun-cured forages in their
diet will pr ovide adequate amounts of
vita min D to satisfy the r equirem ents of
shee p f o r maintenance, growth, production and repr oduction . When lamb s are
co nfined in shelters that shade them
f r om the direct rays o f t he s un and are
fed green forages with a high vitamin A
conte nt, they may exhibit evide n ce of
impai r ed bone formation and othe r signs
o f Vitamin D defic i ency .
Zinc.
Dietary intake of calci um may
affect the r e quirement for zinc which is
3 0 to 40 ppm under normal co nditions.
Host animals, howeve r, are able to
t ol e rate a wide range of zin c intake
without ha rmf ul effects .
Vitamin E. Green f eeds and the germ of
seeds are good sources of Vitamin E.
Therefor e , a defi c i e ncy o f t h is vitamin
i s very rare. When 1 amb diets contain a
low level of selenium , vitamin D
deficiency may manifest its el f as
nutritional muscular dystrophy.
Fo r further information on m ineral
requ i r emen ts, and toxic and defic ie n cy
symp toms see Section 4 and App~ndix 1.
For further in f o rm atio n co nt! ern ing
v itamins, see Section 5.
53
Early·Weaned Lambs
Under certain condi tions, it is desi rable to remove lambs from their dams and
feed them milk or some form of milk
replacer co nta ining high levels of
protein
and
fat.
Usually the
energy/density of these type diets will
be i n the range of 4 to 5 Meal ME /kg OM.
Energy
Mai n tenance and growth .
Due to the high
digestibility of milk or milk replacer
d ie ts, the passage rate is high and the
OM 1 o f such 1 ambs is generally higher
than when diets con taining higher levels
of fiber are being used.
Chiou and
Jordan ( 197 3) found that 1 ambs r emoved
from their dams at 1 to 3 days o f age
required 117 kcal HE/ Wkg0.75 for maintenance and .4 1 kcal HE/g gain/Wkg 0.75 for
body weight gain.
Thes e 1 ambs were
individual l y p e nned i n a thermoregulated unit.
Ea ch animal was
individually f ed.
Jagusch and Mit chell (1971) found that
lambs accompanying their dams on pasture
required 145 kcal HE/WkgO. 75 .
Apparently, some of the extra maintenance
requirement was used for vo lun tary
activity as they moved about the
pasture.
Boshoff and Vosloo (1976)
fo und Dorm e r x Merino wether lambs
required 92 kcal HE/Wkg0.75 for maintenance and .3] kcal ME/g gain/ WkQO.?S.
Ranjhan (1980) suggests a metabol•zable
energy requirement of 76 kcal HE/WkgO . 75
for lambs weighing 13.0 to 1 3.5 kg and
gaining approximately 115 g daily.
The average HE requirement o f young
lambs being fed maintenance diets of
milk and(or) milk replacers was 110
kcal/WkgO. 75,
This value has been used
tc calculat-e the HE maintcn 6nce :""equlrement presented in tab 1e 11.
The aver age
of the two values found for 1 ive weight
gain is .4 kcal ME/g gain/Wkg0 .75.
This
value has been used to predict the HE
requirement for gain as presented in
tab 1 e 11.
Protein
Maintenance and groLJth .
The OP requirements of ea rly wea ned lambs has not been
we ll defined.
Be ca us e of the l a rge
amounts o f pr otei n normally consu med by
young of all breeds during the nursing
period, it is assumed that adequate
protein i s available provid i ng the milk
supply from the dam is sufficient t o
meet the energy requ i rem ents.
Ranjhan (1980) repo rts the intake of OP
by lambs (up to 90 days o f age) weighing
about 13 kg and gaining 115 g/d was 33 .8
g/d, whi c h was determined to be 72.7 g
OP/Hcal ME. This ratio is very high and
may b e i ndi c ative of the type diet being
fed r ather than the requirement of the
lambs.
Chiou and Jordan (1973) found the
pr otein maintenance r eq uirements of
1 ambs (fi r st 30 days) ranged from 9 . 44
to 3 6.89 g DP/d.
They co ncluded that
milk-fed lambs require a diet co ntaining
a total protein content of 24.8% f o r
expected daily gains fr om 0 to 200 g
providing an adequate sup p ly o f energy
is available and that, for reasonable
growth , a minimum of 2SO to 300 g of
milk replac er (OM) containing 24 to 26%
total protein and approximately 20 to
25% fat is r equired.
On the basis of the 1 imited info rma tion
available, i t appears that the DP
requirement for young lambs is high
c ompared to that of mature an im als.
Chiou and Jordan (1973) data (250 to 300
g x 2S% TP) would indicate a protein
requirement of 62.5 to 75 g DP/d.
The
b iologica l value of pr otein from this
sour ce (milk) is exceptionally high (90
to 95%), indicating that the DP could be
about 55 to 67 g/d or an av erage of 62 g
OP/d. When the DP was correlated with
th.e ~E energy, a ratio vf appro,.in,ately
61 g DP/Mcal ME was obtained.
Thi s
value was comparable with Ranjhan 1 s
(1980) 73 g OP/Mcal ME. The average of
the two va lues , 67 g OP/Mcal HE, was
used to calculate the DP requirements
presented in table 11.
This value is
considerably higher than the value of 44
g DP/M cal DE recommended by the NRC
( 1976) for ear 1 y-weaned Iambs.
Th e
metabolizable energy r equirement suggested
fo r
growth and
used
in
calc ul ating the values in table 11 ,
however, is co n sider ab I y 1ower than that
recommended by the NRC (1976).
Therefore, the total protein requirem e nt
expressed compares favorab l y with that
recommended by the NRC ( 1976).
Calcium, phosphorus, and carotene values
have been taken from the NR C ( 1976).
The total pr o t ein has been calculated
assuming the diet contains larg e amounts
of milk or milk substitutes that are
easily digested.
A digestion coefficient of 80% was used in estimating the
TP appearing in table 11.
Breeding Rams
Usually rams are not given special
at tent ion except at breeding time . To
be effective during the breeding season ,
rams should have access to good pasture
throughout the year, or re ceive a diet
of for ages and concentrates.
Thirty to
forty-five days before the breeding
season co mmen ces , each ram should be
given concentrates in sufficient amount s
to induce a gain of approximately 80 to
120 g/d,
The basal diet, however,
should be compatible with what is being
fed to the ewes.
A sudden change in the
diet when put w ith the ewes co uld cause
the rams to go off feed, making them
ineffective as breeding stock.
When
breeding takes pla ce on the r ange
( pastorial management systems) i t is
important to have the rams i n good
co ndition at the comme n ce ment o f the
breeding season.
See table 11 for
recommended nutrient r e quirem ent s for
rams during the 11 flushing period, 11
55
Table 11. Daily t~utrient Requirements of Sheep
Dry
Hatter
Intake
Prote i n
Body (or
% of
lit. 1055)
(kg) (g)
(kg)
live
0 iet
Dens i ty
(Heal
lit.
/kg)
Gain
En e r gy
Vitamin
A
D iTON a
ME
(Meal) (kg)
rub
Total
gestible Ca
p
(kg)
(g)
(g)
(g)
( 1000
1u)
(g)
Vita·
min
0
( 1U)
EIIES AND LAitB S
Mainten ance, Growt h, Non-lact ati ng and Fir st 15 \leeks of Gesta tion
10
15
20
25
30
35
0
25
50
100
150
• 33
• 36
.)9
• 42
.)9
3.6
). 9
4. 2
), 9
1. 60
1. 75
1. 95
2. 40
), 10
• 52
• 64
• 76
1. 00
1. 24
. 14
. 18
. 21
• 28
• )4
.18
• 23
. 27
• 35
. 44
26
30
35
43
49
12
1s
18
24
30
2. 2
2. 2
2. 3
2. 3
2. 4
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.6
1.6
1.8
1. 8
1.9
1.9
2.0
60
62
64
66
67
0
25
50
100
150
• 45
. 49
. 53
. 56
. 52
3 .o
), 3
3. 5
),7
3. 5
1. 60
1.80
2.00
2. 40
) . 10
.71
. 87
1.04
1. 37
1.69
• 20
. 24
. 29
. )8
·'•7
• 25
. 31
• 37
. 49
. 60
36
42
49
58
65
17
21
25
33
41
2.7
2. 7
2. 8
2. 9
), 0
1.7
1. 7
1.8
1.9
2. 0
2. 8
2. 8
2. 9
) .0
) .1
194
194
196
198
200
0
25
50
100
150
• 55
.61
.66
• 71
.65
2.8
) .0
),3
3.6
),3
1. 60
1.80
2.00
2. 40
J, 10
0.88
1. 08
1. 29
1. 69
2. 10
. 24
• 30
• 36
• 47
. sa
• 31
. )8
. 46
44
52
59
72
81
21
26
)1
41
50
), 2
3. 2
),3
3. 4
).6
2.1
2. 2
2. 3
2. 4
2. 4
) .9
),9
4. 0
4. 1
4. 2
124
126
128
130
133
0
25
50
100
150
• 65
• 72
• 78
. 8)
1.60
.n
2.6
2. 9
3.1
).J
J. 1
1.80
2. 00
2.40
), 10
1. 04
1.28
1. 52
2.00
2. 48
• 29
.)6
• 42
.55
.69
.45
• 54
• 71
.88
53
61
70
85
96
25
31
36
48
60
4. 0 2 . 6
4.1 2. 7
4. 1 2. 7
4. 2 2.8
4. J 2 . 9
4. 8
4. 9
4. 9
s.o
5.1
156
156
160
164
167
0
so
100
125
14 0
• 75
.89
.95
.94
.87
2. 5
J.0
J,Q
),1
2. 9
1.60
2 . 00
2.40
2. 75
), 10
1.19
1. 74
2.29
2. 57
2. 7J
. 33
• 48
.6J
• 72
. 75
. 42
• 62
.81
• 92
·97
59
81
98
103
106
27
42
55
60
66
4. 4
4. 6
4. 8
4.9
s.o
3. 1
),2
3. J
),)
s. 9
6 .0
6. 2
6. 3
6. 3
192
194
198
199
200
0
50
100
125
140
• 85
.99
1. 07
1.0 6
.98
2. 4
2. 8
3. 1
), 1
2.8
1. 60
2.00
2. 40
2. 75
), 10
1. )4
1. 96
2. 58
2.89
J. 07
. 37
• 54
·71
• 48
• 70
.91
1.02
1. 09
68
100
111
117
121
32
47
62
69
74
s. 6
s. 7
s.s
s. 9
s. 9
J, 1
), 1
3. 2
).J
3. 4
),9
J, 9
4, 0
4. 1
4. 2
210
212
214
218
220
),)
.so
. 85
. 60
• 74
,)]
) .0
56
Tab 1e 11. Da i I y Nutrient Requirements o f
Sheep (Co nt.)
Dry
Matter
Pr ate in
Intake
Diet
Gain
% of
Bod y (o r
lit.
loss)
(kg) (g)
live
(kg)
lit.
EARLY \lEANED LAKB S ( 5 t o
Energy
vita-
Den-
Di-
si ty
gest-
(Heal
/kg)
TON a
ME
(Heal) (kg)
Fub
(kg)
Total ible
(g)
(g)
Ca
(g)
p
(g)
min
Vita-
A
min
0
(I U)
( 1000
IU)
30 kg)
Ha i nt en ance and Grovth
50
100
150
200
250
300
. 10
. 12
. 13
.15
. 16
.18
2. 0
2. 3
2. 7
3.0
3. 2
3.6
4. 3
4. 3
4. 3
4. 3
4. 3
4. 3
50
100
150
200
250
300
. 18
• 21
• 24
.27
. 30
• 32
1.8
2.1
2. 4
2. 7
3. 0
3. 2
4. 0
4.0
4. 0
4.0
4. 0
4. 0
15
50
100
150
200
250
300
• 26
.30
. 34
.38
• 42
. 46
1.7
2.0
2. 3
2. 5
2. 8
3.1
20
100
150
200
250
300
. 41
. 46
. 51
. 57
. 62
25
100
150
200
250
300
30
100
150
200
250
300
10
. 44
• 12
• 14
• 15
. 17
. 19
• 21
. 15
.18
. 20
• 22
• 24
. 84
.96
1.07
1. 18
1. 29
• 20
• 23
. 27
• 30
• 33
. 36
. 26
. 30
• 34
. 38
• 42
.46
3. 8
3. 8
3. 8
3. 8
3. 8
3. 8
- 99
1. 1 4
1. 30
1.45
1. 60
1. 75
.27
• 31
• 36
. 40
• 44
. 48
2. 0
2. 3
2. 6
2. 8
3. 1
3. 5
3. 5
3. 5
3. 5
3. 5
1. 42
1. 61
1.80
1. 99
2. 18
• 39
. 44
.47
• 55
.62
.69
• 76
1. 9
2. 2
2. 5
2. 8
3.0
3. 1
3. 1
3.1
3. 1
3.1
. 64
2. 1
2. 4
2. 7
3.0
3. 3
3.0
3. 0
3.0
3. 0
3.0
·73
.81
.90
.98
29
36
38
43
46
52
1.8
1.8
1.9
1.9
2. 0
2.0
1.3
1. 3
1.3
1. 3
1. 4
1.4
90
99
108
49
56
64
72
79
86
2. 1
2. 1
2. 2
2. 3
2. 4
2. 5
1.5
1.5
1. 5
1. 6
1.7
1.7
. 85
67
67
67
67
67
67
• 35
. 40
. 46
. 51
• 57
.62
82
95
109
12 1
134
146
66
76
87
97
107
117
2.6
2. 7
2. 7
2. 8
2. 9
3.0
1.8
1.8
1.9
2.0
2. 0
2. 1
1. 28
1. 28
1. 28
1. 28
1. 28
1. 28
98
98
98
98
98
98
• 60
.n
11 9
135
150
166
182
95
108
120
133
146
3. 1
3. 2
3.4
3. 5
3. 6
2. 2
2. 2
2. 4
2. 4
2. 5
1. 70
. so
.ss
. 50
. 57
. 64
. 71
1. 70
1. 70
1. 70
1. 70
133
133
133
133
133
1. 47
1. 69
1. 9 1
2.14
2. 36
• 41
• 47
• 53
. 59
. 65
. 52
. 60
. 68
• 76
. 84
122
141
160
179
198
98
11 3
128
143
158
4.0
4. 0
4.1
4. 2
4. 3
2. 8
2. 8
2. 8
2. 9
3.0
2. 12
2. 12
2.12
2. 12
2.12
168
168
168
168
168
1. 92
2. 18
2. 44
2. 69
2. 95
• 53
. 60
• 67
• 74
. 81
.68
161
182
204
225
248
129
14 6
163
180
198
4. 6
4. 7
4.8
4. 9
5. 0
3. 2
3. 2
3. 3
3. 3
3. 3
2. 55
2. 55
2. 55
2. 55
2. 55
200
200
200
200
200
. so
• 57
.64
.69
.n
. 73
.27
.n
. 87
• 95
1.05
36
45
48
54
58
65
61
70
so
. 50
. 50
• 50
• 50
• 50
.so
. ss
. ss
. ss
• 85
. ss
35
35
35
35
35
35
57
Tab le 11. Da ily Nutrient Requir ements of Sheep (Co nt.)
Dry
Hatter
In take
Prot ei n
Di et
Gain
Body (o r
\It, I oss)
(kg) (g)
%of
(kg)
En e r gy
0 i-
Densi ty
Live
(Meal
lit.
/kg)
gest-
TON"
( Mca I ) (kg)
ME
Fub
Total ib l e
Ca
p
(k g)
(g)
(g)
(g)
(g)
Vitamin
A
min
( 1000
D
Vita-
IU)
( I U)
3. 9
3. 9
4. 0
4. 1
I,. 2
220
223
226
228
230
4. 7
Haint.enance, Growth, Norrl acta t i ng and First 15 Weeks of Ges t atio n (cont.)
40
0
so
100
125
140
so
0
so
100
125
140
60
0
so
100
125
140
. 93
1.1 0
1. 19
1.18
1. 10
2. 3
2. 8
3. 0
J ,O
2.7
1. 60
2. 00
2 . 40
2. 70
J, 10
1.48
2. 16
2. 85
3. 19
3 .40
1.10
1. 30
1.4 1
1.40
1. 30
2. 2
2. 6
2. 8
2.8
2. 6
1. 60
2. 00
2.40
2. 75
- J . OS
1. 75
2. 56
3. 3 7
3. 77
4.0 1
1. 27
1. so
1. 60
1.60
1.48
2. 1
2. 5
2. 7
2. 7
2. 5
1. 60
2.00
2.40
2. 70
J, 10
2. 00
2. 93
3.85
4. 32
4.60
.41
. 60
• 79
. 88
.94
• 52
.77
1. 01
1.1 3
1. 21
75
100
121
131
133
36
52
68
77
82
5. 7
s. 7
5. 9
6.0
6.1
3. 1
3. 1
3. 2
J,3
3.4
. 48
89
118
144
154
157
42
61
81
90
96
s. 9
• 93
1. 04
1.11
.62
• 91
1.20
1. 34
1.4 2
6.0
6. 1
6. 2
6. 3
3. 1
3. 3
3.4
3. 4
3. 5
s. 0
s. 1
s. 2
268
273
276
277
278
. 55
.81
1. 06
1.19
1. '-7
.71
1.04
1. 37
1. 53
1. 63
102
135
164
177
180
48
70
92
104
110
6. 0
6. 2
6 .4
6. 5
6. 5
3. 1
J, 3
3. 5
J, 5
3. 6
5. 8
6 .0
6. 2
6. 3
6. 3
325
328
330
333
333
3. 9
3. 9
4.0
4.1
s. 2
6. 5
8.0
10 . 3
12.5
14.6
180
200
230
278
333
388
5. 9
6.8
8. 2
10.3
12.5
14.6
180
200
235
278
333
388
.71
I,. 8
Last 6 Weeks of Gestation or Last 8 Weeks of Lac tat ionc
20
30
40
50
60
70
100
125
100
75
so
25
• 90
1. 20
1.48
1. 70
1.80
1.96
I,. 5
4.0
3. 7
3.4
3. 0
3.8
2. 55
2.85
2. 65
2. 50
2. 40
2.25
2 . 31
J, 42
3. 90
4, 20
4. 35
4, 37
.64
• 94
1.08
1. 16
1. 20
1. 21
• 82
1.21
1. 38
1. 49
1. 54
1. 55
103
148
174
191
199
206
62
92
105
113
117
118
1,,1,
1, , 5
3.7
3. 7
3.8
3. 9
4.1
1, , 3
2 . 34
2. 99
3. 37
3. 99
4. 57
s. 13
. 55
• 75
• 93
1.10
1. 26
1. 42
• 71 105
. 96 143
1.20 176
1.41 209
1. 62 239
1. 82 267
60
82
101
120
137
154
9· 5
9. 8
10.4
10.9
11.5
12.0
6.9
7.1
7 , I,
7.8
8. 2
8. 6
First 8 Weeks of Lactationd
20
30
40
so
60
70
-10
-20
-30
- 30
.99
1. 35
1.67
1.97
2. 26
2. 54
s. 0
1,, 5
4. 2
J.9
3.8
3. 6
2. 35
2. 20
2. 00
2.00
2 .oo
2.00
58
Table 11. Daily Nutrient Requirements of Sheep (Cont.)
Dry
Hatter
Intake
Prate in
Diet
Gain
Body (or
1./t. loss)
(kg) (g)
(kg)
Energy
Vitamin
0 i-
% of
Dens i ty
Live
(Meal
1./t.
/kg)
TON a
ME
(Meal) (kg)
2.25
2.1 s
2 .os
2.05
1. 90
1. 90
1.90
2 . 59
3.07
J . 48
3 - 99
4. 08
4. 51
4. 92
FUb
gestTotal ib 1e Ca
(kg)
(g)
(g)
• 92
1.09
. 96 1. 23
1. 10 1. 41
1. 1J 1. 45
1. 2 s 1. 60
1. 36 1. 74
11 3
137
159
181
194
212
231
62
74
84
96
98
108
118
(g)
p
(g)
Vita-
A
( 1000
lU)
min
3. 2
4. 2
185
222
277
333
388
444
499
0
( 1u)
RAMS
Maintenance and Growth
30
40
50
60
70
So
90
120
110
100
100
so
80
so
s
1. 1
1. 43
1. 69
1. 94
2. 18
2 . .41
2.63
3.8
3.6
3. 4
3. 2
3. 1
J.O
2-9
. 72
. as
s. 9 3. 2
6. 3 3. s
6.8 3. 8
7. 2 4.0
7. s 4. J
7. 9 4.4
8 . 3 4. 7
s. 2
6. 3
7. 3
8. 3
9. 3
aTON was calculated as 1 kg TON= 3.62 Hea l HE
bru was ca l culated as 1 kg FU
= 2.82
Meal ME (1 FU is equ i valent to the energy
contained in 1 kg of barley).
cHaintenance requirements during the last trimester were calculated as 1]1% of
maintenance.
dTen percent {10%) has been added to above nutrient values for first lamb ewes (20
and 30 kg ewes) to compensate for body growth.
Note' Calcium, phosphorus, ca rotene, and vitamin 0 values have been taken from the
NRC (1975) or the MAFF (1979) .
\Jhen sheep are grazing open range, add 25% to the above nutrient requirements;
where conditions ar e harsh with long distances to water, add SO% to the above
requirements; and when grazing sparsely vege tated mountainous co untry, add 75% to
the above requirements.
Add 25% to the nutrient requirements for twin bearing ewes.
An estimated value of 6.7 Meal ME is provided to an animal
loss (MAFF,
for each kg of body weight
1979)
Add 1.25 Meal ME and 54 g DP, 9 g calcium, and 7 g phosphorus
kg of m i 1 k above one.
for each additional
59
SECTION 8. GOATS
Goats(~~ hircus )
adapt
well
to
temperate and tropi c al countries, to
mountains, deserts, and humid regions;
and, under all these environments wi 11
produce fib er , milk and meat for human
use.
Like other ruminants,
goats are
particularly well suited to utilize poor
quality forages and adapt to many types
of management systems.
Large numb ers of
goats are maintained as "browsers 11 and
used to cont r o l vegetation in and around
homesteads, farmlands,
othe r
highways, and
areas where they can uti 1 i ze most
types of avai !able forage.
In
some
areas they are used in intensive dairy
ope rations to provide a nutritionally
rich and va lu able source of human food.
It may be that the rol e goats play in
providing milk, meat, fib er , and skins
for the Nomadi c people throughout the
arid and sem i-arid regions of Latin
America. Africa, the Middle East, and
Asia gives them unique importance.
There are an estimated 450 m i 11 ion goats
throughout the world.
Despite the
importance of goats to human we l fare,
especially in many developing co untr ies ,
ve ry 1 i t t l e information has been
scientifically developed concerning
their management and feeding.
Du r ing
the p ast f ew years, interest in goat
research has blossomed.
The findings
presented in this report will b e a
summation of a search of the 1 iterature,
materia 1 pre sented at I nternat ion a 1 Goat
Symposiums, personal contact w i th
scientists in Asia, the Middle East,
Africa and India, and from feeding
sta ndards cu rr ently in use.
body we ight).
I nformati o n from this
study indicated that the DMI per unit of
body size was slightly higher for small
c ompa r ed to 1 arger breeds {67 to 70.7
g/\.l kg 0.75, resp ectively) .
Weaned kids
of different breeds and ages were fed ad
libitum f o r eight weeks.
The average
OM I during this period was q% of 1 ive
body weight or 74.13 g/lolk g 0.75.
Studies by Morand-Fehr (1981) indicates
that lactating goats consume approximately 4% o f their 1 ive body weight or
108 g OM/\.Ikg0 . 75 during the lactation
period, and that f o rag e intake may reach
3 to 3.5% of 1 i ve body weight, Sauvant
( 198 1) reported the OMI of Alpine dairy
goats to be approximately 3% of I ive
body weight dur ing the early stages of
pregnancy, declining to less than 2% at
time of parturition.
Dry matter intake
was 3.7% during the lactation period.
Mudgal and Singh (198 1) r epo rted a mean
OM I o f
Cuddeford and de \.laard ( 1981) found the
OM I intake of minature goats to be 5 3.3
g/\.lkg0.75. The diet c onsisted of 300 g
whole barley with or without u r ea
supplementation and barley straw fed ad
1 ibitum. Ranjhan (1980) reported that
studies In India ind i ca ted the OM I
varied fr o m 1.47 to 3.65% o f body weight
and was affected by grazing site.
Mudga 1 and Sengar { 1981} found c rossbred
goat kids fed co ncentr ates and oa t hay,
untreated or treated with formaldehyde
or heat and tanni c acid, co nsumed an
ave r age of 3-39% of their 1 ive body
weight.
Dry Matter Intake
Oyenuga and Akinsoyinu (1976) found that
goats requir ed an average OM I of 2.8% of
body weight daily.
Rajpoot et al.
(1981) reported the OMI for four spe c ies
of indigenous goats studied in I ndia as
being
69. 88 g/lol kg0.75 (3.14% of
live
1.86 and 2.27 % of 1 ive body
weight for cast rat ed goats r ece i v ing 1.6
to 1.7 ( di e t 1 ) and eithe r 6.5 or 7.9
(diet 2) g protein/kg 0~1. r es pec tively.
or 65.78 g/lol kg 0.75
of dry
matter.
Masson and de Simiane (1981)
reported that goats grazing legume
pastures consumed 69.8 g DM/'Wkg 0. 75,
wh i 1 e those grazing gram inaceae consume<!
50.2 g DM/Iolkg0 . 75 .
From the
informati o n previously
presented, i t has been determined that
the OMI of goats varies according to the
60
energy density of the diet.
The average
OM I, however, is approximate 1y 3.2 1% of
1 ive body weight or 66 g DH / II kg0 - 75 .
re spect ively.
Rajpoot e t al. (1980,
cited by Raj poo t et al . 1981)) found the
OM I of 4 different breeds o f goats to be
The l atter f i gur e a ppears t o be more
3.0 ].
co nsisten t , and was, therefo r e, us ed to
3. 32 ,
f actori a lly c al c ulate the OMI
shown in
table 12.
Growth
There is co nfl ic ting va riations in DH.l
values f o r growth report ed
in the
1 iterature.
Seventeen values giving the
g DH /IIkg 0. 75 va ried from o].o to ]B.S.
In trials using male and f e ma le kids .
Ma v r ogenis e t al. (1979) found that the
OMI of males ave r aged slight ly higher
1.0 75 to .9 3 5
kg/d, 2.5 and 2 . 6% of 1 ive body weight,
and 6o.4 and 61.5 g / ll kg0.75 for males
and females, respect ive ly. Louca et al.
( 1977) r eported a DH I of 2.5 and 2.] % of
7].2;
3. 2.
82.5 ;
3.o8 .
83.8 ;
and
]4.9 as p e r ce nt of body weight and
g OM/Wkg0 .7 5 , respe ct i vel y.
Sauvant
(1981} found the OMI of Alpine goats to
be approximately 2.5% of b ody weight at
conce ption, whi ch gradua lly dec r eased to
about 1.8% at term . Th ese findings are
in agreement with those of Oyenuga and
Akinsoyinu (1976) who suggested that the
d ec r ease in OM I as pregnan cy advances is
ca us e d by a redu ction in the volume o f
the abdominal cavity , which I imits
pot e ntial dist e nsi o n of the digesti ve
tract and thus the amount of food
intake .
than that of females;
body weight for male and f emale goats,
respec tively.
The mean o f the 17 va lues
reported is 66 g OH/W'kg0.75 , whi c h was
used to ca l c ulat e th e OMI shown in tabl e
12. The OM I ex pressed as p e r ce nt o f
I ive body weig ht va ried fr om 1. 11 to
4. 1. The mean o f 29 v alues reported was
2.65% of 1 i ve b ody weight.
The 'F 1 fact o r us e d to adjust the OM I
with th e energy density of the diet was
ca l c ulat ed u si ng the equation F = -.666
+ 1.33 3 HE - . 2666 HE 2 •
Th e average OMI value, ca lculated from
the above data is ]6.3 g / ll kgO. 75 .
lactation
The DHI during lactation ha s been
r e ported as 3.94% o f body weight and
108. 1 g/ll kg0 . 75 ( Ho rand-Fehr. 1981);
4.8 2% B\1 and 111.59 g / llkg 0 . 75 (Rajpoot
et a l. 1981).
During the first six
weeks of la c tation, Damascus goats
co n s um ed an average DH I of 4.64 and
4.6 3% o f their 1 i ve weig ht a nd 12 8 .55
and
goats were fed d iets
planes o f nutrition
(medium 3.7 5 and high o.B Heal HE/d;
the
prot ein conten t was the same in both
diets) during late pregnancy and early
lactation (Agr icu ltur e Resear c h Institute, 19]]}. The OM I during the 7 weeks
prior to kidding was 1.0 3 kg of
concentrates and .59 kg roughage, and
1.4 kg concentrates and
. 53 kg
roughag e for the medium and high energy
diets, respec tively.
This was equal to
2.2 and 2.5% of 1 i ve body weight, o r
64.5 and 75.1
g OH/IIkg 0.75
m edium
high
and
129.75
g / 11 kg0 . 75 when
fed
diets
providing a med ium and a high plan e of
nutrition, resp ectively (Agriculture
Resea r ch Institute , 1977).
Late Pregnancy
Sixty Damas c us
containing two
This
value was used to ca l c ulate the OHI
val ues for 1 ate pr eg nan cy as present ed
in table 12.
ene rg y
for
th e
diets,
The me an of these f o ur va lues i s 119 . 58
g OM/\J kg 0. 75 DH I for I act at i ng goats.
This value was us ed to calcu late the OH1
values appearing in table 12.
Preweaned Kids
Rajpoot et al. (1981) reported preweaned kids aver aged 2.59, 1.89 and 1.67
OM I ex pressed as p e r ce nt o f 1 ive body
weight f o r the first. second , and third
month after birth. r espectively. Male
and female kids weighing an average of
61
36.32 and 31.35 kg, respectively, were
fed an all-concen.trate diet.
The DMI
was 2.96 and 2.95% of body weight, and
66.4 and 69.8 g/11 kg C. 75 for male and
female goats, respectively (Agricultu r e
Research tnst i tute, 1977). The OM Is
expressed as g/1Jk 9 0 .7 5 for the first,
second and third months were 35 . 3,
28.95, and 27.82, respe ctively .
The
compositions of the diets during the
first, second and third months were:
concentrate mixture 3. 87. 9.50 and
50.03; green alfalfa 2.03, 9.55 and
22.97; gram straw 2.63. 5.1, and 6.47;
and milk 91.47; 75.85 and 20.53%,
respectively.
These values ca n be used
as guide! in es in determining the DMI for
pre-weaned kids.
Water Tolerance
The goat has an amazing ab i I it y to withstand l ong periods of water deprivation
while maintaining the ca pac ity to graze
normally and produce milk. Shkolnik and
Silanikove (1981) report that the small
Bedouin and similar breeds of goats hav e
been obse r ve d grazing two days walking
distance from water. After 1ong periods
of dehydration, the goat wi II consume
water in amounts equal to 44 to 47% of
their de hydrated body weight.
Shkolnik
and S i l ani kove ( 198 1 ) cone l uded:
Throughout the cycle of dehydration
--rehydration that co ntinues
unceasingly in the desert, the
goats contiriue to eat and maintain
their body sol ids and productive
potentials.
In no case was
haemolysis or other ill-effects
observed following voluminous
drinking.
It is the rumen that, by
controlling the distribution of
water i nb i bed, helps these desert
ruminants maintain their osmotic
hemeostasis. (p 237)
Kha n and Ghosh ( 1981) reported that
goats and sheep of comparab l e body
weight were depri ve d of wat e r for four
days.
During this period, the goats
lost 1.5% of their body we ight per day
compa red to 6% per day for the sheep.
Research fr om Australia indicated that
ca ttle deprived of water will lose
approximately 8% of their body weight
per day.
Temperate zone sheep breeds
will lose 3 to 4%of their body weight
per day and camels about 2%.
The
findings from these resear c h studies
clear ly show the goat to be superior to
catt le and sheep in water utilization
when subject to ~txtremel y arid
conditions . This attribute makes the
goat most sui table for use under
marginal ecological environments.
Eating Habits
Because of so few scientific irwestigations into feeding habits, dry matt er
intakes and digestive processes of
goats, the information available is of a
general nature.
Malechek and Pro venza ( 1981) cited a
com prehensive rev iew by van Dyne et al .
(1980) concer n i ng the dietary habits of
he rbivores, that including goats , sheep
and cat t 1 e free-grazing th roughout the
world.
They determined fr om the infermat ion avai I able that goats selected 60%
shrubs, 30% grass and 10% forbes,
co mpared to a selection by sheep of 20%
shrubs, 30% forbes, and 50% grass.
These data, as presented, are on a
yearly basis and do not reflect seasonal
variations in plant growth, availabilit y
and select ion by the different species.
For example , it has been reported
(Malechek and Provenza, 1981) that the
grass component can approach 80% of a
goat's diet.
The information available is inconclusive in su pp orting the hypothesis that
goats are able to digest fibrous
material more efficiently than other
ruminants. The ability of the goat to
survive under conditions in which the
feed re~ou r ce3 ar~ ~f extreme l y poor
quality may be due to their selecti ng of
the more nutritive portions of the
a11ailable plants.
There is some
evidence that goats will accept diets
containing higher levels o f tannins,
a l kaloids and other plant metabolites.
62
Church (1979), in studies designed to
co mpare the sensory responses of several
ruminants to the four basic sensations
o f sweet, salty , bitter and sour, found
that goats differed markedly fr om other
rum i nants in their sensitivity ( rej ection or acceptance) to feeds ex hib iti ng
these characteristics.
tolerant of
substances .
feeds
Goats were more
conta ining
bitter
Morand-Fehr ( 1981) reported that goats
digest parietal carbohyd rates very well
and suggested that this may be due to
their ability to recycle large amounts
of urea.
Nutrient Requirements
Energy
Goats,
like all
other animals,
The energy requirement for
main tenance of any animal is primarily
dependent upon how much energy it
expends to: maintain its metabolic
processes; satisfy stress requir ements
caused by management, envi r onmenta l or
disease fa ctors; and provide for
activity associated with obtain ing its
food.
All of these needs must be
satisfied or the animal will not be able
to meet its product ion and( or)
reproduction potential.
f.!aintenan.ce .
The energy requirements for goats
presented in table 12 were derived by
ave rag ing experimental data reported
from several studies using diff erent
breeds o f goats. Values found in the
1 i terature, as reported by Rajpoot et
at.
( 1 981).
varied between 57 . 05
(Opstvedt, 1967) and 139.85 (French,
1944) kcal HE!IIkg0.75.
need
adequate energy f or maintenance, growth,
pr oduct i o n and reprodU ction.
When
ene rgy intake by an animal is insuffi-
cie nt to sustain its physiological
fun ctions , performance is adverse I y
affected. Each segment of the reproduction cycle is affected.
low energy
intake will affect growth, onset of
puberty, fertility, and milk produc tion.
When the energy intake is too low to
support maintenance, the anima1 1 s
resistance to disease is lowered, which
co mplicates the difficulties.
Generally, when energy intake i s low,
intakes of other essential nutrients
such as prot ein and minerals will also
be inadequate.
Usually, dry matter intake is an
indicator of the amounts of nutrients
being consumed.
This, however, is
affec ted by v arious factors, such as
availability, palatab l l ity, moisture
content of the feed, and the amount of
fibrous materials present.
Recently, several resear c h projec ts have
been conducted to determine the energy
requirements of goats for maintenan ce ,
growth, reproduction, and la ctation .
Each of these will be dis c ussed
separate 1 y.
Rajpoot et al. (1981) report ed an
average value of 101.98 kcal ME /'Wkg0 . 75
as the ma int e nance requirement fo r goats
in general.
The values in this study
va ried, however, from 88.02 to 116.7
kcal ME/WkgO · 75. Oyenuga and Okinsoyinu
(1976) suggest a va lue of 100 kcal
ME/W kg0 . 73 f or maintenance.
This
co nverts to approximately 110 kcal
HE/WkgO. 75.
Sauvant ( 19 8 1 ) reported 133.05 kcal
ME/Vk 9 0.75 as the maintenance requirement for lactating goats.
ltoh et al.
(1979. cited by Rajpoot et al. 1981)
found the maintenance requirement of
cas trat ed Japanese native goats to be
107.03 kcal HE/Wkg o . 75.
Rajpoot et at. ( 1981) c ited the
following ME maintenance requirements
(kcal ME/'WkgO. 75) from several reports:
139. 85 (French, 1944 ) , 111.00 (Haenlein,
1950), 115.09 (Majumda r, 1960), 91.99
(Webster and Wilson, 1966), 57.05
(Opstvedt, 196 7) , 94.82 (Mackenzie,
1967), 90.35 (Oevendra, 1967), 109.93
(Singh and Sengar, 1970), 100.00 (Flatt
et al. 1972) , 95.66 (Lindhal, 1972),
92.92 (Akinsoyinu 1974), 91.87 (Winter
and Gersch, 1974), 127.50 (Rindsig,
1977), 113.34 (Sengar, 1980), and 87.31
63
(lto h et al. 1979).
The mean of these
values i s 103.45 kcal ME/W k g0 . 75, which
was u sed to calculate the maintenan ce
requirements pr esented in table 12 for
non-la c tating goats and goats during
thei r first 3 months of pr egna ncy.
This
co mpar es f avo r ably with the maint enance
r equirement for shee p, whi ch was 93 kcal
HE/IIk g0.75; and is co nsiderably l ower
th an that (118 kcal ME/II kg0.75) used in
ca l c ulating the HE requ i rement o f
ca ttle.
Rajpo ot et al. ( 1981) r eports
tha t you ng goat kids fed a mixtur e of
(Akinsoyinu et al. 1978) , 181.0
(Zwage rm a nn, 1921), and 228 . 55 (H u ston
et a 1. 1971) kca l ME / II kgo . 75 .
Th ese
values averaged 19' 77 kcal ME/II kg0.75 ,
whic h was used to ca l c ulate the HE
r equirements appearing in t ab le 12.
Lactation. Th e HE ma l ntenance r equirement for l ac tating goats a ppar e ntly
f ollo ws the p at tern of other ruminant
specie s, i.e. 118 kca l/ Wkg0.75 f o r nonla c tating dairy co ws co mpared to 1 3 4
kcal/W ~o..g0.75 f o r those in lactatio n.
GPrut h.
co nce ntrates plus grain st r aw and green
na pi e rgr ass requir ed app r oximately &. 4 3
kca l
ME / g gain.
Other studies (as c ited
b y Ra j poot et al.
19 81} indi cated the
f oll owing HE requ i rements per g o f gain:
2.61 (Fren c h, 1944). 10.18 (Devendra,
1967), 5.14 (Akinsoyinu , 19 7 4), and 6.21
(O pstvedt,
1969).
Oyenuga and
Aki ns oyinu (1976)
suggest
a value o f
5. 56 kcal ME / g ga i n.
The 2. 6 1 kcal HE /IIkgO . 75 r epo rt ed by
French (1944; cite d by Rajpoot et al.
1981 ) was co nsidered t o be too low and
was not used in arriving at the me a n
value . The average of the ot her values
i s 6 . 7 kc a 1 ME/ g gain .
Th i s v a 1 ue i s
lower than that used for sheep (9.7 kcal
ME/g gain) .
The value 6.7 kcal HE / g
ga i n was used to calcula te the ME
requirement f or growth at all body
weights and i n c r ements of a c tiv i ty
(ta ble 12).
Pregnancy . • The i ncrease in energy
r e quirement during the early stages of
pregnan c y is minimal and is not
co ns ide red here. The suggested requirements ln table 12 apply to the last 8
weeks of the gestation period .
Rajpoot et al . (198 1) re po r ted that the
OM I during the 1ater stages of pregnancy
was 79.6 g DH /IIkg 0. 75 or 3.25 % of 1 iv e
body weight.
Data from this study
suggested a ME requirement of 180.94
kcal /Wkg 0 . 75 . Oyenuga and Akinsoyinu
( 19761 reported a v alue of 194.7 kcal
ME/IIk c0.75.
Other values (ci ted by
Rajpo'ot et al. 1981) include: 17 3.6
Rajpoot et a l. (1981) f ou nd the HE
maintena nce re quir ements of lac tating
goats to be 161.4 3 kcal HE/II kg0.75 .
Akinsoyinu ( 1974 ; cit ed by Rajp oo t et
al. 1981) suggested 1 64 . 46 k c al
HE /Wkg 0. 75 as the maintenance requi remen t of lac tat i ng goats. The average o f
t h ese two values,
1 62 . 9 4 k cal
HE / Wk 0.75, was used in calc ulating th e
9
HE r e quir emen t for lactatio n pr esente d
in t a ble 12.
The e nergy requirement for m i 1 k
pr od uction has been studied by several
i nvestigators.
It appear s that th e
co nstituents in milk are similar
regardless of sour ce--co w, sheep, goat
or othe r mammal .
Th ere is, however.
some variati o n between spec ies, as wel l
as within species, in the levels of fat
and othe r constituents.
Sauvant ( 19 81) found the energy (ME)
requ i rement of 4% FCM to be 1246
kcal/kg.
Rajpoot et al. ( 1 981)
suggested a value of 1240 k c al/kg .
Others, as cited by Rajpoot et al.
(1981) , suggested the following values
per kg of 4% FCH: 1260 (Knowles and
llatkins , 1938 ) , 1042 (Haenlein, 1950),
1020 (Kai lais sakis, 1 959), 1 349
(Mackenzie, 1967), 1156 (Deve ndra and
Burns, 1970), 1329 (Winte r and Gersch,
1974), and 1187 (Rindsig,
1977).
Opstvedt (1967l repo r ted a va lu e of 660
kcal/kg 4% FCM. This extremly l ow value
was not used in calculating the ME
requ i rement of m i 1k. The aver age of the
othe r nine values. 1203 kca l/ kg 4% FCM.
was used in c a lc ulating the values
presented in table 13. This c ompares
64
favorable with the 1144 kcal/kg 4%FCM
us ed f or cattle and 12SO kcal/kg milk
Adult (breeding and
lacta ting)
JO . 67
DP /He a I HE
containing 6.8% fat used for sheep .
For
further information on milk co n stit uents
Ave r age all gr o ups
3 1.53
DP/Mca1 ME
see table 13.
Protei n
Maintenance .
Prote i ns suffi cie nt to
me e t the animai•s daily losses i n fec es.
urine and by m i see 1 1 aneous means must be
provided in the diet.
Animals ar e only
able to sto r e small amounts of reserv e
pr ote in in thei r bodies.
Th e r efore,
prote i n must be ava i I ab l e at al l t im es
in o rd er to pr omo te opt imum perfor mance
and maintain the healt h o f the animal.
Akinsoyinu (1981) found the OP requirement for maintenance in the African
Dw arf goat to be . 7 to .76 g/ d /llkg D. 75 .
Th is va lu e is somewhat lower than the
va I u e of 3 . 13 g DP/\./kg 0. 75 r eported by
Rajpoot et a l. (1981) . Reynolds (1981)
r e por ts a DP r e quirement o f 1. 75
g/\J kgO. 75 for Small East Afri ca n go ats.
Rajpoot et al. (1981) c it es th e following g DP /\Jk 0.75 req uir e ment as r epo rt ed
9
in the 1 it e r at ur e:
1.36 (Hut c hin son and
Mo rri s . 19 36 ), 2. 66 (Haenl e in . 1950),
2.5 ( Maju md a r , 1960), 2.39 (Ops t vedt,
1 967), 2. 34 (Macke nzi e . 1 967). 2.85
(Si ngh and Senga r, 1970), 3.19 (\.linte r
and Go rs c h. 19 74) , 2 . 03 (Mba et a1.
1975) . J .6 J ( Rindsig, 1977 ) , 2.89 (Singh
a nd Hudg a1, 1978), ) .4 0 (Sengar , 1980).
2 . 12 ( lt oh et a1. 1 979) . and J . 05
(Rajpoot et at. 1980). Th e average of
th ese va lue s i s 2.51 g OP/\J k 0.75.
9
Growth.
The OP r equi r emen t s for gr owth
have bee n determined by several invest igato r s. Ak.insoyinu ( 1981 ) r eco mmend e d
.D6 g DP/II kgD.75/ g o f live weight gain.
Rajpoot et al. ( 1 981) rep o rt ed the
following r elationshi p betw ee n energy
and prote in at diff e rent stages of
growth (age in months)!
Up t o 6 months
32. 51
DP /Hca1 HE
Up to 10 months
)2 .29
DP /Hcal HE
Up to 14 months
JD.67
DP/Hca1 ME
These values co mpare with those r eported
b y ot h e r s (cited by Rajpoot et a l.
1981) , 29 . 4 (Haenlein , 1950); 2 1.7
( Majumdar. 1960); 41.9 (Opstvedt, 1967) ;
23.4 (Macke nz ie, 1970) ; 25.9 (Singh and
Se ng a r, 1970); 7. 4 (Akinsoyi nu, 1 974);
)4 .7 (\l int e r and Gors c h, 1974); 28 .5
(Rindsig . 1977) ; 30. 7 (Ra jpoot et al.
197 9) ; 30
(Sengar , 19 80) ; and 24 . 3
( ltoh et al. 1979). The mea n is 28.8 g
OP/ Mc al ME. Th e value of 7.4 r eporte d
by Aki n soyinu appea r e d to be in e rr o r
a nd was not in cluded in the average.
Th e ca lori c to protein r atio used to
ca l c ulate the OP r equi r ement pr esented
i n tabl e 12 f or maintenance and ma i ntenance plus gr owth was 1 Meal ME= 28.8 g
DP "' 4 2. 3 g tot al prot e in (the average
digestibility o f total protein was
ass um ed to be 68%) .
This value is
slight ly h ig her than that suggest e d by
the NR C (198 1) whi c h is 1 t1 ca 1 ME • 27 g
DP -= 40 g tot a 1 prat e in.
Th e OP r e quir e me nt s for
pr eg nan cy and lac tation a pp ea r to be
slightly higher t han f or maintenance a nd
growth . Th is may r eflect cha nge s in the
endocrine syst e m as the body adjusts to
the physiological c hanges occu rring.
PY'egnanay .
Four va lu es ha ve b een reported by
Rajpoot e t al. ( 1981) as OP r e quir ements
during pregnan cy .
Aki n soy inu ( 1974)
f o und th e calor i e to protein requirement
to b e 27 g OP /Mca l ME. Ra jpoot et al.
( 198 1) found a r ela tionship of 30 . 7 g DP
fo r each Mea 1 of ME, a nd Zwag e rmann
(19 21 ) repor ted that 38 . 2 g DP for each
Meal ME would meet the r eq uirem e nts o f
p r e gnant goats .
Huston et al. (1971)
sugg es t ed that a r atio o f 29.5 g DP /
Meal ME was a deq uat e t o meet the prot e in
r e quir emen t s of preg nan t goats.
The
mean o f these va lues is 3 1.6 g DP/Mcal
ME, which was used to ca l cu l a te the
values s hown in tabl e 12 fo r th e last
eight weeks of gestatio n.
65
Lac tation .
Only one value was reported
for lactating goats.
Rajpoot et al.
(1979 , cited by Rajpoot et al. 1981)
found that a ratio of 30. 66 g DP/Mcal ME
would satisfactorily meet the pr otein
maintenance requirements of lactating
goats .
In the absence of further Information
concerning the OP requirements for
pregnant and lactating goats; and
considering the small variation between
those values given and the average DP
requirement for pregnant animals, the
ratio of 32 g OP/Hcal ME was used to
calculate DP values for pregnant and
lactating goats.
The protein requirement for milk was
determined from the average of 10 values
repo r ted in the I iterature (cited by
Rajpoot et al. 1981).
The amount of
protein required per kg of 4% fatco rrected milk (FCH) was: 52 (Knowles
and \/atkins, 1938) , 50 (Haenlein, 1950),
54 (Kailaissakis, 1959) . 50 (Mackenzie,
1967), 60 (Opstvedt , 1967), 65 (Devendra
and Burns, 1970), 50 (French, 1944), 65
{Wi nter and Gersch, 1979), 51 {Rindsig,
1977), and 47 (Rajpoot et al. 1979)
g/kg .
The mean of these va lu es, 53 g
DP/kg 4% FCH was used to calcu l ate the
OP requirement for milk that is given in
table 13.
Minerals
Refer to Section 4 and Appendix 1 for a
general description of several minerals
and the roles they play In animal
nutrition.
Recent work by Kessler (1981) suggests
the daily dietary maintenance requireme nt of g oats weighing 60 kg each is:
Ca, 4 g; P, 3 g; Hg, 1 g; and Na, 1 g.
The NRC (1981) recommends 3 g Ca and 2.1
g P daily for an animal weighing 60 kg.
In view of the 1 imited amount of
in format ion avai I able on min eral
requirements of goats, an ave r age daily
value of 3.50 g Ca and 2.55 g P for a 60
kg goat was used. This is equivalent to
.16 g Ca/d/llkgD.75 and .12 g P/llkgD .75.
These values were used in calc ulating
the ca lcium and phosphorus re c ommendations appearing in table 12.
It is
assumed that the r equirements of goats
for micro-minerals are similar to those
of other ruminant species.
The NRC
(1981) suggests that major minerals such
as calci um, phosphorus, sodi urn,
ch l o rine, magnesium, potassium and
sulfur be supplied in 1 iberal amounts.
Seve ral other minerals (iron, iodine,
copper, molybdenum, zinc, manganese,
cobalt, selenium and fluorine) are
essential in trace amounts.
Gene r ally,
these are included in a good tra ce
mineral salt mixture.
Vitamins
A general discussion of several vitamins
is found in Section
5.
Pasture and range plants usually co nt ain
adequate levels of vitamins to maintain
healthy animals.
During periods of
drought, or when the only source of
feedstu ff s is c rop residues, vitamin
supplementation especially vitamin A,
may become extreme I y important.
Vitamin A.
'When green forages are
available, the supply of vitamin A will
usually be adequate to meet al l the
animal• s needs for growth, production or
reproduction. 'When these forages are
weathered, or poor quality hays and
straws ar e the primary source of feed.,
vitamin A supplementation may become
nec essa ry.
Vitamin D. Vi tam in 0 is essential for
the proper uti I ization of ca l ci um and
phoshorus by goats. \Jhen deficient, a
co ndition known as rickets, which causes
irregularly shaped bones, may occur.
Vitamin 0 is provided through feeds that
have been exposed to sunlight. Also,
d i rect exposu r e of an animal 1 s skin to
sunlight causes irradiation of
7-dehyd r ocholestrol in the skin which is
a precurso r to the formation of vitamin
D. Normal grazing co nditions provide
adequate vi tam in 0 to meet the
r eq uirements of goats.
66
Vitamin e.
Oc cas ionally, vitamin E is
It must be kept in mind, however, that
\Jhen
young ruminant animals, pr ;o r to full
this occu r s in sheep, they develop white
development of the forestomachs, must be
found to be deficient in the diet.
mus c le disease.
Th is disease has not
Other vitamins .
Vitamin K,
provid ed
adequat e
amounts
of
all
essential vitamins in their diet.
been reported in goats.
B complex ,
and Care either adequate in the diet or
are synthesized by the microflora in t he
rum en in adequate amounts to meet the
nutriti onal requirements of the animal.
Th e vitamin A and
0 values
shown
in
tab 1es 12 and 13 have been taken fr om
the NRC (1981).
67
Table 12. Oai ly Nutrient Requirements of Goats
Dry
Prate in
Hatter
lntak ea
Diet
Den-
Gain
Body (or
lit.
loss)
(kg) (g)
% of
(kg)
Live
lit.
5
Energy
Vita-
0 igest-
i ty
(Meal
/kg)
TON
(Heal) (kg)
ME
min
FU
Tot a 1 ible
Ca
(kg)
(g)
(g)
(g)
Ka l ntenance, Gr owt h and Early Gestation
0
25
50
.19
• 22
• 21
•••
•. 2
I. 80
2. 35
3. 05
. 35
. 52
.69
.10
• lo
. 19
• 12
.18
• 20
15
22
29
10
15
20
•5
.8
1.1
0
25
50
75
. 32
• 36
• 37
• 35
J. 2
3. 6
J. 7
3. 5
I. 80
2.10
2. so
J. OS
. 58
. 75
. 92
1.09
. 16
. 21
.25
. 30
• 21
.27
.J J
• 39
25
32
39
46
17
22
26
31
.9
1. 2
1.5
1.9
15
0
25
so
75
• 44
. •s
• 50
• 50
2.9
3. 0
J. 3
3. 3
1. so
1.90
2. 30
2 . 60
. 79
. 86
1. IJ
1. 30
• 22
. 20
• 31
. 36
. 28
. 30
.40
• o6
33
36
48
55
23
25
33
37
20
0
25
so
75
100
• s•
. sa
.60
. 62
. 62
2. 7
2. 9
J .O
J. 1
J. 1
1. 80
2. 00
2.20
2. •o
2. 70
.98
1. J l
1. 49
1. 66
• 27
• 32
.J6
• o1
• o6
.J s
. ol
. 07
• 53
• 59
ol
09
56
63
70
0
25
so
75
100
125
• 6o
.68
.]1
2. 7
2. 7
2.8
2. 9
J.O
2. 8
1.80
2.00
2. 15
2. 30
2. 50
2.85
1.16
1. JJ
1. so
1.67
I. a•
2.03
• 32
.J7
• 01
• o6
• 51
• 56
• ol
. •7
• 53
• 59
• 65
.]2
0
25
so
75
100
125
• 7•
.7]
. 80
.83
. a•
• a•
2. 5
2.6
2. 7
2. 8
2. 8
2.8
I. 80
1. 90
2. 05
2. 20
2. •o
2. 60
I. 33
1. a•
2. 01
2.18
• 37
•• 1
• o6
• 51
• 56
.60
• 07
. 53
• 59
.65
• 71
. 7]
78
89
92
0
25
50
75
100
125
. 91
.95
.98
1.01
1. o•
1.05
2. 2
2••
2 ••
2. 5
2. 5
2. 5
I. 80
1.90
2 . os
2.15
2. 30
2. •o
I. 65
1. 82
2. 00
2.17
2. Jo
2. 51
• o6
• so
• 55
.60
• 65
. 69
. 59
.65
• 71
.7]
. 83
.89
85
92
99
106
10
25
30
oo
·71
• 73
. 7•
3 .8
I. 15
1. 50
I. 67
p
(g)
..
A
Vitamin
(I 000
I U)
0
(I U)
••
•5
50
78
105
•7
.9
1.2
1.5
•5
.6
.8
84
112
139
162
1.2
1.5
1.9
2. 2
.9
1.1
l.o
1.7
.6
.7
.8
1.0
114
1o2
169
192
28
33
36
oJ
•a
1.5
1.8
2. 1
2 ••
2. 8
1.1
1.3
1.6
1.9
2. I
•7
.8
.9
1.1
I. 2
1oo
172
199
232
zs•
09
56
63
71
78
86
33
38
oJ
•a
53
58
1.8
2. 1
2 ••
2. 7
3. 1
J ••
1. 3
1. 5
1.8
2. 1
2. 3
2. 5
.8
.9
1.0
1.2
1.3
1.0
169
197
220
2o7
279
307
56
63
38
oJ
•a
53
sa
63
2. 1
2••
2.7
3. 1
J.4
J. 7
1.5
1.7
2. 0
2. 3
2. 5
2. 7
.9
1.0
1.1
1. 3
l.o
1. 5
195
223
250
273
305
333
•a
53
58
62
67
72
2. 5
2. 8
J. 1
J. 5
3. 8
•• 1
1.9
2. 1
2••
2. 7
2.9
J. 1
1.2
1.3
l.o
1.6
1.7
1.8
703
271
298
32 1
353
381
71
70
77
.6
.9
•3
..
68
Table 12. Daily Nutrient Requirements of Goats (Cant.)
Dry
Hatter
\ntakea
Prete in
Diet
Den-
Gain
Body (or
% of
s i ty
\It.
1055)
(kg) (g)
(kg)
Live
lit.
(Meal
/k g)
Vi tcr
min
Energy
DigestTON
ME
(Meal) (k g)
A
Vita-
min
D
( I U)
( 1000
(g)
p
(g)
56
66
75
80
as
90
3. 0
3. 6
4. 3
4. 6
s. 0
s. 3
2. 3
2. 8
3. 3
3. 5
3. 8
4.1
1.4
1.6
1.9
2.0
2. 2
2. 3
285
340
395
42 3
451
479
FU
Total ible
Ca
(kg)
(g)
(g)
82
96
111
118
125
132
I U)
Maintenance . Grovth and Early Gestation (cont.)
0
50
100
125
150
175
1.08
1.15
1. 20
1. 23
1. 24
1.2 4
2. 2
2. 3
2. 4
2. 5
2. 5
2. 5
1. 80
2.00
2. 20
2.30
2 . 40
2. 55
1. 94
2. 28
2. 62
2. 79
2.96
3.13
.n
.82
.86
.69
.81
. 93
.99
1. 05
1.11
60
0
50
100
125
150
175
1. 24
1. 31
1. 37
1. 40
1. 42
1. 42
2. 1
2. 2
2. 3
2. 3
2. 4
2. 4
1. 80
1. 95
2. 15
2.25
2. 35
2. 50
2. 23
2. 57
2. 90
3.17
3 . 34
3. 51
• 62
• 71
. 80
.88
• 92
• 97
. 79
.91
1. 03
1.12
1. 18
1. 24
94
109
123
134
141
148
64
74
84
91
96
101
3. 4
4. 0
4. 7
s.o
5. 4
s. 7
2.6 1.6
3 . 1 1.8
3. 6 2. 1
3. 8 2. 2
4. 1 2. 4
4. 4 2. 5
327
382
437
465
492
520
70
0
50
100
125
150
200
1. 40
1. 46
1. 52
1. 55
1. 57
1. 59
2. 0
2.1
2. 2
2.2
2. 2
2. 3
1. 80
1. 95
2. 10
2.15
2. 25
2. 45
2. 50
2. 84
3 . 18
3. 35
3. 52
3.86
• 69
• 78
. 88
• 93
• 97
1.07
.89
1.01
1. 13
1.19
1. 25
1. 37
106
120
135
142
14 9
163
72
82
92
96
101
111
3. 9
4. 5
s. 2
s. 5
5.9
6. 2
2. 9
3. 4
3. 9
4.1
4. 4
4. 9
1.8
2. 0
2. 3
2. 4
2. 6
2. 8
369
424
479
507
534
589
80
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
1. 57
1. 58
1.67
1. 70
1. 7a
1. 80
1. 72
2. 0
2.0
2. 1
2. 1
2. 2
2. 2
2. 2
1.80
1.95
2.05
2. 20
2. 30
2. 45
2. 95
2. 75
3.08
3 . 42
3 . 75
4 . 09
4. 42
5.06
. 76
.as
. 94
1.04
1. 13
1. 22
1. 40
.98
1.09
1. 21
1. 33
1. 45
1. 57
1. 79
116
130
145
159
17 3
187
214
79
89
98
108
118
127
146
4. 3
4. 9
s. 6
6. 3
6.9
7. 5
a. 2
3. 2
3. 7
4. 2
4. 7
5. 2
s. 7
6. 2
2.0
2. 2
2. 5
2. 7
3. 0
3.2
3. 5
408
463
518
573
62a
683
738
90
95
100
110
115
120
129
137
3. 0
3.0
4 .o
4. 0
4. 0
s.o
s.0
6. 0
2. 1 1.8
2. 1 1.9
2.8 2. 0
2. 8 2. 2
2. 8 2. 3
3. 5 2. 5
3. 5 2. 7
3. 5 2. 9
357
382
408
43 3
456
498
540
582
50
• 54
• 63
• 72
Last 8 Weeks of Gestation and Last 8 \leeks of lac tat ionb
20
25
30
35
40
50
60
70
100
100
100
120
120
120
120
120
. 72
.as
.98
1.10
1. 21
1. 43
1. 65
1. as
3.6
3. 4
3. 3
3.1
3 .o
2. 9
2.8
2.6
3.00
3.00
2. so
2. 50
2. 50
2. 50
2 . 50
2. 50
2. 17
2. 57
2. 71
2. 76
3 . 05
3.61
4. 13
4.64
.60
.]]
. 71
• 75
• 76
• 84
1.00
1. 14
1. 28
.91
.96
. 98
1.08
1.28
1. 46
1.65
92
109
115
117
129
153
175
196
69
Table 12o Da i 1y Nutrient Requirements of Goats (Cont.)
Dry
Matter
I ntakea
Prate in
Gain
Body (o r
Wt. loss)
(kg) (g)
(kg)
% of
Diet
Dens i ty
En ergy
(Meal
/kg)
TON
ME
(Meal) (kg)
FU
(kg)
Total
ibl e
(g)
Ca
(g)
p
(g)
2o 74
) o02
3 0 29
lo S4
3 079
4016
4 ° 71
So 14
097
1.07
1. 17
1. 26
1. 34
1.48
1. 67
1. 82
116
128
139
ISO
160
176
199
217
88
97
1OS
113
121
I JJ
151
164
4 o0
4o D
S oO
SoO
s 00
6oO
6oO
7 00
Live
lit.
Vita-
Di-
min
Vita-
gest-
A
min
(g)
( 1000
I U)
D
( IU)
2 o8
2o8
3 0s
los
los
4 02
4o 2
4o 9
4° s
4o 6
4 07
4o 9
SoO
So 2
s 04
So6
First. 10 Weeks of Lactat ionc
20
25
30
35
40
so
60
70
-20
-20
-20
-20
-20
-20
-20
-20
1. 13
1. 34
1. 53
1. 72
1. 90
2 o25
2o 58
2o98
20 4S
2o 30
2 020
2 o10
2 000
1. 90
1. ss
1. 75
so6
So 4
So 1
4o 9
4 08
4o s
4 03
4o 3
076
083
o9l
o98
1. DS
1.1 s
1. 30
1. 42
904
929
955
980
1003
1045
1087
1129
aO ry matter intake calculated as 76o 3 g/llkg Oo75
brwenty pe r cent was added to the ME requirement for first kidding goats (20 to 25
kg weights) and 10% for seco nd kidding goats (30 kg weight) to co mpensate for body
growth.
cl nclud es ME requirement for 1 kg 4% FCMo
For additio nal milk production. use
values from table llo
Tabl e 1). Nutr ient Constituents o f Goats Milk at Different
Fat l eve ls (Nutrients/kg Milk) 3
Prate In
VitaEnergy
Di-
min
gest-
A
FU
(kg)
Total
ible
CA
p
(%)
ME
TON
(Mea l ) (g)
(g)
(g)
(g)
2o s
loO
loS
4oO
4o s
SoO
1. 20
1. 21
1. 23
1. 25
1. 26
1. 28
o4 3
0 43
0..
0..
04S
045
62
66
42
4S
48
s1
S4
57
Fat
3
333
337
342
346
35 1
356
71
15
79
84
Taken from NRC ( 1981) 0
VItamin
D
(g)
(1000
I U)
lo 4
1.4
1.4
~ 01
2o 1
2o 1
l o8
lo 8
loB
lo 8
)o8
)o8
760
760
760
760
760
760
(I U)
71
SECTION 9. MULTI-PURPOSE CATTLE
The nutritional r equ irem ents of cattle
wi 1 1 be discussed under four separate
catego r ies .
These will include the
reproductive cycle (production of ova
and s pe rm atozoa) , pregnancy, 1 act at ion,
a nd finishing cattle f or ma r ket.
catego r y wi 11 be dealt
with
Ea ch
in some
detail and tabl es g iving t he nutr ien t
requirements f or maintenance , gr owth,
fattening,
pr eg n ancy and
l acta tion will
be presented.
Evidence seems to indicate that as t h e
1eve I of feeding i nc reases, the uti 1 i zation o f metabolizable energy per unit of
dry matter
is reduced.
For example,
when a diet of good quality r oughage is
i n c r eased from maintenance t o twice
ma int ena nce, the util izat.ion of ME is
redu ced b y about 10%. Th e reduct i on in
ut i I izatio n o f ME, as the level of
f ee ding increases, is gr ea ter in low
e n e rgy f ee ds (2 Hea l HE /k g OM ) th an in
high en e rgy feeds (3 He al ME / kg OM).
This info rmat ion should be ke pt in mind
when using the tables , b eca use th e ME
re quirem e nt values shown need to b e
adjusted upward when poor quality diet s
are used and lowered slightly wh en high
co nce ntrat e diets are fed (a r a ng e of 5
to 10% sho u l d be acceptable) .
Growth
Nutr i tion marked ly influences th e growth
and d eve l o pment o f c attl e.
Pub erty , f o r
generally occ urs at a
i nstan ce ,
part ic ular body size r elative to mature
size.
This may be rea c h ed at a young
age o r be delay e d f or s eve ral months
depending upon the p lane of nutr ition
under wh ich the animals are reared.
In
practi ce , animals a r e co n si der ed to be
too s:na!l for br eedi ng at t"le in i t iat ion
of pub erty.
Hat in g should be dela yed
unt i 1 the fem a l e has attained suffi cie nt
body size s o that th e ext r a nu t r ien t
demands o f pregn a ncy wil l not r eta rd
growth of mother or fetus.
Of t e n,
skel~tal d amag e may occur whe n the pl ane
o f nutrition is not adequa te to meet the
needs of the growing female and the
demands of pregnancy.
Apparently, the nutrient r equi r eme n ts
for
the produ ct ion of ova and
spermatozoa and the associ a t ed secretions are ve ry smal l.
Neve rthe less,
breeding males ar e often given 1 iberal
amo un ts of f eed to ensure a conti nuing
r esponse during the breeding season .
Bulls should be given sufficient
nutrients to ma in tain the ir co ndi t i on
during the non-breeding season .
In al l
likelihood , the nutr i ent requirements
for maintenance of males slightly exceed
those of f emales o r ca strates.
F emale catt l e should be ade qu ate l y
nou ri she d at the time of b r eedi ng,
othe rw ise , the conception rate may be
ve r y low.
Nit is (1980) in reviewi n g
seve ral pap e r s on animal production in
Sou theast Asia r eported that nutrition
is co nsidered one of the primary
1 imiting factors in 1 ives t ock pr oduction
in that reg ion.
The stress o f inad equate nutrition wil l
eventua l l y cause a reduction
in
ferti 1 ity.
Male animals respond t o
undernou rishm ent w i th less ene d I ibid c
In fem al es ,
and spermatozoa f o rmati o n.
a r e duc ti o n in ovaria n formation a n o
ir r egu lar es tru s wi 11 occu r .
The se
conditions appear only a f te r prolonged,
severe malnutriti o n.
Some evidenc E
ind i cates that over f eedi ng that pr o duce!
large deposits o f
fat may ca us E
sterility, although th e r eason i !
unclear.
Lactation
Evide nce pr esented by van Es ( 1976), an<
implied by o th e rs. indicates that th f
maintenance requ i r ement of la c tatin <
cows is slightly higher than for non:
lact at i ng cows.
Th e level of f ee'
intake gr ea tly i nfluen ces its util l z a·
tion.
Studies by Tyrrell and Moe (1975
72
indicate that non-milk-producing cows
uti I i zed the same diet approximate 1y 1 2%
more efficiently than did milk-producing
cows.
Neville (1974) reported the
energy maintenance r equirement for
I act at i ng Hereford cows to be 38 to 41%
greater than f o r non-l actati ng cows.
Reproduction
Ruminants alter their energy intake to
meet their basic needs in r esponse to
physiological and environmental factors.
Because of the importance of growth,
pregnancy and lactation in a 1 ivestock
management program, information on the
metabolizable ene rg y and digestible
protein requirements f or these three
functions
Each
is
is
included
dealt
with
in the tables.
in
a
being prepared for the ensuing lactation
period.
This development is most rapid
during the latter stages of pregnancy.
Ferrell et al. (1976} compared pregnaOt
and nonpregnant beef type heifers and
concluded the ME requirement increased
slowly during the first 6 to 7 months of
pregnancy and then accelerated r apidly
unt i 1 parturt ion ( fig u r e 15}.
Th e tot a 1
pregnancy requir eme nts amount to about
10 to 12% ME above the ME maintenance
requirements for a 400 to 500 kg an i rna I.
The requirements for protein, calcium,
phosphorus,
and other nutrients,
however, a r e estimated to be about SO%
of the dam's maintenance requirement .
It is r ecommended that, during this 3month pe r iod, the diet be supplemented
to ensu r e an adequate daily intake of
these nutrients (table 14).
separate
catego ry and val ues for the ME and OP
requirements are suggested for each.
10.0
~
Early Pregnancy
1 n the early stages of pregnancy, few
nutrIents are invested in the f etus and
associated membranes.
Because the
e nergy requirement of pregnancy during
the first three months is approximately
40 kcal/ME/d, female cattle in good
co ndition will not need supplemental
feeding unti I l ater in pregnancy.
It is
suggested, however, that a good mineral
supplement be available at all times.
Nutrient demands made by the fetus and
its suppo r ting membranes gradually
increase as normal development takes
place. During the middle trimester, the
e n e rgy requirements ris e to approximately 235 kcal/ME/d.
This, however, is
still small in relation to the total ME
required for maintenance of the mother
1l
"'
"
8.0
~
l
6.0
~
!,.
4.0
2.0
0
0
50
100
D•vs
Figure 15, Met abo 1 i zab I e energy required
to satisfy the demands o f pregnancy in
265 kg (initial weight) be ef heifers
(adapted from Fe rr e ll et al. 1976).
(tab 1 e 14 ).
Late Pregnancy
During the last trimester of pregnancy,
the f etal ME requirements in c r ease to
approximately 1 Meal/d.
ln addition to
the n ut r ie nts needed for
fetal
d eve lopmen t , the mammary glands are
Evidence indi cates that. under the same
environmental conditions, fasting me t abel ism of pregnant animals is higher
than that of non-pregnant animals of
simi 1 ar genetic background.
Thi s is
probab I y due to an increase in the heat
inc rem ent associated with fetal
development and hormone changes within
73
the mother. This increase is co ntinuous
and progressive throughout gestation .
As the HE r equi rement increases , so must
feed intake .
The total energy
requirement of beef co ws du ring their
latte r stages of preg n ancy is estimated
to be app r ox im ate 1 y 150% that of the
nonpregnant animal (ta ble 14) .
In feeding trials using pr egnant
Holstein heifers, Barlacu et al. (1978)
r epo rt ed that gross energy intake in
relation to kca1/W kg0.75
r emained
co n stant unti 1 the seventh month of
pregnancy and then declined until
parturtion.
Energy r equirements . however , increas ed as pregnancy advanced
and energy balan ce was negative during
the last two months.
reports that bullocks are the main
sour ce of d r aft power in India.
They
are used to provide power for ploughing,
threshing, irrigation and transport.
The autho r was unab l e to locate specific
i nfo rm ation a ppli ca bl e to the nut r ie n t
requirements o f working ca ttle
(bu ll ocks).
The se animals, howeve r ,
perform numerous physi cal tasks that
requi r e a good supply o f feed ri ch in
energy.
It h a s been estimated (P ut r a ,
1972; cited by Nitis , 1980 ) that 167 and
220 hours of work are required by a pair
of cat tle to ti 11 1 hectare of wet and
dry land , r espectively, during each
cropping season .
Nutrient Requirements
Natu r e gives the f etus priority over the
needs o f the mother for available
nutrients.
This includes nutri ents
stored i n the mo th e r 1 s body.
Seve r e
d e fi c i e nc i es , however, ca n imp a ir the
hea l th o f b o th f et u s a nd mot h e r.
De fi cie nc i es in particular nutri e n ts at
c r itica l stages o f feta l develo pm ent may
r esu lt in seve r e abnormal i ti e s at bir th.
Ge nerally, the dietary r eq uir e ment s of
the fetus are greater and it s r esponse
to deficiencies more seve re during the
1 atter stages of gestation. Therefor e ,
pregnant fe male cattle should r eceive
nutri e nts ade qu ate to meet the needs of
fas ti ng metabolism, mu scula r activity
and f etal development .
Work
Ni tis (1980) repo rted that •s %of the
l a rge ruminant populat io n o f Indone sia
and 85% of that in Thai la nd are rais e d
primarily for land preparation and
transport purposes.
AI though 1 and
cu lti va tion by small, hand-operated
tra cto rs has been shown to be less
expensive tha n by ca ttle (Putra, 1972 ,
cited by Nitis, 1980), farmer s of small
plots co ntinu e to use anim a ls b ecause
maintenance costs are lowe r, t hey
in c r ease in numb e rs, pr ovide mil k f or
the f a m ily , and, ult i mately, they have a
higher sa l va ge value.
Ranjhan {1980)
Energy
Maintenance . Energy va lues for main tenance of non-milk-prod ucing adu lt ca ttle
was dete rmin ed fr o m i nfo rm at io n r ece iv ed
f rom feeding trials u sing indig enous
a n imals in Afri ca and Indi a .
Thes e
va lu es a r e 107 , 98, 122, 1 2 1, 11 5 a nd
lit) kca l /Wkg 0.75. Th e ave r age o f these
being 1 1 8 kcal/Wk 0.75 . This value
9
compa r es fa vo rably with those u sed in
Britian 12 1 ( HAFF, 1979) and the USA 129
(NRC , 1971) kca1/llkg 0.75 Ka rue ( 1977)
reported that studies conducted in Kenya
indicated t he HE requirement for 2.5
yea r old Baran bul locks weighing an
average 2]1 kg/animal
to be 1 69
kca1/wk 9 0.75. This value i s co n side r a bl y higher than values r e po rt ed fr om
othe r Afri can and deve l o ping co untri es ,
as well as in the USA and Europe.
Webster et al. (1976 ) reported that
cas trated Hereford x British Friesian
ca ttle re ce i v ing diets of dried grass
pellets or barley-protein supplemente d
pel lets requir e d 94 kcal ME /Wkg0 . 75 t o
meet their basal metabolic requir e ment s.
Each group was fed equal amo unts of ME
daily,
This contrasts quite s harp ly
with r esults from India as reported b y
Patle a n d Mudgal ( 1975) using matur e
Br ow n Swiss x Sahiwal bu llock s. Th e s e
74
anima 1s requ i r ed 83 kca I ME / \.J kgo · 75 f o r
their fasting me taboli c requirements.
required 175 and 153 kcal HE!II kgO· 75 for
Results of studies co nducted in Kenya
using Boran and Boran x Hereford
c rossbred c attl e ( ledger and Saye r,
1977) indi ca ted that the ME requir ements
for maintenance de c reased when an i mals
were fed rati ons calc ulated to maintain
a consta nt body weight.
The animals
were divided into groups weighing 185,
275 and 450 kg.
\Jhen maintenance
requirements were co mpared with
published estimates (ARC, 1965), after
maintaining constant weight for 24
weeks, the 185 and 275 kg Borans and the
body maint enance.
450 kg 3/4 Borans needed 50.5, 37.9 and
Recent studies co nduc ted in South Afri ca
x 3/ 4 Boran and the 450 kg J/4 Hereford
{va n Rooyen,
x Boran, 40.8 and 37.9% less feed,
respective 1 y than estimated from
published t ables.
The ME requirement for maintenan ce was
est i mated to be 103 kca 1/ WkgO. 75.
The maintenance requirem e nt for non\ act at i ng and 1 act at i ng Hereford co ws
was estimated to be 125 and 172 kcal
HE/'W kg 0.75 ,
1974).
respectively {Nevi li e .
Ranjhan et al. (1977) rep orted
that lactating Holstein- Friesian and
Holstein- Friesian x Hariana crossbreds
34 .2 % less feed and the 275 kg Hereford
1975) using Africand e r,
Orakensberg, Hereford and Simmental
cattle ind icated the maintenance
requirement for non-lactating animals to
be 115. 143. 134 and 115 kcal HE/IIkg0.75,
respective 1y.
Ranjhan (1980) u sed a value of 122 kcal
ME/WkgO. 75 for estimating his met abo 1 i zab 1e energy requirement for maintenanc e
of Zebu and c ross-bred catt le, and
buffalo.
He also reported that Katiyar
(1972), in studies using la c tating
Har i ana c ows estimated the ME requirement for maintenance to be 127
k ca l/\Jk g 0.75 .
Based
on
studies
con ducted in 1973 using lactating Brown
Swiss x Sahiwal cattle, Patle and Mudgal
(1974) concluded that,
\Jhen the influence o f maturity on
fasting metabolic rates was applied to
the various weight groups, however, the
differenc e between the pub I i shed va 1ues
and actua 1 maintenanc e requirem ents was
r ed uce d from 50.5, 37.9 and 40.8 % to
37.3, 29 . 3 and 33 .8%, respectively. It
was shown that th e daily OMI n eeded to
maintain constant b ody weight was
redu ce d 51.8% for the 185 kg Borans and
17.9% for the 3/4 Borans x Hereford
crossbreds .
Slaughter tests indicated
no significant differences In body
com position among the different groups.
during early
During the latter stages of this trial,
la ctation , the HE r equ irement for
maintenan ce was 131 kcal/W kg 0 . 75 and
during mid-lactation, i t Increased to
the animals were c onsuming (DMI)
approximate 1y 1.5% of their body weight.
134 kcailll kg 0.75.
Other studies support the findings
reported here.
Winchester a nd Howe
(1955 . c ited by Preston and Wi 11 is,
1970) found that twin steers wei ghing
152 kg (mean of i nitial and final
weight) and kept on a maintenance diet
for 183 days, consumed 2.27 kg of a diet
co ntaining 2.2 Meal ME /k g OM.
This was
a daily intake of 5 Me al ME co mpared
Some evidence (Webste r, 1978) indicates
that large animals (s uch as Chianina )
require 1 ess ME per kg body weight for
maintenan ce than do smaller breeds .
Heifers, however, of all sizes require
more ME per kg of gain than do steers of
comparable weight .
In general, the HAFF
and the NRC have used British breeds in
evaluating the utilization of ME for
maintenance and growth.
Evidence, howeve r,
indicates these values over
estimate the HE requirement for gain in
1 arger European bre e ds of catt 1 e
(llebster, 1978).
with 7.3 Meal ME/d recommended by the
ARC standards.
The main point to remember here is t ha t
the reco mmended feeding standa rd s (NRCARC) have been deve1oped in countries
where animals are managed for rapid
75
growth t o achieve slaughter weight at an
ear 1 y ag e .
A1 so, these anima 1 s ar e
generally fed di e ts consisting of large
po rtions o f c er ea 1 s that produ ce r a p i d
daily body weigh t gains.
20.---.--,,--,---.---.---,
C~owth .
12
Hughes et al. ( 1977) found that
Holstein calves fed a milk and
conce ntrate diet at levels sufficient to
produce .25 and .75 kg da i 1 y gain
required an estimated 100 kcal ME/
lol kg0.75 and J.S6 kca1 ME/g body weight
gain.
These animals utilized the
metabolizable energy in the ration at 1
to 1.13 for maintenan c e and gain,
respec tive 1y.
Van Roo ye n (1975) found the ratio of ME
for maintenance and gain to be 1 to 1.16
when feed i ng Afri ca nder cattle. This,
however. was only 1 to . 62 , 1 to .69 and
1 to .95 for Orakensberg, He r eford, and
Simmental cattle , respectively. These
latter values appear questionable
considering th e general co ncept that
cat tle utilize metabolizable e nergy less
efficiently for growth than for
maintenance (figure 16 ).
Acc epting only the two values that
indicate the HE requirement for gaIn to
be greater than ME for maintenance, 1.13
and 1.16. an average val ue of 1.11t5 was
obtained.
This value was us ed to
predict the ME requirement for gain as
shown In table 14.
Pl>egnancy .
Bar1acu et al. (1978) fed
eight pregnant Holstein heifers a diet
of 85% maize silage and 15% concentrate
throughout their gestation pe r iod. They
found that the 1 iveweight gain was
1 inear from a weight of 422 kg (wt . at
concept ion) to 565 kg (wt . at calving).
Energ y requirements i n creased as
pregnancy advanced and , during the last
two months, energy balance was negative.
Ferrell ~t al. (1976) fed dil!ts contain·i ng 1.8 and 1.2 to 1.4 t im es the
maintenance requirement (HE) to 46
pregnant and 44 nonpregnant beef heifers
initial weighing of 265 kg. Groups of
the animals were slaughtered at 1 34 .
189, 237 and 264 days of gestation.
16
.••
..
.
..
••
,
...-
NEmilk ....... ,,
,.,''
"- NE gain
w
z
-4
..
,,, ....._ME for maintenance
,,'
when lactating ·
500 kg cow
#,,
,,.............._ NEm finishing heifer • .075
-8 '
Me~l Wkg0.75
NEmlactating cow "'.085 Meal Wkg0.75
24
18
12
Meal ME intake
30
36
Figure 16. Comparison of the Lofgreen
and Garrett ( 1968) and the Hoe and Flatt
(1 969) systems of expressing energy
requirements (adapted from Harris et al.
1968).
F u 11 ca r cass ana 1yses were made. Eight
heifers were maintained and their
digestive responses, methane produc tion
and fasting heat production were
me asu red. Metabolizable energy values
were si m ilar at both le ve ls of HE
intake. HE requirements (fasting heat
product ion) were 500 kcal/d greater at
120 days and 4613 kcal/d greater at 240
days of gestation for pregnant compared
to n onp re gnant heifers.
Dally ME
requl rements were progressive wit h time
and increased rapidly during the final
60 to 75 days of gestation (figure 15 ).
The values for pregnant heif ers can be
determined by using the maintenance (HE)
requirement given in table 14 increasing
the requirement by 30% during the
seventh month, SO% during the eighth
month and 80% during the n inth month.
76
By using these values,
the energy
NEL(Hcal/kg DH)
requirements for maintenance and
pregnancy wi 11 be satisfied.
When an
= - . 44
. 84 HE
= -. 80 + .0373 OE
= -.62 + .0352 TON
animal is growing during its gestation
period, it will require additional
The NEL value of diets was ca lculated
energy (ME).
using
ca l c ulated
The growth factor ca n b e
to
be
the
same as
for
non pr egnant heifers o f the same size and
approximate age.
lActation .
It
appears
from
evidence
presented by van Es (1976).
and
suggested by others , that the maintenance requirement of lactating cows is
s l ightly higher than for non-lactating
dairy animals . VanEs suggests this may
be 100 kcal HE/W kg0.75 for the nonlac tating animal and 117 kcal ME / wk 0 . 75
9
for the lactating cow.
The level of
intake also greatly
inf luen ces the
utilization of feeds.
Studies by
Tyrrell and Moe (1975) indi cate that
non-producing animals uti I ized the same
diet approximately 12% more effi c iently
than lactating dairy cows. Th e r e asons
for these differences are not entire I y
c lear. Generally, however, each group
of animals (lactating and non-lacta ting)
are managed f o r specifi c purposes, with
suitable differences in ration co mposition, level of feed intake , handling and
other factors.
It appears from the evidence available
that the maintenance ME requirement for
lactating ca ttle indigenous to Developing Co untries i s approximately 1 32
kcal/Wkg 0 . 75. This value, an average of
the values previously dis c ussed, was
used in calc ul ating the estimated ma i ntenance requirements I isted in table 14.
The energy co ntained in the milk
produc e d is generally used as a measure
of the amount of energy required to
produce that milk.
Moe and Flatt (1969)
reported that pooled results from two
series of expe rim ents involving 535
energy bal ance trials with lactating,
non-pr egnant dairy cows showed the
following relationship between NEL
values of diets and those of other
exp ress ions of energy.
.085
Heal
NEm/W kg 0.75
as
the
rna i ntenance requireme nt.
Noteworthy i s
the equivalence of the maintenance
requirement (NEm) and the produ c ti on
requirement (NE L), these a re considered
to be the same. Th i s co ncept differs
from that postu la ted by Lofgreen and
Garrett (1968), in that their net energy
system f or fattening animals ass umed
that nutrients are more fully utilized
for bod y mainten a nce than for growth (or
fattening) (figure 16).
Moe and Flatt (1969) used data from 215
trials to study the energy cost in
uti I i zing stored energy (body tissue
reserves) for the producti on of milk.
Th ey cone 1 uded that these body tissues
were uti 1 i zed at approximate 1 y 85% when
converted to the produc tion of m i 1 k.
Many different va lues have been used in
ca lculating the ME requirement for milk.
The NRC (1971) re co mmends a va l ue of
11 30 kcal/kg of 4% fat corrected milk
(FC H).
v alue
The HAFF ( 1979)
of 1260 kcal/kg
s ugge sted a
of 4% FCH.
Studies conducted in India using lo ca l
breeds pr o duced the foll o wing r ecommendations: Patle and Hudgal ( 19 76 ).
1183 kc al /k g of 4% FC/1; and Ranjhan et
al. (1977) ,
1039 kcal/kg 4% FCH.
The
above investigators also co mpar ed
Eur opean and some c ro ss bred animals and
suggested the f ol lowing ME r equi r ement
per kg of 4% FCM to be 1183 (Brown Swiss
x Sahiwal), 1039 (Holstein Friesian x
Har i ana), and 1188 kcal (Temperate
Breeds).
Sen et al. (1978) recommended
that 1188 kcal/kg of 4% FCH be used in
calc ulating the ME requirement for
Indian cattle. The energy requirement
(M E) per kg of 4% FCH from Hereford cows
was estimated to be 1122 kcal (Neville ,
1974).
Careful examination of these
v alues (in c luding British and US A)
indicates only small differences in th e
HE requirement between breeds and
geographic regions.
Krishna et al.
77
(1977) r eported the HE requirements per
kg o f It% FCM to be 1230 kcal during
winter and 1063 kcal during the summer
months.
value
was
used
in
estimating
the
metabolizable energy requirements
presented in table 1~.
For exa mp le,
daily ME r equi r ements of a 400 kg
bullock:
In view of the information previously
pr esented, an average va I ue of 1144 (of
HE rna i ntenance requirement
11 values) kcal HE/kg 4% F CH has been
used to predi ct the ME
shown in tab 1e 15.
4ooO· 75 x 118
requirements
10550 kca 1
This va 1ue compares
f3vorably with the USA value of 1130
kcal (NRC , 1971), the British value of
1260 kca l (MAFF , 1979) and the Indian
va lue o f 1188 kcal (Sen et. al. 1978)
p e r kg of 4% FCH.
HE r e quirement for
4 h "'ork
400 kg ( BW) x 2 . 4 x 4
Total daily HE r equi rements
•
3840 kca 1
14390 kcal
or 14.4 Meal
Wo rk .
Rese ar ch wIt h horses has shown
that their energy requirements are
direct I y associ a ted with the amount of
"E rna i ntenance requirement
physi cal activity exe rted during a
spec i f i ed
time
frame.
For
4oo0- 75 x 118- 10550 kcal
example ,
horses at a slow walk require .4 kcal
HE /kg of body weight / h (body weight per
hour).
The HE requirement in crea ses
r api dl y , however, as the pa ce of the
activity be co mes more st r enuous and
rea c hes 32 kcal ME/kg of body weight/h
for horses performing on the race track
or polo field .
Energy requl rements are
directly associated with intensity and
du rati on of work, c ondition of the
animals, and the envi r onment.
Obviously the energy expended in
performing physical
activity is
extremely va riabl e.
Neverth eless . it is
important that reasonab 1 e estimates on
the nutrient r equirements of ca tt 1e used
for dra ft purposes be included In this
pub I icat Jon.
Horses
at
a slow
trot
n eeded
4 kcal
HE/kg body wei ght/h ( NRC, 1978b ).
The
e nerg y expended during this typ~
exercise is probab ly high e r than that
required for t i 11 i ng purposes.
A 1so, it
is gen e rally assumed that ca ttle and
buffalo move slower tha n horses and
estimates indicate that cattle produce
about 75% as much horse pow er as hor ses
(PCARR , 1978).
Therefore, a value of
2 .~ kcal ME/kg body weight/h ha s been
assumed as a reasonable va lu e f or
c alculating the metabolizable e n ergy
requirements of ca t t 1e for work. This
HE r e quirement for 8 h work
400 kg ( BW ) x 2. 4 x 8
Total daily HE requirements
•
7680 kca 1
1823 0 kca l
or 18.2 Meal
These values co mpare fa vo rab ly with the
reco mmendat i o n s by Ranjhan ( 1980) for a
400 k g bulloc k of 14.4 and 17.3 Me al for
norma 1 and heavy work, respective 1y.
Protein
Th e OP requirements have been co mpi led
from data presented In the 1 i terature.
These r equiremen t s h ave been ca 1c u 1a ted
as a sum of the losses of pr otei n from
the body (hair , urine, feces, etc.) and
that retained for tissue growth,
pregnancy, and m i 1k production.
Protein
requ irements w i 11 va ry according to the
weight of the animal, its physiological
fun c tions, management system, f eed
resources, and ex pected performance.
Pub! ished studies suggest the mi c r obial
activity o f the rum inant tends to
stab I ize the biologi cal val u es of
prote i ns ingested when co mpared to
nonruminant animals . This is probably a
78
result of the mic r oflora dega r dation of
the
i n gested protein and ultimate
utilization by the
host
animal
of ·
sy nth esized p r oteins of mi c robial
o rigin. This type p r ote in may ha ve a
biologi c al value of 80%. A slig ht ly
l owe r biol ogical va lue. however, is
generally u sed in practica l f eedin g
pr ograms.
Mai ntenance.
i l .DD
>
c"
·;;; .80
"'.g,
· ~ .60
The OP maintenance r e qu i r~
me nts have been quite we ll defi ned , but
those f o r growth and pregnancy ar e 1ess
we ll recog nized. Orskov (1976) stated
that the rate of protein deposition by
yo ung ru minants is ap pr op r iately
expressed as nitrogen r etai ned per unit
of e n ergy digested, a n d that the
retention of protein per uni t of energy
digested increases with the lev e l of
feeding and decreases as the a n imal
mat ures. Balch {1976) suggested that ,
at any given intake o f pr o t e in, the
re s pon se o f the animal may va r y greatly
depending on the intak e of e n e rg y.
Poppe and Ga b e l (1977) a ft e r r eviewi ng
the 1 i t e ratur e conce r ning protein
r e quir e ments f o r cat tl e c it ed a OP
requirem e nt o f 3 g / Wkg 0. 75 for maintenan ce b ase d on a digestible orga ni c
matter (DOH) fermentation ra te of 60%.
These a uthor s suggested a relat ionship
betw een the dietary pr otein and
mi c r obia l protein enteri ng th e s mall
i nte sti n e may not agree with the
quantity and qualit y o f the DP co ntained
in the diet. Jahn and Chandler ( 1976)
f ou nd th at 8 to 20 week-old Ho lst ein
c alves r equi r ed add itio n a l a mounts o f
total protein as t he c rud e f iber level
in their diet in c r eased.
It was
s ugg ested, using data fr o m thi s st udy,
that th e amount of d r y matt er i n ta ke
(and thus the performan ce of th e
animals) was aff ec ted by the interaction
between differing levels of prot e in and
c rude fiber, and that this resp onse
d e pend e d upon the amount of energy
ingest e d.
Figur e 17 shows the 1 ive
we ig ht gain in rel ation to th e protein
co nt e nt of diets co nta ining 11. 18, and
25% a c id detergent fibe r (A DF ).
The
information in this figure indicates
that di ets too low o r to o high in to tal
protein ult im ately result in a decrease
:.:l
.40
9.0
11.5
14.5
17 .5
Protein, %
Figure 1] . live weight gains in r ela tion
to prot e in co nt e nt of di ets co nt ain ing
11, 18 and 25 % acid detergent fiber
(A DF} (adapted fr om Jahn and Chandle r,
1976) .
in the amount of 1 i ve weight gain. Thi s
a ppea rs to oc c ur somewhere betw ee n 14. 5
and 17.5% total pr ote in and i s af f ected
at a ll l evels of ADF within t h e r a nges
tested . Results of this study do not.
howeve r, establish any pattern to
indicate a different energy requir e me nt
per unit of gain as a r esult of
increased pr o tei n i ntake .
Schult z e t al. (1974) f ound German Bl ack
Pied whole male calves ga i n i n g 1 kg
daily r equired a daily intake of 370 to
600 g DP over a body we ight r a nge o f 200
to 550 kg.
Nehring ( 19 70) suggested a
va lue of 2.57 g DP /\Jk o. 75 as the main9
tenance r eq uir ement for cat t 1e weighing
400 to 800 kg. Sen et a I. ( 1978 ), whose
data are used as the feeding standard in
India, recommend ed 2. 84 g DPIIIkgO . 75 f o r
Zebu and c rossbred catt 1 e,
and
buffaloes. Ranjhan (1980) r e po rt e d OP
va lue s r a nging from 1.97 to 4.19
g/W'kgO· 75 as the ma int enance requir e ment
for ca ttl e .
Karue (1977) in studies
u sin g Ba ran bu llocks calc ul ated t he
nitrogen excreted i n the urin e t o b e
equa l to 2.18 g OP / II kg0.75.
Other
losse s (feces,
ha i r, etc.) would
probably i nc r ease the total OP r equ ir ement s ubsta nt ially above t hi s va lue.
79
Ranjhan et al. (1977l found HolsteinFriesain and Holstein-Friesain x Hariana
(Zebu) cattle required different levels
of DP to meet daily requirements (4 . 21
and 3.75 g DP/IIkg 0.75, respectively).
Additional
information
is
needed
to
substantiate these r esu lts, but on the
basis of a wide range of values found in
the literature and those suggested as
standards to be used in several
cou ntries, an average value of 2.86 g
OP/Wkg 0 . 75 ha s been used in estimating
the DP rna i ntenance requirement 1 i sted in
table 14.
Growth .
It is much more difficult to
dete rm ine the OP requirement for growth
beca use of the va riations in nitrogen
depositions caused by the phys i ca 1 and
che mi ca l composition of the diet and the
age of the animal.
Also, und e r some
ci rcumstan ces , i t may be difficult to
know i f an animal is in negative or
positive energy b alance.
In the former
case , proteins may be diverted from
protein synthesis through deamination
and used to satisfy critical energy
requirements.
Gellt!.ch el al. (1975) suggested that the
DP requirement for growth can be
determined from the following equation
DP ( in g)= . 218 g (live weight gain
[LIIG]) + .6631 kg (I ;ve we;ght [L\1]).001 142 kg (live weight [L\1])2,
Th;s
equation fits the requirement for N
deposition and adjusts the DP require ment as i nf I uenced by 1 i ve weight.
l.Jhen the above equations for maintenance
and gain are combined the result 1st
OP Requ; rement (g/d) • 2.86 II kg 0. 75 +
.218 g (LIIG) + .6631 kg ( L\1 ) -.001142 kg
( L\1)2
standards used in several countries
throughout the wor 1 d.
They are, however, higher than those recommended by
Ranjhan (1980) for ..Jse in India. Also,
they are c onsiderably lower than values
used in the Union of Soviet Socialist
Republics as reported by Temme ( 1969).
Pregr>.ancy . The growth of the fetus is
accompanied by the formation of va rious
membranes essential to its well-being.
The accumulated nutrients contained in
the products of conception have been
determined by analyzing the fetus and
associated membranes removed from
s 1aughtered cat t 1e at va ri ous stages of
pregnancy.
From these studies it has
been shown that generally, no additional
nutrients are r equired during the fir st
6 to 7 months. During the final 2 to 3
months, however, the r equirements for
protein, calc ium, and phosphorus are
quite large.
The mammary gland,
especially in heifers, develops rapidly
during this period and during the final
stages of pregnancy it may require as
much as 45 gOP/d. Figure 18 shows the
requ i r e me nt of DP during the adva n ced
stages of gestation.
The OP r equire ments for the last 3
months of pregnancy h ave been ca l culated
by using the same values as for
comparable non-pregnant animals making
compa rabl e gain and adding 80 g DP to
meet the requirements for the develop ing
:;; 1500,--------------,
:! 1200
:i1
c-;
·~.
.IE:~
600
Z&;
~
This equation was used in calculating
the DP values 1 isted in table 14. These
values should meet the DP dietary
requirements of growing and fattening
non-pregnant cattle and pregnant cattle
during the first 6 months of gestation.
The recommended OP va lues I isted in this
publication compare favorably with the
900
/
______ _./
300
0
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
AdnncintllriJnancy, days
Figure 18. Nitrogen required to satisfy
the demands of pregnancy (adapted from
Cole and Cupps, 1959).
80
fetus and associ a ted membranes. It is
assumed that 400 g is the average daily
gain attributed to the products of
conception during this period.
It
A 11 the major co mp onents of m i 1 k are
synthesized in the mammary g 1 and fr om
nutrients available in the bl oo d.
Most
of the protein fr actio n is in the f or m
of ca sein, whi ch is the principal
co mponent of c heeses , c urds, e t c.
has been suggested by some that the
OP requirement has a direct r elationship
with the avai I able energy . Suggested
values range from about 15.6 to 28 g
OP/Mcal ME.
The values given in table
14 for mature pregnant co ws (last 2 to 3
months of pregnancy)
OP / Mca l ME.
averag e 21.66 g
Many studies have been made to det e rmine
the amount of DP required to produ ce 1
kg of milk.
Generally, the rec ommended
amounts of DP /k g milk have
b ee n
co rrelated with the fat co ntent of the
m i 1k .
Nehring ( 1970) prop ose d a OP
requirement of 50 to 80 9 DP for milk
co nt a in ing a butt er fat co ntent fr o m 3 t o
Laatation.. The average m i 1 k pr od uct ion
of cattle indigenous to the Developing
6%.
Countries is very low when compared to
(1976) agreed with Ranjhan.
The MAFF
(1979) noted a DP requirement of 48 to
that of the dairy animals of Europe.
The average production of thes e animals
is 200 to 400 kg during the lactat ion
period (except that some dairy bre e ds
such as Sahiwal, C.ir, Tharparker, and
Red Sindhi produce an nu al ly about 1500
to 2000 kg)
Often, be ca use of a low
plane of nutrition and management
(p rim a r ily maintained for draft
purpose s) the co ncept ion rat e is low.
In many areas, however, there is a great
deal of emphasis on using germ-plasma
from the United States, Australia, and
Europe to cross on some indigenous
breeds for the purpose of improving milk
produ ct ion and overall efficiency.
In
some cases, there are specialized dairy
farms that are achieving success in
attaining high production levels and
yearly ca l vi ng rates.
Ranjhan et
al.
(1977) suggested
41. 7 9 DP/kg milk and Patle and Hudgal
63
g DP/kg of milk co ntaining
•• 9%
butterfat.
The
) .6
to
NRC
(1971)
recommends a DP requirement of 42 to 60
g/kg of milk con taining 2.5 to 6% fat.
All of these va lues are comparable and
generally reflec t th e DP requirement
assoc i a t ed with the butterfat co ntent
per kg of milk pr o du ce d.
A value of 55
g DP/kg 4% FCH has been us e d in
c al c ulating the DP requirements shown in
tab 1e 15.
The ca l ci um, phosphorus, and vitamin A
requirements for maintenance and gain
hav e been taken from the NRC (1976)
r eport.
Those for m i 1k have been taken
from the NRC (1971) report.
The OP requirements for milk production
are 1 isted in table 15, which gives the
DP r equir ements needed for milk containing different le vels of butterfat.
These requirements ca n then be added to
those for maintenance and other specifi c
situations.
For an animal to produ ce milk, ce rtain
raw materials must be provided in the
feed she co nsumes.
11 i 1k is composed o f
several different co nstituents, but is
generally grouped into three categories:
fat, sol ids-not-fat, and water.
Wo r k . There is no evidence that prate in
requirements increase above maintenan c e
levels for work.
Small losses are
associated with sweat, but no dat a ex ist
to indicate how much protein intake
should b e increased to repl ace this
loss.
As the increased energy
requirement is met by enhancing the
e nergy-density of the diet, or by
in c re asi ng the daily dry matter int ake,
sufficient dietary protein will be
provided
to meet
the animal's
m i see 11 aneous losses .
81
Crossbred Cattle
(8os indicus x Bos taurus)
In Indi a, and e l sewhere in the deve l oping world, an effort to im p r ove the
produ c tion and r eproduction of
indigenous species of ca ttl e through
cross matings of lndi c us (Zebu) an d
Taurus animals has occurred during the
past decade. Presently, some evidence
indicates that the c r ossb r eds are
capable of utilizing the ava ilable feed
resources more efficiently than the
indigenous br eeds, and that levels o f
produc tion and r eproduction are increasing.
To accommodate these advances,
additional r esea r c h in physiologi c al
reproduction should be complet e d using
animals of genetic superiority and
proven produ ct ion and reproductio n
potential.
A database of in format ion is
needed to establish the nutrient
requirements for these catt l e.
Addition a 1 resear c h is needed t o estab 1 ish
guide! in es for c rossbreds in the following areas:
breeding, feeding, beh avio r
and adjustment to intensi ve manag e men t
systems, resis tance to parasites and
disease,
reproductive
ability,
adjustment to environment and economic
production of meat, milk or work.
Cu rrently, some evidence indicates that
the energy requirement of these animals
is somewhat l owe r than that of the
parent breeds of lnd ic u s or Taurus.
Additional resear c h is required, howeve r, to define such differences and to
unequivoca lly establish specific feeding
standards.
It would be ludi c rous,
however, if some of the latest informat ion was not pres ented in these pages.
Recent work by Patle and Hudgal (1975}
found the HE requirement for maintenance
of non-1 act at i ng c rossbred ca tt 1e to be
107.27 kca1 HE/II kg 0.75/ d.
This is
si gnifi cantly
below
the
118
kcal/Wk 0.75 / d used in c omputing the
9
requirements presented in table 14 and
the 12 9 kca1/ll kg0.75/ d used by the NRC
(1976) .
By c ontrast. Pat1e and Hudga1
(1976) reported that c r ossb r ed cows in
mid-lacta tion needed 1 37 .2 kcal HE/W
This is sl igh tly higher than the 132
kcal/Wk~0.75/d used in ca lculating the
HE requtr e ments given in table lt. . A
value o f 133 kcal ME/\.Jk o. 75 was us ed by
9
the NRC (1978a) in estimati ng the ME
maintenance requirem ents of lacta ting
cows.
Alt ho ugh the maintenan ce requirement of
c r ossbred lactat ing cattle was slightly
higher (abo ut 3%) than the othe r values
rep o rt e d, i t is not sufficient to
warrant a seperate table of requi r ements . Maintenance (ME) r equ ir e ments of
non-lactating crossbred animals, however, may require so me adjustme nt in
cal c ulating th e total ME r e quirements.
These ca ttl e requir e approximately 10 %
less energy (M E } f o r maintenance than
th e value used (118 kcal / \J kg0.75/d} in
estimating the requirements as shown in
table 14.
The prot ei n r equirements of c rossbred
catt 1 e were found to be 2.25, 2.23 and
2.31 g DP/W'k 0 .75 ; d for crossb r ed cows
9
in ea rly la c tation, mid-l actatio n and
for all cows (Patle and Mudgal, 1976).
Th ese va lues ar e considerably lower than
the 2.86 g UP/II kgo. 75 / d used to est imat e
the digestib l e protein requirement of
lactati ng cows shown in table 14.
Pa t1e and Hudgal (1975) found the DP
requirements of grow i ng cross bred
bull ocks fed di e t s co ntain i ng 75, 100
a nd 125% of the protein requirements
suggested by the NRC ( 1966 b) to be 2.1 g
DP / Wk g0.75;d .
The digestible protein
requirement found in these studies was
18.5% lower t han the values recommended
in the NRC (1966b) r eport .
From these studies i t appears that the
nitrogen r e quirements of c r os sbr ed
cat t 1e may b e 1ower than those estimated
in the tables f or indigenous breeds
found in rlevelopin') c- ountri e:s .
It is
suggested , therefore,
that users adjust
the protein levels appearing in table 15
downward by approximately 15% for non1act at i ng c rossbr ed cattle.
82
Table 14. Daily Nutrient Requi r ements of Cattle
Dry
Protein
Hatter
I ntake
Diet
Den-
Ga in
Bo dy
lit.
(kg)
(o r
l oss)
(kg)
% of
(kg)
Energy
Vita-
Di-
Live
s i ty
(Meal
lit.
/kg)
ME
(Mea 1)
TON a
(kg)
FU
gestTo t alb ible Ca
(kg)
(g)
mi n
A
(g)
(g)
p
(g)
( 1000
IU )
STEERS
Ha i nt enance and Growth
100
.o
2. 2
2.6
3.0
3.2
3. 3
2. 2
2.6
3.0
3. 2
3. 3
1. 70
1. 80
1.90
2. 15
2. 40
3 . 76
4. 76
5. 82
6 . 88
7. 94
1.0
1.3
1.6
1.9
2. 2
1.3
1.7
2. 1
2. 4
2. 8
167
306
379
448
541
90
200
254
309
363
5
10
15"
20
25
5
7
9
11
15
3.0
3. 8
4.2
4. 4
4. 5
2.0
2. 5
2. 8
2. 9
3. 0
1. 70
1. 70
1. 90
2. 15
2.45
5 . 10
6. 56
8.02
9. 55
10.93
1. 4
1.8
2. 2
2. 6
3. 0
1.8
2. 3
2.8
3. 4
3. 9
231
400
474
589
607
123
251
305
36 1
414
12
16
21
27
6
9
10
13
16
6
8
9
9
9
3. 7
4. 5
s. 2
s. 4
5. 6
5.6
1.9
2.3
2.6
2. 7
2.8
2.8
1. 70
1.80
1. 90
2. 15
2. 40
2.55
6. 30
8. 10
9 -90
11 . 70
13 . 51
14.23
1.8
2. 2
2.8
3. 2
3. 7
3-9
2. 2
2.9
3. 5
4.1
4. 8
s.o
285
470
554
622
690
714
152
293
348
403
457
479
6
11
16
21
27
30
12
15
17
18
11
12
13
13
13
.25
. 50
. 75
1.00
1.10
4. 4
s. 3
6. 2
6. 4
6.6
6. 6
1.8
2. 1
2. 5
2.6
2.6
2.6
1. 70
1. 80
1. 90
2.15
2. 40
2. 55
7. 40
9. 52
11.64
13.78
15 . 84
16 . 68
2. 0
2.6
3. 2
3.8
4. 3
4.6
2. 6
3. 4
4. 1
4. 9
5.6
s. 9
337
534
623
693
760
782
180
329
383
438
492
514
9
12
16
21
28
30
10
14
17
19
20
9
12
13
14
14
14
300
.0
.25
• 50
• 75
1.00
1. 10
5.0
6.0
7 .o
7. 4
7. 5
7.6
1.7
2.0
2. 3
2. 5
2. 5
2. 5
1. 70
1.80
1. 90
2. 15
2. 40
2. 55
8.50
10.90
13 .40
15.80
18 . 23
19 . 20
2. 4
3.0
3. 7
4. 3
5.0
5. 3
3.0
3. 9
4. 8
5.6
6. 5
6. 8
38 5
588
679
753
819
847
206
357
411
466
520
542
10
15
19
23
28
30
10
11
14
18
21
22
10
11
13
15
16
16
350
.0
. 25
. 50
• 75
1.00
1. 10
s. 7
1. 6
1.9
2. 3
2. 4
2. 4
2. 4
2. 4
1. 70
1. 80
1.90
2. 15
2. 40
2.5 5
2 . 65
9 . 50
12 . 22
14.94
17.66
20 . 38
21.47
22 . 56
2. 6
3. 3
4. 1
4. 8
5. 6
s. 9
6. 2
3. 4
4. 3
5. 3
6. 3
7. 2
7.6
8.0
432
635
731
806
874
899
92 3
23 1
378
433
487
542
563
585
12
16
20
25
30
31
32
12
14
16
18
21
23
24
12
16
18
18
18
18
18
.25
. 50
• 75
1. 00
150
.0
• 25
.so
• 75
1. 00
200
.0
.25
. so
. 75
1.00
1. 10
250
.o
1 . 2QC
6. 8
7.9
8. 3
a. s
8.5
8. 5
83
Table 14. Daily Nutrient Requirements of Cattle (Co nt.)
Dry
Protein
Matter
Intake
Body
lit.
(kg)
Gain
(or
l oss)
(kg)
Diet
Energy
Vita-
FU
0 igestTotalb ible Ca
(kg)
(g)
Den-
(kg)
% of
s i ty
live
(Heal
/kg)
lit.
ME
(Heal)
TON a
(kg)
2. 70
2. 85
10.60
13 .63
16.66
19 . 69
22.74
23 . 95
25. 16
26 . 37
2. 9
3. 7
4 .6
5. 4
6. 2
6.6
7 .o
7.2
3.8
4.8
5.9
7.0
8.1
8. 5
8. 9
9.4
min
A
(g)
( g)
p
(g)
( 1000
IU)
478
664
772
875
913
942
967
988
256
393
447
502
556
578
600
621
13
16
21
26
31
32
33
33
13
15
18
21
24
25
25
26
13
I5
17
18
19
19
19
19
"a i nt e nance and Growth (cont.)
400
.0
. 25
6. 2
7. 5
8. 7
9.1
9. 3
9.4
9. 4
9. 3
1.6
1.9
2. 2
2. 3
2. 3
2. 4
2. 4
2. 3
. 75
1.00
1.10
1. 20
1.30
6.8
8.2
9. 5
10.0
10.2
1o. 2
10.2
10 .0
1.5
1.8
2. 1
2. 2
2. 3
2. 3
2.3
2. 2
1. 70
1.80
1. 90
1. 15
2 . 40
2. 65
2. 70
2.85
11.5 3
14. 79
18 . 08
21.37
24.67
25 .99
27.31
28.62
3. 2
4. 1
5 .0
5.9
6.8
7.2
7.6
/.9
4.1
5. 2
6. 4
7.6
8. 7
9.2
9. 7
10 .1
528
703
805
911
952
975
998
1018
279
401
456
510
565
586
608
630
14
18
22
26
29
30
31
32
14
17
20
23
26
27
28
29
14
16
17
19
20
20
20
20
.0
.25
• 50
• 75
1.00
1.10
1. 20
1. 30
1. 40
7. 4
8.9
10.3
10.8
11.0
11. 1
11.0
10.9
10.6
1.5
1.8
2. 1
2.2
2. 2
2. 2
2. 2
2. 2
2. 1
1. 70
1.80
1. 90
2.15
2. 40
2. 55
2. 70
2. 85
3 . 05
12.50
16.10
19.70
23.20
26 . 80
28.24
29.67
3 1. 10
32.53
3. 4
4. 4
5.4
6.4
7. 4
7.8
8. 2
8.6
9.0
4. 4
5. 7
7.0
8. 2
9. 5
10.0
10.5
11.0
11.5
567
727
831
938
975
1005
1026
1048
1063
302
403
457
512
566
588
610
632
654
15
19
23
27
30
30
31
32
33
15
18
21
24
27
27
28
28
29
15
17
19
21
23
23
23
23
23
1.60
1. 70
1. 95
2.20
2. 45
J.81
4. 90
5 . 99
7.09
8.18
1.1
1. 3
1.7
2.0
2.3
1.4
1.7
2.1
2. 5
2. 9
178
321
39 1
460
527
93
206
262
319
375
4
13
14
20
26
4
10
. so
• 75
1.00
1.10
1. 20
1. 30
.0
.25
450
. so
500
I. 70
1.80
1. 90
2.15
2. 45
2. 55
HEIFERS
Kaintenance and Growthc
100
.0
. 25
. so
• 75
1. 00
2. 4
2. 9
3. 1
J.2
3. 3
2. 4
2.9
3. 1
J. 2
3.3
11
14
18
84
Table 14. Daily Nutrient Requirements of Cattle (Cont.}
Dry
Matt~r
Protein
Diet
Intake
Body
lit.
(kg)
Gal n
(or
loss)
(kg)
Vita-
Energy
D i-
Den-
(kg)
% of
s i ty
live
(Heal
/kg)
lit.
min
A
gestHE
(Heal)
TON°
(kg)
FU
(kg)
Tot a 1b ible
(g)
(g)
Ca
(g)
p
(g)
( 1000
I U)
Kaintenance and GrOW"th (cont.)
.0
.2S
• so
• 7S
1.00
3. 3
4.0
4. 2
4.4
4. s
2. 2
2. 7
2.8
2.9
3. o
1.60
1. 70
1. 9S
2. 20
2 . so
s. 2S
6. 76
8 . 26
9 . 76
11.26
1.6
1.9
2. 3
2. 7
3.1
1.9
2. 4
2. 9
3. s
4.0
234
414
s 13
SS2
623
127
2S8
31 s
368
428
s
13
14
19
25
11
12
1s
18
6
8
9
9
9
.0
• 2S
• so
• 7S
1.00
4. 0
4.9
s.6
s. s
s.6
2.0
2. 4
2.8
2. 7
2.8
1.60
1. 70
1.95
2. 20
2. so
6.49
8. 34
10.20
12.0S
13.92
1.8
2. 3
2. 8
3. 3
3.8
2. 3
3. 0
3.6
4. 3
4.9
299
492
577
639
707
1S7
302
358
41 s
472
10
14
19
23
6
10
13
16
18
12
13
13
13
250
.o
. 25
• so
• 75
1.00
1.10
4.8
s. 8
6. 2
6. s
6.6
6.6
1.9
2.3
2. s
2.6
2.6
2.6
1. 60
1. 70
1. 95
2.20
2. 4S
2.60
7.62
9.8 1
11.99
14.19
16.32
17.18
2 .1
2. 7
3. 3
3.9
4.5
4.8
2. 7
3 .8
4. 3
s.o
s .8
6.1
264
486
564
644
]24
757
18S
340
39S
4S 1
S07
S30
7
12
13
18
23
25
7
12
13
1s
18
20
9
14
14
14
14
14
300
.o
.25
. so
• 75
1.00
1. 10
s. s
6. 7
7.1
7.4
7.6
7.3
1.8
2. 2
2.4
2. s
2. s
2. 4
1.60
1. 70
1.9S
2.20
2. 45
3.05
8. 76
11.23
13.80
16.27
18.78
22.11
2. 4
3.1
3.8
4. s
s. 2
6. 1
3· 1
4. 0
4. 9
s.8
6. 7
7. 8
303
S26
604
717
764
797
212
368
423
502
535
ss8
9
13
14
17
21
24
9
13
14
I5
18
20
10
16
16
16
16
16
3SO
.o
• 2S
. so
• 75
1.00
1.10
1. 20
6.1
7.4
8.0
8. 3
8. s
8. s
8. 4
1.7
2.1
2. 3
2. 4
2. 4
2. 4
2. 4
1. 60
1. 70
1. 9S
2.20
2 . 45
2.60
2. 7S
9 . 78
12.59
1s. 39
18.19
20.99
22 .11
23.2 4
2. 7
3. s
4. 3
s.o
s.8
6.1
6. 4
3. 7
4. s
s.s
6. s
7. 4
7. 8
8. 2
340
SS7
637
797
829
860
238
390
446
502
ssa
sao
602
10
1s
1s
1s
18
20
21
10
1s
1s
1s
18
19
20
12
18
18
18 '
18
18
18
.0
• 25
.so
• 75
1.00
6.8
8. 3
8.8
9. 2
9. 4
9. 4
9. 2
1.7
2. 1
2. 2
2. 3
2.4
2.4
2. 3
1.60
1. 70
1.95
2 . 20
2. so
2.60
2 . 75
10.92
14.04
17 . 16
20.28
23.42
24.67
25.27
3. 0
3.9
4. 7
s.6
6. s
6.8
7.0
3.9
s.o
6. 1
7. 2
8. 3
8. 7
9.0
377
S79
657
739
819
8so
883
264
40S
460
s 17
573
595
618
11
1s
15
16
18
19
20
11
1s
15
16
18
19
19
13
19
19
19
19
19
19
1so
200
oOO
1.10
1. 20
717
85
Table 14. Daily Nutrient Requirements o f Cattle ( Cont.)
Dry
Prote i n
Ma t t e r
In take
Oi et
Den-
Gain
lit.
(o r
loss)
(kg)
(kg)
Body
% of
(kg)
Vitamin
Energy
Di-
s i ty
gestTot a I b ible Ca
A
(g)
p
(g)
( 1000
(g)
411
590
6]1
7SO
S31
SS7
288
413
470
S2S
S82
600
12
16
17
18
19
20
12
16
17
18
19
20
14
19
20
20
20
20
4. 4
s.o
s. 7
6. 3
6.9
S79
614
6SO
671
679
40S
430
4SS
470
47S
18
1S
19
19
19
1S
1S
19
19
19
22
23
2S
27
29
3.4
3.8
4. 2
4.6
s .o
s. 3
S. 7
4. 4
4.9
s. s
6.0
6. s
6.9
7.4
409
444
4SO
S14
S46
S79
629
2S6d
311
336
360
3S2
40S
440
11
12
14
1S
1S
16
17
11
12
14
1S
1S
16
17
17
19
21
23
24
26
27
3. s
4. 2
4. S
4. s
5. 1
s. 4
s.7
5. 9
s.o
s.4
5. s
6.2
6.6
7 .a
7. J
7. 7
6SO
6S6
721
SS7
793
S21
SS7
SS6
4ssf
4So
50S
S30
sss
57S
600
620
22
23
24
2S
26
27
2S
2S
22
23
24
2S
26
27
2S
2S
16
17
19
21
23
24
26
27
live
(Hea l
ME
TON a
lit.
/kg)
(Meal)
(kg)
1. 60
1. 70
1. 95
2. 20
2. so
2.60
11.85
15.23
18.62
22 . 01
2S. 41
26.77
3. 3
4.2
5. 1
6.1
7.0
7. 4
4. 2
s. 4
6 .6
7 .s
9.0
9.S
1. 90
1.90
1. 9S
1.9S
1. 9S
12 . s
14.2
16.1
17. s
19 . 4
3. 4
3. 9
4. 4
4.9
s. 3
1.So
1.SO
1. so
1.SO
1. so
1. So
1.SO
12. 4d
13.9
1S. 4
16.S
18.2
19. s
20. s
2. 1S
2.10
2 .os
2.00
1.9S
1.90
1.SS
1.SS
14.o•
1S.2
16.4
17. s
1S.6
19.7
20.7
21.7
FU
(kg)
(g)
I U)
Maintenance and Growth (cont . )
450
.0
.25
• so
. 7S
1. 00
1.10
7. 4
9.0
9.6
10 .0
10.2
10 . 2
1.6
2.0
2. 1
2. 2
2. 3
2. 3
Last 3 llonths of 'Gestat ion
2SO
300
3SO
400
4SO
.6
.6
.6
.6
.6
6. s
7.4
s.3
9. 2
10.0
2. 6
2. s
2. 4
2.3
2. 2
IIATURE COliS
Last
300
350
400
4SO
sao
sso
600
3 Konths o f Ge stati on
•4
.4
•4
.4
•4
.4
.4
6.9
].]
s. s
9. 3
10.1
10.S
11.S
2. 3
2. 2
2. 1
2. 1
2.0
2.0
1.9
LACTATING COWS
First 12 \leeks of Lactation
2SO
300
JSO
400
4SO
SOD
sso
600
6. 4
7. 3
s. 1
S.9
9.6
10 .3
11.0
11.7
2. s
2. 4
l .3
2.2
2. 1
2. 1
2 .o
2.0
86
Table 14. Da ily Nutrient Requirements of Cattle (Cont.)
Dry
Matter
Protein
0 i et
Den-
l ntake
Gal n
Body
Wt.
(kg)
(or
l oss)
(kg)
% of
DigestTotalb i ble Ca
(g)
( g)
(g)
s i ty
(Meal
/kg)
ME
( Mea l)
TDN
(kg)
2. 2
2.1
2.1
2 .a
2 .0
1.9
1.9
1. 7S
1. 7S
1. 7S
1. 7S
1. 7S
1. 7S
1. 7S
11.1
12.9
14.4
1S . 8
17.3
18.7
20.1
3.1
3 .6
4.0
4. 4
4.8
s. 2
s .6
3 .9
4.6
s. 1
s.6
6.1
6.6
7.1
460
SIS
S73
62 3
678
72S
7S9
227
2S4
283
307
332
3S7
370
2. 2
2. 3
2. 3
2. 2
2.1
2. 1
2.1
2.10
2 . 10
2.10
2 . 10
2 .10
2.10
2.10
14. 1
16.3
18.2
20.2
22.1
24 . 0
2S .8
3.9
4. s
s.o
s.6
6 .1
6.6
7 .1
s.o
s.8
6. s
7. 2
7.8
8. s
9.1
483
SS3
600
678
729
801
848
241
277
287
33S
362
390
418
Live
(kg)
Vita-
Energy
Wt.
8
FU
(kg)
min
A
p
(g)
( 1000
lU )
10
12
13
14
1S
16
17
10
12
13
14
1s
16
17
10
12
13
14
1s
16
17
10
12
13
14
1s
16
17
10
12
13
14
lS
16
17
10
12
13
14
1s
16
17
WORKING CATILEg
Kader ate llork ( 4 h/ d)
300
3SO
400
4SO
sao
sse
600
6. 7
7. s
8.4
9 .1
9 .9
10.6
11.4
Heavy Work (8 h/d)
300
3SO
400
4SO
sao
sse
600
6. 7
7.9
9.1
9 .8
10. s
ll.S
12.3
aTON values were calcu l ated using a factor of ).62 Mea 1
ME • 1 kg TON,
1 FU • 2.82 Mea 1 ME.
brotal prate in has been calc ul a ted from digestible protein.
cHeifers, within we i ght classes . may not cons ume sufficient energy to maintain the
higher aver age daily gains shown in the table.
dlt i s assumed that growth in the products of concepti on aver age 400 g/ d during
this period.
eEst i mated using a va 1 ue o f 132 kca 1/ 1,1 kgO · 75 for the rna i ntenance r equi rement. This
is about 12% more than the rna i ntenance re quirement of mature non-1 ac t at i ng cows.
Plus the rt!:quirements for a daily milk yield o f 5 kg of 4% FCH.
frhe DP r equirements for matur e cows was ca l c ulated as 2.86g OP / \ol kgO. 75 plus an
assumed average of So g/d protein deposited in the products of c once ption.
9A Safety factor of 1O% has bee n added to the DP rna i nt enance requir ement for bullocks
doing moderate work and 20% for heavy work.
87
Table 15. Nutrient Constituents of Cattle Milk
at Different Fat l evel s { Nutrients/kg Milk).
Protein
Fat
Oi-
Energy
Content
(%)
ME
TON
(Meal) (kg)
s o. 93
1.00
s 1. 07
1.14
s 1. 21
s.o 1.28
s. s 1. 35
2.
3.0
3.
4.0
4.
6.0
1. 42
• 26
. 28
• 30
• 31
. 33
. 35
• 37
• 39
FU
(kg)
• 33
. 35
• 38
• 40
. 43
• 4S
• 48
.so
gestTotal ib 1e Ca
(g)
(g)
(g)
57
64
71
79
86
93
100
107
40
4S
2. 4
2.
2.6
2. 7
2.8
2. 9
3. 0
3. 1
so
ss
60
65
70
75
s
p
(g)
1.7
1.8
1.9
2.0
2. 1
2. 2
2. 3
2. 4
89
SECTION 10. DOMESTIC BUFFALO
Mason
(1974:
c1t1ng
Bohlen,
1958)
reports the general classification
within the Sa v in i tribe distinguishes
three groups :
Bo vi n a (cattle) , Bubal ina
(Asian buffaloes) and Syncerina (Afri can
buffalo es) . Although mating among the
three groups has been observed, t here
has never been a known ca se of concep-
tion o r b i rth of a c alf.
Apparently,
inte rbr eeding among these groups is
impossib l e .
Although the Bubalus (Asian) and the
Sy n cerlna (or Synce ru s) (A fri can)
buffaloes ha ve several p h ysical
c harac teristic in co mmon, there are also
many differen ces.
So me of th ese
differences are in the size and shape of
the
head
and
the ears.
and
in
the
formation of th e sku ll bones.
Also, the
horns of the A s ian buffaloes a r e
c rescent in shape, and th ey ar e mor e
without th e h ea vy bas a 1
s 1 ender,
thi c kening of the African buffaloes.
Our discussion in this book wi 11 be
c oncerned with the Asian buffalo es
(B ubalu s bubal is), which are mor e
com monly~ water buffal oes .
Ancient writings and sculptures i nd icate
the domestication of water buffalo es
early in record e d history.
Cockri 11
( 1976) suggests that water buffaloes
were in the servi ce of man as ea rl y as
2500 to 2100 B.C.
water buffaloes have
b ee n classi f ied into two distin ct
breeds, swamp buff a lo es and r ive r
buffaloes.
Swamp buffaloes are common th r oughout
Asia, Europe, Afri c a and Latin Ameri c a.
Their n at ural habi tat is marshlands and
River buff aloes , usua ll y
swam p y areas.
found in India and Paki stan, prefer the
flowing wate r of rivers.
River buffaloes exhibit sup ~ rior milking QUC'litie s
and are often mated with swam p buffaloe s
to impr ove their milk produc tion.
In some areas, buffaloes are known by
the nam e Carabao.
This name apparent I y
originated in Malaysia fr om the Malay
word phonetically pronounced Krbau .
The
Spanish pronounced the word Ca r abao
where it wa s u se d in the Phi 1 ipp in es.
There a r e seve r al va r ie ties of Krb au.
The British in Malaysia us ed the term
Kerbau.
Swamp buff aloe s were c all ed
Ker bau- sewah and ri ve r buffaloes
Kerbau- sapi (meaning milking buffalo ) .
Although,
the term Ca rab ao was
originally used to identify swamp
buffaloes , c urrently it appl ies to both
sw amp and ri ve r buffal oes .
Man y of t h e physi ca l c haracteristics
th at distinguish swamp bu ff aloes fr om
r ive r
buffa l oes will not be d ea lt with
here , Th ose who wi sh to res ea r c h this
aspect more fully may refer to 11 The
Hu sba ndr y and Health o f the Domestic
Buffalo 11 (Cock rill, 1974).
The world population of buffaloes h as
b een esti mate d at ov e r 130 million head
(FAO, 1978). Of these approximately 97%
are found in Asia.
Buffaloes a r e ve r satile animals, used
for a 11 types of 1and c u 1 t i vat ion and
crop harvest . as a means of transpo r tation (by dra ught and pack) i n spo r ting
events and r e l i g io u s ce remoni es, for
milk productio n, and finally as a sou r ce
of meat.
Th e swamp a nd river buffal oes vary
slightly in body stru c ture. size and
co lor . A swamp buffal o is r ecog nized by
its sho rt, stoc ky body, short face with
wide muzz l e , and short thin legs. These
buffaloes are usually dark gray in
colo r, although variations fr om black to
albi n oi d s are found among th e popul ation .
Swamp buffal oes va r y in size f rom
3 00 to 600 kilograms. Th ey are pr imarily used as d r aught animals , but they
do provide sma 1 1 quantit ie s of m i 1k for
a farmer ' s family.
Swamp b uff aloes ar e
the most common br eed found throug hout
most o f Asia, Africa , the Middle Ea s t ,
Europe, and l atin America, genera l l y
inhabiting swampy marsh 1ands where they
c an wallow in mud 11 baths 11 •
90
The
river
buffaloes
of
Pakistan are usually bla c k.
In dia
and
Occ asion-
ally, they have wh i te markings on the
he ad and legs . They have longer bodies
than swamp buffaloes and weigh from 450
to Boo kilograms.
These animals are
primarily maintai n ed for their milk
production.
(In some regions, however,
they are the basic source of draught
Milk production by river buffaloes varies widely, with 1400 to 3000
power.)
kilog r ams during a 300 day lactation
period not being uncommon.
Mason (1974) (citing Ulbrich and
Fischer, 1968 and Ulbrich and Fischer,
1967) indicates the swamp buffaloes of
Thailand and \.Jest Malaysia have a
wallow) they return t o normal within a
very short time. \Jhen permitted voluntary a cc ess to wat e r, buffaloes w i 11
spend 5 to 6 hours per day wallowing
during periods of high temperature and
hln!i d i ty.
Kamal and Seif (1968), Ka mal and
Abdelaal (1968) and Kamal and Seif
(1969) studied climatic effects on:
retention of labeled Ca and P metabolism, total body water using tritiated
water isotopes and dry body weight; and
total body weight and dry body weight as
related to age; using cattle and
buffaloes in Egypt.
They found that
buffaloes are more tolerant of heat
stress than Friesian cattle.
diploid number of 48 ch r omosomes,
whereas the Hurrah (river) buffaloes in
West Malaysia and the buffaloes of
Turkey and Europe have 50 chromosomes.
Regardless of the disparity in numbers
of chromosomes, these two breeds intermingle, mate and produce offspring
without difficulty.
Generally, the
resultant offspring resulting from river
x swamp buffaloes mating will inherit
the black color and will be intermediate
in conformation and horn character isties. It has been reported that crossbred (F 1 ) buffaloes perform similarly in
m ilk production to their parents
(Ranjhan, personal communication).
Because of the physiology of water
buffaloes, water and shade are essential
to their well being. When exposed to
the dire c t rays of the sun for long
periods of time, buffaloes show signs of
discomfort.
lrritabi I ity is among the
first symptoms to become manifest.
Outward signs of this are movement of
the head, kicking, and rapid switching
of the tal 1. As the time of exposure
co ntinu es, ruminatio n ceases, panting
b egins,
excess saliva is formed
(dripping from the mouth), mucus is
discharged from the nostri Is, a nd 1 iquid
fr om the eyes.
Under similar condit ions , Bos indicus and Bas taurus cattle
exhibi"ts~eat ""Stress:- When
buffaloes sufferi ng from heat st r ess are
allowed to return to s h aded areas , or
a re given access to water (sprinkled or
Growth and Fattening
Birth weight of buffalo calves varies
among the different breeds, but usually
it r anges from 30 to 40 kg for male and
25 to 35 kg for female calves.
These
weights are comparable to the birth
weights of Bas indicus c attle of the
same genera17egion. Several investigators have compared the growth rates of
buffaloes and cattle and report that,
under the same environmental conditions,
buffaloes make about the same average
growth rate as Zebu cattle (Ranjhan and
Pathak, 1979). As with cattle , males
are more efficient than females in
utilizing feed.
Ognjanovic (1974), in reviewing several
trials comparing the average daily gain
(ADG) of buffaloes and local breeds of
c attle, found that buffaloes wi II
respond to high levels of nutrition with
an ADG comparable to or exceeding those
of ca ttle.
In one trial, Cumburidze and
Dalakisvilli (1959) reported an ADG of
1.123 kg for buffaloes and .680 kg for
cattle. Ghoneim et al. (1959) compared
1 ive weight gains of buffaloes and
Egyptian catt 1e at 18 months of age and
found the buffaloes weig hed 359 kg
compared to 263 kg for the cattle.
Dzhafarov (1958) reported that ADGs of
young buffaloes ranged from .933 to 1.14
kg daily. Ognjanovic {1974) not ed that
91
10 buffalo bulls r ece1v1ng a r ation of
1.2S k g concentrates, 1 kg hay/100 kg
body weight and about 20 kg gr ee n fodd e r
(fed ab libitum ) gain ed 115.7 kg in 105
days o n trial. The ADG was 1.097 kg.
In trial s co mparing f eed co nve r sions (kg
o f f ee d /kg of 1 ivewei ght gain }.
buffaloes have been s imila r to catt le .
In one trial, Salerno (1948; c it e d by
Ognjanovic , 19 74) found the feed co nve rsio n rat e of buffalo ca l ves was 1 kg
b od y we ight gain per 4.2 9 Scandinavian
F ee d Unit s (S FU ).
In co n t r ast ,
Si mment al, Red and \Jhi te Friesians,
Br o wn Swiss and Holstein Fri esians
Too often in the past, the available
buffalo meat has come from old an i mals
that have bee n improper 1 y hand I ed at and
during slaughter , and been su bje ct to
un sa nitary cond i t ions prio r to reach ing
the co nsumer.
Und e r these marketing
co nd itio ns, it is no wonder that buffalo
me at has not been fu ll y acc epted by th e
co nsuming public. Steps should be taken
to co rrec t past pr ob l ems and to pr od uce
good quality, c lean wholesome buffalo
meat.
It co uld alle via te muc h of the
mal nutrition pr esent in many o f the
developing nations of th e wor l d.
r e quir e d 4.64 . 4. ] 1. 4.79 and 4.94 SFUs .
Reproduction and Production
r espective ly.
The 1 imited i nf o rmation available
ind ica t es that buffaloes are good a t
converting feed int o bod y weight g a in.
Additional resear c h is need e d to
d e termine breed variatio n s in su c h
co nve rsion s and what types of man ageme nt
systems (feed, housing, animal si ze,
etc .) wi 11 produ ce the most eco no mi ca l
kg of buffalo mea t.
The dressing per c entag e of the c ar cass
we i ght co mpar e d to the 1 iv e we i ght
varies from about 48 to 60%.
Th e
dr e ssing percentage for males i s
s 1 i ght 1y higher than for fema 1es. These
perce ntages compare fa vo r ably with those
of c attle (50 to 63%).
Buffalo meat co mp a res fa vo rabl y with
beef in composition , tende rn ess, pa latability, and nutriti ve value.
Fat
deposition In buffal oes is confin e d mor e
to the body cav ity and under the surface
of the sk in.
The lean or musc l e
portions of the body lacks the marbling
(fat deposits within the mus c le tissue)
found in bee f type Bas taurus ca ttle,
but is similar to the meat from Bas
indicus c attle.
Buffalo meat iS
slig htly darker in c o l or than meat from
ca ttle .
Buffa loes properly fed a nd
slaughtered pro v ide meat of ex c ell e nt
quality and, in 11 tast e t e sts," such
meat has been reported as palatabl e,
tender and comp etiti v e w i th meat
product s from other ruminant species.
Males
Male buff a lo e s may r each puberty at an
ear 1y age.
In developed co untr ies , some
repo rts i ndicat e that ma le buffaloes ar e
used for bre ed ing purposes at a bout one
yea r of a ge.
Th i s, howeve r, is not
generally the case in Afri c a and Asia.
I n these areas, th e ma l e i s used for
br eedi ng purpos es when a bou t 3 to 4
years of age. \Jhen male buff a l oes a re
used f o r d;-aught purpose:i, th e y s~.oul d
b e permitted a pe r io d of rest prior t o
the breeding season.
The se r vic e I ife of male buffaloes ha s
n ot b ee n def i niti v ely established, but
it has be e n suggested that they remain
active to the age of 12 to 15 years.
Mo s t farmers, however, will only keep a
bull for 4 to 5 years. Oftentimes , th e
mal e is used during the bree d in g season
and then it is slaughter e d and th e
ca r cas s used as meat. This procedure is
repeated each year .
One male buffalo may service as many as
100 females per year.
It is not a good
management practice, how eve r, to ex pect
g oo d co nception rates under th ese
conditions. Usuall y each fem ale wil l be
served seve r a 1 times during the estrus
peri od.
Thus, a reason a ble ratio is
pe rhaps 20 to 30 fema I es for each rn a 1e.
92
In
South
America
{Amazon
a rea).
buffaloes are managed on rangeland.
where the co ncept ion rate is 80 to 90%
and matur e f ema les produce a calf eve ry
11 to 12 months.
an early ag e had sho r te r int ervals
between ca l ving , and that calv in g
i nter va l s decreased with advanc ing age
o f the a n ima l.
Under these con di-
tions, 1 male (entire) is placed with SO
to 70 females.
It ha s been suggested,
Estrus
however, that a better r atio would be
1<35 or 1o40 (Cockrill, 1974),
The breed i ng season in most geographic
regions con tinu e s throughout the year,
but gen e ral ly the
prepond e ran ce
of
matings takes place from October through
January.
Buffa loes (males and females)
apparently be co me sex u a lly inactive
during the heat of summer,
Females
Puberty i n buffaloes, as w i th other
animals, is influenced by the level of
nutrition at which the animal is reared,
Generally, th e faster an animal grows,
the earlier it will rea c h sexual
maturity. Animals enter puberty when
they r eac h a ce rtain S ize o r body weight
in relation to mature size and not at
any part icula r age. Female buffaloes
maintain ed on a high p lane o f nutriti o n
w i 11 reac h puberty at about 22 mo nths of
age. The avera ge ag e at first c al vi ng
seems to va r y fr o m r e gi o n to region,
ranging from 21 months In Italy and
other Eur o pean co untrie s to 40 to 50
months in the Near and Far East.
Generally, a n imals i n developing co untri es are maintained under co nditi o ns
adverse to early maturation, breeding,
health and nutr itio n. Most of ten the
animals rece ive on l y po o r qual i t y
forages such as wheat straw and weeds.
Under such conditions, growth and sexual
development are retarded. Buffaloes,
however, apparent 1 y mature more s 1owly
than cat tle and their 1 ife span is
considerably longer.
The conception rate i n f e mal e buffaloes
is generally ve r y lo w and the i nterval
betwee n calving has been r e ported as 40 9
(Italy), 506 and 444 (India) and 540
(Phi 1 ippines) days. These r epo rts point
out that buffalo females that ca l ved at
The symptoms o f estrus in f e mal e
buffaloes extend over approximately 1 t o
1 1/2 days. There is som e i nd icatio n
that the est rus per iod in swamp
buffaloes found in the Philippine s is
shorter than that of t he Murrah {ri ve r )
buffaloes of India. Also, the buffaloes
in the Philipp i n es have a mo r e
pr o noun c ed manifestation of estrus than
do the India breeds. Ev id e nce indi cate s
that silent heat in buffal oe s is common
and that estrus occurs most frequently
during the night. These c haracteristics, of course, c r eate problems for
those at tempting to br eed the anima 1 s by
ar t ifi c ial means. lsh a q ( 1956), cited
by Bhatta c harya (1974), r e ported that,
without the presence o f the male, only
6% of estruses wer e det ecta bl e.
Buffalo females (and pe rhaps mal es also)
d o not breed during the hot summer
months.
ReSearch has been conduct ed t o
det e rmine the rea son for this. Wh ere
females have been provided shade and the
coo ling effects o f water (sp rinkli ng
and( o r) wallowing), sexual act ivity has
b ee n maintained { Mehta et al. 1 979) .
Concepti on rates. however, remained very
low .
I t is generall y co n ce ded that the
exte rna l symptoms of estr us i n buff aloes
are mu c h less Intense than tho se
manifested in bovines.
The time o f
ovulation in buffaloes va ries among
breeds and from reg io n to region . The
lengths of time r eported have been 18 to
24 hours (Egypt), subsequent to the
initiation of estrus.
In India, ovulation o cc urs 5 to 24 hours after the
termi n ation of estrus, and in the
Phi 1 ippines ov ulation occ urs 15 ho urs
after the end of estrus (3 5 hours after
initi ation of estrus) in Carabao and 11
hours afte r the cess ation of estrus in
the Mur.rah breed.
93
EstPU.s cycle .
The interval between
estrous cycles in most buffaloes has
been r epo rted as about 21 to 22 days.
Many fa cto rs such as disease. nutrition,
temperature and physi c al stress wi 11
affe ct the r egula rity and length of the
estrous cycle.
Pregnancy
The gestation period in buffaloes is
somewhat longer than in cattle. Many
investigators (as cited by Bhattacharya,
197~) have studied the gestation period
in buffaloes and found it to range from
281 to 33~ days.
The average of the
reported values is 3 12 days. Th is is
about 28 days longer than the average
28~ days assumed to be the length of
time for gestation to occur in cattle.
The average calf weight (as reported)
v aries between species and r egion from
28 to 40 kg for males and 22 to 3 5 kg
for females in Murrah buffaloes and, up
to 36 kg for Egyptian buffaloes.
Lactation
The buffa lo female will produc e small
quantities of milk even while she is
required to perform as a draught animal.
Beca use of this feature, female ca lves
are often the only ones allowed to
su c kle the dam.
In many areas, ma le
calves are abandoned and allowed to die
from starvation.
Buffaloes are now emergi ng as dairy
animals.
Approxi mately 60% of the milk
produced in India comes from buffaloes.
Cooperative programs are currently in
place in Malaysia and the Philippines,
where the government is providing bulls
and semen for artificial insemination
from proven breeds of milking buffaloes.
Th e governments in these countries are
also assisting in establishing milk
depots and marketing systems for the
distribution of inc reased quantities of
m i lk. Regulations for the quality and
sanitation of the milk are being
I mp 1emented and enforced.
Buffalo milk is co mparable in quality to
milk from other domestic ruminants,
except that it is much ri c her co ntaining
app roximate ly 7% fat compared to about
3-5 to 4% for c ows' milk.
The wo rld produc tion of buffalo milk is
estimated to exceed 22 million metric
tons , even without information on milk
production from some European and Asian
countries (FAO, 19]1 ). This is nearly
twice as much as the combined milk
production of goats and sheep.
Cattle,
however, produ ce approximately 365
mi 11 io n metric tons.
During the past few years, resear c h has
been co nduc ted i n some cou ntr 1es (India,
Egypt, Ita l y , Pakistan) on improving the
milking ability of buffaloes. Selective
breeding, disease control, management
systems and nutrit io n are the basi c
areas receiving attention. For dairy
buffalo ente rpr ises to be successful,
each of the above factors must become a
part of the management program.
In
buffaloes, as in many other milking
animals, the inherited genetic ability
often exceeds the actual produ c t io n .
This is due to managers notz controlling
disea:Se and pdrasites (internal and
external) , c ulling low producing
animals, selecting the better produc i ng
animals as breeding stock , and feeding
adequately.
All animals must have
adequate nutrition to reach their
genetic potential in productio n (milk,
meat, fiber or work).
A 1 though the annual average production
of dairy buffaloes is 1500 to 2000 kg,
there are reports (Kay , 1974) that some
individual animals in Pakistan have
reached I act at ion yields of 4000 to 4500
liters ( 400 plus days}. On three times
a day milking schedules, daily yields
may exceed 16 kg.
Hllk yields generally decline after the
third or f ourth lactation.
This may be
due to poor management practices or
d i seases {mastitis, etc.).
In wellmanaged dairy buffalo herds in Italy,
the produc tive I i fe-span is about 6
lactations. l<.ay (1974). reported data
from a well managed buffalo dairy herd
that showed the average number of completed lactations was 7-5 and that one
individual had completed 14 successful
lactation periods.
These figures
indicate that.
through good management
practices. the productive 1 ife of buffaloes can be maintained for many years.
One very imp orta nt factor in good
management is to reduce as much as
p ossible the environmental stress to
which high producing buffaloes may be
exposed.
Buffaloes should be protected
from l ong periods of exposu r e to direct
sun! ight, and wallows or some form of
water sprinkling should be available
during the heat of summer.
Potentials exist for enhanced milk
production by the dairy breeds of
buffaloes.
Management and breeding
programs designed to extend the
productive 1 i fe of females, need to be
developed .
Selective breeding and ri gid
cu ll! ng can upgrade the quality of the
milking female.
Nutrient requirements
for maintenance and all physiological
functions should be determined through
controlled research programs so that
1oca 1 feed resour ces can be uti I i zed to
maximize milk production at minimum
cost. Bhalaru et al. (1981) found that
diets adequate to minimize weight losses
during pregnan cy and early lactation.
significantly influenced the post-partum
reproductive performance of buffaloes.
Work
The adaptability of buffaloes to man is
remarkable.
This.
perhaps. is why
swamp buffaloes have become the ' 'beast
of burden" throughout the ri ce
production areas of the world,
Reports
indicate these animals have served man
faithfully for over 4 millennia. They
are used in most aspects of agricultural
production , In transportation, and as a
source of power for running water wheels
and threshing devices.
Buff aloes adapt readily to the
discipline requ ired to respond to the
demands of the handler.
Young animals
quick I y become accustomed to hand I i ng
and at about a year of age the nasal
septum is pier c ed and some form of ring
is inserted in the nose . Often with a
week or two of handling buffaloes are
per forming usefu 1 work. They are gent 1e
anima l s and wi 11 ingly obey direct Ions
from the handler.
Often. the young
calves are tethered to thei r dam and
accompany her to the fields or the
marketplace.
In this manner, they learn
at a very young age the procedures and
commands needed to perform the expected
tasks.
Cockr iII ( 1974 and 1976) suggested that
the annual average number of days that a
buffalo works can vary from about 60 to
70 days in Taiwan to 130 to 140 days in
Ch ina.
The FAO (1966) reports that
about 85% of the total draught power in
the world is produced by animals and
that . in China. Indonesia, Indi a. the
Philippines, and Korea , about 98% of all
draught power is performed by animals.
In the Asian count ri es and Egypt a 1arge
portion of this power is provided by
buffaloes. The buffalo produces about
75% as much horsepower as does a horse
of equal size.
Nitis (1980) reports
from Indo nes ia that water buffaloes are
preferred for wo rking on wet land. but
catt le a r e generally used f o r working
dry 1 and.
Buffaloes have demonstrated their
ability to serve mankind in many useful
ways. A I so, they have adapted we 11 to
envi r onments in which it is difficult
for cattle to survive.
Buffaloes are
gentle, easily trained to perform all
types o f tasks, and can be cont roll ed by
men, women and children . This att ribute
ca n be extremely advantages to small
farmers who primarily depend upon the
family members to pro vi de all of the
labor in the farm producion-marketing
system.
Dry Matter Intake
The dry matter intake of a water buffalo
va ries in relation to the energy density
95
of its diet, which in most cases is
co ntroll ed by fiber co n tent.
Ta p a r ia
and Sharma (1980a} found the dai ly OMI
of buffalo hei f ers weighing from 220 to
246 kg to be 75.8, 62.1, 67.5 and 55.8 g
OM/'WkgO . 75 when fed d iets co nsi sti ng o f
Maize, a e rial part , c ho pp ed (Stover);
'Wheat, st raw ; Clover, Egyptian, hay,
sun-cured (Berseem); or Cowpea, ha y ,
suncu r ed; respe c tively.
Daily OMis for
animals wei ghing 246 to 269 kg were
8 1.6, 78, 84.1 and 56.3 g DH/WkgO. 75 f o r
diets c onta i n i ng Maize, silage, Grass,
hay, sun - c ured (~ !!!utica and
Chlo ris barta ta) , So rghum, aerial part
(Stover)~rlmillet, aeria l part
(Stover); respe c tively.
Buffaloes
weighing from 290 to 340 kg co nsum e d
68.7, 62.9, 62.4 and 53 .1 g DH / IIk 9 0.75/ d
when fed d ie ts co nsist i ng o f Maize ,
aerial part, gr o und (S to ve r ); Wh eat ,
straw; Grass, hay , sun- cu red (Apluda
ar i stata and Themeda spp) o r C l over,
Egyptian, hay, sun cure d ( Bers e em);
respectively.
Th ese authors summarized
by saying;
It may be concluded that the type
roughage fed in long, c hopped or
ground form t o buffalo heifers
influences voluntary intake and
that c hem ical composition, digest i b i l i t y , r ate of passage and
palatability cont ributed to this
difference in response to i ntal<. e.
( p 156)
Ku rar and Mudgal (1981), using nonpregnant dry Hurr a h buffa loes we ighing
3 92 t o 520 kgs found the dry matter
intake of nine diets v arying in energyprotein ratios to b e 57.79, 67.11,
78.81, 57.41, 67.51, 76.62, 56.30, 66.65
and 79.56 9 DH /IIk 9 0.75 for low protein
(LP)--low energy (LE), LP--medi urn energy
(HE), LP--high energy (HE), medium
protein (HP)--LE, HP-HE, HP-HE, high
protein (HP)-LE, HP-ME and HP-HE diets,
respectively.
Th e: DM I wa$ not affected
by any of the three levels of prot e in.
Th e da i 1y averages for these groups were
67.67 , 67.08 and 67.22 9 DH / IIk g 0. 75 f o r
the low protein, medium pr otein and high
protein diets, r espectively.
The OHI
was, howev er, significantly influenced
by the ene rgy levels of the diets. The
average daily DMis for the low, medium
and high ene rg y diets were 57.17, 67.09
and 78.33 g/Wk
75. r espec tively .
Th e
9
above d e sc rib ed levels of ene rgy and
pr-ate in we r e rep o r te d as 80 , 100 and
120% o f tho se re co mm ended f o r maint e -
o.
nan ce by
Se n and
Ray
(1964).
The
average c rude fiber le11e ls of the LE, ME
and HE diets were 25.12, 18 . 1 3 and
2. 60% , respec tively.
Dr y matter intakes
as per- ce nt of body weight were 1.24,
1. 47 and 1.71 for LE, HE and HE diets,
respectively.
\./heat,
straw fed
separately and grain hus k in the
co ncentrat e mixture provided the energy
sou r ces .
The energy d e nsity val ues
(kcal ME/g) were esti mated to be 2.7.,
2.37 and 2.86 for
the LE,
HE and HE
conce n t r a te s , r es pectively.
Ther e is no
referen c e as to the amounts of
conc entrates and straw co nsumed, therefore. the ener-gy - density of the rati o n
consu med ca nnot be de t ermi ned from th e
avai 1 able data.
Tapar I a and Sharma ( 1980b) f ed non pr egnant Murrah buffalo heifer- s weighing
170 to 260 kg mixed diets for 84 days.
The daily DHI/IIkg0.75 va r ie d from 62.2
to 88.5 g. Maize, aer i a I part (Stover);
Grass, hay, sun- c ured or Wheat, straw
were fed ad 1 ib i tum, and each was
supplemented with Clover, Egyptian, hay,
sun-cured (Berseem) or a c oncentrate
m ixtu re.
A seventh diet co nsisted of
Clover,
Egyptian,
ha y ,
sun-c ur ed
( Berseem) and concentr-ate.
The aver-age
daily DMI o f buffaloes on Maize. aerial
part, {Stover); Grass, hay, sun-cu red o r
\./heat, str-aw, supplemented with Clo11er,
Egyptian, hay, sun- c ur e d { Berseem) was
69. 6 g/ll kg 0. 75,
The average dai I y DH I
for buffaloes on Maize, aerial part
(Stover)! Grass, hay, sun-cured or
Wheat, straw diets supplemented with the
co ncent rate mixture was 84.6 g/WkgO. 75;
and for buffaloes receivi ng the Clover,
Egyptian, h c:~y , sun-cL•rE>d {Ae,.seem)
supplemented with c on c entrates, the
daily DHI
was 75,2 g/ll kg 0.75 . The se
data indicate a possible affect of
palatibility on the DHI by buffaloes f ed
va rious diets.
Each animal r eceived
1 kg of co ncentrate per da y.
Sharr.1a and Rajora (1977 ; c ited by Louca
et al. 1992) co mparing the voluntary
intakes of cattle , buffaloes , sheep and
goats co nsuming a low quality Grass ,
hay , sun-cured diet () pluda aristota and
Themad a quadvivalvis co nta~. 85%
tot a I prate in, found the OM I {expressed
as g DH /IIkgO. 75 /d)
to be 62 . •.
77.2,
50.9 and 41.1 for catt le, buffaloes,
sheep dnd goats, respectively.
Dry
matter intakes o f untreated straw and
st r aw soaked in tap water for about 2
hours and then f e d to Z~bu cattle and
buffaloe s we re 83 g OM/V k 9 o. 75 for both
cattle and buffaloes consuming dry st r aw
and 89 and 90 g DM/IIkg0.75 for cattle and
buffaloe s , r es pectively, when f e d wet
straw (Chaturvedi et al. 197 3) .
\Jh en
buffalo heifers were fed wilted or fresh
Alfalfa, hay, sun - cured and C l ove r,
Egyptian, hay, sun-cured (Berseem),
Yoelao et al. ( 1970) found the 0Hls
(exp re ssed as g DH/IIkgO. 75/d) to be 102,
6 3 and 79 g for Alfalfa, fresh (Trials 1
a nd 2) and Clove r, Egypt ian , h a y, sunc ured (Be r seem). r espect iv ely , and the
DM\s for Al f alfa, fr es h , wilted (Trials
1 and 2) and Cl ove r, Egyptian, hay, suncured (Be rs eem) were 125, 12 6 and 109,
r espective ly.
Digestion coefficients
were higher for the wilted forages in
all experiments.
Body weight cha nges
within species were - 4 .25, +1.25, -0.75
and +0.44 g per day,
Yoelao et al.
(1970) citing unpublish ed d a ta of
Sharma , Rajora and Murdi a, r epo r ted the
OM\ o f buffaloes fed a st r aw di e t (4%
l ac tati o n, co nsum ed 11. 3 4 , 14.57 and
17.22 kg of dry matter/d wh en f ed diets
con taining 90 , 100 and 130% of the NR C
( 1966b) r ecommen dations f o r e ne rgy.
In
these trials, protein r equ ir ements were
maintained at 100% of the NRC r ecommendations.
\Jhen the protein level was
raised to 12 0% of the NRC recommendations and the energy leve ls were 90, 100
and 130% of th e NRC r eco mmendations. the
OHis be ca me 15 ., 15.54 and 17.0• kg/d ,
respec tively .
By inc reasing the protein
level, the average OM\ of the three
groups r e mained relativ ely constant
(1 •. 28 vs 1 • . 89 kg/d),
indicating that
OM I was not affected by the protein
level o f these diets.
The daily OM\
(exp r essed as g Dl1/llkg0.75 ) was 111.4 ,
1 33 .8 and 1 57 .7 for those animals
receiving 90 , 110 and 130% o f the URC
recommendat i ens for energy r e qu i rem ents,
r es p ec tivel y .
The av e r age energy
densit i es of th e diets wer e c al c ulat e d
to be 1.79 , 1. 87 and 1. 86 Hea l HE/kg for
the three treatments.
Kurar and Mudgal (1 980) st udi ed the
protein r equirements of Murrah buffaloe s
in the early stages o f la c tation and
found their dry matter intakes varied in
relation to the energy le ve l in their
diets and the interaction of prot e in and
energy.
The average OM I f or the
different groups ranged from 109. 79 to
164 . 57 g/llkgO. 75 /d for the low energy
The daily dry matter intakes of lactating buffal oes varied from 98 . 9 t o 148.5
and high energy diets, r espectively.
Sebastian e t al . (1970) reported that
the OH1 of la c tating Hurrah buffaloes
was sign ifi ca ntly less than that of
Sah iw a l c attle: 2.54 and 2.95% o f b ody
weight . r e spective 1y.
This obse r vation
seems t o ag r ee with other values that
have been rep o rt ed .
In studies of the
maintenance and pr o duction requirements
of l actating buffaloes, Kurar and Hudgal
g/llkg0.75 (Taparia and Sharma, 1980c).
( 1977) report e d<
total
protein) to be 76 g/llk g0.7 5 / d.
The dry matter intak e of l actati ng
Hurrah buffaloes was 132 g/\Jk g0 . 75/d
when they were fed different levels of
co ncent rat es (Shukla et al. 1972).
\Jhe n wheat, straw was the sole ingredient in the diet, the OM\ was 118.4
g/\Jkg0.75/d. But , when the whe at straw
was supplemented with 14.5 or 27 . 7%
concen trat e , the OHI increas e d to 138 .6
and 1•8.5 g/ll kgO. 75/d, respectively.
Mudgal and Kurar (1978) found that
Hurrah buffalo es ,
du r ing ea rly
Th e utilization of dry matter was
significantly (P 0.05) affected by
the levels of energy in the d ie t
a nd also by the interaction of
energy and protein. (p 119)
Aro r a et al. (1978) reported the daily
OM\ of Hurrah buffalo calves to be
97
87.2 g/YkgO. 75.
Thes e calves were fed a
concentrate mixture, wheat straw and
green fodder ab 1 i b i tum at differ ent
time s of the day.
On the basis o f
predi c tion equations . they ca l cu l ated
expected if good quality, high energy
feeds were used . T herefo re, the dai 1 y
DMI val ue used for non-lactat ing buffa-
l oes is the same (97.4 g DM/IIkgD . 75) as
that us ed for growing animals .
the daily OM I (ex press ed as g / ll kg D. 75)
to range from 81.40 to 93.84 for anima 1s
of body wei ghts between 70 and 220 kg.
The average daily DHI, based on 140 to
150
kg
buffal o
calves ,
was
87.83
The 10 OMI values r eported for lactating
buffaloes r ange from 98.9 to 164.5 7 g
OH/II kgD. 75/d.
They ave r age 133.1 g
The OM I (exp r essed as g OM/IIkgO. 75 /d)
DH/\J kg0 .75/d.
As previously reviewed,
the diets fed to the buffaloes that
attained these high levels of intake
also contained good quality forages
and( or) added concentrates. This value
for growing buffaloes has been
determined using many different types of
feedstuffs in the diets.
Thirty-five
va 1ues have been revi e wed and presented
i n the abo ve paragraphs ranging fr om
energy-density (see section 6), has been
u sed in predi c ting the CHI for early
lactation in buffaloes.
It Is in
agreement with the value of 1 32 g
g/ VkgO· 75.
These values are in agreement with those previous 1y discussed.
(133 g DM/II kg 0.75 /d),
adjusted for
In most
OH/IIk g0.75/ d found by Shukla et al.
cases,
the a bo ve DMI values were
determined using low quality feeds as
the main ingredient in the diet. \Jhen
feeds containing higher 1eve 1s of energ y
were fed, the DHI increased accordingly.
Therefore, in establish ing a basis for
calc ulating the DMI pr esente d in the
tables, the ten highest l evels of
co ncent rat es or high-quality forage
feeds were used.
(1972) when diets containing mixtures of
roughages were fed to lactating Hurrah
buffaloes in va r y ing proportions.
53 . 1 to 126 g OM/II kgD . 75/d .
In the absence of informati on co ncerning
the OMI of buffaloes in their
last
trimester of pregnancy, it i s assumed
that co nsumpti o n w i 11 be app ro xi mate 1 y
the sa me as for growing animals (97.4 g
OM/Wk g0 . 75/ d ).
Because nutrient requirements increase during this period.
the diet must co ntain additional
nutrients, especially energy, protein
and miner a l s.
In keeping with the assumption that OMI
is i nf 1uenced by many factors inc 1ud i ng
physical form, protein and crude fiber
levels, palatabi 1 ity and ene r gy density;
the DHI values shown in table 16 for
growing buffaloes have been calculated
Those wishing to fatten young buffalo
ca lves should use the DMI values
us i ng
determined by Arora et al. (1978) (this
a value of 97 .4 g DH/IIk 0 . 75 .
These intake values are cons ide re~ to be
maximums (calc ul ated at 2.5 Heal ME /kg
OM) and ca n be adjusted downward using
equation F • -.666 + 1.333 HE- .2666
HE2 (see Section 6).
By using these
predi ctio n equations, the DMI should
refle ct the maximum daily int ake for
each speci fi c diet adjusted to its
e nergy-density (Hea l ME/kg DH).
The nine DMI values reported
for dry
animals averaged 67.53 g OH/IIk 0.75.
This is not significantly
differen~
from
the 69.58 g OM/II kgO . 75 found for growing
animals.
Be ca us e the diets usually fed
to dry animals are of low quality, the
DM I is low compared to what would be
material was r efer red to previously in
this section) .
Water Tolerance
Because the water buffalo is a semiaquatic a nima l, water is ext re mely
i mp orta nt to its survival.
In hot
weather, buffaloes require frequent
access to water o r mud wallows to aid in
coo: i ng their b..Jd f temperature .
Tt·.e
author was not able to secure any
information concerning the stress
accompanying long periods of w ate r
deprivation.
In the gene ra I envi r onment
in which most water buffaloes are found,
98
water tolerance does not seem to present
a si gnifi cant problem.
Buffaloes have
been observed drinking wate r se ve r al
tim es a day during the wet s easo n .
During the d r y season where they are
forced to graze further from the water
source, drinking is gen e rally restri cted
to twice each day ( morning and evening).
The daily evaporative water losses of
buffaloes are estimated to be 6, 15, 1 6
and 19 kg during the winter , autumn,
spring and summer seasons {Mason,
1974),
respe c ti vely. Also, water consumption
by buffaloes was greater than by cattle.
Studies conducted at the Indian
Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI),
lzatnagar,
India (Ghos h et al.
t o the shade or a wallow, wh e re they
remain unt i 1 about 1500 hou r •,.
At this
time, th e y again co mm~nce to gr a ze and
continue to do so unti 1 approximately
1900 hours.
During th e dry season,
buff a l oes may b egin grazing early in the
morning, continue for severa l hours,
graze again late in the evening. and
occasionally graze throughout the night.
Buff a loes eat a wide var i ety of grasses,
herbs and shrubs.
1980)
showed no difference between the water
intakes of buffaloes and Zebu catt le.
Animals having an average body weight of
270 kg will con sume approximately 20
liters of water during winter and 36
1 iters during the h ea t of summ e r. The
1asses through evaporation w i 11 aver age
about 5 and 19 1 iters during the w i nter
and summer, r es pe ctive ly.
Kay (197!e)
r epor ted that l actati ng adult buffaloes
drink 45 liters of water dai ly for
maintenan ce , and 45 1 iters for milk
production. Additional resear c h might
more accurately determine the daily
intake of water by buffaloes.
Eating Habits
Nutrient Requirements
Buffalo, I ik e other rum inant species,
c an conv ert poo r quality forag e/ roughage
f eeds into usable sou r ces of ene rgy and
other essential nutrients.
Often,
however, i t is diffi c ult for buffal oes
t o co n su me suffi cie nt quantities of
these l o w quality feeds to meet their
nutri ent requirem ents for maintenance,
gr ow th, repr od uc ti o n, production and
w o rk.
This accounts for the slow
development of buffaloes in many parts
of the world, and the ag e (3.5 to 4
years) at wh ich buffalo heife rs dr op
their first c alf.
The gen eral co nsensus
in the literature reviewed, indicates
that adequate nutrition would shorten
this time period by severa l months.
Also, the average milk production per
animal ca n be in c reased b y providing
additional nutrients during critical
times of st res s.
The only information available in the
literature o n this subject is of a
general nature.
Additional research may
be need ed to define the dietary habits
of buffal oes.
Scientific knowledge concerning the
feeding habits and plant selectivity by
buffaloes is ve r y limited.
It is known,
however, that buffaloes will consume
large quantities of poor quality forages
and be ab 1 e to per form we 11.
Water
buffaloes are good grazers and have bee n
known to harvest weeds and other water
tolerant plants submerged bene ath the
water• s surface.
Buffaloes usually graz e in the morning
from about 0600 to 1000 hours r eturni ng
The buffaloes requirements for energy,
protein. ca lcium and phosphorus will be
discussed in the f ol lowing p ag es .
Also,
the requirements f or eac h nutrient as
reported in the 1 i terature reviewed wi 11
be presented, and the procedures used in
developing the equations used to predict
the va lues presented in the tables will
be explained.
Th e values presented are estimates
developed from the information available
to the author and are considered to be
ade quat e to meet the animals 1 minimum
r equireme nt s for maintenance, growth,
pregnancy and production.
Although the
requirement for each nutrient is not
prec isely known, and indivi dual animals
99
vary in their response to the same diet,
the nutrient r equirements r ecommended in
this publication will provide a basis
for calculation of diets that nutri tionally satisfy the animals' r equi rement s.
Energy
A shortage of energy probably 1 imits the
performance of buffaloes more than does
a shortage of any other single
nutritional factor.
This is beca use of
1 imited int akes or because the feed is
of ve r y low quality.
Low quality feeds
are usually poorly digested and rema in
longer in the digestive system.
This
often reduces the OM I, which com p licates
the problem. When forag.es high in water
co ntent are consu med, the intake of
energy and other nutrients is general ly
reduced.
Man y factors affect the energy requirement of buffaloes.
These include size,
age, pregnancy, product ion, growth and
environmental stress fa c tors.
Some
stress factors are temperature, wind,
water needs and shade.
A 1 so , disease
and parasites (internal and external)
wil l influence the DHI and the
uti I i zat ion of feeds.
Energy requirements for the various
physiological func tions of buffaloes are
given in table 16 as daily nutrient
requirements.
In pra ctica l feeding
pr og rams, the amounts of diet fed may
vary from those recommended in the table
to com pensate for animal response,
environmental stress , age and OHI of the
buffaloes.
Maintenance. Animals are generally maintained on farms f o r the purpos e of
producing milk,
meat or
work.
Maintenance r equirement values, however,
serve as a baseline for calculating the
amounts of ene;gy needed to satisfy the
various physiological functions and
product 1on 1eve 1s expected. Th e rna i ntenance requirement of idle adult animals
can often be met by using diets
containi ng roughage s and othe r low
quality feeds, provided adequate amounts
of minerals are included.
Th e
r ecommended energy r equi r ements shown in
table 16 have been calculated using the
equation 125 kca1/Wk g0 . 75/d. This value
was determined from six values appearing
in the 1 i te r atur e.
Unfortunately, fr om
a standpoint of r epresenting buffaloes
in developing cou ntries throughout the
world , the data used were primarily
generated from resear c h co ndu cted in
India.
Hopefully, future editions of
this book or other nutrient requir eme nts
will contain data more representative of
buffalo p o pulations throughout the
world.
Kurar and Mudgal (1981) found the HE
intake o f dry buffaloes to vary between
100 and 147 kcal/Wkg0.75. The variation
was associated with the energy-protein
ratio in the diet.
The higher the
energy-density, the greater the HE
intake.
Body weight changes were not
given. These v alues, therefore, could
not be used in calc ulating energy
requirements. Kura r and Mudgal (1977)
found the daily HE requirement of dry
buffaloes to be 130.2 kca 1/ ll kg 0. 75.
Sivaiah a nd Hudgal (1978) found the HE
maintenance f o r growing buffalo heifer
calves to be 188 k cal/ W kgO. 75 . Arora et
al. ( 1978) found that young, growing
buffalo calves receiving a d i et of
concent rate mixture, wheat, straw and
green fodder (ab 1 ibitum at different
times of the day) had a daily ME
requirement varying from 186 (70 kg,
calf) to 206 (220 kg calf) kcal/llkg0 .75
for maintenance and growth of 465 g / d .
Studies published in India, where
buffalo resea r c h has been co nducted for
many years, has pretty wel l established
the energy and protein requirements of
buffaloes f o r main tenance, growth,
pregnancy and lactation.
Personal
communicatio ns with Ranjhan and Hudgal,
provided information from which the
energy (H E) requirements have been
patterned with some m odi fi cativ n ·~ cJf the
Sen et a I. ( 1978) standards that are in
use in In dia.
The HE maintenance
requir eme nt was basi cal ly estimated
using a value of 125 kcal/Wkg0.75/d for
growing and adult non-producing animals.
Ranjhan and Pathak ( 1979) used a value
100
of 122 kcal ME/W kg O. 75/d as the maintenance requirement for
Indian buffal o es
and developed nutritional standards
based on work done in India.
The value
of 125 kcal HE/IIkg 0.75/d is slightly
higher than the average ME maintenance
requirement of cattle (118 kca1/\.Jk g0.75)
used
to predict
the
ME
Ranjhan ( 1980) sugg e sted that a growth
rate of 700 g / d c an be attained on good
quality leguminous forages without
adding c on c entrates to the diet.
Generally. buffalo e s being fed for
market are male c alves between 9 and 12
months of age.
requirements
shown in the cattle section.
Work done in the Phi 1 i pp i nes
(PCARR, 1978) suggests that the nutrient
Gr>OlJJth .
requirements of buffaloes are h i gher
than that of c attle, When Hurrah buffaloes were fed rations balanced to meet
the NRC energy requirements (cattle) for
growth and product ion, there was no
noticeable response.
\./hen diets were
formulated to provide 10,
20 or ~0%
above the NRC recommended requirements,
however, a significant response in
growth and milk production occurred.
The following information, indicates
that when buffaloes are provided
adequate nutrition, their average daily
gain is comparable to cattle. Rathi and
Singh (1971, cited by lchhponani et al.
1 977) found buffalo c alves gained 17.2
kg/month during the firstS month5 of
1 ife.
Singh et al. (1971, cited by
lchhponani et al . 1977} found growth to
reach a maxi mum of .82 kg/head/d from
the 8th to the 12th week. Maymone and
Bergonzini (1960) reported that young
buffaloes consumed less dry matter (1.19
vs 1.S2 kg) and required less feed per
kg of body weight gain (1.70 vs 3.1 2 kg)
than did young cattle as reported by
Haecker (1929). The average daily gain
was 698 g and 48S g for young buffaloes
and cattle, respectively.
Many workers
have reported that young ca 1 ves rece i ving diets high in protein and energy
make excellent average daily gains.
In
one report (S har ma, 1974), it was shown
that buffalo calves receiving diets
containing 20% more TON than r ecommended
by the NRC ( 1968) outperfo rm ed the
control groups. Sharma and Talapatra
( 196 3, cited by lchhponani et al. 1977)
found that buffalo calves fed on a high
plane of nutrition for 28S da ys had an
average daily gain of 634 g, whereas
those on a medium plane of nutrition
gained 399 g/ d.
Sivaiah and Hudgal (1978} provide the
only HE value available, estimating the
energy requirement for gain as 2.21 kca 1
HE/g of body weight gain.
This value
was not used, however, because it
appears to be extremely low . The infermat ion provided by Ranjhan and Hudgal
(personal c ommuni c ati o n) indi c ated the
HE requirement pe r g of gain can vary
from about 10 to 1S.6 kcal/g gain for
anima l s weighing from 200 to SOO kg. As
the anima 1 matures, the HE requirement
increases for each kg of 1 iveweight
gain. This amounts to about 1 kcal/each
SO kg increment in body weight gain
above the base of 10 kcal/g gain. The
value 10 kcal/g gain was used for 100,
ISO, 200 and 250 kg calves; 11 kcal/g
gain for 300 kg calves, 12 k c al/g gain
for 3 SO kg calves, et c . This pro c edure
was used in establishing the estimates
appearing in table 16. For exampl e , a
400 kg animal would require 11.1 8 Heal
for mainte nan ce. plus 13 Heal for 1 kg
body weight gain. These estimates are
ca 1cu 1 a ted as:
HE requirement for
maintenance
4oo0-75 x 125 - 11175 kcal
HE requirement for
body weight gain
13 kcal x 1000 g
Total dai1y HE requirements
=
13000 kcal
24175 kcal
or 24.2 Mea I
Hatassino et al. (1978) r eported that
the muscle compositions of catt le and
buffaloes vary i n water , protein. dry
matter and fat contents. Buffalo meat
contains less dry matter and fat and
more water and protein.
This may
101
influence the energy required per unit
of 1 ive weight gain.
Pregnanay .
The author was unable to
find any reference to the e n e r gy
requirem e nts of buf f aloes during
pregnan cy .
In the absence of s u ch
information, i t i s sugges t e d that the
val ues establishe d for gain in young
animals b e added to the mai nt enance
requirement during the latter stages of
gestation.
Because of t he longer
gestation period in buffaloes (312 vs.
284 days) a nd smaller calf birthweight
than occur with Bos indicus . perhaps the
ME requi rementsdur ing pr egnancy co uld
be reduce d by a small per ce ntage.
For
the convenience of thos e using these
standards, the HE r e quirements of
buffaloes for the last 3 months of
preg nan cy have been s l ightly modif i ed to
r e f lec t 400 g/d ga in in the produ c t s o f
concept ion (tab l e 16). These est im ates
h ave b ee n calc ulated using the maint enan ce r equirement o f 125 kcal/W'kg0.75
a nd adding to that the est im ated
r eq u i r eme nt of 10 kcal/g o f body we ight
c hange . Ass umi ng an a nim a l of 500 kg,
t he r e quirement would become:
HE r e quirement for
maintenance
5000.75
X
125
a
Total dally HE requirements
Lactation .
Sebastian et al. (1970) suggested that
the maintena nce r equirement of lactating
b uff a l oes is about 38% higher than that
of lactat i ng ca t tle of com parable size.
These aut hors reported the maintenance
requirement o f buffaloes to be 3.76 kg
TON (13 . 6 Meal ME ) compa red to 2. 10 kg
TDI~ (7.6 Meal ME) for catt I e.
The
energy intake exp r essed as sol ids
co rre cted milk (SCM) per unit of milk
energy, however, was similar for both
species.
Al so, it was report e d that
buffaloes are more efficient in
obtaining prote i ns and mine r a ls fr om low
quality f eeds t han are cattle and that
digestibility o f c rude f iber was sign ificant ly higher f or buffaloes. Th e r e
have been co nfli cti ng reports o n the
a mo un t o f e n e rg y r e qu i r ed by 1 act at i n g
buffalo.
Mudg al and Kur a r (1978)
repo rt ed th e mainte n ance requirement of
lactating c rossbr ed cattle a n d
buffaloes, d e t er mined from ene r gy
bala nce data. to b e 130. 66 and 158.54
kcal ME / Wkg 0.75 , r espectively.
Th ey
conc luded by s a ying:
132 12 kcal
HE requ i rernent for growth
of prod ucts of conception
10 kcal x 400 g •
23% more HE than cattle during the early
stages of 1 act at ion. The HE requirements for maintenance of buffaloes
decreased to 119 . 57 kcal ME/IIkg0 . 75
(Sivaiah and Mudgal , 1978) during the
mid stages of lactation.
4000 kcal
1721 2 kcal
or 17.2 Meal
Resear c h data indi ca te tha t
the energy requirements during lac tat io n
a r e higher f o r buffa loe s than ca tt le.
Mudgal and Ku rar ( 19 78) found the HE
r eq uir eme nt for ma i ntenan ce during the
early sta g es of lactation was 1Sd.)4
kcal ME /W'k 0.75 , while catt le during
9
this period required 129.53 kcal
ME/ Wkg0.75. Th is is approximately 18%
less than the value found for buff a l oes
or, in ot he r words, buff aloes r equired
It is also c lear that the ef fi c iency
o f utilization of metabolizable
energy ( HE ) f or milk production was
lowe r i n buff a l oes than i n the cows,
the r e f o r e , buff aloes may require
more HE f o r milk pr oduction. (p 73)
Ranjhan ( pe rsonal com mun ica t ion) suggests th a t the ME r e qu i r e me nt of
lactating buffaloes is near e r t o that of
catt l e (132 kc al/ll kg0.75) than the abov e
information indi c ate s.
Sivaiah and
Mudgal
(19 78) reported the ME
requirement for rna i ntenance during midlac t a tion to be 120 kcal/llkg0.75 .
An ave rag e of the th.r ee values pr ese nted
(159. 120 and 132) is 137 kcal/ ll k_g0.75(d .
Th i s value was used in calc ulating the
mainte nan ce requirement (HE) of
1 actati ng buffalo.
102
The
general
concept
applied
in
establishing the ME requirement of
1 act at i ng ani rna 1s is to provide adequate
nutrition to support
the nutrient
r equi r ements of milk production and
maintenance without allowing appreciable
change in body composition (loss o r gain
in weight}.
\./hen the amounts of
nu tr i e n ts required to accomplish these
results have been determined,
the
report a value of 1003 kcal ME/kg 4% FCM
during the mid-lactation period.
The suggested ME requirements per kg of
4% FCM used in table 17 were ca l culated
using a value of 1230 kcal. This is an
ave r age of the five values previously
mentioned, and is ~ompa r ab 1 e to the
values used for catt l e, 1144; sheep ,
12SO; a nd goats, 1203 kca1/kg of 4% FCM.
maintenance requirement, established in
separate feeding trials with nonpregnant and non-lactating animals
similar in size and other characte r is-
tics. is subtracted and the balance is
assumed to be the ME requirement for
m i 1k production.
The nutrient requirements of lactating
buffaloes w i 11 depend on the amount of
milk being produced and on its nutrient
content.
The amount of milk yield wi 11
depend on the breed and indi vidual it y o f
buffaloes (i.e., Murrah vs swamp buffaloes) and the type d iet being fed. The
ave r age f at content of buffalo milk,
regardless of breed, is between 6 to 8%.
This i s considerably higher than the fat
lev e l o f milk from cows (Bos spp , 3.6)
and goats (4 .5 } and compa rab le to that
of sheep (7.4) and swi n e (8.S).
In
addition, the ene rg y (M E ) r equired to
produce milk will depend on othe r milk
co nst ituents such as protein, sol ids-
not-fat , etc.
The uti 1 i zat ion of energy for the
production of milk varies somewhat in
relation to the energy density of the
diet. Usually, the utilization of low
ene r gy diets is lowe r than that of highene rg y diets.
Also, some reports
indicate that diets in excess of 3 Meal
HE/kg OM may depress the efficiency of
utilization.
The energy-p r otein ratio
also affects the maximizing of the
utilization of ME
during milk
product ion.
Obviously , th e diet must
co nt ai n sufficient protein to satis f y
the amo unt secreted in the m i 1k. Otherwise, the protein would have to come
from body tissues.
Tyrrell and Reid ( 1965) suggest the
following f o rmul a for estimating the
amount of ene rgy (kcal/kg) conta in ed in
catt l e milk:
Energy kcal/kg milk'"" 92.25 F +
Mudga1 a nd Kurar (1978)
found the ME requirement per kg of 4%
F CM to be 1603 kcal with a utilization
eff i ciency of 46.7%.
Shukla et al.
(1972)
found the eff i ciency of
conve rting of ME above rna i n tenance into
m i lk energy to be as high as S1.7S to
78.6% in lactating buffaloes fed on
different 1eve 1 s of conce ntrat es.
Ranjhan (personal communication) c iting
Srivastava (1970} reported a value of
1171 kcal ME/kg of 4% FCM. Ranjhan and
Pathak (1979) recommended a value of
1188 kcal ME/kg 4% FCM in their
publication 11 Feeding and Manag ement of
Buffaloes.'' Sen et al. (1978), in their
feeding standards for use i n Ind ia, a 1 so
re com mended 1188 kca 1 ME/kg of 4% FCM.
S iva iah and Mudgal (1978), however,
49.1 S SN F -
S6.40
where,
F • percent fat and
SNF • percent sol ids-non-fat.
By using thi s formula an estimate of the
energy requirement ca n be determined f o r
milk varying ln butterfat and solidsnot-fat content.
Gaines (1928) suggested the following
formula when the fat conte nt of milk is
the only known constituent:
Energy kcal/kg milk • 748 ( .4 +.IS F)
where
F "" percent f ot.
103
It must be kept in mind that this energy
value r efers only to the energy
con tained in the milk. Di eta ry energy
must be pro v ided in sufficient
quantities to account for what is l ost
in the conve r sion from dietary to milk
energy .
Therefore, assuming an
efficiency o f 60% , it would require an
work {calc ulated as 2.-4 kcal HE/kg body
weight per hour). For example a 300 kg
buffalo performing 1 ight work (4 hours)
would r equi re:
l'tE requirement
for rna I ntenance
3000.75 x 125 • 90 10 kcal
HE intake of 1247 kcal/kg of 4% FCH.
Wo r k . The energy requirement for work is
influenced by several factors.
Among
these are the intensity and duration of
the work, the environmental and physi ca l
condit ion s in which the work is
performed, and the health and condition
of the animal.
Some r esea r c h has been undertaken with
horses in the United States to determine
energy losses associated with various
levels of physical activity.
Suggestions from this source (NRC, 1978b)
indicate the following r equirements
as kcal HE /kg body weight
'Wa 1king
Slow trotting
Fast trotting
(B~)/h,
• 41 kcal/kg of B\1
4.10 kca 1/kg of
B~
10.25 kca1/kg of Bll
Cantering
18.86 kca I /kg of Bll
Strenous activity
31.98 kcal/kg of BW
It can be seen from these estimates that
the energy requirements
are not
excessive, but in c rease rapidly when
extreme physi ca l
a ctivity
is
encountered.
Host wo r k such as drayage, ploughing and
general cultivation by buffa l oes tends
to be performed at a very slow pace and
will not require large amounts of
energy. Ranjhan and Pathak (1979) have
?Ublishe:d r~comrnenc:ted requirements for
work in their book 11 Hanagement and
Feeding of Buffalo. 11 Their values are
very simi 1ar to those presente d in tab 1e
16 which were estimated using the
maintenan ce requ irement (125 kcal/
Wkg 0.75) plus the energy required for
l'tE requirement for 'II'Ork
X
4 ~ 2880 kca1
Total daily l'tE requirement
11890 kcal
o r 11.9 He al
)00 kg (811)
X
2.4
This value (11.9) is comparable to the
11.4 Meal ME as suggested by Ranjhan and
Pathak (1979) for
a 300 kg buffalo
per f o rming normal work.
Th eir requirement for heavy work (300 kg buffalo) was
14.4 Hea l ME, compared to 13.9 Mea l ME
using this metho d.
Under the above described co nditions .
the ME requirement of a buffalo doing
1 ight and heavy work might involve 1 ight
work cons isting of various physi cal
activities for periods of about 1t hours,
or heavy work for 8 hours duratiorv'day.
Unti 1 the energy requirement for work is
more precisely rJJeasur-ed, it is suggested
that the amounts fed should be in
accordance with those needed to keep the
buffaloes in good working condit ion.
Protein
Protein as used in this discussion
refers to the animal 1 s need for
nitrogenous materials. These substances
(amino acids) are the materials the
.;.nimal "leeds to b ui ld its Ol•.'n tissue
(muscle, tendons, etc.) and to replace
worn-out cells.
Until more information
has been accumulated on the amino acid
r eq u i rements of ruminant animals,
pr otei n values wil t be used as
pred icto rs of these requirements.
104
The pr-otein requirement for growth,
produc t ion, reproduction and (or) wo rk
inc 1udes the amount needed far mai ntenan ce of the animal.
The maintenan ce
requirement increases with body size,
but decreases as the animal approaches
maturity due to the dec reasing co ntent
of protein in the body tissues.
Feeding
standards represent an aver age require-
ment over a period of ti me.
Reason
tells us this value computed over the
life time of an animal will not meet the
needs of the very young growing animal,
and that it would exceed those of an
adult ani mal.
Therefore, requirements
should be established at different
stages of growth and reflect the demands
for product ion, reproduc tion and work.
Some evidence indicates that the interaction of energy and protein influences
the uti 1 i zat ion of energy by the ani mal.
Therefore diets should perhaps contain
protein in excess of the animal's
requirements to allow it to more fully
utilize the available energy , and
subsequently reduce the cos t per unit of
production.
To maintain nitrogen balan ce in
buffaloes, protein must be pr ovided in a
sufficie n t amount to allow f or metabolic
and fecal losses and provide f or growth.
production and(or) reproduction. Each
of these functions wi II be treated
separately.
Mai ntenance . Every animal, regardless of
its diet or the physiological fun c tion
being performed, wi 11 hav e urinary
nitrogen losses . This loss is reasonably constant per unit of body size
(wk 9 0. 75) . Fecal losses, however, w i 11
vary with the composition of the
maintenance diet and the metabolic fecal
n it r ogen. The metabolic fecal po r tion
o f the feces contains substa nces t hat
o r iginate within the a n ima l 's body such
as bacterial residues, ce ll s from the
walls of the gastro intestinal tract and
residues of the digestive juices and
other secretions. Although the metabolic fecal nitrogen may be relatively
constant in terms of body size, it w i 11
vary as a portion of the total fecal
nitrogen.
The total fecal nitrogen
depends upon the digestibility of the
dietary protein provided to the animal.
Kurar and Hudgal (198 1) fed adult nonpregnant Hurrah buffaloes diets of straw
and co ncent rate formu 1a ted to represent
80, 100 and 120% of Sen and Ray (1964)
standards for digestible protein (OP)
and total digestibl e energy (TON).
They
found that a high dietary energy i ntake
increased fecal nitrogen losses significantly (P<O.Ol); and that urinary losses
were not significantly affected (?<0.05)
by the protein or energy level in the
diet. Protein balance {WkgO. 75/d), however. was significantly affected
(P<O.OS) by the prot ein and energy
levels in the diet.
These authors
suggest that the protein r e quirements of
buffaloes are lower than those re commended for cattle by the NRC (1976) and
other previous workers (Woodman , 1957;
Lander, 1949; cited by Kur ar and Hudga 1,
1981). llhen DP intake as g/llkg0.75/d
was plotted against nitrogen balance .
Kurar and Hudgal (1981) found the OP
requirement for maintenance to be 2.355
g/\Jk 9 0.75/ d. These findings agreed with
those of Singh (1965) of 2.089 and Gupta
et al. (1966) 2.846 g, and 2.440
g/Wk_g0.75/d cited by Kurar and Hudgal
(198"1).
Ranjhan and Pathak (1979)
recommended a value of 2.84 g/\JkgO. 75/d
the same as suggested by Sen et a 1.
( 1978).
Sivaiah and Mudgal (1978) found the OP
requirements of growing buffalo heifers
for maintenance to be 3-396 g/Wk9 0. 75/d.
This is co nsiderably higher than the
value of 2.355 suggested by Kurar and
Hudgal (1981) for maintenan ce of nonpregnant adult buffaloes.
Negi et al. {1968) found the OP requirement of adult buffaloes (355 kg) to be
89 g/454 kg 1 ive body weight (LB\1)
assuming the protein had a biological
value of SO%.
Converting this to
dietary OP, the value becomes 178 g
DP/454 kg LB\1 o r 1.81 g/llkgO. 75/d.
This
value is slightly lower than the other
values used in determining the OP
requirement, but appears to warrant
co nsideration in arriving at the average
value used for estimating OP.
105
lchhponan i et al. ( 1977) in re viewing
avai !able info rmation on buffalo
nutrition , r epo rt ed that work by Rathee
a nd Yadav (1971) in di cates that 1'\urrah
ca lves betwe e n th e ages of 7 and 13. 5
months w i 11 gr o w sat i sf actor i I y o n a
di e t contain ing 20 to 40 % less pr o tein
than is suggested in Morrison•s (1956}
standard, provid i ng the ene rgy level is
ade quate.
Also, Malik et al. (1973) fed
three levels of OP to 2-year-old buffalo
heifers for 15 months and c on cl uded
that, up to the age of puberty , th e se
animals gr e w normally on di e ts c ontaining 16% 1ess pr a te in than est im ates
suggested by the NRC.
Again, e ne r gy and
ot her nutrients wer e provided in
adequat e quanti ties.
The informat ion seems t o indi c ate that
buffal oes may be able to uti li z e pr otein
more efficiently than do ca t t le and,
therefore, their DP requirements for
body maintenance are lower.
An average of the above seven values is
2.5 4 g/111<90 . 75/d. This value. whi c h is
about 11% bel o w the 2.86 g/llk g 0 . 75/ d
used to estimate the requirements of
ca ttle, seems to be in agreement with
most evidence that buffal oes are more
efficient in utilizing protein for body
mal ntenan ce.
Therefore, this v a l ue
(2 . 54 g/IJ kgO. 75/ d) was used to estimate
the maintenance requ i rement s presented
in table 16.
OP requirement (g/d) • 2.54 11k 0. 75 +
9
. 2)8 g LIIG + 0.66 31 kg L\1- .001142 kg L\1 2
where,
vk o. 75 • metaboli c body weight
9
l\o/G "' 1 ive weight gain
L\.1
1 ive weight
It is essential that additional information be generat ed to und erlay estimates
of the OP requirements o f buffaloes.
Only thus ca n we a c hi eve the degree of
ac c uracy and creditabil ity needed.
The estimated values determined from the
equation are given in table 16.
These
va lues should meet the di eta ry OP
r equirements of growing, non-pregnant
buffaloes and pregnant buffaloes during
the f i rst 7 months of the gestation
period.
Pr-egnancy (last J months). The growth of
the f e tus is accompanied by inc reases in
esse ntial membr anes and fluids.
Th e
growth of t he fetus a nd in other
produ c ts of conception occurs slow1y
during the early stag es of gestation .
About one-third of the total produc ts of
co nception are produced during the first
7 months of the gestati o n period. Thi s,
of co urse, requires a rapid accelerat ion
in fetal development during the latt e r 3
months of gestation.
Requirements a,.-e
similar to those f o r cat tle (figu r e 19).
Growth .
I t is much more difficult to
estimate the OP requirement for growth
because nitrogen deposition varies with
species and age of the animal.
In an attempt to estimate the change in
protein requir ements due to c hang es in
body weight and age of the animal, t he
equatio n of Gentsch eta!, ( 1975) has
been modified to incorpo r ate the
suggested OP val ues for maintenance and
9 r owth found i n u.e 1 ite r ature, and
information from personal communications
with investigators in the developing
countries .
Using the value of .238 g
OP/IIk g0.75/ g of body weight gain.
suggested by Sivaiah and Mudgal
the equation becomes:
as
(1978} .
During the early period. no additional
nutrients above maintenance requirements
are needed, assuming that the animal is
mature and is in good phys i cal
condition.
'When pregnant animals a r e
young and growing or pregnant mature
animals in poor c ond ition are bei ng fed,
additional DP and other nutrients must
be provided for growth and(or) body
weight gain. Under these ci r cumstance s,
2(, anci 10% should be added to the
nutrient requirem ents of first-and
second - ca l f heifers, respectively.
Increasing the nutrient intakes of
mature animals in poor condition will
prepare them fo r the ensuing lactation
period.
Generally, this will result in
106
an increas e in the milk yield.
espec ially during the early stages of
lactation.
growth, 95 g w i 11 be needed da i 1 y.
( Th is value was determined using the
equation previously explained) .
Lactation . Protein must be provided to a
42.0,----------,--,---,--.,-,
39.0
41.6 1 9th monlh
.J
~
?
~ 18.0
17.6 ,l ith month
~ 1s.o
I
i"·'
i,
~
g,o
6.0
3.0
/
7 ' 2}7thmonth
,,
2.4 ......, ..'
· ~.----~-~··=··~--~~.._··~:-··~'~"~··-~-__j
Time{Monthtl
Figure 19. Nitrogen requirem ents in
products of concept ion in cows producing
calves weighing approximately 45 kg
(a dapted from Cuthbertson, 1969).
The averag e buffalo calf weighs between
28 to 40 kg at birth depending on size
and breed of the dam and the plane of
nutrition she has receive d . Therefore,
about 18 to 26 kg accrue during the 90
days prior to parturtion.
In addition
to the increase in fetus weight,
additional membranes, etc . are being
formed.
To es tablish a value for
est i mating DP requirements, it has been
assumed that the daily ga in attributable
to the products of co nception during the
I ast 90 days of the gestation period is
400 g.
In addition to the ma inte nance requ i rement for DP (2.54 g DP/IIkg0.75 /d), the
buffalo dam must be provided sufficient
nutrients to satisfy the 400 g of
material being deposited in the products
of conception.
It is diffi cu lt to
estimate this value because the body of
a new b o r n cal f (or un b orn fetus)
c ontains a much higher percent of water
than that of a growing animal.
Assuming, however, that the value is
compa r able to the OP requirement for
lactating animal in sufficient amounts
to: meet its body maintenance requirements, offset amounts se c r eted in the
produc t (milk) and, often allow for the
development of an embryo. During the
early stages of lactation , especially
with high producing animals,
it is
difficult to achieve this goal. Under
these c i r c umstan ces , the animal wi 11
draw upon body reserves to meet its
requirements.
It is c riti cal , theref o r e, that sufficient nutrients
(including protein) be pr ovided to an
animal during this period.
Kurar and Hudgal (1980) fed buffaloes
diets containing six variations of
energy/protein ratios and found the DP
r equirement for maintenance to be 3.2
g/\olk 9 0.75/d.
This value is slightly
higher than the 2.54 glllkgO. 75/d used in
estimating the r equ ir emen t for nonproducing animals.
The DP r eq uir ement
f o r mi.lk production was 126.03 g/100 g
of protein secreted in the milk .
Sivaiah and Mudgal (1978) studi ed the
effects of plane of nutrition on
buffaloes during mid-l actatio n and found
the daily DP requir eme nt for maintenance
to be ).65 g/llkg 0 . 75/d , while the DP
requirement per 100 g of protein
secreted in the milk was 166 . 34 g .
Despite the 1 arge variation between
thes e two sets of va lues, but In the
absence of additional information, an
average of these values (3 .42 g/llkg0.75)
has been used to estimate the DP
requirem e nts during the early and mid
stages of 1 act at ion.
It is apparent that additional research
is needed to devel o p a reliable value
for us e in estimating the energy and
protein r e quirements of buffal oes during
each physiologi cal function.
Hopefully,
this information will become available
in the near future.
Wor k .
There is no evide n ce that work
increases the protein requirement above
107
maintenance l evels .
There are small
losses of protein from body s urfaces.
but the magnitude is unknown, and it is
assumed that an increase in the dry
matter in take (or an increase in the
ene rg y density of the diet) to meet the
ene rg y r equir ements for work wi 11 supply
sufficient prot ein to r ep lace th ese
losses.
Th e
PCARR
( 19 78) ,
how eve r ,
suggest the foll owing dail y re quirement:
light work, 90 g DP; medium work, 110 g
DP; and hea vy work. 130 g OP.
There
were no animal weights given, but it is
assume d that the animals
are mature
an i mal s in excess of 272 k g.
Minerals
Mi neral elements are constant l y being
exc r e ted from an anima1 1 s body.
Therefore,
a constant supply o f th ese
essential nutri ent s is needed.
Minera ls
are required in man y enzyme and other
meta boli c systems within the animal.
Although the g e neral conse nsus is th at
some of the 11 Spent 11 min e ral elements are
recycled. some are excreted thr o ugh the
urin e , f eces and skin. Because of a l l
these endogenus l osses , animals r equire
a r e l ative ly co nstant supply c f minerals
for mal ntenan ce .
A 1 so, minerals are
required for growth. product ion and
reproduc tion.
M i neral requirements of buffaloes
i ncl ude sod i um, calci um. phosphorus,
sulfur, chlorine, co balt, potassium,
magnesium, iodine, iron, ma ngan ese,
zin c , se l enium and co pper.
Other
minerals such as fluorine, mo lybdenum,
selenium, etc. , may be required, but at
this time there is insufficient evidence
to warrant their supp lem entation in
buffalo diets.
'When calculating the mineral requirements of animals, co nsiderat ion must be
given to the amount of each elemen t that
Is available to the animal ,
Minerals
such as ca l c ium and phosphorus, may have
an availability of only 40 to 50%.
Therefo r e, c al ci um and{or) phosphorus
losses and the amounts retained as
growth (in c lud i ng fetus) and(or)
p r oductio n must be determined and then
divided by the availability coe ffi c i ent
(most ofte n, a coefficient of 70% is
assumed).
This amount then becomes the
dai I y requirement .
Oietary r e quirem ents for calcium and
phosphorus
tend to d ecl ine with
advancing a ge.
The ability of older
an imal s'
in testines to abs o rb Ca and P
f r om the dietary sour ce , however, also
declines.
Therefore, the maint e nan ce
requirements for these two min e rals
remain r e l at iv e ly consta nt.
Sodi um and ch lor ide are essential
e l e me nts in buffal o nutr itio n that ca n
b e eco n o m ical l y pr ovided by simply
adding salt to the diet, and ther e f o re,
they will receive no further d isc us sion.
Although several other minerals are
essen tial f o r maintenance and production
in ruminants, only estimates for c al ci um
a nd phosph o rus appear in the tables. A
good min e r a l mixture o r tra ce mineral
salt will provide adequate amounts of
the o ther min erals to meet t he dietary
r equi r eme n ts in most r egio ns.
Wh e r e
special problems exist, other minerals
may be r e quired.
See section 4 and
Appendix 1 for addition a I information.
Calcium.
An an imal 1 s net requ irement
for calcium is c al c ulated from a summation of the various e ndogenous losses
and the amount reta ined in the body or
sec ret ed with the milk,
Agarwala et al. (1971) found the calcium
needed for
maintenan ce of adult
buffalo es to be appro x imately 23 to 25
g/d. This is the only value available
to the author indi cating the ca l c ium
requirement for maint e nance of adult
buffaloes.
It is sim i lar to those
suggested by Ranjhan (personal com munic ation), which were used to estimate the
calc ium r equi rement s listed in the
tables for maintenance and a l l
physiological functions.
Calcium conta i ned in the milk produ ce d
must be added to the maintenance
requirements.
A I so, young he i fers w i 11
108
require additional calciu m to provide
for their growth during their
first and
second lacta tions.
T he estimated
requirement used in table 17 va ri es from
2.9 g /kg for milk containing S% fat to
4.1 g/kg for milk with 11 % f at .
Phosphorus. Phos ph o rus is perhaps t he
most widely deficient die tar y m ineral
th r o ugh out the wo rld .
Most n atural
forage feeds contain low level s of phosph orus.
major
Because these
constitue nt s
feeds a re the
in
rum inant
nutrition, car e mu st be taken to ensu r e
Th ese a r e the only va lues avai 1 able to
the author.
The average of these values
(1~.5 g/d) i s simila r to those suggested
by Ranjha n (personal communication).
whi ch have been used in table 16.
Requir ements f o r pregnancy, milk production a nd grow th have been determined
from Ranjhan ( 1980) , an d these, where
appli c able, have been added to the
main tenance requirement and the total
phosphorus requirement f o r eac h
physiological fun cti on that have b een
pr esented in tab 1e 16.
that the diet contains su ffi cie nt
ph os ph orus to satisfy all the requirements f o r maintenance, growth, pregnancy
and I actation.
Aga rwal a et a l.
( 1971) studied th e
phos phor us requir ement of buffal oes for
maintenance using thr ee sources of
phosphorus (sodium d i hydrogen phosphate,
dicalcium phosphate and ph osphor us
contai n ed in wheat bran).
From these
st udies, th ey indicated the ph os p ho ru s
requirement to be between 1 2 and 1 7 g/ d.
Ca r e has been taken to ensure that t h e
Ca:P ratio does not excee d a r atio of
3: 1.
Th e re is evidence that i t ca n go
mu c h high e r th an this without deleteri o u s effects and , in many practical
f ee ding situatio ns whe re f o rag es a re the
only sou r ce of fe ed , this may occu r .
Even und e r these co nditions, h oweve r,
phosphorus should be pr ov ided in
sufficient amounts to meet th e mini mum
r e quir ement shown in table 16.
I 09
Table 16. Daily Nutrient Requirements of Buffaloes
Ory
Protein
Matter
Diet
Dens i ty
Energy
live
(Heal
FU
/kg)
HE
(Heal)
TON
lit.
(kg)
(kg)
Intake
Gain
Body
lit.
(kg)
% of
(or
loss)
(kg)
(kg)
0 igestTot a 1a ib l e Ca
(g)
(g)
(g)
Vitcr
min
A
p
(g)
( 1000
IU)
Ka i nt.enance and Grovth
100b
I 50
200
.o
.25
• so
• 75
2. ~
3.0
2. 8
2.8
2. ~
3.0
2.8
2.8
I. 65
2.15
3.05
4.08
3. 95
6. ~5
8. 95
11.45
1.09
I. 78
2. ~7
3.16
2. 29
3. 17
4.06
163
312
373
8o
195
254
313
~
~
9
14
20
8
II
I~
5
6
6
6
.0
• 25
• so
• 75
I. 00
3. 3
3. 9
4. I
3.9
3 ·9
2. 2
2.6
2. 7
2.6
2. 6
I. 65
2.00
2. so
3.05
3.94
. 36
7.86
I 0. 36
12.86
IS. 36
I. 48
2.17
2.86
3. 55
4. 24
1.90
2. 79
3. 67
4. 56
5. 45
223
393
486
609
109
242
319
378
437
5
10
14
17
21
5
9
12
I5
17
6
9
9
9
9
~.1
1.65
6.65
9 . IS
11.65
14.15
16.65
I. 8~
2. 53
3. 22
3.91
4.60
2.36
3. 24
4.13
s.o2
5.90
288
465
543
610
682
135
28 1
341
400
471
6
10
14
19
23
6
9
13
17
20
10
12
13
13
327
525
604
677
732
160
315
374
433
493
12
15
19
22
8
9
12
17
19
9
10
12
14
14
I. ~0
~3 9
5~8
.o
• 25
• so
• 75
1.00
8
5.1
5. 1
4.8
2.0
2. 4
2.6
2. 6
2. 4
.0
.25
• so
• 75
I. 00
4.8
s. 5
5.9
6.1
s.6
1.9
2.2
2.4
2.4
2.2
1.90
2. 15
2. so
3 .os
7.86
10.36
12 . 86
1s.36
1 7.86
4.93
2. 79
3.67
4. 56
s.4s
6. 33
300
.o
• 25
.so
• 75
1.00
5.6
6. 2
6. 8
7 .o
6.5
1.9
2.1
2. 3
2. 3
2. 2
1.65
1.90
2.15
2 . 60
3.05
9.01
11.76
14.51
18.26
20.01
2.49
3. 25
4.01
5.04
s. 52
3.20
4.17
s. 15
6. 48
7.09
377
579
663
736
790
183
343
402
461
521
9
13
17
21
26
9
12
16
19
23
10
11
13
15
16
350
.0
.25
• so
• 75
1.00
6. 4
7.1
7. 6
7 .a
7. 2
1.8
2.0
2.2
2. 2
2.1
I. 65
1.90
2. 15
2. 45
3 .os
10.11
13.11
16.11
19.11
22. 11
2. 79
3.62
4 . 45
5. 28
6 . 11
3. 59
4.65
5. 71
6.78
7. 84
426
620
703
776
826
205
357
416
475
535
10
13
17
20
23
10
12
15
18
21
12
13
15
17
18
400
.o
• 25
.so
• 75
1.00
7.0
7. 7
8. 4
8. 7
8. 3
1.8
1.9
2.1
2. 2
2.1
1.65
I. 85
2.10
2. 40
2.90
11.17
14.42
17.67
20 . 92
24.17
3.09
3.98
4.88
5. 78
6 . 68
3.96
5. 11
6.27
7. 42
8.57
~69
653
740
818
874
227
369
428
487
547
11
14
17
20
23
11
13
16
19
21
13
14
16
18
19
250
~.
I. 95
2.30
2.80
3.~7
I. 65
2 .1 7
2.86
3. 55
4.2~
110
Table 16. Daily Nutrient Requirements of Buffaloes ( Cont.)
Ory
Protein
Hatter
Intake
Body
\It.
(kg)
Gain
(or
l oss)
(kg)
% of
(kg)
Live
lit.
Diet
Densi ty
(Hea l
/kg)
Energy
VIta-
Di gestME
(Hea l)
TON
FU
(kg)
(kg)
Totala ible
(g)
(g)
min
A
Ca
p
(g)
(g)
( 1000
1u)
"aintenance and Grovth (cont.)
450
.o
.25
. so
• 7S
1.00
1.10
7. 7
8.6
9. 1
9. s
9. 2
8. 8
1.7
1.9
2.0
2.1
2. 0
2.0
1. 65
1. 90
2. 10
2.40
2. as
3.0S
12.21
1s. 71
19.21
22.71
26 . 21
27 . 61
3. 37
4. 34
s. 31
6. 27
7. 24
7.62
4. 33
s.s7
6.81
S.os
9. 29
9. 79
515
67S
7S8
836
896
911
248
36S
424
482
S42
S66
12
14
16
18
20
21
12
14
16
18
20
21
14
1s
17
18
20
20
soo
.0
8. 3
9. 1
9. 7
10.2
10.4
9. 7
1.7
1.8
1.9
2.0
2.1
1.9
1.65
1.85
2. 10
2.40
2 .80
3.0S
13.21
16.96
20.71
24.46
28.2 1
29.72
3. 65
4.69
5 . 72
6. 76
7. 79
8. 21
4. 68
6.0 1
7 . 34
8 .6]
10.00
10.54
556
786
869
933
971
268
374
433
492
5S2
S76
13
1s
16
18
20
21
13
14
16
18
20
21
14
16
18
20
23
23
2.10
2.0S
2.00
2.00
1. 9S
14. 1
1s. 1
16.2
17.2
lB. 2
3. 9
4.2
4. s
4.8
s. 0
s.o
s. 4
s. 7
6.1
6. s
S38
S92
647
726
779
294
324
3S4
40S
4JS
16
21
23
26
28
14
16
18
20
22
2S
27
30
34
38
1. 9S
1. 90
1. as
l.BS
1. 82
1.85
1.85
l.BS
l.BS
1s. 2
16.2
17.2
lB. 2
19.2
20.2
21.2
22 . 2
2J . 2
4. 2
4. s
4. 8
s.o
s. 3
5.6
5 ·9
6.1
6. 4
s. 4
s. 7
6.1
6. 5
6. 8
7.2
7. 5
7. 9
8. 2
644
720
776
832
889
944
992
1064
1116
354
40S
4JS
470
506
SJ7
SS7
607
638
23
26
29
J1
34
36
39
42
44
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
JO
34
JB
42
46
so
53
57
61
. 25
• 50
• 75
1.00
1.10
]01
HE lFERS
Last 3 Konths of Gestationc
300
3SO
400
4SO
sao
.s
.s
•s
•s
•s
6. 7
7.4
8.1
8.8
9. 4
2.2
2.1
2. o
2.0
1.9
IIATURE COW S
last 3 l'klnths of Gestation
400
4SO
sao
sso
600
650
700
750
BOO
.4
.4
•4
•4
•4
•4
•4
•4
•4
8.0
8.6
9. 3
9.8
1o. 4
11.0
11.7
12.2
12.7
2. 0
1.9
1.9
1.8
1.7
1. 7
1.7
1.6
1.6
Ill
Table 16. Da i 1y Nut r i en t Requirements of Buffaloes (Cont.)
Dry
Hatter
Intake
Protein
Diet
Den-
Gain
Body
lit.
(kg)
(or
loss)
(kg)
ME
TON
FU
/kg)
(Meal)
(kg)
2.00
2.00
2.00
2. 00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
16.8
18.0
19.1
20.2
21.3
22.4
23.4
24.4
25.3
26.4
1.65
1. 65
1.65
1.65
1. 65
1.65
1. 65
1.65
1.65
1. 65
10.1
11.2
12. 2
13.2
14.2
15.2
16.1
17 . o
1 7. 9
2 .00
2.00
2.0G
1.90
1.90
Live
lit.
Vitamin
A
D i-
s i ty
(Heal
% of
(kg)
Energy
(kg)
gestTotal a ible Ca
(g)
(g)
(g)
(g)
( 1000
I U)
4.6
5.0
5. 3
5.6
5. 9
6.2
6.5
6. 7
7.0
7. 3
6.0
6.4
6.8
7. 2
7. 6
7. 9
8. 3
B. 7
9.0
9. 4
865
908
950
988
1028
1064
109B
I 144
1 17B
1214
600
620
638
659
678
696
714
27
30
31
33
34
35
36
3B
39
40
21
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
19
21
23
25
27
30
32
34
36
3B
3. 6
4.0
4. 3
4. 7
5.0
s. 4
5. 7
6.0
6.3
6. 7
423
469
512
553
597
633
6B3
714
752
788
205
227
24B
268
288
305
327
346
364
3B2
14
17
1B.B
2. 8
3.1
3. 4
3.6
3.9
4.2
4. 4
4. 7
4. 9
5.2
11
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
15
17
19
21
23
26
2B
30
32
34
B. 57
1 1.89
15.02
18.02
20 . 91
2. 4
3. 3
4. 1
5.0
5.8
3.0
4. 2
5. 3
6. 4
7. 4
9
11
13
15
17
10
13
17
21
26
p
LACTATING COliS
Prod uci ng 4 kg Containing 7% Fatd
350
400
450
500
550
600
650
700
750
Boo
.0
.0
.o
.0
.0
.0
.o
.0
.0
.o
8. 4
9.0
9.6
10 .1
10.7
11.2
11.7
12 . 2
12.6
13.2
2. 4
2.3
2.1
2.0
1.9
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.7
1.6
53 7
559
sao
ADULT NON- PRODUCING BUFFALO
Ka 1ntenance
350
400
450
500
550
600
650
700
750
Boo
.o
.o
.o
.0
.o
.0
.o
.o
.o
.o
6. 3
7. 0
7.6
B.2
B. 9
9· 5
10 . 3
10.6
11.0
11.5
l.B
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.5
1.5
1.4
1B
20
21
22
23
25
26
27
IIORK I NG BUFF ALOES
lloderate \lark (~ h/d) e ,f
200
300
400
500
600
• 10
• 10
.os
.0
.o
4. 8
6. 5
8.0
9.3
I 0. 7
2. 4
2.2
2 .o
1.9
1.8
455
577
644
617
709
272
335
354
295
339
10
13
17
20
22
112
Table 16o Oai ly Nutrient Requirements of Buffaloes (Cont.)
Dry
Prate in
Matter
l ntake
0 I et
Body
lit.
(kg)
% of
(or
1oss)
(kg)
Vita-
Energy
Di-
Den-
Gain
(kg)
Live
lit.
s i ty
(Meal
min
gest-
A
ME
(Meal)
TON
(kg)
FU
Tota1 3 ible
Ca
/kg)
(kg)
(g)
(g)
(g)
p
(g)
( 1000
1U)
2 020
2o20
2 0 10
2o 10
2 010
1Oo49
l4o 77
18o86
22o83
26o67
2 09
4o 1
5o 2
6o 3
7 04
3 07
5o 2
6o 7
8o 1
9o 5
486
623
715
699
815
299
369
389
325
373
10
13
17
20
22
9
11
13
15
17
10
13
17
21
26
Heavy Work (8 h/d)
200
300
400
500
600
3
olD
o10
005
oO
oO
4o 8
6o 7
9 o0
10o9
1 2 o7
2 04
2o 2
2 02
2o 2
2o 1
Tota 1 protein was calculated from dig estib l e protein.
bsmall animals will not make gains greater than about 1 to 1o25% of body weight
unless diets containing large amounts of fat are provided, i.e . , milk or milk
rep l acements.
CEn e rgy has b ee n provid ed for the developm ent of mammary glands, etc . , in first c alf
heifers.
dln c rease all nutrient requirements except vitamin A 20% during the first
lactation and 10% during the second lactation to allow for growth.
eEnergy has been calculated using a value of 2.40 kcal HE / h of work/kg of body
weight plus the HE requirement for maintenance and growth.
fA safety facto r o f 10% has been added to the OP requirement for growth and
maint enance of working buffalo doing moderate work and 20% for heavy work.
Notes Adjustments for milk yield should be made in accordance with information
contained in table 17. The nutrient r e quir eme nts for milk must be added to the
maintenance requirement to arrive at the total nutrient requirements for maintenance
and production.
113
Table 17. Nutrient Constituents of Buffaloes Hi lk
at Different Fat Levels {Nut rients /kg Milk )
Protein
Fat
Content
(%)
~
Di-
Energy
HE
TON
(Heal) (kg)
.0
I. 23
I. ~0
I. 57
I. 7~
• 3~
. 38
• ~3
8.0
9.0
10 . 0
11.0
I. 91
. 53
. 57
• 62
.67
s.o
6.0
7 .o
2.08
2. 25
2. ~2
.~8
FU
(kg)
.
~~
.so
• 56
.62
.68
• 7~
.80
.86
gestTotal ible
(g)
(g)
87
98
108
118
128
138
I ~9
I 59
61
69
76
83
90
97
I 0~
Ill
Ca
p
(g)
(g)
2. 7
2. 9
3. I
3.3
3.
3. 7
3. 9
2
2. 2
2. ~
2. 6
2.8
3.0
3. 2
3. ~
s
~.I
.o
115
SECTION 11 . COMPOSITION OF FEEDS
In most animal feeding enterprises, feed
is perhaps the most cost 1y and important
of management fac tors. Feed may account
for 70% of the total expenditures for
fattening,
milk production,
etc.
Therefore, for the convenience of the
us e r.
species , va riety); commo n name
(ge neric, breed o r kind, strai n ); and
c hemical f ormula.
2. Part -material fed to animals as
affected by the process.
four feed composition tab 1es have
been prepared 1 isting approximately 200
feeds used in Africa, Latin Amer i ca, the
Middle East, and Asia.
3. Process(es) and Treatment(s) - to
which the part material
subjected.
has been
proposed by Harris (1963) and Harris et
4. Stage of Matur i ty- {applicab l e to
plants and some animals).
al. {1980) and adopted by the International Net ·N ork of Feed Information
Centers has been used to describe the
feedstuffs.
6. Grade - (official
The
In te rn ational
Feed Nomenc lature,
as
The International Feed Nomenclature is
com pri sed of six facets, with descriptor
terms
used
to
identify
each,
and
speci fi c regulations for t h e ir use in
coi ning feed descriptions (names). This
system is c urr ently b ei ng us ed to
des c rib e feedstuffs in North and South
America, parts o f Eur ope , the Middl e
Eas t, Australia, Korea and Asia. The
system was developed to overcome
inconsistencies in naming f eeds by
assig ning a descriptive n ame to each
feed. Because of simplicity and clarity
afforded through its application, the
Inte rnati o nal Feed Nomenc I ature prov ides
a way to standardize the naming of feeds
on an i nternat ion a 1 basis. (For furth e r
information , see the Int e rnati onal
Netw ork of Feed Information Centers
Publications by Harris et al. 1980a;
Kearl et al. 1980; and Harris et al.
1980b.)
When composing International Feed
Descri ptions, descriptors (within ea c h
facet) are selected to specify
cha ra cte risti cs among feeds that relat e
to differ er.ces in nutritiv e 'laluc. Each
international feed description is
com pos ed by using descriptors from one
or more of six facets. These a r e:
1. Original
material (origin) co nsisting of scientific name (ge nus,
5. Cutting - (applicable to plants).
guarantees
a uthor i t y) .
assigned
Each feed has to
unambiguously and
oriented manner by an
Desc ription (name)
descriptors selected
described above.
grades and
by a legal
be identified
in a selectio n
Intern ational Feed
using up to six
from the 6 fa cets
International Fe e d Des c riptions are
designed to meet the exacting needs of
input-o utput proc e dur es using com put ers.
Th is system is unique in that each
descriptor is an alphabetic code that
can be used for sorting purposes.
Classes of Feeds by Chemical and
Physical Characteristics and
General Usage
Feeds are grouped into eight classes on
the basis of their chemical and physical
characteristics and the way they are
used in formulating diets .
These
classes, by necessity, are arbitary and,
in border I i ne cases, the feed is
assi gn ed a cla~s acccrdir.g to i t s most
com mon usage. Foods on a dry basis that
contain more than 18% c rude f i be r o r 35%
ce ll wall are c lassif ied as f orages or
roughages; those that contain less than
20% protein and less than 18% c r ude
fiber or 35% ce ll wall are classified as
116
energy feeds; and those that contain 20%:
o r more protein are classified as
I nter nat ion a 1 Feed Name Cattle , milk, fr esh
protein supplements (table 18 ).
International Feed Number
International Feed Name
Coining a name to ensure the unambiguous
identification of a feed can lead to
International Feed Descriptions that are
awkward for ordinary communi cat ion.
Therefore, an lnternat ional Feed Name is
formed by changing or deleting certain
part (Facet 2) and process (Facet 3 )
descriptors used in International Feed
Des c riptions (Harris et al. 1980b).
Oese r i ptor s are modified to be more I ike
those used in the trade. For example.
the combination of des c riptors (AERIAL
PART + SUN-CURED) generally be comes
11
hayl 1 in ordinary communication.
1
(original
material),
Each new International Feed Description
is assigned a 5-digit International feed
Number.
This Feed Number 11 nks the
International feed Name and Country
Names, and the chemi ca l and biological
data in the International Databank.
The
numbers are parti c ularly us e ful for
c alculations involving a number of feeds
within one diet o r feed mi x tur e .
The
Feed Class Number usu a l l y precedes the
Int e rnational Feed Number when feed
tables and reports are prepared.
Tables of Feed Composition
Facet
Facet
4
(maturity}, Facet 5 (cutting) and Facet
6 (grade) , however, are always the same
in the International Feed Description
and the International Feed Name.
Tables
In the Tables of Feed Composition,
International Feed Names were us ed .
Tables
It is suggested that International Feed
Names be adopted by regulatory agencies,
researchers, extension services,
scientific journals, teachers, county
agents, consultants, government agencies
and producers in all countries.
Country Feed Names
Feed identificatio n using common names
is often difficult for those engaged in
formulating animal diets. To ove r c ome
this and to make the in format ion more
meaningful, the name that the feed is
known by in each country (or region) is
coded and becomes an 11 other name11 in the
International Descriptions and(or) Name
file.
For example:
24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, )0 , J l
and 32 present the co mposition of
regional feed ingr edients.
Nutrient
concent rations are organized as follows:
2~,
26, 28, JO
Proximate Compos it ion and Energy
Content of
Feeds.
Data Expressed
on an
As-Fed and Dry Ba sis
(Moistu re Free).
Tables 25,
27, 2'), 31
Mineral and Vitamin Content
of
Feeds . Data Expressed on an As-fed
and Dry Basis (Moisture Free).
Table 32
Chemical Composition of Mineral
Supplements.
Data Expressed on an
As-Fed and Dr y Basis (Moisture
Free).
Locating Feed Names in the Tables of
Feed Composition
Arabic name- Hal ib bagar
Turkish Name -
I nek sutu, Taze
I n t.e rnat ion a I Feed Oeser i pt ionBas spp. cattle , milk, fresh,
As an easy reference for those not
familiar with Scientifi c Names, a
l i s t ing with English Names a n d
Scie ntifi c equivalents are given in
117
Table 18. Feed Classes by Physical and Chemical Characteristics
C1ass
Number
C I ass De nominations and Exp 1a nations
D1'1J forages and I'Oughages
forages and roughages c ut and cu red and other produc ts with mor e than
18% c rude fiber or containing more than 35% ce ll wall ( dry basis).
Forages
A 11
and roughages are 1ow in net energy per unit weight usua II y because of the
high cell wall content.
Example dry forages1
hay
STRA\1
stover (AERIAL PART IIITHOUT EARS 1/ITHOUT HUSKS (for Haize) or AERIAL PART
Ill THOUT HEAOS ( for So rghum )
Example roughages:
HULLS
PODS
Pasture, I'a11f!e plants and foroges fed fresh
Inc lu ded in this group are all forage feeds either not c ut (including feeds
cured on the stem) or c ut and fed fresh.
Silages
This class includes only ensiled forages (MA I ZE, ALFALFA, GRASS, etc. ), but
not ensiled FISH, GRAIN, ROOTS, and TUBERS.
Energy feeds
Products with less than
than 35%ce11 wall (d ry
FRUIT, nuts, ROOTS, and
are c 1ass if i ed as energy
20% protein and less than 18% cru de fiber or less
basis), as for example GRAIN, mill by-products,
TUBERS. Also, when these feeds are ensiled they
feeds .
Pr-otein supplements
Products which contain 20% or more of protein {dry basis) from animal
origin (including ensiled produ cts) as well as ALGAE, oi 1 mea l s, GLUTEN,
etc.
Miner>at supplements
Vitamin suppLements
Inc luding ensiled yeast.
Additives
Feed supplements such as antibiotics, colo ring material , flavors , hormones,
and medicants.
118
Appendi x
-4. Th is l ist will be useful as
c r oss r eferences in 1ocat i ng th e co r rect
scienti·fi c name to be used in l ocating a
specifi c feed in the tables.
All
data are converted to a 100% dr y
matter basis (moisture-free).
Individual values for each nutrient are
ave rag ed.
Data
Feed nutrient inf ormatio n is expressed
The mean nitrog en-free ext ract is c al c ulated with mean data as:
in metri c units and on as-fed and dry
bases.
Bi ological
util izat ion,
information {ene rgy
etc.) were estimated using
Mean NFE (%) • 100- ash(%)- CF (%)
- EE (%) - TP (%) .
regress ion equations when experimental
data were not avai I able, and these are
marked with an asterisk(*).
Available
United States and Canadian f eed info rma-
tion was used in the absence of regional
data.
These are identified by a plus
(+)sign. Calculated United States and
Canadian values are marked with an
ampersand (&).
Where data were not
available for goats, sheep data have
been inserted and are marked with the
po und symbol (#). Cattle data have been
inserted for all buffalo data.
Fe e d samples of the same description may
va ry in composition.
Variations in
analyses are c aused by samp l ing
techniques, variety of plant, climate ,
and soi 1 properties where grown; and
harvesting, preservation, and processing
methods.
Specific nutrient analyses
also have 1 imited accuracy and
precision. Also, animals vary in their
ability to utilize the available feed
nutrients. These tabu\ ated data should
be used as guides when It is not
possible, pra c tical, timely or cost
efficient to analyze samples of the
avai I able feeds.
where,
NFE = nitrogen-free extract; CF •
c rude fiber; EE • ether extract; TP •
total protein .
Nitrogen-free ext rac t is no longer used
to formulate diets, but until sufficient
energy data be come available, there is
some advantage in having it f or
ca l culati ng total digestible nutrients
(TON} that,
in turn, are used to
calculate digestible energy (DE).
Equations used to estimate values are
marked with an asterisk(*) in the
following listz
Digestible Energy
Digestible energy f o r each animal kind
was ca lculated by one of the following:
a. from the average digestible energy in
dry matter (DH).
b. OE
The rei iabi 1 ity of these values is
dependent on the number of samples used
in calculating the average.
In some
cases, only one value was avai I able .
Blank spaces indi cates that information
is not available. Zero values are included when the amount is less than the
lower 1 i mits of the analytical method.
Arithmetic Models Used to Calculate Data
(OM)
•
GE
(OM)
x
GE
digestion
coe ffi cient .
c. from HE for ca ttle. goats and sheep
(Moe and Tyrrell,
1976h
* OE(Mcal/kg OM) • ME(M c al/kg OM) + 0.45
1.01
d. from TON for cattle, goats and sheep
(C r ampton et al. 1957; Swift, 1957h
The fo 11 owing procedures were used to
calculate and summarize the data.
*OE(Mcal/kg OM) =0.04409 TON(% of OM)
119
Metabolizable Energy
b. from digestible nutrients as:
Metabolizable energy for each animal
kind was calculated by one of th e
following:
a. from the ave rag e meta bolizabl e energy
in OM.
digest ble protein in%
digest ble crude fiber in%
digest ble nitrogen-free
e.xt r act in %
digestible ether ext r act i n
*M E(Mcal/kg OM ) • -0.45 +
1.01 OE ( Mcal/kg OH)
1
X
1
X
1
% x 2. 25
TON(% of OM ) •
b. from DE for cattle , goats and sheep
(Moe and Tyrrell, 1976h
X
TOTAL
c. from DE for c att le, goats and sheep
(C rampton et al.
1957;
Swift,
1957),
* TON( % of OM) • OE(Mcal/kg OM)
0.04409
Net Energy
a. net energ y (NE) for finishing cattle
was calculated from equations
developed by Garrett (1980):
*NEm(Mcal/kg OM)= 1.37 ME - 0.138 ME2
+ 0.0105 ME 3 -
d . from digestible organic matter (OOM}
for goats:
*TO N( % of OM) = 1 . 05 OOM(% of OM)
1.12
* NE (Mca l /kg OM) = 1. 42 ME - 0.174 ME 2
9
+ 0.0122 ME 3 - 1.65
e. f rom ME for cattle a nd
(C r ampton et al. 1957: Swift,
sheep
1957).
TON(% of OM) • ME ( Hcal/kg OM )
wher e,
0.036166
*H E(Hca1/kg OM ) • 0.82 OE(M ca1/kg OH)
b. net energy values for NE 1 were
calculat e d us ing the formula of Moe
and Tyrr ell (1976).
f. *TON (% of OM) from regress ion eq uations in tabl e 19 when n it r ogen- fr ee
e.xtract , total protein, ether e.x trac t
and c rud e fiber values are present
( llard eh , 1981 ).
* NE 1(Hcal/kg OH) • -0.36 +
0. 623 OE(M cal/kg OH)
Digestible Protein
o r,
*NE (Mca1 / kg OM) • -0.12 +
1
0.0245 TON(% of OM)
D i g esti ble protein was ca l c ulated for
each kind of animal as follows:
a. Digestible pr otein
Total Digestible Nutrients
Total dig esti bl e nutrients (T ON ) we r e
calculated by one o f the following1
a. average TON values in OM .
a
(%protein in DH )( prote in dig. coe ff. )
100
b. * b y eq uations of Knight and Harris
(1966) (ta bl e 2).
"'
0
Table 19. Regression Equations to Estimate Total Digestible Nutrients
An I mal
Kind
Cat t 1e
Feed a
Class
Equati onb
TON (% of OH ) --17 . 2649 + 1. 2120 (TP%) +
.8352 (NFE%) + 2.4637 (EE%) +
. 4475 (CF%)
TON (% of OH) • -21.7656 + 1. 4284 (TP%) + 1 .0277 (NFE%) + 1. 2321 (EE%) +
• 4867 (CF%)
.4590 (CF%)
-9736 (NFE%) + 3.001 6 ( EE %) +
. 4228 ( NFE %) + 1.1903 (EE%) . 4448 (NFE%) + 1. 4218 (EE%) -
• 1379 (CF%)
. 9787 (EE%) +
. 8279 (EE%) +
• 5133 (CF%)
• 36 73 (CF%)
.9150 (NFE%) + 1. 3513 (EE%) +
.91 94 (NFE%) + 1. 2159 (EE%) TON (% of OH ) • - 37 . 3039 + 1. 3048 (TP%) + 1. 3630 (NFE%) + 2.1 302 (EE%) +
.0798 (CF%)
.1043 (CF%)
TON (% of OH) • -21.9391 + 1.0538 (TP%) +
Sheep
TON (% of OH ) •
40.2625 +
.1 969 (TP%) +
TON ( % of OH) •
40.3227 +
.5398 (TP%) +
TON (% of OH ) - -14.8356 + 1. 331 0 (TP%) +
• 7923 (NFE%) +
1. 6899 + 1. 3844 (TP%) +
.7526 (NFE%)-
TON ( % of OH) •
TON (% of OH ) •
TON (% of OH) •
1. 0340 +
2.6407 +
-9702 (TP%) +
.6964 ( TP%) +
• 7007 (CF%)
• 3618 (CF%)
Source• llardeh ( 1981)
asee tabl e 18.
bin the e quations TP • Total Protein, NFE • Nitrogen Free Extract , EE • Ether Extract, CF • Crude
Fiber
121
Vitam in A
1 IU vita min A activity=0.6 mi c r ogram
beta-ca r otene
The international standards for vitamin
A are:
1.0 milligram beta-ca rotene,.
1667 IU
vitamin A
activ it y
IU,. Internati o nal Units
1 IU vitamin A • 1 USP unit vitamin A
To co nvert grams or mil ligrams of betacarotene to IU o f vitam i n A. divide by
0.0000006 or 0.0006. respective 1 y.
= 0. }44 mi c rogram crys-
talline a l l t r ans
vitami n A acetate
,. 0.300 mi c rogram all
t r ans
vitamin
A
a l cohol
Table 20. Co nve r sion of Beta-Carotene to
Vitamin A for Different Species
Species
Conve r sion
of mg
o f BetaCa r otene
to I U o f
Vitcmin A
(mg • I U)
Standa r d
1
• 0.550 microgram vitamin A palmitate
Beta-Carotene (Pro-Vitamin A) Equiva lents Based
on the Rat
Inter n atio n a l s t a nd ards for vitamin A
a r e based o n the utilization of vitamin
A and beta-carotene by th e r at . Beca use
va r ious species of anima l s do not
co nve rt carotene to vita min A in the
same rati o as rats. it is suggested that
co n vers ion rates in ta b le 20 be u sed .
The Int ernational standards f or betac arotene areJ
Beef cattle
Dairy
Sheep
.
1 .667
IU of Vitamin
A Activity
(Calcu l ated
From Ca r otene)
(%)
100.0
• 400
24 . 0
1 - 400
24. 0
- 400-500
Source: Beeson ( 1965) .
24 . 0-30 .0
123
SECTION 12. DIET FORMULATION
When formulat ing diets to adequately
meet the nutr itional requirements o f
animals at various stages of pr oduction
and( or) r epro duction, it is n ecessa r y to
know the nutr ient va lu es of feeds and
their palatabilities, the n ut riti onal
r e quir eme nts of
the
animals,
and
to
bring these separat e entities tog et her
in the most exped it i a us mann e r at the
I east-cost.
There are s everal publ ications
contai n ing the nutrient co mp osition o f
fe eds . Nutriti o na l data o n fe e d s fr om
many regions have bee n ca mpi led and are
avai labl e as r efe r ences when formulating
die ts.
These ar e: " l atin Ame r ican Feed
Co mp osit i o n Tabl es" ( Mc Dow e ll e t al
197 4), "Arab and Middle East Tabl es of
Fe e d Com posi ti on" (Ke arl et al. 1979) ,
'' Tabl es of Feed Compos it io n f o r
lndonesia 11 (Hartadi et al. 19 80),
11 Ko re a n Tab 1es of
Feed Compos it i on 11 ( Han
et al. 1982) and 11 Cent ral and Southeast
Asia Tab l es o f Feed Compositio n'' (Ha rris
et al. 1982) .
Generally when balan ci ng diets for
animals, some nutrients a re mo re
c r i ti c al than others. while certain
types of a va ilable feeds ma y be
deficient in on e or more of these
c riti ca l nutrients.
I t is important ,
therefore, that the nutritionist unde rstand the situat ion in the area in
quest io n, and tak e a ll n ecess ary st e p s
to ensure that the animal co nsuming the
diet is provided with all the essential
nutrient s . When f eedi ng ruminants, the
safety margin may be quite wide, but
when feeding broilers that are confined
to cages , preci se amount s of a 11 known
nutrients must be provided i n the diet.
The recommend at i ons contained in these
table!: mar r.ave t c be aC::justed in
certain situation s. Although fe eding
standa rd s are excellent as guide! ines i n
est ablishing a ba sis f o r formulating
animal d i ets, nutrient requirements
ca nnot be accurately specified f o r
ani rna 1 s under unusua 1 circu mst ances.
Factors that can adversely affect an
animal's r espo n se to d iets balanced
according to f eeding standa r ds a r e:
palatabi 1 ity, c hemi ca l and physical
c haracteristics of the feeds; envi r onmental stress; health o f the animals•
a nd management. Th ese var i ab 1es affect
the inta ke a nd utiliz ation of nutri e nt s
and , exce pt in general t e rms, ar e
d iffic ult to accommodate in feeding
standa rd s .
A balan ced diet co nt ains all the
nutri e nt s r e quired to satis fy the needs
of a n animal for energy, protein,
vitami n s , min e r als, and wate r at a n y
speci fi e stage of growth, pregnancy,
la c tation, fatt eni ng, and work .
Id ea ll y , a b al anc e d diet ac c omplishes
this at the l east possible cost per unit
of pr oductio n. Neith er diets formulated
t o provide ma ximum pr oduction nor thos e
f orm ula ted a t 1east-cost always produce
maximum profits ( fi gure 20).
Diets can b e f o rmulat ed using mathematica l models and sophisti cated e l ec tronic
co mput e rs, or with pe nci l and paper .
Needl ess t o say, more i nfo rmat io n can be
p r oce ssed through the co mput e r than
through the average human brain in
a rri vin g at a final co nc lusion, but
satisfactory diets ca n be f o rmulated by
the latte r method. Several publ ica t io ns
out! i ne the pr ocedur e s used i n formulati ng d ie ts by computer ( Crandall, 19721
Harsh and Black, 19711 Maddy, 19721
T aylo r and Newland, 1976; Aughtry,
1976).
Butcher (1976) described a simple way to
f o rmulate diets with some conside ration
for least cost. His pro c edur e defines
the class and fun c tion of the animal,
: i s ts a •.1a i l ob le 'feeds, and cal c ulates
th e cos t per unit of ene rg y and protein~
Several methods ha ve been suggested for
balanc ing d i et s to s atisfy the nutrient
needs of animals. These c an be found in
most publi c ations on 11 Feeds and Fe e ding
of Animals."
124
M.uu11umpaonl
ofpoohl
~
1600
.......
f1t1i !MI$
1
1500
~lid
,..ft
,,,
tqlllflltn•
BOO
1400
700
1300
...,._J..__
3000
B
c
D
_.__-,--L,--'---'-..J 600
3200
3400 3600
3800
Balanced kcal ME/kg Feed
Figure
20.
Selection of
A System for Simple Diet Formulat ion
Factors to be Considered in Balancing Diets
the optimum
nutrient density in broiler fe eding .
Upper solid line is weight gain
(g/bird);
Ani rna 1 dieta r y r equirements can be met
in many ways by utilizing the available
feed resources in diffe r ent co mbinations. The first priority is to compare
locally grown feeds to all available
f eeds on a per-unit cost basis.
Roughages and forages are usually the
least expensive feeds,
and they,
there f ore, should compose as 1 arge a
per ce ntage of the diet as is feasible.
Concentrates , minerals, and vita mins are
added to ensure that all the essential
nutrients are included in the diet.
lower solid line is feed costs
for equivalent gain ( l eft hand units);
the dotted 1 in e is the profit (weight
gain minu s feed cost in terms of we i ght
gain) (adapted from Dudley and Park,
Dry mattero intake . The dry matt er intake
of animals is dependent upon several
fa cto rs: specie, body size and physiologi cal state of the animal; and
palatabi 1 ity, texture, energy density,
and bulki ness of the diet.
Eac h anima l
has physical a nd physiological limitations beyond which their DH I cannot go.
1966).
Conside r able
information has been
generated about feeding animals in
co nfinement .
For animals that graze
pastures and ranges,
however ,
the
Protein . The pr otein requ irements must
be known for the particular species of
ani mal and the functio n o r performance
e x pe c ted. The pr otei n r equirement is
generally referred to as total protein
or digestib le protein.
problem of estimating nutl"ient r e quire-
ments and f inding ways to meet these
Ene rogy . Energy is required to maintain
r equi r ement s becorn~s much more complex.
Providing adequate nutrition under these
the animal in fasting metabolism and to
pro vi de for physical activity. growth,
product ion and( or) reproduction,
Energy
is pro vided by sugar, cellu lose, fat and
protein (above the protein requirement).
The energy requirement may beg iven as
total digestible nutrients, Scandinavian
f eed units. metabolizable energy, etc.
conditions is often very difficult . For
grazing animals, it may be necessary to
prepare program s that max imize uti 1 i zation of the forage that is available
during the different seasons.
Th is may
result i n fluctuatJons in the body
we ight of matu re animals . Under these
cond i tio n s, the manager mu st evaluate
t he fee d resour c es and plan the feeding
regime according to accepta bl e changes
in body weights. When natural forage
feeds are inadequate to meet the
nutrient requirements of animals f o r
exte nded per iods of time, supplemental
feeds sho uld be made available.
Calci um.
Cal ci um is required for b one
development and various enzymatic
processes within the anima l. Calcium is
an essential e lement and must b e
included in anima l diets.
When natural
ingredie n ts do not provide sufficient
calci um to meet the anima l s' r e quirements f o r maintenance, growth.
12 5
produc tion or reproduction, supplemental
c al c ium should be provided.
Cal c ium
requirements are usually based on total
c al c ium and are expressed as g Ca/d.
Phosphor'U s . Phosphorus, like calcium, is
an essent 1 al mineral and must be
provided to animals on a regular basis
in sufficient amounts to meet their
requirements for all physiological
functions. Also, the Ca:P r atio is very
important and, when possible, should be
maintained on an approximate 1 to 1.511
basis. The phosphorus requirements are
usually expressed as total phosphorus in
g/d.
Othe r minerals . To avoid the possibi 1 ity
of a micro-mineral deficiency it is
advisable to prov ide these minerals in a
high quality trace-mineralized salt.
c onverted bac k to an "as fed" basis for
mi x i ng and(or) feeding.
Bec ause the information in the nutrient
r e quirement tables are on a nutrient /
animal/d basis, the example ration will
be presented upon this basis rather than
upon a nutrient concentration c ontained
in the diet. From table 14, we find the
nutrient requirements for a 300 kg steer
gaining .5 kg/d to be: 13.4 Heal HE and
679 g TP. Also, these nutrients must be
present in ]. kg of DH.
To meet the
nutrient requirements, each kg of diet
must contain the following: 1.9 Heal HE
and 97 g TP.
It has been determined that the
following feeds are locally avai I able:
Ri c e , straw (Oryza sat iva)
1FN 1-03-925
Vitamin A. Vitamin A supplementation may
be important when <?nimals are grazing
poor quality forages such as may oc c ur
during long periods of drought. Vitamin
A su ppl ements are relatively inexpensive
1n many areas and, when in doubt, It may
be advisab l e to supplement ani mals
either orally or by subcutaneous
injection.
Other vitami ns . When it becomes apparent
that some other vitamin(s) are deficient
the one(s) in question can be added to
the diet.
In ruminants receiving diets
of good quality forages 9 this condition
is unlikely.
Diet Calculation
The first step in calc ul ati ng a diet
containing all the known nutrients to
sat 1sfy the c r it i ca 1 needs of any given
animal is to list i ts requirements for
dry matter intake, protein, energy,
calci um , phosphorus and vitamin A from
t he appropriate tables in the text.
Second, select a list of available feeds
from the feed c omposition tables and
calculate the unit cost of the major
nutrients (listed above). Third, diet
calculations are generally made on a dry
matter basis (100% moisture free) and
Guineagrass, hay, sun-cured (Panlcum
maximum) IFN 1-02-336
Naplergrass, hay, sun-cured, mature
(Pennisetum purpureum) IFN 1-20-808
Ma i ze, grain (Zea mays indentata)
IF N 4-02-93 5
Cotton, seeds, meal solvent extracted ,
41% protein (Go ss ypiwn spp)
IFN 5-01-621
Al falfa, hay. sun-cur'"ed, ear'"ly bloom
Hedicago sativa}
IFN 1-Q0-059
At this point it is necessary to list
the feeds and establish a per unit cost
of the primary nutrients. For purposes
of illustration, o nly per unit costs of
energy and protein w i 11 be conside r e d.
If calci um, phosphorus or carotene a re
n eeded to balance the ration, they ca n
b e added as a supplement without
appreciably affecting the overall cost.
Fo•·this exomple , the fol l owi•19 pri c es
per metric ton of each feedstuff has
been used (table 21).
For pr acti c al
appli c ation, however, the pri c es
prevailing at the time will have to be
substituted for the ones used in th i s
example .
126
Tabl e 21. Feed Composition and Cost Per Metr i c Ton of Some Selected Feeds
Dry basis
I nt ernat i anal
Feed
Numb e r
Feed Name
1-03-925
1-02-336
1-20-808
1-00- 059
5-0 1-621
4-02-935
Rice, straw
Gu i ne ag rass
Nap i ergr ass
A lfa lfa
Cot ton seed, mea 1
Maize (co rn )
grain
Cost/MT
Dry
Mat-
ME
(Meal
/kg)
ter
(%)
91.0
89 . 0
90.0
90.0
91.0
89 . 0
1.6 3
1.81
I. 70
2.17
2. 75
3.15
Total
Pro-
Phospho-
te in
Ca lc i urn
(%)
(%)
(%)
4. 4
7 .a
5. 4
18.0
45 . 2
10.9
0. 21
0.67
0.44
I. 27
0 .1 8
0.03
0.08
0. 51
0 . 35
0. 20
I. 21
0.29
r us
Asfed
( uso )a
22 .
JJ.
44.
66.
143.
110.
Dry
24.17
37 .08
48 .89
73 . 33
15 7.14
12 3.60
aHarke t pri ce on as-f ed basis.
When exa min ing the nutrients contained
In al f a lf a hay (table 2 1 ) it can be see n
that 7 kg (O M) con tains adequate amounts
of e ne rg y (M E) and pr ote in ( TP ) to
satisfy the daily requir e ment s o f a 300
kg steer gaining .S kg . The c ost, howeve r,
i s ap pr oximate ly 51.1 US ce nts
By
1 ook I ng at the cost p e r unit o f ME and
TP contained in Ri ce , straw, guineagrass,
and nap ie rgra ss (table 22) we find them
(.51 1 USO) per day (7 x .0]3 x 100).
to b e much l owe r per unit than those
availa ble from alfalfa.
Therefore,
co n side ration should b e given to us ing
these f eeds in va ri ous co mbinations.
Fo r the purp oses i nt e nded here, ri ce
straw; maize , grain and cot tons ee d, mea 1
Co mbin at i ons o f
h ave been sel ec ted .
othe r feeds (guineag r ass , alfalfa . and
Maiz e [ co rn] }. however, co uld b e used.
An exam p 1e of some pro ced ur es used in
balancing rati ons follows .
Table 22. Cost Per Unit of Hetabol izable Energy and Total Pr otein
Cost ( dry basis)
Dry basis
MEa
( Meal/
Feed Name
I nternational
Feed
Number
Ri ce , straw
Gu i neagr ass
Napiergrass
Alfalfa
Cot ton seed, mea 1
Maize ( co rn) grain
1-0 3-92 5
1-02-3 36
1-20-808
1-00-059
5-01-621
4-02-9 35
1630 .
18 10 .
1700.
2170 .
2750.
3 150.
~T)
Tot a 1b
Prate i n
( kg/MT )
44.
70.
54.
180.
452 .
109 .
uso
ME e
(Meal)
Tot a 1d
Protein
(kg)
Feede
(kg)
0.015
0 . 021
0.029
0.034
0.057
0 . 039
0 . 55
0. 53
0. 9 1
0 .41
0.35
1.1 3
0.024
0.037
0.049
0.073
0.157
0.124
Taken fr om table 21:
.ME X 1000 (1.63 X 1000)
dc os t per MT / total kg TP (24 .1 7/44)
bTP X 1000 (4. 4%
• cost per ~T /k g in MT (24 .1 7/1000)
s
.044 x 1000)
ec ost per MT /t otal Meal ME (24.17/16 30)
127
There are several ways to compare
balanced r ations and make adjustments to
f i t the n eeds.
Three common methods
w i 11 be presented here.
1. A lgerbraic
Rice straw (RS) +Ma i ze, grain (MG) • 1
1.63 RS+3.15 MG= 1.90 (Mea l ME/kg OM)
-1.63 RS- 1.63 MG= - 1.63 (Top equation
multiplied by -1. 63)
ORS+l.52MG•
MG •
~
• .1776
X
.27
100
=
17 . 76%
I. 52
Rice, straw
TOTAL
= 1. 90 Meal
ME/kg OM
This co mbinati on of Ri ce , straw and
Maize, grain meets the ME requir ement of
1.9 Mea I ME /kg.
Square
Ingredients
Maize, g r ain
Ri ce , straw
3. 15 Meal ME/kg
I .63 Meal ME /kg
"'
/
Requirement
1.9 Meal ME/kg
"' 1 . 2~ 1 1.52 x 100 "" 82 . 24%
Maize , grain
.27/1.52 x 100 • 17.76%
Therefore, 17 . 76% Maize , grain and
82.24% Rice, straw provides a ration
containing 1.9 Mcal(ME/kg o f OM).
3.
Substitution
The ME requirement is 13 . 4 Mea 1; 7 kg of
Rice, straw will provide 11.4 Meal which
is 2 Meal l ess than the requirement.
Ma ize , grain co ntains 3 .15 Meal ME/kg,
or 1.52 Meal (3.15 minus 1.63) more than
Rice,
st raw.
Therefore,
2 (Meal
ME)/1.52 •
17.76% (MG) x 3.15 Meal/kg=O.SO Meal ME
82.24% (RS) x 1.63 Meal/kg= 1.34 Meal ME
2.
Percent of each ingredient in ration:
1.32 kg Maize,
grain
is
needed to repla ce Rice, straw in order
to have 13.4 Meal ME in 7 kg of ration.
So, 7- 1.32 = 5 . 68 kg of Rice, straw
and 1.32 kg Maize , grain will provide
the required amount of ME (13.4 Meal).
\.I hen co nverted to percent, the r at iOn
wi 11 h ave 18.8 6% Maize, grain (1.32/7 x
100) and 81.14% ri ce straw.
Note the
va lu es derived vary slightly fr om
methods 1 and 2.
This is due to
rounding err o r s during the com putations.
These two ingred ients (Maize, grain and
Rice, straw) will sat i sfy the requirement for metabolizable ene r gy, but they
only co n tai n 56.3 g of total protein
(TP). The requirement pe r kg of ration
is 97 g or 9.7%. Therefor e, there is a
deficiency in the ration of 4.07% TP.
From table 21 we determine that Cottonseed , meal , solvent ext ra cte d i s the
chea pest sou r ce of prote in.
By usi ng
the square method and assuming the Rice,
straw -Maize, grain mixtu r e as the
basal mix, the equation can be set-up
as•
Parts
~
<1gona! diffe r ence
in values)
1.90 - 1.63 • • 27
Total parts
3.5 - 1.90 - 1.25
.27 + 1.25 • 1.52
Protein In basal mix
TP from Ri ce , straw
,8114 X 4.4 • 3.57% or 35 . 7 g/kg
TP from Maize, grain
.1886 X 10,9 • 2.06% or 20.6 g/kg
TOTAL TP • 5.63% or 56.3 g/kg
128
Ingredi ents
Total Protein
Cottonseed , meal
solvent extracted
452. g TP /kg ........
Basal mi x
Ri ce , s traw
5 . 10
X
(Rice , st rawHa i ze, g r ain)
1.18
Maize . grain
Cotto nseed. meal
s o l ve nt ex trac ted .]2
X
4. 4 • 224 .
10.9• 129 .
X
45 . 2• 325.
56 . 3 g TP /kg
/
.----=---'-------,
Requirement
Total
• 678 . g TP
7.00 kg
97. g TP /kg
Th e daily HE r equireme n t is 13.4 Meal
~
Parts
diagonal difference
in values)
45 2 . - 56 . 3 - 35 5 .
97- - 56. 3- 40 . 7
Total parts
40.7 + 355. • 395. 7
Percent of eac h ingredient in r atio n:
Basal mix
Cot t on seed meal
355./ 395-7 x 100• 89.70
40.7/395-7 x 100· 10.30
Th e r e for e , 89 .]1 % Basa l mix a nd 10 . 30%
Cotto n seed , mea l provid es a r at ion
co ntai ning 97 .1 g TP .
89 . 7/100 x 81.14 • 72 . 78% o r 5 .1 0 kg
Ri ce , st r aw
and the TP r equi r ement is 679 g .
This
r ation is low in HE a nd may r eq u ire a
readjustment to increase it. This ca n
be done b y r epeating th e proce du r e used
to adjust for p r otein.
In this case ,
howeve r,
i t i s ass umed that th e HE
co nt e nt o f
the r ation is within
acceptable I imits.
The ca l ciu m and
phos ph o rus requirem ent must be c hecked ,
howe ve r, to determine i f th ey are
adequate . This is ac c o mp 1 i s hed in the
f o llowing mann e r.
Ca1ciuo ( g )
Ri ce , st r aw
5. 10 x .0021 x 1000 •
Mai ze, g r ain
1 . 18 x . 0003 x 1000 •
Cot ton seed,
me a 1 so 1ve nt
. ]2 X .0018 X 1000 •
extracted
10. 7
.4
Total
Requi r ement
12.4
19.0
1. 3
89 . 7/100 x 18.86 • 16.92% o r 1. 18 kg
Maize, g r a in
10. 30% o r .72 kg
Cot ton seed, mea I
solvent ex tr acted
- +6. 6
Needed t o Ba 1ance Ration
Phosphorus (g)
7.00 kg
TOTAL •
Total HE and TP in ].00 kg of ration :
Hetabol izable Energy
Ri ce straw
5 . 10 x 1.6 3 ~ 8.3 1
Maize , grain
1.18 x 3 .15 ,. 3.72
Cot ton s eed . mea 1
solvent ex tracted . ]2 x 2.75 • 1. 98
Tot a 1
7. 00
kg
• 13. 01 or
1. 86 Hea l /
kg OM
Ri ce , straw
Hai ze. grain
Cot ton seed,
me a I so 1vent
extracted
5.10
1.1 8
X
. 0008
.0029
X
X
X
1000 •
1000 •
4.1
3.4
.72
X
.0121
X
1000 "
8. 7
To t a 1
Requirement
• 16.2
• 14 . 0
Needed to Ba 1an c e Ration
- -2.2
This r a tion pr ovide s su f f icient
phospho ru s to meet t he daily r e quir e ment
o f this animal.
Approximate l y 1]. 4 g of
129
1 i mestone, however, w iII be requ ired to
balance the daily dietary intake of
calcium with the daily requirement.
This is calculated as 1].4 g I imestone
co ntaining 38% calcium ( . 38 x 1 7.4 = 6.6
or 6.6/.38 • 17.4).
The vitamin A r eq uirem ent for this
animal is 13,000 IU of v itamin A/d. The
ration, however, contai ns approximately
2000 IU; therefore, 11,000 IUs of
vi tamin A should be supplemented in some
form .
The cost of this ration is:
5.10 kg Rice, straw x 2.4 cents
1.18 kg Maize, grain x 12.4 cents
.72 kg Cottonseed, x 15.7 cents
meal
TOTAL CENTS
• 12.2
• 14.6
• 11.3
the deg r ee to which diets are acceptable
for each specific occasion.
For
example , the above ration may be
suitable for buffalo, but may not be
co nsumed in suffi c i e nt amounts to
satisfy the needs of catt I e. Therefore,
animal responses to any feeding program
should be care full y obse r ved and adjustments made accordingly. Also, whenever
possible,
the various feedstuffs
available should be analy zed for
critica l nutrients such as moisture,
protein and fiber . Large variations are
to be expected in feeds grown in areas
having wide variations in enviro nment,
soi 1 and ag ri cultu r al practices. Some
sample rations a r e given in Appendix 3.
Quality Contro l
: 38. 1
A ration co nsisting of 7 kg of Alfalfa,
hay, sun-cured would cost 51 cents/d.
Therefore, the above described r ation
will cost 12.9cents less eachdayt han
a rat ion of s t r a i g h t A1 f a 1 fa, h ay , suncured (a small adjustment must be made
to compensate for the addition of
calci um and vitamin A).
The r ation has been ca lculated on a dry
matter basis. Fo r practical purposes it
must be converted to an as-fed basis.
T o do this, the amount of each
ing r edient is divided by the pe rc e nt of
dry matter present {tab le 23).
The 11 pa r ts as-fed" are ca l cu l ated by the
equat ion1 dry feed per ce nt / dry matter
percent x 100. The moisture co ntained
in the fe e ds used in this mixture
i ncreases the bulk from 99.99 to 110.3
units. The dry matter o f the mi x ture
now b ecomes 90.7% (99. 99/ 110 .3) .
The
amount of each feed to inc 1 ude in the
final as-fed rat ion is calcula t ed in the
followi ng manner;
parts as-fed percent
diviC::ecJ by total
pc1rts CiS-fed
(79.98/110.30 x 100).
The amount of
total dry matter intake wi 11 now become
7.7 kg on an as-fed basis (7/.907).
Th e experience o f the fa rm er, extension
worker or feed formulator must determine
Product quality is of prime importan ce
in preparing d i ets for all classes of
animals.
In the preparation of diets it
must be remembered that "g a rb age in •
garbage o ut. 11
In otherwo rds, to e nsur e
that a quality product is produced for
use by the 1 ivestock industry, quality
co nt r ols must be en f orced at each stag e
of the production-marketing c hain.
Quality means different things to
different users. Thus, guidelines must
b e 'estab lished by an appointed
regulatory bo d y endowed with the
autho ri ty to enforce com pliance at all
levels of the manufacturing c hain.
Yhile mu c h ca n be done to im prov e
quality, many factors that affect
quality are beyond the co ntrol of
producers either because of natural
f orces or location.
For example,
weather co n ditio ns before, during and
a ft er harvest can have a great affect on
quality, especial l y o f forages. Also,
in sects and disease can influe nce the
quality of energy and protein feed
ingr edients,
As mor e and more nonco n ventio nal feed
ingredients enter the market as 1 ivestock feeds, the gr eater is the need to
ha ve some standa r d by which these products are measur ed in terms of meeting
the nut ri tio nal r equirements of animals.
130
Table 23. Converting Feeds From a Dry Hatter Basis to an As-fed Basis
I nternat ional
Feed
Rice, straw
Maize, grain
Cottonseed, meal
solvent extracted
Feed
Number
Dry
Feed
(%)
Dry
Matter
Parts
As-Fed
(%)
As-fed
( %)
I-D3-925
4-02-935
5-D1-621
72.78
16.96
10.29
91.0
89.0
91.0
TOTAL
99. 99.
79.98
19.01
11.31
110.30
]2.51
17.24
10.25
100.00
aRounding errors account for small discrepancies in values.
Research is being cond ucted to determine
the heretofore unknown nutrient r equire.ments of many species of animals. Also,
many traditional systems of measuring
nutrient requir eme nts are bei ng revised
and new fe e ding co ncepts are emerging.
In addition, the expanding technology in
human food productio n is generating an
eve r increasing number of by-products,
many of which are suitable as animal
f eeds . Some method of sta ndard! zing the
finished produ ct must be established,
whereby, the nutrient value of these
products can be assumed un i f o rm and
consistent.
Too often, the supplies of feed ingredIents available to the farmer or the
feed manufact urer have been adulterated
by the addition of some ingredient of
lesser value.
For example, the byprodu cts of ri ce such as bran,
pol ishings, germs, and gluten are
adulterated by the addition of ground
rice hulls . Obviously, this lowers the
qua li ty of the product and inhibits the
performance of animals receiving diets
containing these ingredients.
Feed
composition data from developing
countries that are stored in the databank at the Internationa l Feedstuffs
Institute (USA) show an extremely wide
range of values for most of the
proximate analyses of industrial byproducts such as fish meal, cottonseed
meal, etc.
Using ingredients that va ry
so widely in nutritive val ue poses a
complex problem for those formulating
diets that are to promote a maxi~um
return from an ani mal
feeding
enterprise.
To ove r come such pro blems. most deve loping co untries have c reat ed some form of
feed co ntrol agency. Thes e agencies are
charged with establishing ac cepta bl e
standards of quality co ntrol and
11 po1 icing 11 the feed
industry to ensure
that al l feed i ngredients entering the
marketplace meet these standards .
Standardization can be defined as
the establishment and application of
rules
in order to regulate
activities in a particular field for
the benefit and with the parti c ipation of all interest ed parties and,
in partcular, in order to achieve
the greatest possible overall saving
whi l e observing functional and
safety requirements . (Sison , 1980, p
165)
The North American Continent has
established a n organization known as the
Association of Ameri c an Feed Control
Officials (AAFCO). The purpose of th is
body is:
. •. to establish and maintain an
association through which officials
of any state •. dominion , federal or
13 1
other governmental agency on the
North American Continent, and
employees thereof charged with a
responsibility in enforcing the
laws regulating the production,
labelling, distribution, or sale of
ani mal feeds or 1 i vestock remedies
may unite to explore the problems
encounte red in administering such
laws, to develop just and equitable
standards, definitions and policies
to be f ollowed in enforcing such
1aws, to promote uniformity in such
laws , regulations and enforcement
policies, and to coope rat e with
members of the indust r y producing
such products in order to promote
the e ff ect i veness and usefulness of
the total protein of a diet prepared for
a mature cow at maintenance may be as
low as 8 to 10%. Energy, minerals and
vitamin requirements also, are different
for most c 1 asses of ani rna 1 s. Therefore,
for the consumer {1 ivestock managerfarmer) to b e assured of a rei iable
source of feed that is of cons i stently
good quality, some form of standardization of qualit y and rules for enforcing
adherence theret o are necessary.
\./hen animals are being managed and fed
for optimal production of meat, mi lk,
fiber, eggs or work, they require a
steady supply of high quality nutrients.
When th e quality of a diet va ri es due to
inferior ingredients, anima ls receiving
t h is diet r espond quickly and negatively
by a decrease in production. This, of
co urs e results in a lower yield and a
drop i n the in come of the producer. To
overcome this, safeguards must be
establIshed and laws enacted for their
enforcement if a strong livestock and
poultry production system is to develop
and become vi ab 1e.
Manufacturers of animal feeds should be
1 icensed by an appropr late branch of
government, and their performance in
respect to the quality of their produc t s
should be monitored. Labelling of all
mixed f eeds should be manditory an d each
label should state the species o f anima l
and the purpose for which it Is
intended, such as: cattle , finishing;
buffalo, lactating; broiler. sta rt e r ;
lambs, ea rly wean ed; etc.
The l abel
should also co-ntain a 1 ist of the
ingredie nts in th e feed and a guarantee
of the quality.
Generally, the guarantees will in cl ud e minimum amounts of
p r ote in, fat, calcium and phosphorus;
an d max imum amounts of c rude fiber, as h
and moisture ( figure 21). When feeds
are labelled in this manner, the
purchaser can evaluate the nutrit ive
value of the product and make cost
compa risons with s imilar products that
are available.
When complete feeds are manufactured and
o ffer ed to the consume r, they should
stipulate the c hem ical content (approximate analysis, moisture, calci um and
pho s phorus), and the specific animal for
which the feed is i ntended.
Feeds
formulated for a single species, such as
cattle, must provide the nutrients
required by the animal for different
physiological functions such as maintenance,
growth,
produ ct ion and
reproduction. The animal's requirements
w i 11 vary for each o f these stages, and
diets must be co rre ct ly f o rmulated to
provide all the essentia l nutrients to
meet the requir ements during eac h stage.
For exa mpl e, the total protein r equi rements of diets f ed to small growing
calves will be approximately 25%, while
When a manufacturer of formula feeds
guarantees his feed, it is expected that
that feed will be of the quality and
standard expected. Occasion a I 1 y, same
manufacturers get care l ess and offer low
quality products to the consumer.
Regardless of the cause of some low
quality feeds ,
it behooves both
manufacturer and livestock and pou l try
raisers to establish some form of Fe e d
Control Service. These services should
be set up by 1 aw to prevent or co rre ct
any adulteration or manufact ure of low
quality f eeds. Laboratories should be
provided where samples co llected at
r ando m fr o m feed manufacturers and
dealers are periodically analyzed.
Control offices should be establIshed
where a manufacturer can register his
such products. (AAFCO ,
198 1, p 43)
132
through cooper at ion among manufac tur e rs
{ing r ed ient manufa c turers and formu la
0
100 Pounds Net Weight
PRIDE OF CACHE
14% DAIRY FEED
Guaranteed Analysis
Crude Protein, not lHS than .... 14.00~
Includes not more than 3.0'JO equivalent
protein !rom non-protein nltrol(en.
Crude Fat, not less than ........•••.•. 2.00,-.
Crude Fiber, not more than .....• 10.00%
lNGREDI ENTS
Rolled barley,
~'fOund
com, soybean
meal, con onseed meal, urea, cane molassrs, beet molasses, wheat middlings,
•l!cultwm phosphate, salt, dried beet
pulp, calcium carbonate, manganous
ox1dc, ferrous carbonate, copper oxide.
zmc ox1de, calcium iodate, cobalt oxide,
\'l t:; uun A palm1tate with 0-activat ed
:mimal ster ol (source of vitamin 0-3 ) .
MANUFACTURED BY
A B C FEED COMPANY
Hometown, USA
feed manufacturers). feed serv ice
c ontrol of fi c ials, ag ricultural r esea r c h
personnel and representatives fr o m
farmer organ i z.at ions.
As manufacturing
techniques cha ng e an d new produ c ts
become available, standards are revis ed
to ref 1ect these c hanges.
A1 so, new
informat ion b ei ng generated on the
nut r ient requ i rem ents of an i mals o r
feeding systems being used may wa rr ant
modifi c ation of established standards.
To imp'lement this program , Feed Control
Serv i c es should provide inspectors who
visit the va rious feed manufact ur ers and
dealers to see that they are in
complia n ce with the law.
Thes e
inspectors must have the power and
authority to collect samples from all
types of feed b eing offered for sale.
As each sample with its accompanying
label a rr ives at the la bo ratory, it is
to be r ecorded and c hemi c a 11 y ana 1 yzed
to det e rmine its nutri e nt co mposition.
Fe e ds f ound to be inferior in quality
should b e qu a r antined and must be
br ou ght up to standard before they c an
be so l d.
If manufacture r s persist in
producing low-quality products , they
should be subject to legal action and
pass i b 1e sus pens ion of their 1 i cense to
manufac ture animal feeds .
Figur e 21. A typical feed l abel.
f eeds, listing the in gred ie nt s used and
quality guarantees for each feed.
The dut les of a f ee d co ntrol se r vice
inc lu de establishing standards of feed
quality for different animals.
These
standards are generally established
In the fin al analysis, howeve r, quality
c ontrol and fair business pr actices
remain with the individuals involved and
their dedication to honest, equitable
deali ngs with all parties co nce rned.
133
REFERENCES CITED
AAFCO . 19 8 1. Asso c iation of Amer i c an
Fe ed
Control
Of f i c ials
In c .,
Char 1eston, West Virginia.
prot e in uti I izati on for pregnanc y and
la c tation by the \J es t African dwarf
goats in Ni ge ri a. J . Dairy Sc i, 40:11 3
(cited by Rajpoot et a l. 198 1)
Adeneye , J. A. and V. A. Oyenuga.
1976.
Ene r gy and protein requirements of
\Jest African dwarf sheep .
Inc r easing
the levels of dietary protein to
sheep. East African Agr. and Forestry
J. 42,98.
Adu ,
E.
I.F.,
Oye nug a.
A.
Olaloku
1 974 .
and
V.
A.
Effects of e nt:'!rgy
Amme r man, C. 6., J. H . \.ling, B. G.
Dunavant, 'W. K. Robinson , J. P.
Feast e r and L. R. Arr ington. 1967 .
Utilization of inorgani c iron by ruminants as influen ce d by form of ir on
and iron status o f the animal . J ..
Anim. Sc i . 26:404.
intake durIng I ate pregnan c y on lamb
birth-w e ights
and
lac tat ion
of
Nigerian J .
by Oy..!nuga
Anonymous. I Y65. Highe r feed intake
sought for beef cattle , Virginia
r e sea r che r s no t e. Fee dstuffs 37 :80.
Agarwal a , 0. N., K. Nath and V.
Mahadevan. 19 7 1. Phosphorus r equirement of buffalo. J. Ag r. Sc i. (Camb.)
ARC. 1965 . The nutrient requirements of
farm animals, No. 2. Ruminants Agr.
Res . Counc i 1, London.
Nigerian
Ani m.
and
dwarf
Prod.
1:1
sheep.
S 1 (cited
Akinsoyinu,
1976).
76• 8}.
Ag ri c ultural Resear c h Institute. 1977.
Annu. Rep . Ministry of Agr. and
Natura I Resources , Nicosia, Cyp ru s .
Akinsoyinu, A. 0. 1974. Studies on
protein and ene rg y uti I i zat i on by the
'West African dwarf goats. Ph.D. Dissertation. Univ. of lbadan, Nigeria
(cited by Rajpoot et al. 198 1).
Akinsoyinu, A. 0. 19 81. Protein metabolism and r equirements of goats.
Pages 127-1 3 6 in P. Horand-Fehr, A.
Bourbouze and H. de Simi ane, eds .
Proc . of the Symp. on Int. Nutr . et
Systemes d 1 Al !mentation de Ia Chevre
(Nutrition and Systems of Goat
Feeding). Vol. 1. INRA-ITOVIC, Tours .
A r i z a -N i no, E. J. and H. G. Hughes.
1976 . Formulating of l eas t- cos t ad
libitum rat io ns for growing b eef
ca ttle .
Pages 625-630
i n P.
V.
Fonnesbeck, l. E. Harris 7nd L. C.
Kearl, e ds. Proc. of the 1st Int.
Symp. on Feed Composition, Animal
Nutrient Requirements and Computer i zation of Diets. Utah Ag r. Exp. Sta.,
Ut ah State Un i v., Log an.
Armsby, H. P. 190 3. Th e Principles of
An im al Nutriti on (1st Ed.). . John \.Iiley
and Sons, New York.
Arora , S. P., A. Chhabra. P.P. Atriga
and K. N. Sharma. 1 971::1 . Nutrient
r equ i rements of c alves ad I ibitum
feedi n g system. Indian J. Dairy Sci.
3 1<9.
Akinsoyinu,
Olubaja.
A.
1976.
0.,
A. U.
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151
APPENDIXES
153
Appendix 1
Tables o f Feed Composition
154
Table 24.
Proximate Compos i t ion and Ene r gy Content of Some Commonly Used African
Digestible Protein
,,, ,._
TOt II
[lhe r
Entry
tiona I
Feed
lnternltlonilll
'"
fee<IN~me
trvde
tat-
,,~
1'\oitter trlc't NFE
fi ber Ash
teln
Sheep Gon
Ill
Ill
<•l
t>l
('l
<•l
('l
<•l
A MAN ASC~SUS,
001
'"
00)
Plnupp l e
-pom ce, dellydrueo
lo-16-219
ANIKAL
-blOOd, - · '
5-oG-380
oos
006
-bone, 111e1l stelftled
6-00-IoOO
007
008
-melt, me•! rendered
s-oo-JBs
009
010
-meat , 111ea l rendered , 55\ protein
'"
011
011
s-ocr323
2-<1]-6)8
OIS
016
-lily, sun-<: ure<l,Mature
1~)-62]
017
018
-seeds w\t ll
eatrj!Cted
"'
-seedl v lth SOllie pods, -al solvent
011
-sud s without coats
sonu~
pods , meal mechani cal s-o7-o25
S-21t-7SO
010
5-GJ-657
019
0)0
0)1
0) 1
OJJ
OJ'
1.0
1.)
1-S
-seeds without con s,
~t~eal
solvent
5-GJ-650
AIICANIA SPI NOSA. Argantree
-bro w1e, fres h
5-GJ-6io8
q.a ..
22.8
2lo.2
..
1.8
1.9
.....,
2-21-73'-
OJS
0)6
-aerial part, fresh,
OJ7
0)8
- aer ial part, slla.ge,
v ~e tatlve
' "'" biOOtl
do~o~gh
stage
2-<18-1.70
2-Q]-288
100.
52.5
55 .9
2].2
2lo .7
100.
100.
1.7*
... ...
.s•
.s•
6) , 11
68.9 68.9 1
lol.lo• lol.lolloS.9+1oS.9•
SJ.8 lo.lo.2+1olo.2llo9,\+lo9.1+
1 ••
1.9• 2 . 0•
8. 9* 8.5* 8.8•
2.0•
12.8
10.11
12.]
13-7
7-<J•
8.8•
8.to•
<J.J•
7-9*
8.8"'
7-9*
8.8•
6.9
,..
• .6
10.1
5.1o•
5 -7*
5-7*
b.1 *
5 .1o ..
5.8•
5.1o•
s.8..
-
12 .b
13 . 5
s.o
s. •
tos.J
u.s
too.lo• too.~o,
lo].]*lo] . ] l
-
-
21o.s
27-2
S-7
6.)
)0 . 8
] lo. 2
J8.1o• J8,i! l
lo2.7*lo2.71
-
1.S
1.8
1 .)
1.6
25.b
18.1o
1] .0• 2).0) 19 .9•19.9*
2S.S*2S.5122 . 1•22 .1•
\.) + 2b.8+ •• 1
1,1,. 29.2 .. 10.0
i!b.1
50.2
io8.s
52.8
U.b•lo2.b
lo&.lo• lob,lo
s.s
s.J
S-7
lob.lo
lo<J,b
lo2.2 ~< lo 2.2*
).0
8.9
11o.5
...
...
... ..,
10.1
2b.8
28 .7
'·'
...
...
).1
...
l'·
1. 0 21.1
s .• bl.7
)8 .
1.1
) .6
19.]
50 -b
6.7
s.8
12.9
17-7
15.2
1.1
1 .•
19.9
lo7.8
s.o
12.1
10.1
H. ]
12.9
"·
6) . 1
1. 5*
<•l
l lt .2
9).
s.o
s.•
•.a
2 . 0:11
lo5.1*45 . 1*
8.8•
lo ).2+ i!].2•
lo 7.1 + lo7.1+
-
].b• J.s• J.s• J.s•
lO . S• 10.1* 10.2* 10.2*
lo.J• lo.l• lo . l* lo.l•
11 .2• 10. 7* 10.8• 10.8•
). 8•
9.o•
]. b•
8.b•
).7•
8.9•
).7•
8 . 9*
1 , 1+
•• I
1.8
1 .•
~.8+
lo I, I,
21.9
11.0
21.9
"·
-
IO.b
J6. 5
1.)
8.0
1 ••
8. )
I. lot
lo . ]•
1.2*
it . ]•
lo.'}•
1.1o•
lo.'}•
)6.
1.5 .. 1].2
lo.J+ lo8.J
11 . 0
)0.8
1.6
7-l
J.•
•• s
1.]*
1.]*
1.]*
1.]11
lo . 9•
lo.l}•
lo.l}•
lo .9•
11 .
100.
100.
]-GJ-296
61.7
6S.Io
).1
1.5*
1.7*
Buffalo
11.5
s.•
S-7
1.7
1. 8
100.
AliENA SATIIIA . Oats
-aer i al part, f re s h, IUe
82.1
12.0
100 .
100 .
ATAIPLEX CLAUC A. Saltbush, glauca
-browse, fr esh
) . 7 8/o . l
91.8
so.]
21.0
2].)
100.
2-27-735
'·'
86.0
6 ••
28.)
"·
...
'-'
29.5
2.9• )1.6
9-7
1. 8 lo2 . 9
...
...
.6
-7
2.] +
2.5+ lolo . S
1.8+ lo<J.8
2).
100 .
2-27-7loO
ATAIPLU ANGULATA, Saltbush, ran
-browse, fre sh
.6
-7
100.
100.
-seedl witho ut coati, IIICCIIanlcal
catracted caked
18.4
21.2
9-2+
100.
011
017
018
''·
100.
ARACHIS H't'POGAEA. Pe.nut
-.erh1l part, fresh
1~)-615
01S
016
..."·
..
-
100 .
-hay , 1un-cure<1, <Iough st19e
01)
"·
100.
01)
011
'"
87.
100.
"'
('l
100 ,
). 8• J-7• ) . b• ].b•
17.lo*lb.9* lb.S•1b .S*
J.lo•
ISS
Feeds.
Data Expressed on an As-Fed and Dry Basis {Moisture Free)
,,
,.,
TON
Feed
Unit
(Meal (licil
/ kg ) /kg) (')
(fU
/kg)
002
''"
2.66• 2.29
).07* 2.65
"·
7'·
" " '"
(Meal (1'\cil l
/kg) /kg)
(%)
. 81 * 2.&61 2.291
.'}4* ].07#2.65 1
,,.,,
64.#
00)
2.56•2.18
60.
2.80* 2-37
66.
.a ... 2.ao,
005
006
-5'
.19*
1.00*
15.
16.
007
008
2.9)*2.53
).1)* 2.]1
71.
-90* 2.9)1 2.531
-96• ).1)/ 2.711
009
010
2.53& 2.13&
2.68& 2. 26&
57.&
61.t
. ]6&2.5)12 . 131 57-1
.80& 2.68t 2. 261 61./
'"
.61• . Slot
2.67* 2.25*
61 ...
0')
2.6]*2.25
2.92* 2.50
6].
016
2.51* 2.11
2.68• 2.25
017
018
3.11 *2.7]
).)3* 2.92
019
020
2.5l• 2.15
2.a1•2.39
021
022
S-37*5.02
S-97* s . sa
131.
146.
3.21• 2.a5
].51• ]. 10
012
'"
OIS
.56
"·
,,._ .
Energy for Buffalo
Feed
'"
....
Energy for Cattle
Energy for GoiltS
Ener!jy for Sheep
Entry DE
Unit
(fU
/kg)
66./
. a~o 1
IS . #
16 . #
. 1'}1
.561
}I. I
76- 1
NEg
NE1
TON
(Mel I (Hcill (11cal (~•1 (Heal
/kg) / kg) /kg) / kg)
(%)
/kg)
-771 2. 41 * 2.02* 1.19*
60./
.SI.J
. 20* 1. 00#
"
N( ""
Feed
Unit
(fU
/kg)
Feed
" "
TON
Unit
(fU
(l)
/ kg )
(tical (11cal
/kg)
/kg)
,'.8},.,11 --
. ]7•2 .56/2.181
2.371
...,
DE
.20#
z.oJ• z.z1•
.6n. .2St;
.]16
.26&
1.30•
--
-901 2. ]lo& 1.9"+ 1.12*
-961 2.50& 2.08+ 1.20•
.6] • 1.]1* ss.•
-73" 1.43• 60 . *
-.856
-.8&
.26&
.27&
. 62& 1.52&
.66& 1.63t
.761 2.91&2 . 52' LSI!* -97& 1.5"
.801 ) .Olj& 2.67t 1.6)• 1.03!. 1.60&
· 11* 2.lo1* 2. 02*
.JB• 2.63* 2.21•
IS.+
.0'}'
16.+
·'"
.6]'
-71&
ss .•
, ]I*
60. *
-78•
.256
IS.+
.26&
16.+
·"'·
·""
6]. + .69& 2.]1o& 1.91o+ 67.+
71-+ .]!o& 2.50& 2.o8+ 7 1.-+
66 . + .89& 2.91& 2.52&
70.+ -95& ] . 01)& 2.6}t
..
.69&
.... ....
.]!ot
70 . + -956
.18• .611 .511
. 80* 2. 67J 2.251
14.,
61.1
.181 . SJ• .lo]* .27 *
.801 2.50* 2.07* 1.20*
.29*
·'"*
. 6)* 1.27*
1).*
57 -*
·'7" -57* . ~,
·ll* 2.50* 2. 07*
1).*
57 · *
.n•
70 .
.80• 2. 631 2.251
. 81)• 2.92# 2.501
6J.l
}0-1
.so, 2. 19& 1.81£ 1.03*
.891 2. ~3& 2. 01l 1.15*
-53 & 1. 11&
-59& 1.23t
so.&
ss.t
.64&2.19& 1. 81&
·''' 2. 1!]& 2. 01&
so.&
55-&
.] 1&
"·
- 75*2.51/2 .111
.80• 2.68#2 .251
59-I
63./
-7512-37* 1. 97* 1. 14•
.Bot 2.53• 2.10• 1.22*
.61* 1.20* 54 . •
.65* 1. 28* 57.*
. ]0*2.)7* '·97* 54.•
-7 5* 2.53* 2. 10* 57-*
-70*
-75*
"·
"·
·97* ]. 11/ 2. ]31
1.0 ~ * ).JJ/ 2.921
6] .
St.
60.
.]6*2.53 /2.1 51
.as• 2.a1,2.391
76 -1 -971
8 1./ 1.0'-1
M .1
67-l
.]61
.851
1. 78• 5.371 5.02 1 1]1./1 . ]81
1.9a• S-971 5.sa1 146., 1.9al
.17*
.64t
-
"·
"·
1.01 * ] . 2]# 2.851
1.10• ].5 11 ] . 101
73·1 1.01/ ].12+ 2.Jio& 1.}0* 1.11& 1.62&
80./ 1. 101 ] . 1.0+ 2.98' J.a6• 1.22& 1.]6&
·97' ).12+ 2.]1o&
1.06' ],loO+ 2.C)8&
]1.+ -97&
J7.+ 1.06<
85 .
l.lo2* lo.)7# 3-991
1.52* lo . 68t 4.27J
as., 1.1o21 J.65* J. 27• 2. o6• 1.lo2• 1.92* 8).• 1.16•).65• ).2]*
90. / 1. 521 ).9 1* ].50* 2.20• 1.52* 2.05* 89.* 1.21o• 3-91* 3.50*
8) . • 1.16*
a9.• 1.2lo•
1.<11• .86•
2. 94• 2.52•
2).*
67.•
.]1* 1.01 1 .861
.89• 2.9/oJ 2.521
23 -1
67.1
.]1/ 1.12* -97* .60• .]9* .58•
.891 ].2 6• 2.85• 1. 76• 1.14* 1.69*
]lo.•
.)5*1.12* -97*
1.01• 1. 26• 2.85•
029
0)0
! . OS* .89•
2-76* 2.]h
24.•
63.•
.]2*1.051 .891
. 8)• 2. 761 2. ) 41
llo . /
6).#
. )21 1.05* .89• -53•
.8)/2 . 76* 2.)1o• l . loO*
. ]1* .Sio*
. 82• 1.42•
21o. •
63. *
.]2* !.OS*
. 8)• 2.]6* 2.]lo*
"'
1. 06• . 88•
2. 54* 2. 11 *
24 . •
. ] 1* 1. 06/
-75* 2.Siol 2. 11 1
. 25* -5''
-59* 1.2 ]*
23- *
ss. •
.)0•
58. *
OJ)
.62• . 5)
2. 8 1• 2. )9
.25&
16 . + . 221- . Ja
7).+ 1.00' ].2 2& 2.8U
·"'
16 . + .22 '
J) . + 1.00'
21.+
57.+
.25' .87-+ .]15
.71& 2. 4]+ LOO'
21.+ .25'
sJ. + .]\&
02)
'"
015
026
"·37* ).99
lo . 68• lo.27
027
'"
0)2
"'
0)5
0)6
.]]* .60
2. 50• 2.08
Ol7
0)8
.8]• .72
2.lo]• 2.01
eo.
....
llo./
sa.,
' 5·
.19* . 621 -531 15./
.8S•2.a 1/2. )91 6] .1
'7·
58.
.21 * . }) /
. 7U 2.501 2. 081
20 •
• 25*
"·
"·
·"'
'7-1
.....
.48•
. ] 11 1. 02 *
. ]51 2.1olo• 2. 0 1* 1.1 5*
.]I& . 62& .]8•
.as. 3.22' 2. 8u 1. 73*
·'"'
.21 1
sa.,
.] Itt
.871 .n, 20 . /
.}1* 2.4)/2 . 01 1 56 -1
.251
. ]I I
-. a7• . JU ·"'*
2. 4)+ l.OO, '·'"*
'·'"
.2"
-37&
1. 67'
. It!&
.sa, 1.1 5,
}1 . +
7J, +
25. •
....
.]1*
....
1.02 * .
2.1olo• 2.01*
25.• .]5*
7lo.ot 1.01*
24. •
63.•
. )2*
.8)•
2).*
ss.•
.]0*
-71*
!56
Table Jlo. Pro.otilllate Co-.position and Energy Content of
s.on.e
t0111110nly Used African Feeds (Cont.)
Olgestible Pr otein
·-'"
,,, ,,_
Cru.de
,,~
KUter tr.Ct HFE
(\)
(\)
(t)
Fi ber Ash
(t)
(\)
tein
Sheep Goat
ttl
(t)
10 .2
Ether
Entry
t io na\
International
Feed Millie
Total
Cat(>)
"'
(\)
Burhlo
ttl
AVEHA SA TIVA. (Cont . )
"'
'"
'"
"2
"'
'"
D'5
D'6
"'
-gr1 ln
lo-Q] - )09
-hay , sun-cured
1-Q]- 28o
1-o) -28)
-
5-05-IEI]
•t,lflell solvent eatr .c tcd
IDD.
8ALANIT[$o\EC VP TIACA. 8alOJnitcs, egyptl1n
-browse, fresh
l-27-719
t~tt h!
"'
DID
-butte~.,
'5 '
D52
-sk lnm llk, dehydr11te<l
5--ol-175
D5l
- •hey, dehydrned
lt--o l - 182
D57
"'
'"
'"
061
062
II k,
f~es h
5-2 3- 71t9
8AAS SICA NAPUS. llape
-•~ I a\
pa~t ,
f~es h
2-Q)-867
8AASSI CA OLEAACU P'I[DULL OSA. Kale ,
-aer l ~l p•rt, fre~h
2-Q2-k56
..
D&5
'"
"'
r~esh
4-05-067
5--Q2-IoJ5
CEIIATONIA SILIQUA. Ca~OO bean
-leaves , f~esh, ste. cur ed
2-27-71 ..
-pods •ith seeds
lt--o8- 37o
-hly, sun-c ured. early
/.1
8.D
/.5
8 .•
l.l+lo0 . 6
]6 . )
]1).1
'·'
4.6
5. D
].5
).8
ss.s
2.2+lo ].7
s.o.
s .~o ..
).)
5.2+
..
-5•
'·'
5-l
23.5
51.6
100 .
9).
.7+]0.0
100 .
.8+75 · 3
...
35 -7
D.D
D. D
6 .6
1 ... 5
10.8
.8
8.5
}1 . 2
·'·'
6.9
2.2
15.9
'·'
,.,
12 . 8
1) . 8
'·'
17 . 8
1].5
a.s•
7·5*
f., .lo•
7-l *
6.1o•
7-l*
).6•
J-9*
).7*
3-7*
lo.2 *
lo.l•
1. 2*
1.2*
1.1 *
1. 2*
] . 2*
J.o•
].1•
6.6•
}.2•
].1•
.,. "·"*
lo.l *
1. 0*
] . 2*
].1•
l -5
8.) ]].I
9 -1 ]6.7
..2
'·'
7B.s
).2
),8 + 1t9.o
-5•
10 . 0
I V}
-
. 1 io8.J
. 2 53.5
')0.
1. 5
ID.
•• 8
1.1
1.4
I QQ .
18.2
10.9
1) .6
14 .
•·
1-QJ-')13
v~etatlve
1-Q)-910
·''
6.)
1.1
1.5
2. 2
2.9+""·7
15.9
10.6
15-9
.
..
5-7
1. 1
100 .
1.6+ 62.9
11.8
100.
2. 8+ 50.8
].1+56.9
8.1
..2
...
,.,.
)O . It
)O.Itf
)] , ]
B-7 1
9 . 2•
9 . 8•
9·2*
9.8•
-
8 . o•
8. ] •
8.0*
8.]•
1.9• 1.8• 1.8• 1.8•
1).6* 1).2• 1) . 0* 1].0*
1.0•
9.7•
... ...
9.2•
9-5•
..
.
9.5*
1.)
2.8
).1
21t . 7
27, 7
2]. 1+ 2]. 1,
25 . 8+ 25.8,
2].1,
).)
61 . 1
1].2
2.1
5••
4.]
9 -5
"·
).2
).6
65.0
]2.1o
5-9
6.6
).8
4.1
11.9
100.
"·
"·
1.1 15- 5 )7 . 0
1. 5 ] 9.5 lt1.2
8. 6
•. 6
100.
-
l·l
8.1
) 2.0
... ... ...
10 . 1* 10.1•
).D
6.8
)5.6
1.7* 1.6* 1.6• 1.6*
11 . 8fl1 1.1o t ll.iofiiJ. Iot
llo . O
'5·
100.
CHlORIS CAYAHA. 111\odesgrn s
-hlly, sun-ct.ll'ed
D)D
D)2
10.8
12.]
]1.9
100 .
100.
0&8
'"
].8
4. ]
loO.S
1o5 . 1o
1-1
100.
8AASSitA IIAPA IIAPA . Turnip
-~oots,
12.5
!lo.l
2. ]
1.6
"'..-~o"'
D6J
,
...
4.6 S6 . 1o
5. 2 61o.o
100 .
100.
BAASSICA OLEIIACEA CAPITATA. Clbbave , dnnheMI
- "' hOle, f~es h
2-]Q-197
CANAYALIA E"SirORPU S. JICkbcan, C. OII'mOn
"'
"·
"·
100 .
BAU[HA CUC IALIS-!ALAENOPTEIIA SPP -PH'f'SE H R UTODON. \/ha le
805 U URUS.
D55
D56
...
100.
"8
"'
88 .
1} .2
,..
8.9*
.8•
8.9•
-
2.6*
2 ....
s.~t•
2 . ]*
&.0*
2.7*
6.0*
8.1t•
9.)*
8,1tfl
9·3*
7·3*
8. 1*
].)•
8.1*
s.s•
) .6•
) .8•
8.)
~t . o•
lt , ] t
) . ]*
... 1*
].]*
lo,1t
).)
].8•
... 2*
lt . l•
1o.5 •
3 - 9•
l,,)t
).9•
8.6
I,,J•
157
Energy for
Energy for Sheep
~it5
Feed
Entry DE
(Kc;;al
/k9)
"
Unit
0[
ttl
(FU
/kg)
( Heal ( "cal
/ kg) /kg)
(Kcal
/kg)
O]g
o•o
2 - 75* 2.)9
O"
O'>
2.10* 1.72
) . I]* 2 . ]1
2-35* 1. 93
Energy for
Feed
TDH
"
TDH
Unit
0[
m
(FU
/kg)
(~al
/kg)
t•tt le
Energy for 8ufhlo
" "'· "'' "'I
feed
TDH
(Mea. I ( Mea l ( Meal {Meal
/kg) /kg) /kg) /kg) (%)
"·"·
.85*2 . 7SJ2.J9#
67-1
. 96* ),1)#2.1\1
]6 . 1
-961 ].26* 2.84• 1.76* 1.1 4* 1.69•
.6!*2.101 1.]21
.68*2.35# 1.931
~a.,
·'-7 * 1.06*
It] . *
Slo.J
. 611 2. 09* 1.]1*
.68# 2. )4• 1.92* 1. 08*
-52 * 1.18*
53-*
. 57* 2.00/ 1.&0/ loS./
. 61• 2.151 I . ]Jl 1.8 . /
• 571 2.12&- 1. 73+
. &1/2.29' 1.86+ l,Qiot
.41o t 1.07&
JoB.+
52.+
"·"·
O'J
0"
2.00• 1. 60
l.IS* 1.])
'5·
'8.
0'5
0'6
).2]112.89
J,SJ* ) . IS
81.
88.
O'l
o•8
1 . 1\ t -92•
2. ~~· 2.02•
25.•
55.•
1.0)* }.271 2.89/
1.12.• 3-Sll ).lSI
.))fl 1. 11 , -921
.]2* 2. 441 2.021
.as,
2.87•
2.so•
1.55* 1.00* 1.49*
....
....
.lo]' 1.15'
81.1 1.031 3.90• J. SJ• 2.22• LS2• 2.06•
BB . J 1. 12Jio.2S* J,81o•2.lo2• 1.6s• 2.21o•
25 -1
55·1
- 331 1.27• LOS•
-721 2.]9* 2.)]*
,_,
.65•
1.~2*
.)8•
.65•
. Bio• 1,1o)t
Unit
0[
(FU
(Meat (11Cil
/kg) /kg) (t)
/k.g)
"'
-~· 1.8]* 2.50*
]4.• 1.01• ].2E)* 2.84•
65 . •
29.•
i)). t
]4.• I . OU
lo] . •
.61&2.12' 1. 13+
loB.+
. &6&. 2. 2.9& 1.86+
52.+
.)8• 1.2]•1.o8•
. Slot 2.79* 2.37*
/kg)
65 -* .89 •
.61* 2.09* 1.]1•
. 68• 2.]4•1.92*
88.• 1.25•3.90* J , SJt
96.• 1.J&tlo , 2S•J.81o•
Feed
Unit
(FU
53 -*
. &1*
.68•
....
.61&
88.• 1.25•
9&.• 1.)611
29 -*
6J.•
.)8•
.Slo t
-
0'9
050
.)6* . ]J
).87• ].lo6
g.
97 -
,12* .3&1 ·BI
1. 23• ) . 8]1 ) .461
.121
97 -1 1.2)1
051
052
),\)* 2.75
). lo7* 3- 05
n.
as.,
. .,a,
85.
.98• ) .1)/2 .751
l.08t ].471 ].051
1.081 ].]0• ].29* 2. 06• 1.40* 1.91o•
76 . • LOS* ).]lot 2.9]*
81o.• 1. 1]• ].]0• ) . 29•
St. .• 1.17•
053
05'
) . 18• 2.80
).42• ).01
78.
8,.
.on• J.18' 2.ao1
l ,Q]fl) . 421] . 01i
]8 . / - 99/}.21& 2.82+ 1.76 • 1. ]0+ 1.]1&
84 . , 1.071 ] . 456 ).0)+ 1.89• 1.1o0+ 1.8 3&
]4.+ 1.00& ).2 1& 2. 82+
80.+ 1.08& ).45' ).OJ+
74.+ 1.00&
80.+ 1.08&
oss
056
.lo5fl -'O
) . 24• 2. 82
II.
.14 • .loS#
1.00• ).24/ 2.821
11.1 ,1lol .lo2& .)66 .22•
79-1 1.001 2-99& 2.5]6 1.57•
10.6
68.&
.1)6 .lo2 6 .)66
. 91& 2.996 2.S76
10.&
68.,
. 1)&.
.9 1&
057
058
.29*
2.91*2.1.9
...
osg
060
.Ill* .J5
2.9)* 2. 51
10.
70.
10.+
. 1)& .lo)& .)8&
-95& ).106 2.684
10.+
]0.+
.1}&
-95&
061
062
.)1* .27
).lo0*2·99
8.
8'.
.10* .)11 .2]1
1.06•J.Io0/2.991
8.1 .101 .331 . )0& .19* .1 ) 6 .1]G
8lo./ 1.06, ) . 70& ).21)& 2. 06* 1.lo06 1.91o&
8.• .11& .JH
81o.+ 1.1]& ) .]06 ).29£
8.• .11&
81o.+ 1.17&
063
0"
) . 2.9* 2.92
).68• ).2]
91.
''·
1.03*3· 2912.921
1.1611 ) . 681 3. 271
82.1 J.O)JJ . 09&2.]2& 1.69* 1.12& 1.61&
91.1 1.161 ].46& ) . OS& 1.90• 1.26& 1.80&
]0.& .96& ].()9& 2.]2&
]8.& 1. 08& ).46& ] . OS&
]8 . & 1.08&
065
066
1. 22* l.O)t
2. ]1* 2. 29•
28.•
62.•
.36• 1.221 1.0)1
. 81*2.71/2.291
06)
068
) .25 *2 . 88 •
).62•).21•
]4.• 1.02* ).251 2.88,
82.• l.ilo* ].621 ) . 211
069
070
2.12* 1.]4
2.)6* :.9)
071
1.10• 1.82
on
·"
2.41of12.02
·''"
"· _.,.
7-
.,.
~4 .
51.
"·
.291 .2S1
. 88• 2.911 2.lo91
.
~,,
.)51
.89*2 - 9)/2.511
.I)•
77-1
7-1
69-1
10./
70-1
28.,
62./
-
],)lot
2.97• 1.86• 1.26* 1. 75*
.146 .226
· 976 1.54&
]6.• 1.05*
...., -.881
-13 1 .lo)& . ]8& .2)*
.891 ) . 10' 2.68& 1.64•
.15&
.22&
1.on 1.60&
.)61 1.lo1t1.22• .}5* . 48• . 7J*
.811 ).IS* 2.7J* 1.68• 1.06• 1.6)*
]4 ./ 1.021 ].Oio• 2.67• 1.66• 1.~•1.58•
82., 1.1lol ).)9* 2.97* 1.8St 1.21* 1. ]6*
.62*2 . 1211.741
. f..9* 2.)f.l 1.9Ji
49./
5'•·1
. 621 1.90* 1.52 *
.6')1 :i:.lh' 1.68•
. 6h 2. 201 \,811
·12* 1.lo lol 2.021
Si.l
.641
~6-1
-711
-
.81*
. 89•
.)2 *
.Js•
. 95*
J.o~•
]0. +
.]0.
]2.•
,4)tl.lolt 1.22*
-97* ) . 15* 2. 73•
]0 .&
....
)2.*
,lo]t
]1.•
-97*
69 . • -95* J,Oio• 2. 6}*
77 -* 1.05* 3-39* 2. 9]*
69 . •
n.•
- 9S*
1.05*
4}.*
lo3. •
113.*
.54 *
.60*
]1.•
.Sio* 1.90* 1.52*
.6o•2.1lf: 1. 68•
loB.•
158
Tflble2lo. Pro)ll-te Co-po~ition •nd Energy Content of SOOO"Oe COI!I'IOnly Used Afric•n Feeds (Cont.)
Di9ellibh: Protein
....
Intern.-
Entry
lnternltlon•l
'"
07)
"'
on
Feed NMie
CIC[R AIUETINUI1. Chlclqu:•
-aerial part, fresh
-seeds
tlonel
o.,
Number
m
2-1J-loS7
5--01-218
076
on
-p~»ace,
wet
lo-o8-]76
l'llltter trKt
t>l
~FE
Fiber Ash
t>l
1>1
"·
.6 10.6
2.7 lolo.]
30 . 2
100.
5-0 56 . 4
5.' 60.8
/.0
7-5
• 6+ 12.8
) .) .. 69.8
12.0
].) +62.6
11.6
),]+69-5
12.9
.,.
18 .
-pom.:e wi thout fines, dehydrated
lo-ol-237
...
100 .
CIJTANOIAOICiiOTOtU.. l1ctllphisgrus
-aeri11l p•rt, fresh
D.ICTYLOtL 8er11ud.c)r01ss
-aer ial pArt, fresh
2-H-706
Tot••
,,,_
Crude
100 .
100 .
080
081
082
[tiler
7-2
CITAUSSPP, Citrus
078
"'
,._
2.)
t>l
2.1
• .0
,.
).6
...
'·'
J5.
.8
1).9
•• 2
100.
'-'
loO.)
26.5
21.5
2-Q0-712
OSk
16.9
9. 0
lolo . O 23.5
18 . 7
o85
086
087
o88
089
0..
.. 1
.,,
.,,
"'
..,
1-1)-loO]
0,.,
100
101
102
10)
2-27-705
"·
DACTYL15 lflOttERATA. Orchrdgnn
-hay, sun-cured, l•te vegetative
1-27-]0io
Hl)-lollo
]6.0
loo.o
OAUCUS SPP. CArrot
-aerl•l p.~~rt, fresh
2-27'-621
2-D8-)JI
ECH!NOCHLOA CRUSGALLI FRUKEMTACU. Hlllet, JAfl•nue
-aerl1\ pArt, fre10h
2-o6-<88
1.2
ERAGROS TISABYSSINICA. Tef f
-hly, sun-cur ed , IUe ve<;~etltlve
1-Q6-{,8C)
1-D6- J87
1-D&-o81
2-Dl-677
2.2•
2.1'*
2.2 •
2.2*
9-5•
'}.1*
9.]*
'}.]*
20.8
16.2
22.\
1] . 5
1.2
6.6
16.21 Jlo . )+ llo.)+
17.51 15.1.+ 15.1o+
·''
·'' 2.0*
.6•
.6•
).2*
).2*
2.0*
6.2
6.,
].2•
) . 2*
2.1 •
2 . 1*
).6•
].6•
2 . ]*
2.]*
).2
2.0*
5 - 7*
1.8*
5 .2 *
2.0•
5.8•
2.0•
5.8•
).1*
8.2*
].011
12.0
].1•
8.1*
).1*
8.1*
5-9
6.6
2.2*
2.5*
2.lo*
2 . 6*
2.lo*
2.6•
...
].8*
2,1o:t
1.]•
),J+IoO.I
lo,l+lo4.5
llo.7
27 . 1o
8 . 6 1].0
•• 6 l.lo.lo
8.6•
g.s•
C) . O•
10.0*
1.5 llo.O
•. 8 loJ . 8
u.s
)C) . O
1.8
100 .
1.0•
) . Z*
1.8•
20.
100.
..,
8. •
2.7
'·'
..,
112.8
13.6
21.11
)2 •
.8
n.
,..
6.5
2.1
6.7
J.s
18.0
...
8.5•
g.lo•
8.5•
9 . ...
1.1•
].6•
1.111
].6•
2 - 7* 2 . 6• 2.6• 2 .6•
1).8• 13."* 13.2•13.2*
-
6.)
2.0
2.)
28.8
'·'
10.5
1.5*
6.8•
£, ....
-
8.)
9. 6
1o.5•
5.2•
lo . B•
s-5•
lo.S•
lo.S•
100.
1] . 8
]2.0
5.2•
s.z•
90.
-
'·' '·'
lo.S•
87 .
-
...
100 .
UAGROSTIS CURVUU . Lovegr.II$S, weeping
-aeriAl pArt, fre10h
) .2
s.6• s.s• 5.3* 5·3•
I C) . C)• 19 . 5* 18.8• 18.8•
100.
-h1y, sun-cured, full bl00101
f1l0
1.6 6.,
5.6 2'-' .6
...
1.9 IO.Io
6.8 ]6.9
2.)
6.5
m
16.1
28.
20.1o
'·'
100.
-hi)", sun-cured
/.2
18 .2
51.)
lluf-
"'
!>I
s.o• "·9* lo . 8• lo.8•
llo,1 •1).7* 1] . 5* 1).5*
100.
DAPH NE KICROPHYLLA . D•phne, 101lcrophyl I•
-browse, fresh
/.2
Cillt-
18,/o
100.
CYT1SU5 TRIFLORUS . llrl)(le, greek
-browse, fresh
1..
105
106
...
1.9
100.
CYTISUS 8ATTAND IERI. 8r0011'1 , bAttandlerl
-browse, fresh
096
097
098
"· ·'
100.
CYNOOOM PLECTOSTACHYUS. Stargrns
-hAy , sun-cured
Sheep Goat
(>I
C>l
l ] . lt
,..
,.. ..,
6.)
(ytrt()[)()trl
08)
teln
!>I
Jl .
100.
.,
17.5
1.8 loJ.7
27 . 3
)O.Io
8.2
•• 5
8 .•
J.h
1.5*
6.8•
1.5*
6.8•
"·7*
s.o•
s.J•
1o.s•
s.o•
1o.s•
5.0•
'·'
).8•
lt.l*
lo . l•
~o . s•
) .C)•
lo.)•
lo.)•
)./
2.]•
6.1o•
2.2•
6.0*
2.lo*
6.5•
1.1o•
&. s•
•. 8
32.9
)6 . 6
6. 5
7-2
1).6
)6 . 9
1.)
).6
10.1
8.6
J-9*
159
Energy for Goats
Energy for Shei!p
Feed
...
" ""
Entry DE
(He ill (Meal
/ k g) / kg)
"'
Unit
(FU
/kg)
"' ""
OE
(f'tcal (11cal
/kg) / kg) (.)
Ene r gy for 8ufhlo
Energy for Cattle
Feed
" "·
.. " '
~~
Unit
OE
(FU
(Kcll (~'tell I (/'\cal
/ kg ) /kg) /kg) / kg )
/kg)
'"
(Meal
/kg) (.)
feed
Un it
(FU
/kg)
Feed
" ""
OE
(Kcal (!'\cal
/k'il l / kg ) (t)
Unit
(FU
/kg)
07)
074
.so•
15 . •
2.77* 2.)4•
6] . *
075
076
].22*2.8)
J.'+J* ].OS
/9.
85.
1.00* ].22# 2.8)1
1.08• J.'+JI J.OS/
79-1 1.001 ).}S.• 2.96* •. as• 1.25* 1.75*
as ., 1.081 ).61* ). 19* 2.00* l ,]lo* 1.88•
]6 . • 1. 05* ),)It • 2.96•
82.• 1.1]* ] .6 1* ].19*
76.• 1.05*
82.• 1.1]'*
1).&
.1 8&
1) .& 1.00&
. 66•
.20"
.661
- 51>1
. 8)• 2-771 2.)41
15-l
6)./
.101 .61t• .s~t • .)2*
. 8]# 2.]0* 2.28• 1.]5*
.18• .33*
.]8• 1.]8•
IS.*
61.•
.19*
.6'-•
-5"*
. 81* 2. ]0* 2 . 28•
15·*
61.*
.19*
. 81•
) . ~2· ).01
8).
''·
.20* .6]1 .SS#
1.0]• J. lo21 ).011
15.# .20# .59& .52& . ] 2• .216 ,]I&
8) .1 1.071 ),2), 2. 81& 1.]4• 1.12& 1.08&
1) . & . 18&
-59& -52&
]3. & 1.00& ). 2},2.81&
oao
J.os• 2.68
).)9* 2.97
75 .
75- 1 -95# 2.81,2.1tll• I.SO* 1.05+ 1.69&
8 ) ./ 1.06# ) , 1)& 2.]1+ 1. 66• 1.16+ 1.8]&
73-•
8) .
·95* 3-05 1 2.68,
1.06* ).)91 2.')]1
• 86& 2.81& 2.41t+
,')6, ). 1)& 2.71+
1), +
81. +
. 86 •
-96•
.so• . 66•
2. )2* 1.89•
18.•
SJ . •
.2)•
.661
. 6]*2 . )2# 1.891
18.,
53-1
.2) 1 ,Jio•
.6]1 2.15* 1.]2•
!].•
082
2).•
.29• ...1 .8)1
.]6* 2.58#2.161
23-1
59- 1
.291 . 92* - 76* ,4]•
. 7&1 2. ~o• 1.97• 1.12•
.61* 2.11/ 1.]2/
.68•2.)41 1.911
"8./
54 -1
.611
. 681
017
078
079
,.,
.6]*
.55
....
.so,
.w
.)2*
- 93*
81.+
.)]*
.)8• 1.08•
loq.•
.21• -7'"* .60•
. 61• 2.15* 1.72•
1].•
4').•
. 21*
.61•
.22* , to] •
.56• 1.2 1•
21.*
Slo.•
.2]* . ')2* -76*
.7&* 2.1o o• 1. 97*
21.•
54.•
.2]*
.]0*
2S . •
]l.t
.)41t
·'H*
20.•
.1)•
"'
. 8)•
2. 58• 2.16•
oas
o86
2, 11 • 1. ]2
2. )~* 1. 91
"'
o88
1.1 0* .')St
),1\t 2.6')*
25.t
]Q . t
.)lo * 1.10/ -951
.')St ) . 111 2. 69/
2S.#
]0 .1
.)4 /1.12 * -97t .60• .)8t
-9SI J . tSt 2.13• 1.68t 1. 0]* 1.6]t
.sa•
2S . •
]I.•
.]lot 1. 12* - 97*
.97* J.!St 2. 7Jt
o89
090
.Blot .]2*
2.')8t 2. 56t
l'),t
67 . t
.26* ·"'I ·121
. ')1* 2.9812-56#
19- 1
6]. 1
. ]St .loSt ,)\ t -"Jt
.261
, ') 1/ ).19* 2,1Jt 1,71t 1.0')• 1.65•
20.•
72.*
. 28t
.98• ). 19• 2,7]t
]2.•
.28•
- 98•
"'
2-39* 2. 01
2.66*2.23
56 .
62.
.]It 2. )9# 2.01 /
-79* 2- &61 2.2)1
56-#
62 -1
.]II
2.20+ 1,81& 1.04•
.]91 2.1o4+ 2.02& 1.1S*
.SJ& 1.05&
-59& 1.16&
48.+
SJ . +
.E.Io& 2.20+ 1.81&
.]2& 2.1o4+ 2.02&
loB,+
53 -•
.6"'
.]2&
"'
"'
"'
"'
,]7t . 6]t
2- 39* 1.97*
1],'111
54.•
.22* -77 1 . 6)#
.]0* 2-391 1.971
1].1
0"
.22 1 .81*
-70/ 2.55•2 . 12* 1. 2)•
.21t . lolt
.61• 1.29*
18.•
sa.•
.24• . Sit
.Js• z.s s• 2.12•
18.•
sa . •
.2h
.]S*
.52• ·"4*
2.66t 2.24t
12.t
60 . t
.16t .521 . lo4 J
-79•2.66# 2.2lo/
12- 1
60. /
.1 61 . S2t .4]t .26t
- 791 2.6)* 2.21• 1, ]0'111
·'"*
.26•
096
12.•
60.t
.IS• .52• .4]t
.]8• 2.6)* 2. 21*
\l , t
60 . t
.15'111
.]8•
-59• .49
2.6]• 2.25
6).
"·
.18• -59/ ·"91
.80•2.6]12.2 5/
6)./
. 181
. so,
-
47.
. 60• 2.071 1. ]01
. ]0* 2. ]9# 1.961
"1 -1
.601
100
2.0]t 1.]0
2- J9t 1.96
-
'"
2.39• 2. 01
2. 66• 2. 24
61.
10)
2.2'}t 1.91
2. 55*2 . 12
. 29*
. 51*
2) . •
62.•
.)0• 1.00* .85•
.82• 2.]2• 2. )0*
2).•
62 . •
.}0*
.82*
084
092
o,
102
'"
105
106
.,.
59-*
...
''·
55.
55.
5).
"·
''·'
,,.,,
-
·"'
.....
55 - /
.]01
·""'
SS-1
61. /
.]I J
·191
SJ. #
59- #
. 6/! 1
·151
.Bol
22. #
61./
.281 I.OOt .as•
. 771 2.]2• 2.]&* 1.)1*
22.
.28*
2.60* 2.18
''·
.7]• 2-6ol 2.18/
.%1
.....
-
,]it 2.)9# 2. 0 1/
- 79* 2- &61 2.241
.f,9 t :!.291 1. 911
- 75* 2.5512.12 1
.ao
. 7J• I. J"t
·"' .,..
.so•
·1 9* 1.)9*
160
TACit 2lo. Pro.-l•ate Co.position 01nd Ener;y Content of Sone Cc;wmoonly Used AfricAn reeds (Cont . )
Digestible Protein
...,_
Entry
'"
107
108
l ntern;~tlonal
109
110
-1\f,y, sun-cured,
e;~~rly
111
112
-ha y, sun-c;ured,
n~ldbiOQIII
"'
bl00111
feed
~tter
tract NFE
Ill
1>1
1-Q'r-178
1-Q't-179
1-Q9-180
1-Q9-18\
"'
118
"'
2-27- 698
EUCA LVPTUS H[LL IOOOAA. Eucalyptus, ye1 lowbo11
2- 27-694
-brow1e, fresh
f[STU tA AAUNOINAtEA . fescue, alu
--:riel pa rt , fresh
2-()1-889
120
121
-aerial pert, sileCJevllted
3- 16- )60
-hey, sun-eur ed
1-()5-bSlo
"'
127
128
"'
~MCI'IInil:el
e.~r.tr &et ed
fAAXINU S OKVtAAPA. Ash, CI UC ISien
-leevel, fresh
5-()1-977
2-27-688
1)0
1]1
1]2
1JJ
1).
1)1
1]6
J.S• 12.8
90.
lo,l + )lo.Cj
]8 . ]
}.lo.
lo.6+]8.8
1o2 . 6
}.8. 10 .2
37.5
)7 . 9
),h
}
.....
7- 1
8. )
2 ...
6.1
...
...
lt.O+
5• lo 1. 7
lt2.1
lo.hloO,\
lo. J•Iolo . S
)6 , 1o
lo O.Io
100 .
2.8
6. 2
22. 9
51.11
15 . 1
]3 . 9
"·
~-'
28.)
7-6
17 . 6
51.~
1).9
.,.
~.
.,.
2-27-687
2-() lo-57~
-hey , s un-cured, 111ldb\00111
1...04-5)8
1)9
1"
-hay, sun-cured , doUCJh stage
1...0'-SioZ
1..
1'>
-hey, s un-eured, 111eture
10 . )
1- 7
,..
2 ••
•.1
10.9
18.1
"·
2. 0+
~2,
I
17.&
,_,
2.2+lo7.&
)1. 2
...
...
•. 1
/.0
7-6
)6 .
•.o
...
,..
1,.
17 - "
lo 8.6
1.8
l-7
so.o
).0
1] . 9
'·'
·'
24.1
51.6
a.o• a.s•
}.2•
].2*
8.0•
8. 0*
5.2*
5-7*
s.s•
5.2•
5. 2*
6. 1*
s.s• s.B•
) . 6•
}.9*
}.}•
lo. J•
J-7*
lo , O*
lo.2 *
lo,2 t
2.}*
).0*
].0*
) , )*
2. 9*
2.9*
- 7•
. s•
).2*
) . 2•
... ...
1.5•
1 . 0•
1. 0•
2 ...
).6•
6.6•
).4•
&.2•
) . ]•
&. 6•
).]•
&.&•
).o•
).I•
J.o• ).0•
1).8•1J,Io• l) , )t\).)111
8.1
10.5
'·'
10.4
19 . ~
21.&
Iii,)* 15.0• 1~.o• !lo.O•
IS.9* 16 . 7• 15.&• 15.6•
2).7
25.8
66.2
53.&
58.)
15.7
2.,
8.1
16.5
1 ~- 9
) 1.0
J.O
6.)
I .~·
1.2•
•. 0
2.9•
2. ~·
1.&•
),2*
6.7
4.6•
• .0
I 2. ~
lo. ~·
8.1t
a....
2 1.6
...
.... ....
\.6
11.6
21.5
..,
...
).1
16.
100.
11,6+ ) 8.5
s.to .. toJ. 7
20.6
23 . 4
10.9
88.
).6+ 36.)
~I.)
26 . 7
)0 . )
6.2
7-0
),lo + ~l . lo
),9+ lo].O
llo.O
2] . )
•.o
88.
(>)
12,8
).1
100.
hlo
) .6
16.8
lo, I+
Buf-
t%1
"'
10.7
7-l
88.
}.6•
Cat-
• .6
)9 . 0
1.2
.. ,
} .2 •
1>l
28.7
\ C),~
-
100.
\00.
1-o1o-51o3
J-7
6.8
...
6.1
100.
1J7
1)8
2.1
'·'
27.2
100 .
CLYtiN[ HAX . Soybeiiln
-aerl&l pert, f resh
.,
5
100 .
ClEO ITS lA TAIACANTtfOS. Honey locus t, c01m10n
-1eeves, fresh
2-2]-685
/.2
~ 0.
100 .
fUIUHA ERitoiOES . f~aane. e rlcoldel
- aer ie\ p&rt, fresh
) . 2+
•. 2
) ,) +
2).
100.
FISH
--...ell
1>1
}.2• 11 . 5
100.
126
Shee p Coat
1%1
I,Q,l
100 .
fESTU tA AAUNOINAtU-TAifot.IUH SPP. fescue, alt1-elover
-l\.ly, sun-e ured
1-Hr-371
uin
]6 . 1
100.
"'
"'
"'
flbt!r Ash
(>)
(>)
lo,'J+]8 . 7
100.
EAit A MUlTiflORA. Heetll , densesplke
-b row1e, fr esh
Pro-
lo,lot-]4 . 8
100.
11<
111
116
...
1>1
t ruck
100.
100.
-lill y, sun-cured • .ature
foul
Ether
o,,
feed Na.ae
ERAGROSTIS CURWLA. (Cont. )
-nay, SU/'I~ured, lite veget ltlve
,._
tiona!
'·'
s.o
2.6•
7-9•
2.6•
7- 9•
2.b•
5-l*
5.6•
6.h
S-3*
&.0*
6 ...
7-9 *
2.&*
7-9•
5-l*
6 ...
53 .&# Sio.2+Sio.2 +
58·31 59.2 + 59.2+
~.II*
lo.)* lo.J* ~- 3*
12.h 12 . 0• 11.9* 1 1.9•
s.s•
~- &•
1.6•
).2•
~.6•
8. ~·
~
26.7
"·'* 11. 0* ).8• ) . 8•
21.9• 21.5• 20.6• zo.6•
•• 6
14.6
16.6
10.1• 10 . b* 10.0* IO.Ot
11.5•12.0* \1,)* 11. )•
15. 2
1].)
10 . 6t11.2•10.5• 10.5•
12.1• 12.7• 11.9• 11.9•
15.2
17. )
IO . b• 11.2 • 10.5•10.5•
12 . 1•12 . 7• 11.9• 11.9 1
..,
161
Ener!IY for Sheep
Entry DE
<E
(Meal (tical
/kg) /kg)
107
108
2.2]• 1. 89
2. 52* 2.10
109
110
2.25* 1.86
'"
1%1
IJ ,
sa.
DE
<E
IFU
( 11cal (Mcal
/kg)
/kg)
/kg)
.6]*2 . 2]1 1. 891
,,,. .. 2.5212.101
TON
Feed
Uroit
I> I
"' "• "•
IFU
DE
(t1c•1 (Meal
(f1c~ll
/kg)
/kg)
/kg)
/kg)
sa.,
. 671 2. ~J· 2.05* I. 22•
. ]41 2.]0* 2.28* 1.]5*
SJ.J
Energy for Buffalo
Energy for tattle
Energy for Coats
Feed
Unit
52.
sa.
.&6• 2.251 1.86,
,7}11 2.50# 2.07#
52 . /
2 . 50*1 . 0]
sa.,
.66# 2.]0* 1. 95* 1.11*
.])12.55*2 .17* 1.24*
2.20* 1.82
. 64• 2.20/ 1.811
. ]2* 2.""' 2.021
51.1
56.#
.61..1 2.19* 1.80* 1.0]"'
- 721 2.4]• 2.00• 1.15•
"I
(/'\coil (Meal
/kg) /kg)
.]0* 1.21ji
.]8* 1.]8•
. 69•
TON
Feed
Ul'lit
1%1
ss .•
61.'11
'"'
Unit
IFU
TON
DE
(t1ca1 (Meal
/kg)
/kg)
(%1
/kg)
"'
/kg)
. 7J•2 . 1tJ•2.0S*
.81• 2.]0* 2. . 28*
ss.•
61.•
. 69*2.)0* 1.95*
IFU
.]3 •
....
,81*
52.*
-77* 1. )0*
sa.•
.n•
- 52* l.Oh
. 64•2.19•1.80 "
-71 * 2./o]* 2.00*
51.*
57· *
.64 •
.58• 1. 15•
51.*
57-•
.61# 2.}0* 1. 95* 1.11 •
. 6812 . 55*2 . 17* 1.2h
-69* 1.17 •
-77* 1.]0*
52 . •
sa . •
-69* 2. 30• 1.95* 52.•
.n• 2.s5• 2.17• 58.•
.69*
.]6 •
28.•
62. *
.]7*1.22• 1.0)* 28 . •
. 82• 2.7/o• 2. ]1* 62. •
.37*
.82•
1.1]*
z.ss•
z.,,. 52.•
sa.•
• 77tJt
112
2• .1o411 2,02
51.
56 .
11)
2.12* 1.]]*
2.35• 1.9)•
"·
. 61 * 2.11/ 1.731 "8·1
. 68• 2. 351 1.9)1 53 · 1
115
116
1.07• .88•
2.40• 1. 97*
24.•
54.•
.)1 • 1. 0]1
. 881
,]f)* l • .loOJ 1.971
2/o.J
S"·'
.]1# 1. 22• 1.03* .6 u
. 701 2.7/o* 2.)1• 1.38•
117
118
1.10* . 86•
1.99* 1.5 6*
25 . •
45.•
. ]1*1,101 . 861
.ss• 1. 99' 1. )6/
2S.J
. )1J1.80•1.57* -97* .6) • · 93*
. 551 3.27• 2.86• 1. ]]* 1. 14• 1.]0*
41.* .so • 1.SO• 1.57*
7"· * 1. 01* ].2]* 2.86•
41.•
lo),f
119
120
.s8• . 49
2-59* 2. 17
"·
"·
.1 7•
60.
·"91
2.591 2.171
14./
60./
,1]1 .61& .)2& ,)1*
.]7J2.7)& 2-3" 1. ]7*
.18£ . ]1&
-79& 1.40&
14 . & .18£ . 61£ .52£
62.& .82& 2.73& 2. ] 1£
14.t
62.&
.18&
. 82&
.26• .881 ·7"1
.]8• 2.641 2.211
21.#
62.,
. ~a,
.]0* 2. )lot 1. 96#
-79* 2.61ot2.22i
ss./
62.#
• 701 2.08& 1.]0& .96•
-79#2.)5& 1.92& 1. 08•
.lo]& 1.05&
,))& 1.19&
.60& 2.08& 1.70&
.68&2 . ]5& 1.92&
lo].&
5).&
53.&
. 60&
.68&
. 70* 2.)71 1.98J
.78• 2.6)# 2.201
56.#
62 . #
-701
.]81
"'
SJ.
.n•
.sa,
.so•
.62 •
1.4 0•
.88• ·I'
2.6.1o• 2.11
12]
124
2.]4• 1.96
2.64• 2.22
125
126
2.37•1.98
2.6)• 2. 20
127
128
2.91* 2.)2
].17* 2.75
/1.
n.
.91)• 2.911 2.52#
.98• ].171 2-751
7'·1
77-1
.90# ).]6• ).)8• 2,1]* ' · "9*
'·~·
.981 lo.IO* ].69* 2.)]* 1. 62• 2.16•
129
1)0
.91* .]6•
2.Sh 2. 12•
21 ••
58.•
. 2]* .911 .]61
-75•2.S.Iol2 . 121
21.1
sa.,
. 2711.15• 1.00•
-751).22•2.80*' 1,]]* 1.11• 1.67•
1)1
1)2
1.20*
2.49• 2. 06•
2].•
2].1
56 . •
. )5*1.201
,]p 2.lo91 2.06#
56./
- 351 1.24• 1.0)* . 60•
.]]/2.57•2.15* 1.25*
1]3
1,I,S*1.23*
2.69• 2.27•
61.*
.loJ•1 .IoS# 1. 231
.So• 2.691 2.271
33 -1
61.#
.60* -53*
).2)*2.81•
14.• .19*
-53#
7).• 1.00* ].2)1 2. 81#
1]7
1]8
2. 2h 1.86
2.Sio• 2.12
66.
1]9
140
2.26•1.89
2.57•2.15
141
2.3)• 1.96
2. 65• 2.2)
"'
135
1]6
"'
....
56.
"·
)).•
sa .
SJ .
60 .
ss.
"·
...,
...,
. 26#
.n•
.56•
74 . • 1,01 *
-
121
122
"·ss .
"·
. ]1*
lo].&
-
·"' .....
....
as . • 1.20• 3.76• J.J8*
93.• 1.]1* 4.10* ].69*
as.• 1.20•
93-* 1.31*
.]6*1.15* 1. 00*
.99• ).22• 2. 8o•
26.•
.)6•
]).•
1].•
.99*
.n•
.6) *
.68• 1.)1 *
28.•
sa.•
.)]*
1.2/o• 1.0]*
.]6*2 . 57* 2.15*
28.•
sa.•
. )]*
.]6•
.4)1 1.58t 1, JS• .82*
.801 2.92 * 2.50* 1. 51*
. so• .81•
-92* 1.50*
]6.•
66.•
.1o8 •1.S8• 1.]5*
.89* 2.92* 2.50*
)6.•
66 . •
,loS•
.89•
14.# .19# .s:.• .lo ]• . 28•
73-1 1.001 2.91* 2-"9* 1.51•
.1 7* .28•
-91* 1. so•
12.•
66 . •
.I]*
.s~o•
12.•
66.•
.1]*
.88•
-97&
.52& 1. 10&
·"'
lo].t
SJ.+
.60& 2.06+ 1.69& lo], +
. 68& 2. ~ lot 1.91& )),+
1.20&
- 75' 1.)6&
SJ,+
60.+
.]0&2.)1o& 1.97' 53 -+ . ]0&
. 79& 2-66, 2.21o& 60.+ ./
1.15&
.68& 1.]0&
51.& .67' 2. 25' 1.88'
58 . & .]6' 2. 5W 2.13,
sa.,
.66•2.24J1.86J
-75* LSiol 2.121
66 . ,
-661 2.06+ 1.69& .95*
-751 2.llo+ 1.92& 1. 08•
. 67*2.261 '·891
-76• 2-571 2-151
53-1
60.1
. 67J2.Jio' 1-97& 1.16•
.7612 -66&2.211, 1. ]2*
. 70* 2. 331 1.961
-79* 2.651 2.2]1
55-1
62.1
,]01 2.25' 1.88, 1. 10*
.]91 2.56& 2.13' 1,2/ot
....
...
.
26.•
. lo]•
.88• 2.91 * 2-"9*
51.&
58.&
....
. 68'
..
..
.67£
./
162
Table 2t.. Proa i mate Composition and Energy Content of Some (c:lllm)n\y Us ed Afri c an Feeds (Cont .
OiCJeStible Protein
lnternr
,_
'"
Entry
tiona!
lnternttlonal
Feed N3me
CLYC IN[ MAX. (Cont.)
~--ot.--610
"'
145
116
-seeds, meal solveotextrOJCted
s-o4-6olo
"'
-seeds wlti\Qu t hulls , me011l solvent
extrKted
s-o'+-612
118
··-m
O<y
1'\atter tr.c t NFE
(>}
(%)
,.
,.
100.
I"
100.
1--Qio-567
119
ISO
Toul
Ether
18 . 1
PJ.&
·'·'
Cruoe
teln
Stleep Go-.t
(%)
(>}
(%)
37-9
41.0
}4 . 5• )4.51 3'- - 7+ ]lo.7+
]7.'-+ J7.41 3].0+ 3].6+
'·'
S-9
lo6 . 1.o
so.s
42.8+ lo2.8t lol.lo+ 41,4+
116.6• 46.61 loS. I• loS . I+
'·'
'·'
so . ~o
46.2*46.21
)6.8
100.
1.0+ }4.}
89 .
1.)+)7 . 4
41.2
100.
1.5+42.1
46.}
.CJ+ Jl.S
90.
16.}+26.9
21.5
18.5•29.8
2).8
I.S+ li.S
1.]+]'+.6
10.]
-seeds, MeChanical extracted caked
S-11-S89
"·
8.1
8.8
2S.6
2] . 8
-seeds witho ut hulls , meal solvent
eJ<tracted , sot protein
5-2o-lol2
9).
1.7+26 . 1
1,8+28.2
1,0+ 8.)
s.o.,.4.6
157
158
"'
100.
Bufhlo
m
s .8
6.)
, '}1.
155
1\6
(%)
s.8
6.)
100.
5--QI-f)llo
-seeds, mea l solvent exvacted,
protein
"'
s.8
6. )
s-o1-621
153
IS'
(%)
)3 .8
GOSSYPIUI'ISPP. Cotton
151
152
m
24 . 8
26.8
).2
J.s
92.
Cat-
,,~
Fiber Ash
6.2
$.1
ss.o so.4• so.lot
) .9
u
·''
.s•
19.9
'·'
S-9
22 . 0
11.8
5.6
6.2
41.6
ltS. J
16.0
l] . lo
'·'
6.2
]6.S
]'}.8
8.s
9.2
6.2
6.)
so.o
Slo.l
.6•
. ]•
-
-
.,.
·''
.]•
. ]•
11.8+ 11.8+
1}.0• 1).0+
]1.4-+ ] 1.4+
J4 . s• Jlo .S•
21.2
2].1
21.21
2] . 11
cR-.ss
159
160
-aerial part, fresh
161
162
-aerial part, sll119e, e1rly vegetative ]-Q2-217
163
1"
-aer 1~11 part, silao)e, e1rly bloom
2..02-260
16$
-aerl11
-aerlll p11rt , sll ao;tewi lted , early
169
1)0
1)1
1)2
).2
10 . '}
16 . s
8.)
s.o
2 .•
J .s
4.0• 41.S
2S.O
12.0
l].S
2).
8.8
8.)
2.)
2.6
2.]+ 37-S
3].2
II.S
11.1
).9
19 .
]-Q2-218
100.
"'
16)
168
'·'
2.1
23.0
20.
100.
100.
p;~rt,sila<je,
full bloom
3- 16-]61
3-16-362
b\00111
H[LIANTHUSANNUUS. Sunflower, comnon
-seed heads, 11n-cure<1
H[l\ANTHUSSPP. Sunflower
-aoeri1l part , siL1ge , 1111ture
1-Q9-]31i
]-QI.o - ]35
I))
174
s-o8- sJo
-seeds ,
177
1)8
-seeds with SOllie hulls,
1)9
18o
-seeds wi thout hulls,
me;~\
solvent extracted
5-JD-032
"·
me~ll
solvent
solvent
5-25-i.Jio
5-JD-O]Io
...
2.1!* 2. 11• 2.11• 2.4•
12.1*12.1"12 . 1* 12.1*
I.S*
6.3•
l.S•
6 . 31
1.5*
6.3*
1.5 1
6-3*
1 , 21
2.0
8.0
'"'
1.2*
4.9•
1.2•
]1.6
~.9•
1 . 2*
4 . 9*
lo.'}•
)).
12.0
]6 . 1,
).0
9-1
).6
10.'}
2.01
6,11
2 .0•
6 , \1
2 . 0*
6.1*
2.0*
6.1 1
20.8
8.0
9-2
11.0
12 . 6
6.9 1
].'}•
].)1
8.1t1
6 . '}•
7-9•
6 . '}•
2).'}
100.
-
8].
100.
-
2).
9'·
88.
100.
~~~e<~l
...
2 . ~· 2.3 .. 2.3* 2.3*
12.3* 11.'}• 11.'}* II.'}*
100.
100.
175
1)6
.8•
8.9
2.5
1. 6
.6•
.6•
.6•
.6•
]'}.0
11 . 0
].0
2.6•
2.6•
2.6•
2.6•
]1.0+ 1).8
]].1+1l.o.]
2'} . 0
]1.0
).1
16.8
).)
\].'}
2.0•2 l.o. l
2. )•27.4
35-9
l.oO.'}
6. 2
).1
19.6
22.}
6.)
37.1t
S- 9
6.)
1o9.5
90.
12.1
100.
l].lo
9'·
'"''·'
100.
].'} •
1.0+ 8.8
l.o,J+J8.J
,..
~
1."
52.S
163
Energy for GoiiU
Energy for Sheep
,,
feed
""
Entry DE
(1'\ciil ("ti l
/kg) /kg) I>)
'"
"'
"'"'
"'
"'
1..
II'
116
117
DE
IFU
(~ill
"I
{11cii1 {"<:•1 {/'\cod (11ca1
/kg)
/kg)
/ kg)
t.o,,
J . '¥3*
J.6t <~
"• "•
/kg)
/k g )
/ kg)
2.1o•
ltl
1ru
/ko;~)
Feed
DE
ME
TDH
Unit
(11c~d
(P\Cilll
/kg) I>)
/kg)
/ k9)
IFU
"·
1. 16* ] .6 71 ] . 261
9 1.1 1.161 .. . ]2* ].91* 2.1t]t !.]I.* 2.28•
90-* 1.28• ),'i')t ].61* 90·• 1.28•
98.• 1. ]9* 1.,]2* ] . 91* 98.• 1.39*
1.01* ].21tt 2.861
So.,
88 .
1.10* J,SJI ]. 121
as .,
]lo . • 1.02* ] .26• 2.88•
J . H*].12
] . 22* 2.811
.,.
1.01 * ].221 2.8loi
1, 10* 3- 52# ), 101
79 -1 J.ott 3-39' J. ou: 1.89* 1,28& 1.77&
87.# 1.10# 3- 70& ).29£ 2.06* 1.liO& 1. 9~&
'·77•
z .a~· 2.1o6
J . IU 2.]]
1.72• 2.)11
1.99• z. s7
2.96• z. sa
J.n• 2.81
...
"·
"·"·
..."·
...
-~9 *
.ss•
'·111 1.]9#
1. 99# 1.56#
39-#
lo],,
2.28• 1. 60•
1.01# ].26* 2.88• I. So• 1. 20* 1 . }0*
t.IOJJ.SS* J . IJ* 1. 96* 1. ]1*
• ~9# 1. ~9' 1.10&
.551 1. 68& 1.2lo&
.lo7 •
.sJ•
....
.00&
t.Ss• so.•
. 72&
.81&
n.,
t.n• J.ss•
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Feed
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Energy for C•ttle
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164
Table
21< .
Proximate Coonpositlon .1nd Energy Content o f
SClii!Oe COII'II'Only Used A fr i~;:an feeds (torn. )
Digest ibl e Prote in
...
,
tiona!
Ent r y
lll te rn atlooal
feed Name
,,,
'"
'"
flORDEUH VULGARE. aar lf!y
5-<10-516
-brewers gr ains , dehydra t ed
-br ewers gra ins , .,.et
s-oo-s•7
ISS
186
-qr ain
lo-()0-5~9
,,,
"'
"'
192
193
19'
HVPAAAHUII.l HIATA-THEI'UOA TAIANOAA.
-aerial part, fresh
LOLIU/'1 ltULTIFLOAUH . Aye1jlr.ss, 1tali60
- hay , lln-CIII"e<l
1-()4-()69
-h•y , s ....-cured , lue ve1jleU tiv e
1-()4-()65
1-27-$21
LOLIUH PEAE NN E. Ayc;g r •ss. perenn ia l
-aerial part, fresh
2-()4-()86
p,~~rt,
fresh , late Ve1jletat lve,
2-1 )-()07
LOLIUH SPP. Ryqrass
-ae r i al part. fresh
2-()l.-()62
3-16-)68
2-27-676
'·'
10.2
loO.O
16 . ~
69 . 2
100.
1.9
2.1
6.0
6.7
-
]2.
...
...
n .o
trlandrl
11 . )
)) . 2
)) .8
loO.l
-
LUPINUSSPP. Lup i ne
- ae r ial part. fresh
HEOI CAGO AABOAU. l'led ic; , tree
-ae r ial part , fresh
2-Q2-691
2-ll-f>ll
2-oD-181
(\ )
...
CatSheep Goat
{\)
m
{\)
a ut hlo
{\)
21.7
7-D 2] . 6
...
1.0
).1
'·'
'·'
7- '
...
23 . 9
10.8
].8• ) . 8,
16.0• 16.01
].8
8.6
6.5•
] .2•
... ..,
1.2•
,.,.
).8•
] ,U
8.2
s.J
1. 2*
1.]*
1.3"
1.5•
).)
2 .•
7-J
).It•
6.o•
l,)fl
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1. ]•
,....
6.0•
.....
1.)•
1.]"
1.5*
1.5*
2 7.8
J l,lo
7-S
s.s
8.1
9.1
4.211
lo . S*
~.
511
5.1*
4.)11
4.9*
lo,)11
4.9*
100 .
2 . 1+ 51.6
2.'-• 59.2
10.6
12.2
10 . 6
\2.2
12 . 2
14.0
8.011
'), 111
8.411
') . 611
7-911
'),111
7.911
') .1 *
100.
1.0
3-7
•.2
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1 ...
87.
...
·•
17 .
~2. I
)~. 1
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)8 . )
2
8. 7
lt . ')+ lt ] . 6
2).
88.
\,1+ 115.)
1.)+5 1. 5
...
.8
)l .
...
20.0
10.5
'·'
10.2
) .)
19 . 0
-
).)
s.s
19. 0
55-6
6.6
19.4
.6
6.)
6.S
]lt . 8
]6.1
1. )
1).2
'·'
It'),\
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2.2
1.8
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10.0
) 1.1
).)
18 .
). 2• ).1• ),011 J.o•
1).6* 1).2*1).011 1).011'
17 . 8
8.1
•• 2
18.
100.
• •2
1. 6
6.8
21t.2
27-5
22.5
7-6
•.s
16.9
10.2
.s•
·'' .s•
.s• .s•
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) . 011 ).0* 2 . ')11 2 -9 11
15.2* 11t.8• ilo.5• 14 . 5•
27.1
6 .)
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'·'
19-5
100.
l].
100 .
2 .•
12. 0
10. }
)).2
).1
''· '·'
...
...
lt ).6
)1.
I'I[OitA~
SATIVA. Alfalfa
-aerial part, fresh, l ue vegeut i"e
'-'
te l n
··~
1.7•t.J.5
1.9+ 49. 1
100 .
211
liS
"·
...
100.
100.
LONI CERA IHPLEXA . Honeysuckle , iMp lexa
- br owse, fresh
l\l
l.
16.]
9-6
100.
LOLIUH SPP-TR\fOliU/'1 SPP. Ayegrass-clover
-aerial part, s lliMJe
)-16-369
liD
l1)
15. 0
~6.8
'-'
\00.
-aer ial part, silage wi \ted
208
211
).8•4 ),\
100.
1-o1.-o75
''"
6. ) +
100 .
- hay. sun-cur ed, early blcoa
F i ber
{ \)
(\)
"·
100.
-aerial
"'
"'
1-16-372
Cr ude
(\)
100 .
201
202
lOS
206
2-16-359
Total
trKl HfE
m
100.
-hay, sun-cured
199
200
20)
2"
m
Coola t algr•n-k~g.,.oog rus ,
19S
196
"''"
~tter
100.
18)
187
\88
Ether
,,, ,._
1].1
5-2•
5-9 11
2.1
11.8
5-6 11
6 . ]11
5 - J•
6.o•
5·1"'
6.011
2.5• 2.5• 2.5•
Jlt.)• l4. 011 14,011
),811 ),811 ).811 ),811
l\,]1111 . 7111 1. 7•11.]11
-
1] . 5
2.6*
8 . 5*
2.6•
8.5•
2.6*
8.5*
1.611
8.5•
2.6
1-7
2.8
8.)
1 , 611
4.]11
1.5•
4,)11
1. 1*
4.9*
1. 7*
" · 9*
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1.6
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16.8
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2 ••
7-3
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2.0
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21.1
11.2
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12 .6* 12 . 211 12.2 * 12.211
s.•
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15.9*15-5 11 15.1*15.1•
•.s
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20.)* 19.9* 19. 1• 1'). 111
20.]
25.0
165
Ene rgy for Sheep
En~rgy
for Goats
Feed
...
"
EnlryO E
TON
N"- (Meal ( Meal
/kiJ) /Kg) l'i
,,,
'"
'"
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2.52•2.13
2. 7~"' 2. 32
.68•
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2.8)* 2.41
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2.)0* 1.88
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60 .
"·
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Un i t
DE
H[
(FU
( ~al
(Meal
/kg)
/kg)
/kg)
.]6* 2. 511 2. 13/
.82• 2. 7~1 2. 321
.21*
..., ·'"''
.86• 2.8]1 2.411
-97* ].10# 2-721
"·
1.0 ]* ) . 44/).0)/
'I·
. 21* .]41 .601
.67* 2. )0# 1. 881
51.
TON
{.)
Ener gy f or C.J ttle
Feed
Unit
{FU
/kg)
Ener11v for Bufr1lo
DE
TO N
HEm
NE g
(Heat (Meal (Heal ( M~::al (Meal
/kg ) / kg) /k';!) /kg) /kg)
"'
"''
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m
Feed
Unit
{ FU
/kg)
DE
"
(J1eal (l'lcal
/kg) /kg)
TON
m
..
,,
Un i t
{FU
/kg)
. 856 2. ]8& 2. )9&
.92& ].02& 2.60&
6].&
.85&
68 .&
.92&
1.85* 1.28* 1,]]*
18 . • .26* .81• .]2•
77 -* 1.07* ).]9* ] . 01 *
18.•
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84 . / 1.0]1 ) . )]* 2. 96* I.Sio• 1. 20* 1. 75*
69- * . 9'-• ).OJ* 2. 66*
]6.* I.OS* ).)7* 2.96*
69.*
]6. * 1.05*
bO.J
65-1
.821 ).02£ 2.60&
t.sa•
16.1
66.1
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53-1
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1.95* L S'
2. 18* !.7S
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2. 24* 1.86
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-75* 2.)]/2.101
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59 -1
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55-1
63-1
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. 801 2.,.56 2.0]& 1.1 6*
.5210 1.o86
.60& 1.21o&
lo9 . & . 63t;2.!lo& 1.77&
56.6 .72& 2.'-5& 2. 0)6
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56.& .]2&
,'95
2.19* 1.81
2.46• 2. 0]
5L
57.
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2.191 1.8 11
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51.1
57-1
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.'31*
1, 0]111
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42.*
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1)./
65-1
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.81/2.81& 2.)8& 1.4)•
.1]6 .296
.81!& 1.44&
1).&
611.&
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1).& .1]6
64 . & .85&
'5·
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15-1
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60.
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53-/
60 ./
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.1o9111 1.07*
.56* 1.21*
loS .•
S"·*
.62*2.11* 1.73*
.]0* 2.40* 1.97*
S" · *
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II. I
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-94• 1.52*
12.*
6].•
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66./
.151 .52* .loU .27*
.8312.95* 2.53* '·5"'*
.52•
2.95* 2.53•
·"'
12.*
6].*
. 16111
.90*
.27* .91/ -771
.85* 2.81/2.]9/
22./
67-1
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-
20./
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.53*
.96* I.Sio*
2) . 111
68.111
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.91* 2.99* 2.5]*
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.]3* 1.]4*
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60.•
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23 -*
68.•
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11. *
6o.•
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19. *
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. 911• ].17• 2.]5*
19.•
72-•
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12.•
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' 91
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200
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2.64•2.22
20'
20 2
2.2&• 1.89
2.57* 2.1 5
lO]
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1.7]* 2. 35
'"
·" " ·
205
206
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2.81• 2.]9
207
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2. ]0• 2.2]
208
209
65.
22.
6].
20.
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...,
.a,.,
-
.... .....
-
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.81*2-701 2.271
61,.,,
.251
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19·1
55-1
.241 1.02 * .88• -53*
.70/2.99" 2.57 111 1.56"
...,
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.82* .68*
2.1,.1 111 1.99"
ss.•
19.*
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.]0*2.41/ 1.991
'"
"'
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2- 72* 2.)0*
11,*
62.11
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. 81* 2.]11 2. ]01
62 . /
"·'
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.8 1/ 2.63* 2.21* 1.]0*
"'
'"
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).OU 2.62 *
18 . •
69.111
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.93* ) . OioJ 2. 621
18./
69 -1
.251 .as• .]4* .lo5 * .29 11 .4"*
·91/3 . 17* 2.]5* 1.69* 1.08111 1. 6"*
"5
"6
.1.8•
2.67* 2.25
11 . /
. 141 -5"* .It]* .29*
.801 ] .02* 2.60* 1.59•
'"
·"' "· ·'""'
6].
·"''
.481
.80* 2-67#2.251
6]./
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. 18• . 28*
-99* 1, 56•
-~
.I.]•
4],*
loB . •
·'"'
.686
-52*
.sa•
.70*
.91*
-92*
166
hOle 24. Pro•l-..te
t~sit i on
.nd Energy Content of SOMe Camonly Used Afric-.n Feeds ( Cont. )
Digestible Prote i n
...
Entry
217
218
lntern•tlonll
fed NMte:
MEDI CAGO SAT IVA , (Con t.)
- ae rl • l p•rt , fr e sh , elr ly b \00'11
....
O•y
NIMitler
(l)
- •r i•l p•r t, fresh, full b loom
2...00-184
221
-h•Y·
z-oo-188
1-oo-o]B
222
22J
1-oo-osil
225
- h•y, sun-cured, full blooon
1~G-068
-ste.s, sun-cured
1~161o
3~8-332
2)J
2),
235
236
2)7
238
239
HO
"'
2'>
Hl
OLE A [ UR OPAEA. Olive
- bro wse, f resh
2-G9-]32
2-27~69
ORYZA SATIV A. Rice
- br an with ge r111 s
2-oB-503
lo -Q] - 928
1,-oJ-935
-pO\Ishlngs
lo-o]....glo)
2-Q1-138
"'
-ae r ial pa r t, fr e s h, lne YII!:(Je t etive
2-10- 222
>'7
-aeria l per t, fresh, eilr ly bloom
2-(l !-Jio]
"'
"'
"'
H9
250
2-G9-IoQQ
"'
252
,.
-ae r i a l p,art, silage wil t ed, "J to S6
day s ' g r o wth
)-Hr ·)61o
25)
1r..o• ) . 'j* ) . 8•
5.0
22 . 5 \].9" \].5•1] . 0*
Buthlo
1\l
'·'
2.5
)7.2
H.CJ
10.1
10 . ]
2.9
9- 7
!8 . ]
lo,)t lo,2* lo.\*
!lro,lo• !lro.O* \),]* !),]*
9-9
15.7
11.7
11.2
!].]
1).2
8.5
9.8
18 . 0
20 . 9
1).2*1).811 12. 9* 12.9•
15.)* 16.0* 1) . 0* 1).0*
7-5
14.4
16 . 2
9·9* 10.4• CJ . 8• 9.8•
11.1*11.7* 11.0* 11 . 0•
8.2
Jl.s
JS . B
)6 . ]
5.6
),811
\],Qfl
"·'*
11 . 6•10.9* 10 . 9*
1} .1 *12.)* 12 . 3*
27 - S
31.0
3).8
)6.5
"·
l,h 10.9
).9+ )0. 1
11 . ..
JL S
JO.
'·'
'·'
1).8
1,6 . 6
J .6
•. 2
5.8
100.
12.0
1].6
19 ...
'7·
•. o
26 , 1,
7-7
p
8.6
s6.1o
16 . 5
7-l
\1,]
J-5*
7-5*
).)*
].1*
3.5•
7-5*
}.5*
J.S•
·'
10 . ]
lo8.]
'·'
2. J
>.8
]0.2
IO.CJ
...
1.0*
lo.8•
-9•
. ....
I. I*
5.0•
1.1*
5.o•
10.1
\1 . 1
15.1o
16 . CJ
12.3
1).5
8. 7
9-5
8 .8•
9.611
].7•
8 . 1o•
1-1*
'·'
..,
8 .•
9-2
5·2*
S-6•
s.2•
5.6•
lo.1*
....
lt.l*
lo . lo*
9 -9
12.8
11.0
!lo.]
CJ.2• Cj.2•
10.)* 10.]*
8.2•
Cj.l*
8.2•
Cj.l*
2L
100 .
2.2
9>.
12 . 5
1}.7
"·
...
...
>. )
lo 0 . 8
u.s
80.6
8].8
2.7
J.O
>DO.
12 . 5+51.9
IJ,CJ•S7.8
>8.
>DO.
7-6
'-7
2.7• lo2.J
25.9
22.
"·
.,.
... -
l).lo
1.6• 53.5
"· ·'
100.
J-16- 36S
"'
1\l
l.l+lt \. 1
1.2• Itt..]
9) .
100.
-aeri e \ par t, sil age wl ! ted, 29 t o lo2
de ys ' growth
1\l
].0• )6. ~
].It• lt1 . 0
89.
100.
PENNI SET UI't CLA NOESTI NUI't. Ki ku yugr u s
-ae r ial par t, fre sh
Cat-
SheepGo1t
1\l
27-9
100.
PAS PAL U,., OILATATU,., , Dillisgrus
-aerial pllr t, fr e sh, ear ly vegeut\ve
I \I
J&.CJ
100.
- groets, g r ound
··~
tein
~ro . s•
100.
ON08RYCHIS VltllrOLIA, Saln foln, c OIIIMOn
-aerie\ part, fr e sh
-7
2••
2.J
2.6
1\l
2lo . 1
100.
I'IOAUS SP9. ,.,ulberr y
-l ee ve s , fre sh
-9
")
41.5
100.
,.,[0\C AC.OSATIVA-GRASS. A lfal f ~g r ass
-aerial part. s i 1~e w l1ted
..,
1\l
).9+ ) 1 .8
...
100.
230
23 >
2)2
"·
1\l
Crude
Fiber Ash
2) . 9
2],0
100.
"'
"'
)0.
100 .
- h•y , s un-cured , lilte vegetative
2"
227
228
"·
100.
,...,-cured
Toul
I'Litt•r t r act NFE
100.
219
220
,,_
£tner
tio•ul
"·
>DO .
)2.
100.
......
7-J
6.2
6.J
\] . lo
....
5-J
J.J
10.5+ 18.6
J.J
5 -7
27.9
10.]
1].1
16 . 1
7.0
9 -9
15.2
1.1 •
"·"·
).2
12.6
5.7*
6-l*
6 . 0*
6 . 511
S-7*
6.2*
S·7*
6.2 *
......
. ....
~-"* ... 4•
12.0* 12 . 0* 12.0* 12.0*
4.5• 4 . ]* lo,)* It,]*
IS . I* 1lt . 7* llt . h !lo.4•
~
8 . ...
2.6• 2.5* 2.5* 2.5*
!lo,J• 1] . 9* 1].7* 1}. 7*
2.s•
11.2•
2.2*
8.7*
2.1o •
2 .1o•
2. lo *
10.]* 10 .8 * 10 . 8•
2.1*
8 . J•
2. 2*
8 . 6•
2.2*
8.6•
10 . 1
7-6
2. 7
J.6
2. > lo1. 1
]1.0
10.9
llo.Cj
7 -6
2.9
2.8
)0.5
11.5
11.0
1.6•
6.2•
6. 2* 6.2 •
1.6•
6.2•
10 . 6
)3 . 0
l -5
J.O
9-J
1.5*
I,,]*
1. 5*
4.]•
1.5*
1,5 11
11.0
4. ]*
"·1*
-
2.7• 2 . 6• 2.6* 2.6•
10.9* 10.5* 10.5* IO . S*
1. 6•
1. 6*
167
Energy for !iootts
Energy for Sheep
No-
'"
217
2>8
2>9
220
"
(11!;11 (~'!ell
/kg) /kg) (t)
.sa•
.48
2.60* 2.18
, ]4ft
.61
2.1t6• 2. 0]
"'
2.1]*
222
2.45* 2.02
22)
2.33* 1.96
2.69* 2.2]
"'
225
'"
TON
1.79
2.19111.82
2.4 ]* 2.05
1).
60 .
17 .
57.
Unit
(FU
/k.g)
DE
"
( fica I (l1c01l
/kg) / kg )
.sa,
(t)
feed
Unit
DE
(FU
~ ~-~
/kg)
/kg)
" "'· "'• "''
TON
Unit
DE
(t\cll (Mea l ( Heal ( Heal
/kg) /kg) /kg) /kq) (t)
(FU
/kg)
( 11ci!i1
.64• .ss• , ]]*
-7712-91 * 2.49* I.SO*
. 20*
,]41 .611
2.461 2.0)#
.n•
.loBt
13 - 1
.l]j
....
.n•
15. •
66 . •
·"''
18 . •
60.•
. '}1* 1.50*
/kg)
....
"
TON
( He• I
/kg) (%)
.ss•
,....
Uni t
cru
/kg)
15.*
. 20*
.88• 2.91 * 2.1.!9*
66.:!:
. 88•
-79• .66•
.]8*2 .63• 2.21*
18 . •
60.*
. ]8*
1.86• 51.*
.66•
.20*
57-#
.22# -79*
.]9*
. ]2#2.63* 2. 21 * 1.)0*
.]1* 2.1o512.021
SO./
56 -1
. 631 2.2h 1. 86• 1.o8•
-121 2. 5] * 2.10* 1.22 *
. 66* 1.29*
57 -*
- 75*2-53* 2.10*
57-*
-75*
• ]0*2.3311.961
.81 112.69#2.271
SS.I
64. 1
.]01 2.40& 2.0]& 1.21 11
.8112.]8&2.]5& 1.41 11
.]1 .. 1.2)&
. 82+ 1. 42&
S!o.+
b),+
.]U 2.1o0& 2.0]&
.8]& 2.]8& 2. )5&
54 .+
6). +
.8]&
.64• 2.191 1.811
,]311 2. 471 2. 051
51. 1
57 -1
.6412.22& 1,131!& 1.06•
. ])# 2. 50& 2. 0]& 1.2011
·"'
50.+
5] ...
.65& 2.22& !.Sit&
.7J& 2.50& 1.0]&
so . ..
57- +
- 65&
.]3&
51.&
. 59& 2.oH 1.67&
.6'-' 2.2n 1. 8o&
4j.&
51.&
-5':1&
.64&
·"'
• 22*
.]2•
• 6)'•2.171 1. ]91
ss •
57.
TON
-71* 2.601 2.181 60.#
.1]*
so .
56.
''·
SL
Energy for 8uffotlo
Energy for Cattle
Feed
Fo:ed
Entry DE
1] . /
.22*
1.]4•
.2b
-58 * 1.,•* 51.* .&6•
1.13&
. 6J& 1. 2]&
2.2 ...
.2lo*
.]2&
228
1.90* 1.51
2-05* 1.6)
"·''·
-53* 1.901 1.511
.sa• 2.os1 1.6]1
1!2.1
45.1
• Sll 2.0]& 1.6]&
.5812-2)& 1.80&
.9211
-99*
,41& 1.04&
.44& 1.12&
229
230
. 92*
2- S"II2.1l
.n
22 .
59.
. 2} * .921 - 771
- /5*2 . 54#2.111
. lt] ll
. 1]1 -96&
·lSI 2. 64& 2. 22& 1. ]1*
.2]& . 49&
.7Jt. 1.JS&
22.&
60 . t.
• 28&
.}9& 2.64& 2.22&
....
22.&
60.&
.28&
·79&
2)1
. 84• .]1*
2. 8)• 2.4 111
19.*
64.*
....
22 -1
59 - I
.]11
.25 *
.8611 2.8 ]# 2. 411
19-1
64 . 1
.251 .8s• , lJII ,4411
.8612- 8]112 .'+5* 1. ~811
.26* · "" *
.89• !, loS•
19. *
65,11
.2611 .8511 - 73*
.8]* 2.8]*2 . lo5*
19.*
65.11
.26*
. 87•
1,2111 1.01 11
2.59"' 2.\]11
27 . 11
59-•
.)6* 1.2111.011
2.s91 2.,,,
1].1
59 - I
.]61 1."6 * 1.27* .78• • ~911 . ]6 11
·711 ).12• 2.]111 1.6611 1.0511 1.6211
)) , 11
]1 . *
. loS* 1."6* 1.1] 11
-96* ) .12 112,]1*
)3.11
]I.*
.liS *
.9b*
235
23&
-55* ,46•
2.60• 2.18•
1).•
59.*
.16* .551
· 17* 2. 601 2.181
1]. 1
59-1
.161 - 54* .45• .26•
-771 2.5)* 2.10* 1.22*
.1 4• .1]*
.65* 1.28•
12.•
57-*
.16 * . sh • ~5•
-75* 2.5]* 2.10*
12.11
57- 11
. 16*
-75 11
237
238
2. 06
2.26
67 .
7J,
. 74• 2.061 2-091
.82• 2.26#2.]01
67-1
7).#
• 741 ] . oB:t 2. ]0* 1.68• 1.10* 1.60•
.821 ].38• 2.1}6• 1.8/ot 1.21* 1.76*
n.•
]0 . *
.')6• J.o8* 2. 7011
1.05* ) . )8* 2.96*
n .•
,..
239
).]0* ],Jl*
11 .0)* ].62•
81!,11 1.18• ].]01 ].]]1
91.• 1.28• ~.0]1 ].621
84.1 1.181 ).2]* 2.89* 1.81* 1.21* 1.] 1*
91-1 1.281 3-57* ).IS* 1.97 11 1.)2• 1. 86•
] to .• 1,0]* ] . 2]* 2.89•
81.11 1.12* ]. 57* ]. IS*
]lo.* 1.0]*
81.* 1.12•
>'I
].29*2.92
].66* ).25
82.
82.1 1.0]1 ].~) + ].o6& 1.92* I . ]2+ 1.82&
91. 1 I . 151 ],82+ ], ~I& 2.1/oll 1.~ 7 + 2. 02&
]9 . .. 1.()9& ].It] .. ] . 06&
88 . + 1.21& ).82+ ].4 1&
79- .. 1.09&
88. + 1.2 1&
227
232
2JJ
"'
'"
2.09
2.)0
...
"·
"·"·
.n•
.....
1.0]* ].291 2.921
1.15* ].661 ) . 251
.... "·' .u.,
"'
"'
.48•
2.65* 2.22
"S
-59* . • 9
2.6 ]* 2. 25
>'7
248
.65• .s•
2. 60* 2. 18
"9
250
.6211 • 51
1.57* 2.10
59 .
,]U '·52! 2.101
251
252
253
25'
,..
"·
"·
....
·'"* . 481
-79* 2.6)1 2.221
.su , 4]& .26*
-791 2.81& 2.]9& l,lo]•
11.&
64.&
. 191 • 6]& -57& . ]
·7712.69&2 . 27& \,)5*
.I')& .)4&
-77& 1.)8&
IS. & .20& .6]& -57&
61.& .81&2 . 69& 2.2]&
l it . ,
59-1
.181 .6lt* . Sit*
• 7~1 2 62* 2.?0*
. 18 •
15. 1
sa. ,
.181
.]lol
18. ,
55·1
.221
.101
6).#
.181
.801
IS.
6 1.
. 19* .651 .541
-77•2.&012 - 181
15-1
61 . 1
"·
,18*
·"'
.6)* . 52
2.50* 2.08
IS .
s8.
• 18* .6]1 .521
.]4*2 . 501 2. 081
.]6* .6)
2.)9* !. 96
18.
ss.
.22* . ]61 .6 31
.]0* 2.]91 1.961
llo.l
]0.*
.su
.15& . 26&
. 85& l,lolo&
62.1
• 18* -591 .491
.8()112. 671 2. 251
-511
4].&
.4) & 11.&
.IS&
.85& 2.81& 2.)9& 61o.&
....
1.05*
.IS&
.85&
-
-
-
...
.]2*
1.2~fl
,))*
15.•
.]1" 1.]4*
59 . •
....
.19•
.511*
• 78" 2.62• 2. ~0*
15.&
&1 .&
.20&
.81&
15.*
59-*
.19*
.]8~
168
Table 2,. , Proxi ... te CC8POsi tion
·-
~d
Energy Content of So-le Coancw\1'1 Used African Feeds (Cont.)
....
tiona!
Entry
lSS
lS'
lSI
lS8
,..
lS9
l61
'"
"'
'"
"'
"'"'
"'
'"
l&S
l71
l7l
lnternltlonll
N~nber
Feed Name
PENNISETUI'ICLo\UCU/'1, Pnrl111illet
-aer ial put, fre sh
2-oJ-115
PENNISET~
H)3-l12
PHASEOLUS SPP •
-seeds
..
2-Q)-166
2-27-664
~
5-G0-594
PHILLYAEA ANC.USTIFOll.l U.TIFOLIA . Le•fc roton, l•tifol i •
-browse, fresh
2-2]-663
PI SUM SATIVUM AIIVENSE. Pea, field
-seeds
...
PISUM SPP •
-seed coats
m
5-o8-lo81
...
l79
QUERCUS CAHARIEHSLS. O.k, c.w.•ry
- fr uit, fres h
l78
QUERCUS ILEX. Oak, holly
-I elves. fresh, steo~~ cured
lo-27-6lo5
2-2]-6lo7
"'
)0.5
15.0
,)
12.1
11.2
s.1
,,,
l.l
)6.7
)).9
15."
11.8
u
..,
'·'
22.9
25.1o
...
l.lo+57-3
1.5 + 63-7
.,.
l.O
26.]
56.5
100.
'·'
'·'
]9.8
]2.9
"·
1,,
1,]
56 . 6
59.2
ss.
,,,
u
·9+ )8.1o
1.0+ lot.]
"· '·'
lo-(1]~50
"'
l87
-hole. fresh
2-16-]58
"'
1] . 2
28.]
..,
8 .•
l.O
~ ... 5
~It
('I
falo
1.5*
1.5*
8.0•
!.lot
].]•
8. 0*
] . )*
) . 1*
) . !*
).]•
).6•
] .6•
,,,
2.8•
9-2*
2.9•
2.9*
C),lo t
9-"*
2. 6•
2.5*
].6•
2. 6•
7-9*
L6*
7· 9*
J.s•
l .8
s.o•
22.lo+22 . lol
211.9+H.91
-
-
l.lo*
2.9*
1.7*
3-7*
1.7*
).7*
,,, ,,, .....
'·' '·'
2.1*
3-9*
2.5*
lo.6*
2.5*
1,,6111
2,1,111
~
..,
loS.)
J .S
] .8
26.7
•. 1
.. ,
25 . 2
26.)
...
21.) + 21 . )1
22.)+ 22.]1
1.1*
1.2*
1.3*
l.lo*
1.]•
l.lo*
1.]*
!.U
s. s
8.)
].1111
" · 7*
2 . 8•
lo.]*
].2*
"·9*
).2•
" · 9*
16.0
18 . 0
18.5+ 26 . 1
20.8+ 29.]
s• .
l.)
100 .
'·'
21 . 0
39 -0
18. ]
)lo.O
1·'
I~. 2
s-5 111
10 . 2*
8).
100.
• . 1 61.]
...
...
-
S. l
2.7+25.7
).0+ 28.9
100.
m
).0*
"·
6.
Suf-
"'
<•I
1.5*
8.1*
..O . J
6o.
Cat-
1.6*
3- 3*
u
"' '·'
7.8
).l
•• 8
Sheep
1'1
26.]
loO.I
],0
100.
-roots, fre1h
1).5
)).
2-17-6]1
l8S
10.6
100.
100.
RAPHANUS SATIWS. R•dlsh, g¥den
-le•ves, f resh
l.l
11.9
10.)
]lo.6
<•I
l .)
]].8
6 ••
tein
··~
... ..,,,,
.. , ... "'
2.0+ .2.)
) 1.
Toul
12.2
\00.
100.
2-27-653
1'1
.s• 8 . 8
2-9•'-7-2 25.8
100.
5-<15-587
..,
]3 .0
100.
1-D]-602
Fiber
<•I
!.8+ ]6 . 9
100.
PIIOSOPIS DULtiS. ttesqu l te, dulcls
-leaves, fresh, s t - c...,.ed
l88
19.
1'1
8].
100.
PISTACIA ATLANTICA. Pistachio, mt. •tln, masti c tree
-b r owse , fresh
2-27-661
liS
l8)
<•I
100.
'"m
l81
Kfitter tr~t Nf[
100.
PHALARIS TRUHCATo\ . C•naryg rus, truncata
-.erial p1rt, fresh
POULTRY
-111anure.,d litter, denydrUtd
'"
'"
Crude
PURPIJAEU11. Napiergrus
-aerial part, fresh
PITUAANTHUS TOATUOSUS. Pitur¥Othus, tortuosus
-.erL•I p•rt. fresh, post dpe
2-H-M7
'"
Digestible Protein
Ether
100 .
-h ay, sun-cured
l7l
,.
.., ··-
llo.8+ 14.81
16.7+ 16.]1
-
5-3* s.u s.lo111
9-8• 10 . 0* 10.0•
..,
]0 .]
16 .5
18 . 9
1, 8
l.1
).1
).6
.s•
.s•
. s•
. s•
-.6•
--7*
-.6•
- , 7111
J. s
s ••
]1,1o
52.6
1!; . 6
27-9
).1
S.l
s.o
8 ••
2.9*
lo . 8•
2.6*
"·"*
].0*
5.0•
].0*
5.o•
"'
2 . 2111
2.2*
2.1•
2.1•
16.0
-
-
12.8
.8
1.7
..
'·'
25 . 0
1.l
... ...
.. ...
10 . 3* 19 -9* 19 . 1• 19 . 1*
.
12 . 6
15.\
20.1
15.7111 15 . 7* 11o . 5• !lo.S*
8.
1.0
1, )
l.O
100.
12.5
15.9
2).8
1.6• 1.6111 1.5* 1. 5 1
19.1* 18.7• 18.1 • 18.1•
Energy for Sheep
Entry DE
ME
(Mea l (Heal
/ kg) /kg)
'"
"'
·"
.SO*
2.67* 2.25
>S7
2S8
2.16* 1.79
2,1,8112,06
2S9
.80*
2.61 • 2.1 8
"'
·"
""
(U
12 .
"·so .
S7 .
1·9.
Energy for Goats
Feed
Un lt
( FU
/ kg)
DE
ME
, 1)& .25&
-72& 1.] 4&
11.&
59.&
.15& . 49& .41&
- 78& 2.62&2 . 19&
. ]6&
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.so, .671
2.6112.181
19-1
61.1
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.16* .38•
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1]. •
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52.*
.21o•
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1.00• 3.1912.821
1.11* 3-551 3-131
t.2 4* 1.05*
2.67* 2. 25*
28 . •
61. 11
- 37* 1.241 LOS/
1.61* 1.38*
2 . 95* 2.5 3*
Jl . *
67 . *
2.29• 1.91
2.57• 2. 15
277
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2.•81 2.061
288
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. 66* 2.29* 1.87*
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.901 ].2]* 2.85• 1.]6* 1,14* 1.69*
40 . * .ss• 1.78 • 1. 56 *
]4, * 1.01 * ] .2]* 2.85*
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81 . / 1.12/ 3. 28• 2.88• 1.79* 1.19* 1.71 *
84 . , 1. 1]1 ].4]• ] .02* 1.118• 1.2U 1.79•
74.• 1.02*] . 28112.88•
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65.*
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.90*' 2-961 2.541
66.1
11.1
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.901 ].II]* ] .06* 1. 88• 1.]2* 1.82•
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1. 01* ).1611 2.82 •
79· 11 1.09tc ].1!]11 ].06•
73 -* 1.01 *
79 · * 1.09•
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.70• 2.401 1.9al
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· 79• 2. 66• 2.2h
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,...
61,.•
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1.01 • ].26• 2.84•
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65.•
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.81• 2.81• 2. ~s·
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58.•
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-76* 2.5712.151
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. ~911 1.6111.381
. 90112 .951 2.531
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59 · '
.8011 2.671 2.251
2.a4•2.48• 65. • . 88• 2.84t 2.li81
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28S
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... .,.
66.
1. 42 • 1. 19* ]2.•
2.6 3* 2.21• 60.•
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2.65*2.22
-96*
.
Unit
(FU
/kg)
. )J/1.]4 * 1. 14*
.80# 2.86* 2. ~4· 1,47*
"'
"'
'"
"'
'"
.....
""
(>I
28 . 1
61.1
] . 55* ) .16* 8 1. • 1.1 2113 . 55/3.161
] . 71•3 . )011 84 . * 1. 17* 3·7113 - 30/
27S
"'
ME
( Mca l (Me ill
/ kg ) / kg )
.151 .49& . ~1& .24 •
. 80/2 .6 2& 2. 19& 1.29*
"·"·
1.58• 1.)0*
2. 40• 1. 98•
,,
DE
.M/1.92& !.SSt
- 73/2.20& 1.]7&
].19* 2. 82
J.ss• 3.1 )
2/l
,,,
"'• "'' "'' ""
so.,
57-#
26)
2. 73* 2. ]I,
2.96* 2.54
ME
( Mea l ( Meal (lic; al ( Me it I (Mc;tl
/ kg ) /k g) / kq) /kg) /kg) (>)
12./
6J.J
19. •
56 . •
"'m
/kg)
DE
Energy for Bufralo
Feed
Unit
(FU
/ kg)
. 64 • 2. 161 1.791
. 7J* 2. 1t8t 2. 061
. 82 • . 68•
2.1o8• 2.06*
26S
(FU
C.;~ttle
. 15* . 501 .421
.80* 2.671 2. 251
"'
"'
'"
"'
'"
"'
,,,
"'
""
{ 11c;tl (Meal
/ kg ) /kg) (>)
Energy for
Feed
Unlt
69.
.291 . 241
· 79* 2.651 2.221
s.
so.
.20# .171
1.02* ).291 2.871
..
n.
·"'
.08•
.261 .221
-9"* ) . o61 2.641
60.1
.]}&
·"'
65-1 . 881 2. alo• 2. ~8 • 1.5]* .99• 1. ~a ..
74 . , 1.01/].26* 2. 8"• ' - 75* 1.1]* 1.tl9•
35-1
sa.,
,.,
69-1
....
. ~51 1. 7'* 1, 46 •
.7&12.a7• 2. lo S* 1.4a•
·"'
·191
s.,
--
.. , ·"'·"' -
80./ 1.021
77·1
.CJitl
.5]* .88•
.a9• 1. ~a·
.48•
....
64 . •
]4,111,01*
39-*
65 . ~<
.52•
. 87•
170
Table
2~.
Proxi'"tte tooroposition and Eru!~rgy Content of Some tOII'r.IOnly Used African Feeds (Cont.)
Oigestible Protein
....
Intern.-
...
tlonal
Entry
289
2,.
291
292
,.,
Internat ional
Feed N~o~~~e
RETAMA IIETA/'1, llet.,...;a, retMI
-seeds, fresh , i iiWIIature
l,-U-£37
2-27-635
1-27-633
SACCHAROHVCES CEREVISIAE . Yeast. brewer s
,.,
,..
)1 .
100.
IIOSHAIIINUS OfFICINALIS . Rosemary
-browse. fresh
7~5-527
- dehydrtted
"·
"·
1-Qio-686
screened dehydrated
1-Qio-700
298
'"
]1 5
]16
-brewers grains. "et
S-Hrlllo
ll7
]18
-g r ain
lo-olo-loZ8
"'
-heads
4-olo--429
323
'"
8\COLOR-SETARIA SPP.
-ae r ial part, silage
SUAEOA HARITII'tA . Seepweed,
-aerial part, fresh
)11.7
J-16-370
2-27-628
1.211
1.6*
1.6•
J.o• 2. 5*
].]*
].]*
~9-6
6.5*
]7.6+ 3] .6# I,Q.2+ J.0.2+
~0.4+ ~0.41
7.1
7·9
1.7
1.9
1.0
2. 9
1.0
].0
-.1*
- . 2*
- .2•
J .5
12.)
u
1.2*
1.6•
1.2 *
1.6*
. 8+ 75,.2
-9+ 8).5,
·5
.6
10 . ]
11.9
2. 8
]. 1
.I•
17.5,
28.9
12.7
20 . 9
11.7
28 . 4
2.0
2].2
3].)
7·9
9·7
...
as.
J.' -2.5
•.o
n.o
-2 .9
25 . 9
J9.
1.6
2.9
100.
'·'
1· '
10.0
25 . 5
''·
·'
1.]
9.0
.a
61.
100.
24.9
'-'
lo\.1
"·
2.5
6. 1
2 1.)
51.8
"·
.,.
.,.
2.8+]1.9
),1+ 80.8
2.6+ 66.)
2. 9+74.)
25.
100 .
"· ·'
100.
]. 1
·''
...
. 2•
.]•
.1• -1.1* -1.1*
1· 7
lo . Z*
3.7
8.9
2.2•
2.0•
2.2*
~-9*
s,.5•
6.0
s.J•
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.lfl -1.0* -1.0*
2.)*
).]*
2.5,*
. 2•
·''
2.]'*
1, , 1,11
2.7*
2.2*
s,.5'
l.6*
2. 0•
1.8•
1.7*
2.1•
2.\*
" · "*
1.7*
2.1 *
1.7
1.9
1.6
1.8
11 . 0
7· 6*
8.6•
].6•
8.6•
6.6•
7-'-*
6.6•
\2 , 1,
J.5
].9
10.0
11.2
6.7*
7-5*
6.7•
].5*
5.6•
6.)*
5.6•
6.)*
...
2.0
8.0
• 9•
) . 5*
). S,•
).5*
.9•
).5*
1·7
7.0
-
28 . 0
29 . 6
2.9
10 . )
...
'·'
..,
-.6•
4), ) + 4),)+
6.9
Sorgh~m-millet
...
l.lo•
10.9
) 1.8
100 .
SOR~UH
'"
"'
6.s•
-1.6* -1.5,* -1. 3* -1.3*
-1.]* -1.7* -1.4* -t.il*
1.1
1.2
100.
]20
2.0*
1.9"
6 -0*
45,.1
100.
S-lfr373
2 . 0*
2.0*
loO.]
"·
-brewers grains. dehydrated
].0
6.1
9 -7*
o.u
20.9
61.0
100.
]I}
23 . 2
2.6
5.5
].2
).]*
9-7•
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1. 0+44.1
,..
7J.
100.
]II
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10 . 1
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100.
lo-Qio-695,
312
11.0
1.8
5.7
] . 7• 3-7*
10.9*10 . 9*
(')
100.
-molasses , dehydrated
SORGHUM 8 ICOLOR CAHRORI..W'I. Sor!ill'n.,., kaflr
-aerial part without heads, sun-cured, 1-26-107
less than 85\ dry ~~~atter
2].9
6.9
].1
5·0
8uff.l lo
-2.1* -2.0* -1 . 8• -1 . 8•
-2.) * -2.2* -1.9* -1.9*
'"
]10
10.0
!lo.'}
m
1.2
1.]
100 .
2-27'-629
1.8 21.4
5· 7 68.5
1.]
].8
m
2.5
2.7
4-13-25,1
]09
25.'}
,,.
CatSheepliOat
m
lo6.7
5,0.9
-~~.:~lanes
SMilAX ASP£1\A. Greenbrier, eurasian
-aerial part, fresh
8.7
52 . 1
l'l
.7+lo0. 7
.8+/olo . J
]OJ
'"
1].6
].]
teln
··~
...
2-QC)-909
2-27-612
1.1
m
lo6.1
-b<llgiUe,wet
SALSOLA SIEIItltl. 1\ussla.nth l stle, sletlerl
-aer ial part, fresh
Fiber Ash
(')
7.6
8.2
]01
]02
307
(')
].6
-b<llg~sse,
]06
Crude
""
'·'
299
]DO
JDS
(')
Tolilol
]7 . 4
100.
SACCHARUM Off IC \MARUM. Sugarca.ne
-bagane, dehydrated
··-
Hatte r tr..ct
(>)
100.
IIHUSTRIPAAT ITA. s ..... ac. tripartitol
-browse, fresh
291
295
296
o.,
Ether
1.6
10.)
36 . )
5.9
20.]
... .,.
].lo•
4.6• 1t.5• lo.4• 4,h
16.)* 15-9* 15.5* 15.5*
171
Energy f o r Sheep
Entry DE
""-
'"
"'
'"
"'
'"
<[
'"
(Kcal (~cal
/kg) /kg) (.)
Energy for Goets
( Kca l ( Kcel
/ kg)
/kg)
DE
"' ""
/kg)
(.)
feed
Unit
DE
(FU
/kg)
/kg}
"' "'· "'• "'' '"
(J1cal (1'\ul {11ca1 ( /'leal (Meal
/ kg ) /kg)
/kg) /k9) (.)
. 8]•
.so•
.)2*1.0]*
. 82J2.B9* 2.1qt l.loq•
.JB* 21.•
66.•
.28• . 911 .]81
. 89* 2.921 2.501
2 1. 1
66./
.281 1.0]*
. 26•
·"'
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.....
21.*
.ss•
,]lol
2 1. 1
liS. •
1.981 l.SSI
loS . /
.261 l,lo]• 1.2)* -75*
-551 ) . 01 * 2. 59* 1.58•
2.1}6* 2.58
).19* 2.77
IJ .
. 91*2.96/2.S8i
.98• ).191 1-771
]2.1
77-1
. 911 ).0)& 2.65+ 1.6lo • 1.1]+ 1, 69£
.981 ).266 2.85+ 1.]6* 1.26+ 1. 82&
21.
22.
.26• 1.141
.29* 1.151
21.1
22.1
.26i1.9S+ I.SS&
.29#2 . 12+ 1.69£
....
.Sl/1.81& l.lol t.
-571 2.00& 1. 5]&
.7)*
. 800
l.lh
.8)•
44.+
.ss'
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.566
.28•
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·"'
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62.*
.28•
.82*
55-1
75-1
. ]01
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· 97* ) .15/2.Jioi
69-1
76- i
.a]J1.]862.1t1& l.lo]• .9)6 1. 44&
-971 ).096 2.676 1.61!• 1.0]6 1.6010
6) . +
70.+
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-956 ] .096 2.6]6
63 . + .as6
] 0,+ -956
,lilt ""'''·'51
. 6 ]*2 . 331 1.901
32-1
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. 671 2.oa• 1. 66*
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. 801
.83* 2-751 2. )Jt
·"'
21.1
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. 281
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. 8)1 2. 75* 2. 32* 1. 39~
]OJ
304
2.1]* 1.96
) . 10~ 2.69
305
)06
2.alo*2.1o6
).15*2.]1o
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"·
"·
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-95* ) .101 2.691
)07
)08
l,lo!*1 . 15*
2.))* 1.90*
53.•
309
)10
1. 06* .89•
2. 57* 2. 15*
sa.•
311
312
2.02* 1.67
2.48• 2.05
''·
313
3"
2.60• 2.25
).06* 2.64
315
316
1. 21o• I. OS
].16* 2- 75
l17
)18
).2a•2.92
3-69* 3. 2a
319
)20
2.8! * 2, 1olo
).15* 2. 73
321
)22
. )0*
1.20*
l2l
324
.67• .s5•
2-37 * 1.95*
·''
·"
79 -+ 1. 01'
21 . •
b2.•
21. •
62.•
.811
,)1* J, O'.J, . 891
-76* 2-57/2.15 1
-59* 1.01 1 1.6]1
.])• 1.1oa1 2.051
53 - I
21; ,,
sa. ,
lo]./
57-1
.SO• 2.60/ 2.251
-9"* ).061 2. 61;1
65-1
76 -1
30.
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)0./
76-1
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1.0)* ) . 2a# 2. 921
1.16* ) . 691 ].28,
·"'
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2.a9* l.lo]* ' · "9*
,JlJ
. )6£
.24&
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.%& 48.+ .60£ 2.12+ l.b9t lo8. + . 60&
.20•
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l.Oio•
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-59* 2.08• 1. 66•
29.•
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.)6*
- 59*
-37* .61*
-90* 1.11 9•
27.*
66.•
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2]. *
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-
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. 98• ).12* 2. 75*
] 1. *
ao. • 1. 10* 3-51* 3. 09*
71. * . 9a •
ao. t 1. 10*
. au 2.98* 2-6"'* 1. 62• 1. 12* 1. 56*
-971 3-3"* 2. 96* !.81• 1.25* ' -75*
68 . • . 94• 2. 98• 2.(,.1.•
76. • 1.0S*3.Jio* 2.96*
68.t
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.a]*2 . aJ/1 .441
· 97*3.151 2-731
68./
...''·
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.2]* 1.201
. 071
. ]61
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60./
15.•
54.•
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.69* 1.3]1 1. 951
IS./
54./
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. 691 2.08• 1.6S*
.191
-53*
.8]•
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--
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68 .
....
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79.+ 1.016 ).26' 2.85+
-996
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· ""'*
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·"''
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2.75* 2-33•
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68.•
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. 81• 1. 41•
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41.+
loS. +
'"
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2) . •
75·* 1.02 *
lolo . +
.S2 •1.8Sil.lji)I ' 41.1
-57* 1.041 1.621 loS./
2~
1. 2)•
. 88•
1.816 1.42&
-566 2.006 1.5]&
1.85• 1.lo6
2.04• 1.62
]2.•
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.92* ).01*2.59*
.]0*
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1.25q.
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.4]•
....
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22.•
66.•
41.+
loS.+
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297
298
. 81
.]0*
JS.• 1.02* ),JO• 2. 89•
,Jio• ]2. •
-98* 1.55* 68.•
. ]lo*
1.98• 1. S5•
293
302
. ]0*
(FU
/kg)
/kg)
2).•
.281
"' ·"'
"·
"'
"'
_,,
Urdt
( Me al (1\cel
/kg)
-56• .)6* . Sio*
.891 ].]0* 2. 89• 1. 79• 1. 16• 1.]2*
21.1
62.#
z.so•
''""
"' ""
(>J
( ru
/kg)
-97* .8)•
. 88• 2.89• 2.47•
.28• ·'HI .]81
.82• 2.]41 2.]2/
-91 *
DE
06 . •
21. •
62.•
2.92•
.so• 22.•
Unit
-90* 1. 49*
.]8*
2.]1.• 2. ]2•
.'}] *
Energy for Buffalo
Ener9y for tattl e
Feed
Feed
Urdt
(FU
]6 . /
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.1]1
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.86•
....
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.)2* 1.03*
1).*
lo] , *
.I]* .59• .lo]*
. sa• 2.oa• 1.65*
1).*
. I ]*
~7 . *
. sa•
172
hbleJio . Prox i mate Composition and Energy Conte nt of So-ne C0tm10 nl y Used African Feed s (Cont.)
Digestible Protein
Intern ....
Entry
Internation al
'"
325
326
-b i'" OOISC ,
Feed
!'lUter tract NF E
«)
(%)
(> )
2-27-622
Tot• I
,,.,_
Fiber Ash
(.)
m
m
"·
,,
19 . J
16.5
2.0
~II.]
)8.1
Jl .
1.] 16. ~
] . 6 lolo.B
8 .0
Th~ ,co nehead
fresh
Crude
Ether
o,,
feedN~~me
THYMUS CAPITATUS.
,,_
tiona I
100.
TIPUA NASPECIQSA . Tiput r ee , thorny
"''"
"'
-b rowse, fresh
2-27-620
100 .
TR I FOLIUI'1 R£PEN S. Clover, ladino
-.erl1l part, fresh
2-oJ-)8]
J]O
))I
))2
)))
"'
"'
JJS
-hly, sun-cured
1-(11-378
TR IFOL I UH REPENS-GRASS. Clover, l•lno-grass
-hay, Sill-c ured
1-Q1-511
TR IFOLIUM REPENS-GRASS. Clover , white-grass
-aer ia1 part , silage wilted
]-22-105
)]7
..
,
,.,
'",,,
'"
,,,
'"
,,,"''"
8-ol-85&
TRITitUI'1 A[STIVUH. When
-aer ial part, f r esh
2 -o8~78
lo-oS-190
- fl our, less than 1.5t fibe r
lo-o5-199
-flour b y-pf'" Ot:hct, less than 9.st
f iber
1.-oS-205
-germs , ground
s-os-218
,~.
less than 9 - St fiber
lll
"'
351
""
ll7
358
"'
)60
t.o-o5-206
1-o5-1 75
2-27~19
\,)*
1. )*
2.91r
2.9*
s.s•
S- 7*
s. ~ · 5 - ~·
IS.Io * 15,0* ilo,]* l lo. ]•
).6• ).5• ), lo t ),lot
H . J 20.0* 19.6* 18.9* 18.9*
21.0
2].)
8 . ~. 1'~ . 0
9.1t+ 21.1
JI,,Qt llo . 6• \),]• 1) . ]*
15.5• 1fl. 3* 15 . 2* 15.2 *
100.
2. 2+ 37 . ~
2.5 ... ~ 1. 5
21!.8
2] . 6
7 -~· 18.2
8.2+ 20.2
1}.2* 13-9*1}.0* 1].0*
1l.o . ]* 15./.ot 1t...5 • 1t...5•
'·'
...
)0,
,..
21.+
100. +
...
89.
...
s.8
6.2
,,,
25.0
10 . 2
2.6
8.7
18.0
] . 8• ] . 8• ).8• ].8•
12.6* 12 . 6• 12 . &* 12 . 6*
..,
2&./.o
28 .1
2).]
l.o8.8
51.9
9. 0
•. 6
• .0
.8+ 12.8
),)
],] + 60./.o
15.5
1. 7 2.6
8.1 12. ]
10.7
11 .9
,,,
'·'
1] . ]
llo . ]
1.2
1••
'·'
1.6
•·'
12 . 1
1 ] .6
8 . 6•
9-7 *
6.9
/.6
111. 1
15.6
'·'
10. 4* 9-3* 9- 3•
1 1.5* 10. ]* 10. ]*
]0.8
]lo.6
2] . 8
1].81 2], I+ 2].1 +
)I. II 25 . 9+ 25-9•
].8 57.]
•. 1 &J.J
1.7
1.9
72.3
8 1. 5
) .6 17.7
,,,
<.o
,,,
61o.O
8.8
89 .
~3-~
100.
8. ,
lo8.7
'·'
'·'
).2
'·'
"'
'·' 2.6
9) ,
1. 9 ]l.o . ]
2. 1 80.6
''· '·'
1.1
].8
100.
"·
1.6
lol.o.O
l.o].6
]1 . /.o
] l.o.O
"·
1.) 2lo.]
] . 2 sa. ~.o
11.)
100.
...
,,, ,,,
s8 . a
64 . 8
100 .
ULHUS CARPIN IFOLJ A. Elm, s11100 thleaf
-browse, fr esh
...
...
2.1 *
2.1o + )9.2
2.]+ 4} . 5
100.
- mill
19.8
1, 8
2.5•
(>)
100.
100 .
1t-o5-211
'·'
].6
1 . 1*
Buff odo
15 . 1
100.
-grain
21.9
•. 0
"'
!>l
11.8+-lo5. 2
\00.
JIO
)5 1
)52
...
·•·
8. 1
,,, ,,
,,,
,,, ,,,
CatSheep Colt
«)
(.)
100.
100.
TRICONELL A FOENUK-CRAECUH . Fenug r eek
J J8
ll9
18.
teln
11.5
12 . /.o
5.0
15.2
16.8
12.1o
1]. 1o
].1
21.9
1.8•
8.s •
8. 5
] 1,1
,, '
•• 8
21 .91
2).}1
-
1.7 *
8 . 0•
1.8•
8. ]•
1.8•
8.] *
9 - 7*
10.] *
8 . 6•
9-St
8.&•
9-5*
8.&•
9-7*
7-6*
8 . 5*
7-6•
8.s•
8.0•
8.6•
6.8•
] . lo•
6.8•
].It•
Jl.o.O
15 ,1t
IJ,I.o t IO. Io• JO . Io*
12.6• ll.lo• \) , lo t
).)
1.0
.., ,,,
-.]* - . 2• -.2 •
-·3* -.2* -.2*
5.6
~.0*
1] . 6
1).5
9·6*
-
281 . 7•
285.0+
8.7
UREA
-l.o5 t nitrogen 28 1't protein equi va let'lt
5-os-o7o
99 - •
100.+
URCINU HAR IT U~A . Seaonlon
-aer ia l part, fresh
2-27~18
1).
.)
6. 5
2.)
100.
s.8
SJ.I.o
18. 0
'·'
10.6
1.8
11. . 2
,,
].8•
q.2*
].9*
q.t..•
).9•
9 - lt•
1.)•
10 . 2*
1.2• 1.]* 1. ] *
q,St 10.0* 10.0•
173
Energy for Sheep
Eneqoy for
"' '"
(Mel I (Kc•l
/kg) /kg)
J2S
1. 06 •
'"
2 . 46~
JJJ
llS
'"
,.
ll7
JJ9
J'O
"'
'"
"'
'"
J'S
,'"J'7
,,,
..
JSO
25.•
68 . •
.. .
Feed
Unit
(FU
/kg)
" "' "'" "'• "'' ""
")
(11cl l (11cl1 (11cal (r\1: 11 (f'1CII
/kg)
/ kg ) /kg) /kg) /kg)
.....
• ] 1#1.02*
.91 * 2. 991 2.571
25 - 1
68 . ,
-HI 1.09*
-57 *
-911 2. 98* 2.56* 1.56•
,I]* -55#
. lo8J
.91o• ].071 2.651
1].,
.1]1
7~-1
-9~1
....,
-1212-36* 1. 9lo*
....
.It]•
l.OCJfl
-23* -52*
.Sio* 1.19*
.JS•
. c;6•
23. •
Slo,t
. 56• 25.•
1.51o•
68. •
Unit
( FU
/kg)
" "' ""
m
(11cll ("'<:11
/kg) /kg)
.....
2].*
. 30*
.69*
.]] * 1.09• .
-91* 2.98•2.56•
68.•
..
25. •
2. 3~* 1.96
2.60* ]. 18
ss.
61.
.]0* 2.]4 1 1. 961
. 7]• 2.601 1.181
ss.1
6 1. 1
.]011.S2t2.14& 1. 28*
·771 1.8o& 1.)8& 1. /c]t
.}6& 1.29& 57. +
.St.& !.lo lo& 64. +
. 76& 2.52& 2.\lo&
. 81o& 2. 80& 1.)8&
57- +
61o, +
1.1o8t 2.10
2. 76• 2.]1o
59.
65 .
-75• 2.\81 2.101
.8)• 2. 761 2. ]1o1
59-1
6S-1
-75iL io5& 2.07& 1.2l*
.8]1 2.7}& 2. ]0& 1.31•
,]\& 1. 26&
-79& !.loO&
,Jio& 2.loS& 2. 075
.82& 2.7J& 2.]~
56.&
.71
2-79* 2.37
20.
66.
.25•
-111
,Slot 2- 791 2. )]1
20./
66-l
.zst
) . 65* ] . 2]*
] . 88• ] . lo ]t
.,.
...
....
. 6 2•
2.~]·
2.8 1
),1\
....,
1.16* ].651 ].271
1,2jt ].88/).loll
. a~,
!lo . + .19t .6" .sst
]8.+ 1.08& ) . loS& J,OJ&
56.&
62.&
76.• \,OJ•
8 1.* 1. 14•
....
IS,+ .2] &
]1, + 1.1 0&
....
-531
2.511
IS. /
]0.1
.19#
.It It .2]& . ]')&
1.')]* 1.2S& ! .S2&
]1. + 1.10& ] . SO+ ],0')1
65.
• S!•2.81 # 2.]51
.92* ],II # 2.60#
liS ./
12· 1 .921
.8]1 2.')2* 2.5l.o* '·57* '·~'* I.S2*
].2]• 2.S 1'* l . ] h 1.12* 1.67*
66 . • ,C)O* 2.92• LS"~*
73·* 1.0(111 ],2]* 2.81•
so.•
.]lo+
. S91 J . SO+
J,()<j&
IS.+
.2]&
.]lo+
]. 49•] . 1]*
J.9 4• J . SJ*
79 . • 1. 11• ].lo9t ].1]1
S9.• 1.25• ] . ')41 ] . 5]1
79. / 1.11 / ) . 11•2.74• \,]!to 1.14* 1.61*
8'). / 1.251 ].51* ],0')• !.')]• 1.28• \, 8]•
z.BJ• 2.so•
].19• 2. 77•
"·
72 .
-89• 2.8]1 2-SO I
-98• ].191 1.]]1
65- l
]2 . /
].1]* 2. 80
J-55* J,l lo
79·
88.
. 9')• ]. 171 2.801
'·" * 3- 551 ].1 41
ea.,
1. 1 I I 4.02* ].61* 2.27• 1.5S• 2.1 \t
9 1.* !.28• ... 02* ).61•
I,O]*),Io1 1 }.0Z I
1. 16• ] . 6}1 ] . 261
84, , 1. 071 ) . 2J* z.a... 1.11• 1.18• 1.68•
91. 1 1. 161 J . lt8• ].07" 1.91* 1. 2]• 1.8\to
n.• 1.o1a J.n• 2.8...
79 -* I.OCJ* ].48t ).07•
JSJ
JS'
\,')]* 1.57
2.1}* 1.70
JSS
...
..."·
.89, 2.')11• z. so• 1. ss• 1.02• 1.51•
.98/ ] . 26• 2.81tt1.]6t 1,\]t 1. 69*
.Bio i 2.99* 2.61• 1.62• I.OS• !.55•
6') .,
]6. 1
. 92 1
...
,S(,tl . ')71 ' - 571
.60* 2.1]1 1.]01
loS. /
·56# 1. 86to I, lo]t
1.21 •1 .0 3*
2.90* 2.4 8•
2],t
66.•
.3] • 1. 21# 1.031
. 8S• 2. '){JI2.1t8t
27- 1
66./
• ) 4• • 2')•
2.1)• 2.)0*
62 . •
.10* .]4 1 . 29#
.81" 2.7]#2.]01
6 2./
JS7
JS8
76.
• s.
...
66 .•
-97"].11• 2.74*
1,1(111 ].5 1* ].09"
11·"
so.•
. CJI * 2.9'11* 2. 56*
] lo .• 1.01* ].16• 2.Sh
6] . •
1'·*
6].•
....
73 · * 1. 00•
.')]*
1. 10*
, CJI *
]4 ,* 1.0 1•
19· 1 . 991 3-SS* J, 21• 2.02• \ , loOt !.88• 81.* l.llo•J.SS•J.2 1* 81,11 1,14*
. 81o • 2.]4t2.36t
. CJ2fo ].02# 2. 60t
).02* 2.60
.]lo r.
.82&
76.• 1.07* ).]1• ].02*
81.• 1,14t ].58• ].21*
.19*
. 89•
], it lt].02
).67• ].26
62.&
.]6&
.81o&
8]./!.16iJ.J7•J .02•1.86• 1.]2*1.77*
ea., 1.2}1 ].58• ].21* 1.98• !.loOt !.88•
IS.
70 •
n.
14 . + . 19&
]8.+ 1. 086
-
. sJ
2-51
·"'
,Jlfo
. 91•
-
2.]S
2.60
2.~]1
/k9)
Slo.•
1'·
. 6" - SSt ,Jio• . 2}& . )2'
).loS& J,OJ& 1.89* 1.25& I,Bo&
Unit
(FU
,JO• 1.02 *
.61)• 2.)6* 1.9lo*
·"
IJ .
...
,
feed
24 . ,
56-I
. )]• 1.10#
Energy for Bufhlo
C;~ttle
) . OJ'* 2. 65
JSl
JS2
JS9
)60
.as,
.)1 * 1.06#
-72•2 . .. 6/ 2.01.,
l.]lt* 2. ]6
m
(11c01 1
/kg) (~)
24.•
1.10*
"'
"' ""
56.•
2.99* 2.57*
.ss•
(~'teal
/k g)
2.0iot
l27
JJO
0£
. 88•
'"
"'
m
"'
'"
Uni t
(FU
/kg)
Energy for
Go;~ts
reed
Entry DE
lo9 ./
.. ,
J. Jo•
2.88* 1. ]8t 1.16• '·"*
. 93* 2. 9')* 2. 61*
75 -" 1.02* ) . )(111 2. 88•
1.01*
79·* 1.09*
. ')]*
75 · " 1. 02*
. 52* 1.86• l.lt]t
.56* 2.02* 1.59*
lt 2.•
46 . •
.s2 •
. 56*
.as,
. ] 711. 23* I. OS * .64•
2.9 s• 2. s 3• 1.54•
.)') * . 63* 28. •
. ')It t 1. 52* 6 7. •
, ]]• 1. 23* l . OS •
. 9011 2.95* 2.5)*
28 .•
6]. *
.')o•
.]7* .)2" . 20•
.82t 2.97• 2. 55* 1.55*
. 12• .19*
·'iiS* I.SJ*
...
.11* ,Jlto .]2'
. ')0112.97* 2. 55*
6] . *
. lOt
z.oz•
1.59"
.26• .9]*
.2 8• 1,0(111
n .•
....
42.•
46 .•
.601
.]6*
. 82•
....
91.• 1. 28*
6] . •
..
.]7*
. 11•
-90*
174
hble 24. Pro•lmate Composition and Ener;y Content of Sorae tomroonly Used African Feeds {Cont.)
Oigettlble Protein
·-
...
lllternatlonal
,
FeedNiome
Number
Entry
tlonod
,,_
Ether
Toul
~lter
trKl NFE
Crude
Fiber Ash
(tl
ltl
1>1
O•y
ltl
l>l
teln
SheepC.Oat
ltl
ltl
l>l
Cat-
Buf-
<1•
ltl
ltl
hlo
VIBURNUt1TINUS. Laurestinvs
361
-browse. fresh
2-2]-{,l]
362
"·
•. 6 2) . 0
56.6
7.8
2.6
l(j , l
6.3
100.
"·
1.5 51.8
1.7 56.2
7. 9
8.6
100.
II.~
2.7
6.6
1.)*
).I*
'·'*
2.7*
1. ~~~
J.S*
'·""'
J.s•
VIC lA FABA. Broadbean
'"
-seeds
5-<19-262
3"
3-3 2].6
] . 6 29-9
2).1
25.1
13. ,,
25 . 11
VIGNA SINENSIS. Cowpea, corrmon
365
366
-hay, sun-cured
367
368
- seeds
1-QJ-f,loS
s-o1-66'
1-QI-61.9
ZEA MAYS. ,..lz.t!
-aerial part, fresh, late bloom
2-()2-801
-aerial part, fresh,111ilkstage
2-<JZ-802
l72
l7l
l75
-ll!rlal part, sll<tge, milk stage
l77
378
-~erial
l79
]80
-ll!rlal ,.rt, silage , dough stage
'"
-aerial part, silage, dough suge , few J-16-367
38J
3"
-aer Ia I part without l!ars wl thout
husks, sun-cured
]-()2-818
J-16-366
)-()2-819
18 . 6
1),6•
14.2•
1\,)
20.6
15.011
15.8*14.8• 14.8•
92 .
1. 3 60.]
65.8
3- 2
3-'
3-7
2).6
3-5
20.2+ 20.21
21.9+21.91
100 .
1.2+)5 . 4
l.h )8.7
i!lo.S
1!8.6
5-9
6 .•
17.
.5+ 9.1
100.
J,O+ 53.7
27.0
•. 1 1.7
6.3 10.0
1.1*
6 . J•
1.0*
s.9*
1.1*
6 ....
1.1•
6.4•
22.
100 .
.6+ 12.]
2. 7+55.8
6.2
28.0
1.2
5-5
1.8
8.o
1.0*
lo.lt*
· 9'
1.0•
4.o•
~.7•
1.0*
lo.7*
"·
"·
.8+ 11o.5
].1+57·9
5-5
2.0
2.3
8.0
•. 0
1. 1•
lo,lofl
\,lfl
22.0
......
1.1 *
4. 1o•
1.1*
4.4•
5-7
2.0
2.2
22 . 8
8.0
8.8
\,1*
4.2•
1.1*
4.2*
1.1*
lo.2•
1.1*
... 2•
Jl .
. 9+ 18.6
2.8+57.1
8.9
'·9
5-9
92.
100.
'"'
Jl.
...
85.
100 .
4-o2-alol
"'·
"'·
100.
-cobs, grol.ftd
J89
]90
-ears, grol.ftd
lo-o2-alo9
391
]92
-ears with husks, ground
1o-o2-a5o
-grits by-product
4-ol-887
1-()2- 782
100.
ZEA /'lo\YS INOUIT.lTo\,
-grain
l'lai~l!.
lo-()2-928
3-5
65.)
72 ...
.6+ 52.9
· 7•58 .8
"· ,..
2.9 66 . 7
..,
...
1.1*
l.2*
2.]
. 8•
. 8•
.8•
.8•
...
6.9
2.5•
2.5•
2.5•
2.5•
' ·5
2.1
6.5
-7'
·7'
-7'
28 . 7
]].9
5.8
6.8
5.9
7.0
9-9
9.6
11.0
2-3
2.5
]2.1o
)6.0
1.5
1.7
2.5
2. 8
10 . 6
2.1•
2. 1•
lo-26-()2)
2.1*
2.4*
2. 9*
2.6•
].1•
2 . 6*
] . 0*
2.6•
].O•
6.9
7-6
6.)•
7.0*
5 . 2•
5.8•
5.2•
5.8•
- . 8•
-.9*
-.8•
-.8•
- . 6•
- · 7*
-.6•
-.7*
7].1o
7-6
8.8
1••
1.6
J.6
8.8
lo . 6•
s . J*
lo.6•
5.J•
J.s•
lo . 1*
].5•
lo . J*
89.
10.5
11.8
2.7
100 .
) . 2+65.1
3. 6+ ]2 . 9
7. 8
8.7
'-·7*
s . 2•
4 . 7*
5. 2•
].6•
4.0*
].6•
1o.o•
6.5+ 65.6
7. J+ ]3 . 0
u
2.7
100.
'·9
3.0
10.6
11.8
7.2*
8 . 0*
7.2•
8.o•
6.2*
6 . 8•
6 . 2•
6.8•
8.1
9-l
s.o• s.o•
).9*
1.6
...
8/.
100 .
-gr ain, ground
.7•
2.1•
-
22.0
25.)
].0
...
5· 7*
5·7*
5.8•
6 . 7*
5.8•
6 .7 •
U.l l'l.l YS INOENTATA, Kalze, dent yellow
391
398
-
.9•
100.
dt!nt white
396
1.1+ 4].]
1.]+ 51.0
3.2
25.6
1) . )* 1) . )*
9-'
2].]
29.0
1-()2-776
387
388
l95
10 . 2
25.8
100.
385
386
,.,
2J,J
2 .9+)9.4
100 .
part, s l lage,e.llkstage, few
•]82
39}
2.6+ 35-6
100.
369
'"
"'
"'
"'
90.
100.
87.
100.
).7+ ]0.2
... 2+80.7
2.5
2.9
1. 7 9.0
1.9 10.)
3·9*
~o.5•
" · 5*
... a•
"·8•
s.s• s.s•
175
En~rgy
Energy for Sheep
Entry DE
,_
"'
(l'cal (Kcal
/kg) /kg)
'"
l*l
Feed
Uni t
(fU
/kg)
DE
"' '"
l*l
(Heal (Heal
/k g ) /kg)
3.1
3.2
,]1.11
21. •
2. 25* 1.82 •
51.•
3.3
3.,
] . ]1*2.92*
3-59* ), I ]>\
81.
3•s
3••
2.2]* 1.81o
2.1.6• 2.04
sr.
S7 -
3.7
3••
).66• ).28*
).97* ] . 56*
8).* 1.16 * ) . 66# ).281
90 - * 1.26* ].9]1 ) . 561
).9
)70
1. 76* 1.)6
1.92 * 1. ~9
]8.
J71
372
. ltJ. • -37
2. 60* 2.18
)7]
-59* . so
2.69'11 2. 2}
l7'
.91 *
376
. bsa .ss
2. 60'11 2. 18
377
378
.64• .SJ
2.56• 2.1)
37S
.....
·1•
]1.
Energy for Cattle
for C.Oats
.26* .911 ,]t.l
. 65• 2. 251 1. 821
l.oto•].]l/2 .921
1. 1]* 3-591 ] . 1]1
.65'1 2.231 1.841
- 72* 2.lo6# 2. 0io#
.loS ~
21.1
51.1
Energy for Buffalo
Feed
Unit
DE
(fU
/kg)
(Meal (Heal (Kcal (Meal (Meal
/kg) /kg) /kg) /kiJ) /kg) (>)
"' " " "'
.26/l.lh 1. 0]*
.os, J.os• z.6J*
.65*
. J.lt
1.&1 * 1. 00•
HEI
.61.1 * 28.•
1.58• 69- *
'·'"*
1. 65*
75 -1 l.Olol ].16* 2.78* 1.]3•
81.1 1.1)/].lo]* ).02* 1.88• 1.21ot 1,]9*
51.#
57-1
.651 2. 52+ 2.146 1.28•
-75, 1.21o&
. }21 2. ]8+ 2.)66 1. 1ou
.8)' 1.)8&
8) . 1 1. 161 ] . )8• 2.9<)• 1.8]• 1.27* 1.77*
90.1 1. 261 ].66* 3-25* 2 . 0)~ 1.)7• 1.91 *
.81 ~
.....
.]8• 1.21o• 1.0] *
·'B*
J.os•
2.61•
Feed
Unit
(fU
l*l
28.•
69.•
/kg)
.)8•
.•n•
72.• -99 * ).16* 2. 78•
78.• 1.07* ],lo]* ] . 02*
72. *
....
.76& 2.52+2,14&
.84& 2. 78+ 2.]6&
57- •
6).+
- 766
.Blot.
57-•
6) . ..
]8 . • 1. 07*
n.•
77-* 1.06• ).]8• 2.99*
83.* \.15* ).66~ ].25~
1.o6 •
8).* 1. 15*
41o.&
loS.&
-5561.935 1.54&
.60&2.11& 1.68&
lo4.&
.lo8i1.9H I,Sio&
. 5)12.:1& 1.686
.89*
.)2'
.)5& I.OS&
2.6o1 2.181
·"''
!0.1
61.1
.131 .lo9& .lol& • 25~
-7712.85&2.43& ! . lo]*
.IS& .25&
.88& l.lo]E.
11.6
65.&
.15& .496 .lol&
.86& 2.85& 2.lo]&
IS.
.18 • -5':11 .SOl
. 81* 2. 61]12 . 271
15 -1
66-1
• 181
.64& .SS&
. 81J2.93& 2.51& 1.52*
.n•
.20& .]3&
.92& 1.51&
IS.&
66.&
....
11.& .IS&
65 . & .86&
.20&
-SS&
.89&2.93&2.51&
15.&
66.&
.20&
.89&
IS.
.19* . 651 -551
-77* 2.6012 . 181
15-1
61.1
.191 -70+ -59& .JS*
·7712-78 ... 2.]6& 1.41 *
.21& ,)lot
.8]& 1.)7&
!},+
67-•
.21& .70. -59&
.81o& 2. 78+ 2.30&
17.•
67 ....
.2 16
. 84&
IS.
. 19•
-531
2.561 2.1)1
15 -1
60.1
.191
- 761
-211 ·97~ • 81+ .51• ,)]& ,log&
.8)1 2.98+ 2.51+ 1.56• 1.0" 1.501;
2~. +
69 ....
.29& -97" .81 ...
.89& 2.98+ 2.51 ..
22 ....
69.+
• 29&
.89&
.Ea2+ 1,14& 51.+
.}3+ 1.35& 60.+
.67& 2. 21o& 1.88&
-79& 2. 64& 2.22&
51.+
60.+
.6]6
-79&
"·
10.
.I.
...
.I.
...
:! 1.
•
I]~
.n•
-76~
.)71
... ,
381
382
.8]•
2.54•2 . 12
19.
S9.
.21o• .831
-75*2 . 54#2.121
19-1
59-I
383
3"
2.09• 1,]3
2.46• 2.0io
"·
48.1
S7-
. 61* 2.~, l.})f
.72* 2.46f2 . 0io#
57·1
.61#2.2lo& 1.88& 1.11•
·721 2.64& 2.221> 1.)1*
385
38.
2.86• 2.48
] . 17*2.}5
71.
79-
.88• 2.86# 2. lo81
.98• ],1]1 2.751
71.#
79·1
.88# ].01* 2.6]• 1. 6}• 1.07* 1.56•
.98# }.) 4*2.92* 1.81 •1. 18* 1.7)*
387
388
1. 89• 1.51
2.10* 1.67
"·
'7·
.53 • I .891 1.51#
-59* 2.101 1.6]1
42 . #
. 5]1 2.01& 1.62+
-59#2.23& !.SO•
389
390
2 - 99• 2. 63
J.lo7* J.OS
7) .
-93* 2.991 2.6]1
1.oa• J - "71 J . DSI
as.
.....
lo].l
.llol
-75#
-55&
. 606
-
21.1
66.1
.'!7•
~8.&
-
- ~1
- 761
.8 ]• 2.771 2. )51
....
"'
)8.1
lo2 . /
6&.
]80
DE
{/1c;il (Hciil
/kg) /kll)
1.761 1. 361
-5 3* 1.92# 1.491
2.77* 2.]5
379
""
Feed
Unit
(fU
/kll)
-
.....
-99*
.)}+
.....
.lo2+ 1. 07&
.9)1 2.95• 2- 59• 1.61* l.o6~ '·53*
as., 1.08#3.42• ] . Oa-- 1.87• 1.2}* 1.78•
73-1
....
.9]• ).01• 2.6)•
76.• I.Oio* ).]4• 2.92*
....
. 93*
]6.• 1,Qiot
lolo.+
lo9.+
.sa, 2.oa LEal•
.61o& 2.2]& !,SO+
lolo . +
'-9·•
·"''
67.•
.92• 2.95• 2.59*
1.06• ].42• }.00*
67 - *
-92*
1. 06•
n.•
n .•
.61o&
2.84• 2. 46
).18• 2.76
·9·
)92
n.
.87• 2 . 8412 - ~1
.98• ).181 2- 761
.871 2.95& 2.S8& 1. 60* 1.04& 1.5}&
.981 ] . ]0& 2.896 1. 79*1.16& 1.72&
67.+ .91& l-95& 2. 5h
75.+ 1.02& ).}0& 2. 89&
67.+ .91&
75 -• 1.02&
393
39'
).29• 2. 92
).66• ).2'+
82 .
91.
1.0)* ].291 2.92 1
l.ts• J . 66, J.21o'
82. , 1.03/ ].72+ 2.81! + 2.11* 1.)]+ 1.99&
91.1 I. IS# lo.ilo+ J,l6+ 2.35• \ ,loS+ 2.22&
84.+ 1.01& 3-72+ 2.84+
9lo .+ 1.12& lo.llo+ ).16+
Bit . + 1. 01&
94.+ 1. 12&
,..
).29* 2.93
3- 78• 3- 37
"·
9'·
1.04• ).29# 2.9)1
\.II)'* ] . 781 3-371
82.1 1.041
g4., 1. 19#
397
)98
).22* 2.86
) . }0* ).28
78.
89 .
1.01* ] , 22 1 2.86#
1.16*3-70i ).281
78-1 1.011 }.07+ 2.64+ !.69• 1.22& 1.60&
89.1 1.16# ).5)+ ).Oio+ 1. 94* \, ~0& 1.81t&
7lo·· ,g~o, ].07• 2.64•
as.• 1. o& J.5J• J.04•
7~ .+
85 . + 1.0&
39 1
39S
69 -1
77-1
-
......
176
Table 211, Proa i i!Wite Co.position ana Energy Content of~ (OII'II'I)n l y Used Afri c an Feeds (C ont. )
Dl vest l bleProte ll't
...,_
...
Entry
J9<l
....
Intern~
tiona\
lntern•tlonal
FeedH~me
Number
"'
Ether
"'-tter
m
trKt
m
Toul
"'
(t)
Crude
Fiber Ash
(t)
(>)
ZIZIPHUSLOTUS. Jujube, l otus
-browse, fresh
2-27~16
)9.
100.
ZYCOPHYLLU/1 AlBl.ll1. Sear~caper, white
..1
,,, ,,_
-browse, fresh
2-27-615
...
100.
1.1
).1
1 ••
'·'
19- 7
11 . 0
50.6
28 . ]
22.9
1].6
1o7.5 28.2
..,
1. 8
s.B
12.0
··~
t eil'l
(t)
Cit-
Sl\eep Coat
m
(tl
'·'
3- 7"
9·'-*
3-S*
\],]
...'·'
2.8•
2.6•
s.e•
CJ.O•
5-3*
m
"'
auffllo
m
].6•
9-2*
3-6*
9-2*
2.8•
S-9*
2.8•
5-'l*
177
Energy for (ioats
Energy for Sheep
Feed
EntryD£
ME
Nu-
(11ci11
(Meal
ber
/kg)
/kg)
'"
,.,
"'
1,\411' .97*
2.91* 2.loC)2
<co
1.24* l.Oio*
2.58* 2.15*
TON
Unit
(FU
('l)
/kg)
"
(folcal
/kg)
• )I. * 1 •• ~, .9]1
.88• 2.9112-"91
28. •
. 3}*1 .21.# 1.01+#
sa .•
Unit
(FU
ME
(~'\cal
/kg)
66. •
26.•
Energy for Buffalo
Energ y for ta.ttle
Feed
feed
-76* 2.581 2. 151
(t)
26.1
66./
28.,
sa.,
/kg)
"
ME
TON
HE m lol£ 9
NEI
(Meat (f1ut (Meal (Mc•l (Meal
/kg) /kg) /kg)
/kg) /kg) (%)
.]lol 1.15* -99* .w
.88J2.95::::2.S3* 1.5J*
. ]]1 1.2)* 1.02*
.w
. ]61 2.55* 2.12 * 1.2"*
Unit
(FU
/kg)
"
TON
ME
(Pk:ill {Mel I
/kg) (l)
/kg)
-37• -59*
.ql!• 1.52*
26 . •
67.•
. )5* 1.15* -99*
-90* 2.95* 2. 53*
.62 •
. 61* 1. )0*
sa.•
28.•
.)6* 1.23• 1.02*
.)2•
-75• 2.55*2.12*
26,2
feed
Unit
(FU
/kg)
.)5 *
67.*
.qo•
28.•
.)6*
sa.•
. ]511
178
Table 25.
Mi nera 1 and Vitamin Content of Some Common 1y Used African Feeds.
ll'ltern ~
Entry
lnte r nltlon.lll
Feed Name
J'liig-
tiona\
Ory
Feed
1'\attercl~~r~
Chlo- nerln e si<.m
l>l
It)
Cal(>)
ANA NAS COHOSUS. Plneiilpple
001
002
-pomiiiCe,dehydrilted
00)
-blood, meill
oo•
oos
Jo-2&--219
s-oo-JSO
-boru:~.
meal
ste~
&-oo-t.oo
007
008
-meat ,
n~eal
ret~dered
s-oo - 385
009
0>0
-meat,
~~~eal
rendered,
006
5-<19-323
on
2-<l3-638
"·
.J6
.•o
.22+
100.
,]\+
.]]+
96.
2'}.00
.01+
-56+1 ] .60
100.
]0 . 3]
.01+
9'·
9-Bo
10.48
1.19+
1.27+
.28+ 4.28
9' -
0>9
020
-seeds with some pods, IOH!:illl solvent
extrac::ted
s-H-1so
-seeds without COilltS
5..03-657
.,
02)
024
-seeds without co.,t s,
extr;acted
025
026
-seeds without co;~ts , meehanlcilll
vr.trac::ted c;~ ked
027
028
029
0)0
031
032
OJ)
me;~\
solvent
ARGANIA SPINOSA. Arg.,tree
-browse, fresh
2-27-71.0
)
2-oB....Io]O
Ol'
OJS
-aer Ia\ part , fresh, full b\00111
2..03-288
037
OJB
-aerial par t,
sil~e,
dough
st;~ge
3-()3-296
.61 + 1.2 7+
.50+
.14+
10,+
-
.69+
.so•
,7]+
.5]+
lo,3J+
4.58+
.11+
.so•
.02+
.02+
.19+
100 •
.03•
.OJ+
.15+
.17+
.. ,
-
..
.0]+
.29+
...
.20
• 22
,\]+
·"
·"
-65
·".s•
.22+
-97+
. ]2 +
-
.0)
.20
-
....
.s..
.11+
.1)+
.21o+
.26+
1.13+
1.23+
.36•
-39+
.30+
,J31"
. 89
2.\lo
-
.os
....
-
. 60
1.75
.1)
.so
)8 .
100.
"·
22.
100.
...."· ..,
.20
)6.
100.
·''
·"
-
...
.
.1.31"
.>)
.06
.25
.08
.28
·"
.).
\] . +
'"··
1],+
-
- 57
• )6
1.06
.25
036
10.+
.0)
100.
AVE NA SATIVA. Oats
-aerial part, fresh, late vegetative
,\]+
100.
100 .
2- 2]-7Jio
. 4]+
...."'·
.>6
2-27-735
llo . •
-57• 1.19+
.60
9'·
ATR I PLEX GLAUCA . Saltbush, glauca
-browse, fresh
.07•
• 26+ 4.00
·"
5..03-648
ATlUPLEX ANGULATA. Si111tbush . hn
-b r owse. fresh
.sa.,~o.H
• 21
. 06
5..03-650
.0.,.
. 20
"'·
"·
022
..,
.06+
1.55
9).
100.
-
.10+
I. ~s
9'·
100.
mechanical S..07-<l25
lllf~illl
-st:eds with some pods,
extrac::ted
kg)
.J]+
"'·
100.
kg)
. ]4+
.>0
1-o)-623
(t)
,.,..
1"'9/
"'
.22+
.2]+
1.)6
1.51
-hay, Sl-'-cured, millture
'"
1"'9/
,lot+
.lo]+
_,.,.
O>S
b alt
.JS•
-
(t)
Sui-
.>8
1.]1+
1...0)-{115
c~
·~
"~
.18+
.!C)+
.2·"'"
2).
-hilly, Sc..-'l-cured, dough stage
017
0>8
8.46+
8 ....
-09
.>8
· '9
100.
0>)
0"
016
.oa
-
. 28
.)2
100.
-aeriill par t, fresh
(%)
8).
ARACHIS HYPOCAEA. Peolllut
011
,;....,
·"~
·~
(t)
100 .
100 .
55\ protein
(%)
Phos- Po-
Data
.6)
>.60
.60+
2. 071"
2 . 63
6.30
-
\2,+
\).+
. II•
• 12+
15,+
\],+
17 \
Expressed on an As-Fed and Dry Basis (t1oisture Free)
HanSel~
Entry
dine
"~
(mg/
'"
kg)
Vita-
VIta-
min
min
02
(IU/
g)
( I U/
kg)
·~ ,.,, ,.,,
,.,,
'
'""'
lrol'l
kg)
nese
kg)
ni~R
kg)
Zinc
kg)
.,,
'"
1"9/
Panttr
Folic
Acid
Vit.-
.,,
Vit;a- J{ibo-
"~
Th l•-
86
Yin
flline
l mg/
1"'9/
1"'9/
kg)
kg)
Biotin
(Fol a- Nia'"~
line cln)
cin
nic
Acid
1"'9/
1"'9/
1"'9/
1"'9/
1"'9/
kg)
kg)
kg)
kg)
•ol
]1.+
]lo. +
2. 4+
2.6+
lo.lo+
1,,8+
kg)
•ol
lolo . +
.......
DOl
002
}]2).+
ODJ
OOk
s.•
406-'o.+
6. •
oos
29.39+
8]5.+
)0.+
006
)0 . 77+
S]S.f
32.+
lo]8 . • 10.+
468 . + 10.+
..,
007
008
.... ,.....
. ]3 +
-
·""•
,It]+
lolj,+
.
782. +
BSio.+
.10+
lo21o.+
lololo . +
7] . +
6].+
]8.+
72.+
010
.12+
.......
.1)+
20)6.+
21J7.+
1524.+
16\lo . +
......
2.1t+
2.5+
6.1+
6. 5+
-
2.0+
2.2+
...·•·
s.J•
...
.J•
.J•
.J+
.2+
. }9+
56.+
.lo2+
60 .+
·""•
"6.+
lo . O+
lo9.+
lo.2+
-
llol.+
)3,)+
}]. 1+
-
1.8+
8 .] +
I Sf:, , +
2 .0+
9-7+
.65• 17].+
. ]1+ 188.+
46 . 6+
50.7+
5.6+
6.1+
Cj.O+
Cj.8+
5-7+
6.2+
.lo]+
].9+
lo,2+
-
5.7+
.2•
"·"·
.I+
.I+
1,,6+
011
012
01]
Olk
OIS
0 16
017
018
019
020
021
16,+
022
18.+
18.+
20.+
141.+
2].+
IS'!.+
29. +
023
02k
025
026
027
028
029
OJO
OJI
0)2
OJJ
Olk
OJS
0)6
OJ7
0)8
. 0]+
.0]+
-
59. +
66.+
)].+
)6. +
-
,l) +
1'}11],+
. )6+
2120. +
180
Table 25. Mineral and Vitamin Content of S0111e t011m0nly Used .Urican Feeds (Cont.)
lnterna-
tiona\
Entry
''"'
lnte r nnlonal
Feed H!WIIe
o\V[ HA SATIVA .
0)9
040
-gr ain
04>
042
- ha.y,
,,,
l'latter chm
MagChlo- nerine sit.rn
(.)
(tl
C1\(t)
(t)
~~l-309
1-())-28o
~~-c ured
049
oso
1-())-28]
s-os-1&3
- a t , meal solvent extracted
Balanites,
-whe y. dehydnoted
2-27-729
S-23 -7~9
5-<l!-175
4-<)1- 182
.....
BRASSitA NAPUS •
-aerial par t , fr e sh
2-<l)-667
OS6
(mg/
, II
. 09+
., 16+
~~ ·
,)4
. )8
, J7
.42
.21 +
.Ob+
.10+
.II
,2) +
. 06+
89.
. ]1
. 4]+
. 21 +
• 19
1.46
,)4
.06+
.52+
.21o +
1.6)
,)1
9J.
.24
.]2+
.1 ..
·"
. 09
.28
100 .
2.]]+
,,,.
.21 +
.2) +
100.
.26
. ]8+
.I] +
, 10
2.55+
.42+
.2) +
,,
. \0
. 21+
BRASS ItA OLER.t.CU CAPITATA.
-w hole, fr esh
Cabb~oge,
.56
.61
069
0]0
071
0]2
-
''"
(mg/
kol
...,.
4 ••
s.•
10.+
\0,+
. 62
46.
9.
·"
100.
1.49
90·
1.}5
100.
1. ~ 9
9),
100.
·"'
2-30-197
4~5-<167
........
.1) +
.8]
· 9·
1.53
1.69
.}1 +
.} 4+
. 11+
.12+
.n
1.11+ - 93 + 1.04 +
1. 19+ 1.00 + \. 12+
.\1+
.12+
.06
.40
. 47+
3-37+
"·
-
.01+
.06+
10.
.o&
. 60
-
lk ,
1.75
9·
.os
.60
100.
,,
.OJ
,JO
·"
100.
.or.-
.as
.20
1.40
. 9)
. 08
. 06+
.&2 +
. 1) +
. 14+
100.
BRASSIC.t.RAP.t. RAPA. Tu r nip
-roots, f r esh
-
.07+
. 08 +
d r l.ll'lhead
8RASSICA OlERAtU " EOIJLLOS.t.. lt•le, "'¥ r ow
-aerial part, fre sh
2~2-45&
063
0&4
06 7
0&8
.0] +
,,...
,,
. ]2 +
. .67
./4
-
5-<12-435
- pod s wi t h seeds
2-27-714
lo-<)8-370
,)8
. 06•
.65+
. 02+
. 20 +
. 02
.22
100.
1.59
-
·"'
9Q,
. 64
-
,2J
100 .
CHLORI S GAY.t.NA . Rhoc:h~s<Jrass
- hay , sun-cur ed
-h • y , sun - cur ed, ear ly Ve<J e tulve
HIJ-C)\3
H13-910
·"
·"
9Q.
,,
100.
. 28
9Q .
. )0
100.
. JJ
1.•
.os
. 25+ .0,.
2.82+ 1.05+
.04+
,lo) +
89.
•s .
so.•
-
100.
CERATO NIA SILIQI.Jo\. Carob bean
-l e aves, fre sh , sten~cured
\2.+
46 . +
...
.09+
.68+
tA NAVALI.I ENS IFOR"IS . Jackbean , CCfnTIOn
06S
066
••l
.I)
100.
0&0
061
062
bait
'"'
(%)
100.
OSJ
OS4
.,
Sui-
(t)
~yptian
8 0S TAUIIUS . Cattle
-butte r milk , fresh
- skl tm ilk, dehydr ated
OS]
osa
CoSodl~
88,
100.
BALAH ITES AEGYPTIAtA.
-b rowse, f r esh
051
052
'"
siun
(.)
100.
BALAENA GLAt \All S-IALAENOPTERA SPP-PHYSETER CATOOON . Whale
04]
048
"'
(.)
(Cont.)
043
044
OkS
046
,.....
Pl'los- Po-
.09
. 26
-
.32 +
-35 +
.16
.)6
. os
.as
,,
·"
1.19-+
1.33+
·"
2.04+
2-27 +
.28
.02
...,, .,.
-
-
-
2.•
21.+
181
·~
·- '""'
Entry
d i ne
g~
Sele-
nese
"'~
,.,,
.
kg)
kg)
g)
. ...-
,.,, ,.,,
Iron
Vit.-
'""'
Zinc
kg)
kg)
kg)
,II+
6).+
JS.+
.2h
.1 ) +
]2. +
40. +
.24+
]lo.+
]9.+
lo!4 . +
1.6] . +
6],+
-
t.s ...
"'
"'
"'
"'
""'
"'
oso
"''
152.+
29.+
)1.+
"'
052
20.+
22. +
OSJ
168.+
"'
'"
'"
'"
"'
DIS
"'
,,,
164, +
181 .+
26.+
!Sio . +
76.+
-
.12 +
,I]+
loO.+
.... .
JJ.+
VIta-
,,
., ,_
,.,,
"" ,.,,
Vlt.-
"'"
min
(IU/
(1\J/
(.g/
kg)
kg)
Cho-
line
-
1J78.+
ISU .+
-
kg)
.26+
. )0+
kg)
Folic;;
kg)
kg)
Tl'dlmine
"~
,.,,
,..,,
~~/ •'"
kg)
kg)
kg)
1.)+
1.5+
6.0+
6.8+
lo . !+ 18,)+
) . 6+
].9+
954 .+
.]9+
\4,+
<J,]+
2. 6+
.41t•
16. +
11.1+
].0+
1))6 ....
....
12.+
]4 . 9+
)8.6+
.r..s+ zo.J•
II,+
46.1•
),]+
49.6+
),6+ 21).4+
6 . ]1+
].0]+
6!1o,+
662.+
loO] , +
U6,+
log . ...
.6o•
148o .+
19.+
.}5+
1786.•
.as•
20 . +
.)8+
192 1. +
-91-t-
J.•
91.+
29.+
1010. +
.26 ...
2.85+
). •
kg)
•in
\oBI. . +
. )2+
. )5+
... - .. ......
...
. . --
"''
,.,,
,..,, ''"
,..,, ""
5'-··
''··
,
Pan to<ho- VIta- Rlbo-
'"''
(Fola- HI ....
c:in)
21·1•
4.0+
lo,J+
46 .+
057
059
06o
..'".,.,
'"
..
,'"
067
"'
069
070
.,
"'
10.+
112 . +
... --
lo],+
...
]2,+
!.]+
19.0+
-
... ...
6.5+
].I+
182
Table 25.
" lner~d
lnd Vi t - in Conten t of 5011111! COIII!IOI'Ily U5ed Afrlc., Feeds (Cont.)
Intern a-
EMry
tiona!
lnternltiOI'III
''"'
feed "ame
.,.
07J
CICER AIUETIM~. Chlclq>u
- •rl•l part, fresh
2-13-45 7
on
5-()1-218
'"
...
o85
086
-pon~ece,
o89
090
091
092
09J
09'
095
096
097
098
099
100
101
102
10J
1..
lOS
"'
I>)
.....
~
·'~
(\)
"·
"·
vet
lt-()8-)l6
18.
...
100.
- po~~~ece
without
f ines, dehydrlted
CUT ANDIA DICHOTOr1A . P'lelllphlsgrau
-aerl•l ~rt, fresh
~~1-2)7
2-27-706
1 ~0-1 11
CYNOOON PLECTOSTACHYUS. Stargrus
-hly, 1 ~- Cio'ed
1-1 ]-407
.20
"'
.IS+
-
.1S
.17
.]8+
.08+
.08+
· ·1
...
-
.10
..
-
..09
-
.00
.01
-
.10•
·'1
-
·'1
.19
\, ) 6
...
-
.05
.22
J9 .
100.
1.70
...
-
,\ ] +
.0..
.2\+
·"
.58
c~
eo.-
bllt
(mq/
1•;/
"<I
••I
"'"
-
.D)
.16
JS.
.n
Sui-
1.0)
·"
-
us-
...... ... ......
-
1.97
1.00
pl>o-
2 . 22
100 .
-Kr l• l pan , fresh
.19
Phos- Po-
·~
·'~ "~
'"'
I>)
")
") '"'
100.
CYNOOON DACTYLON. kr•UCiacJI'"IU
.08+
.08+
.!]•
.19•
......
.OJ+
. 08 +
...
.S2+
.s8+
IS.+
1}.+
2.•
100.
CYT1$U5 IATTANOIU I. l!lroono .
o87
088
rlne
I>)
CITAUS SPfl. Cl tri.IS
082
08J
Cillo-
I>)
100.
078
...
Cal-
~tter ci ~.n
100.
DIS
076
079
,,,
.. ·"
bttUnd l ~:rl
- bro ..se , fr esh
2-27-705
. OJ
J6.
100 .
C'tTISUS TRLrlORUS. aroc., 9 reoek
-brolftc, fresh
OACTVLIS Coi..Ofi[RATA. Orc:M r49rau
-hay, s~eured , l ate Yeo}etatiYC
1-17-70-'
1...0]-lolll
28.
100 •
...
100 .
OAI't!HE 1'11CROPti'l't.LA. Daphne , 111 lc rophyl Ia
- bro ws e , fresh
1-2 7-611
)2.•
100 .*
OAUCUS SPfl . Carrot
-aerial part, fresh
2..08-3}1
20.
100.
[CHIHOCHLOA CRUSGALLI rRUK[IfUCU. l'l i l lct, japanese
-Mrla1 part, fre sh
1..06-688
-hay, s i.W'I- curecl
1...06-{,89
22.
-hay, SI.W'I -e ured, fwll
"-
ERAcaOSTIS CI.IIVULA. loYitl)rass, vup lni
-aer i al part, fresh
1..06-187
1~6-081
1...01 -{,77
• /9
•)H
,JS+
.n
-
.]8+
1.9h
-
. 11
..20
.27
· 9'
.1 2+
.llo+
.os
-
. t.S+ }.Sl +
.so+ J.CJI+
.01 +
.0] +
-
. 01
.28
.21
.88
.OJ
.OS
-
.04•
.]}+
,1CJ+ 1.88 +
. 01
-
.)2
.20
• 2J
-
. 15
.17
• JJ
-
.20
.so
87.
...
...
-
·1'
..
-
.8 J
100.
100 •
ERAGROSTIS UYSSIH ICA. Teff
-hay, s~eured, l ate Yege ta t iYe
.22
.
100 •
• JI
100.
. J5
. J9
--
.1 5
.1/
.I)
-
.07
Jl.
100 .
.J'
-
-
.22
.20
--
.16
-
183
,.,_
,., ,.,, ,.,,
E.ntry
dine
kg)
Iron
kg)
vlu-
g~
Sel~
nese
"'~
' "" '""
ko)
ko)
Zinc
(mg/
kg)
mlo
A
( IU/
gl
Vitamin
li lt.-
., "'"'" ,.,,
''"
""'
( IU /
kg)
81o-
kO)
kg)
tholine
~~
kg)
Folic
Acid
(Foh- Hi acln)
c il'l
( mg/
(mg/
kg)
kg)
Paotollita- A l bo-
nic
Acid
{ mg /
kg)
1111in
B6
(mg/
kg)
flavln
(mg/
k g)
Th lemi ne
{mg/
k'il)
D]J
'7'
DIS
"'
...
.s•
72-•
n .•
)0 .+
)).+
1.2+
1.)+
2.5+
2.7+
l.h
2.)+
1.5 ...
1.6•
017
078
,....
86].+
-
22.+
H.+
1].8+
IS.Io+
-
081
082
08)
084
lo]l.• )9. +
1120.+ 100.+
D8S
086
08 7
088
,.,
.,.
091
092
19).+1l).+
21 ... + 1]7.+
]6.+
ItO.+
..,,
...
O<JS
096
...
097
....
100
10 1
102
...
...
10)
IDS
n61o .+
.78•
18.+
5939·•
.\o,OO+
92.•
2.... --
n.t.+
.a.
.a.
At.t•
"· 1+
184
T•ble25 . "'ineral and Vit-in Content of Some Coomoonly Used African Feeds (Cont.)
.
Intern.-
,_
,,
tlonal
Entry
lflternational
FeedNa~ne
107
[A lGROST IS CURVUL A. (Co n t.)
-nay, ~~-cur ed, late vegetative
1~9-178
s~n-cured,
109
110
-hay,
111
112
-hey,
11J
1"
-hay, Sill-cured, •uture
11)
118
(\)
early bloom
Hl')-179
100.
s ~.r~-cured, n~ldbloo-
HI'}- ISO
100.
1...09-181
ERICA ~UJt.TIFLOAA. Keath , def!Sesplke
-browse , f resh
2-27'~98
-aerial pa r t , fresh
-aeria l part,
12J
124
-h•y, II,FI- C:Ur ed
13 1
132
1JJ
13 4
1JS
1J6
Sui-
belt
(lllg/
•ol
...
Cop(lilt;~/
•ol
·"
. 1J
-
.2)
-
...
.10
-
. OJ
.06
·"
·"
.J8
.J8
.12
.1J
.20
.22
• 10
·"
-
''·
"·
100.
121
122
129
130
Co-
·~
100.
EUCA LYPTUS f'1 [ lli000Ro\, Eucalyptus, yel loWo•
-b r owse, fr esh
2-27-{,9/o
"'
"'
Phos- Popho-
"~
"I
"I ") iii "I '"'
100.
2...01-fl89
2).
100 .
120
127
"I
(>)
90.
...
...
...
fES TUCA AAUNDINACU. Fesc ue , alta
12 5
126
t1agCil l o- nerine siun
tel-
100 .
108
111
116
,,,
~tterclo.n
sil~ e
wilted
3-t6-36o
1. 69
3.0]
...
-
.or..
·"
-
.n•
.2)
.0)
. 0) •
6.21+
·"
· 57•
.25+
2.52 +
.12 +
27-59+
.20+
. 20
2.11 +
2.)8 ..
.os .. -
.2)
J4.
1.•
J. •
100.
1-<IS-{,8/o
a,.
100 .
HSTUCA AAUNOI HACU - TAIFOli\Jfl SPP. Fe s.cue, a1 ta-clover
1- 16-371
- h•y, s~n-cured
...
• 28
. 06+
100.
FIS H
-me.1l rnec:h.1n ic.11 extr.: t ed
FAAlCIHUS OXYCA APA. Ash, C.IUC.ISi.ltl
-le011ves, fresh
s-o1-977
2-27~88
92.
100 .
"-97
s. u
1. 25+
1.11 +
"· ·"
.JJ
100 .
Fllf\A NA EAICOIOES. F_.,a,erieold e s
-.erial part , fresh
2-27-687
GL[OITSI A TAIACAHTHOS. Hone ylocust, COim!On
-le1ves , f r e sh
2-27-685
48.
100.
1.20
2.1o8
2-o ~-57 1o
-
19 •
100 .
• 20.
1.08+
-
.10+
-
...
1J7
1JB
J-()lo-538
\00 .
1.1 0
1.2 5
139
"O
-hly,
J-olo-5112
88,
100.
1.10
1.25
141
142
- h.ly , sun-cured , 111.1ture
1-oll-511)
88.
100.
1.00
s~.r~-c:ured,
dough
st.~oge
1.1
~
-
.... ·"'
2.)/o
.os
-
• 18
.OJ
.06
-
-13
''·
- hly, Sl.ri- Cut"e<l , Ml db \ 00111
1.52
1. 66
...
... .......
·"
100.
GLYCINE P1A X. So ytlun
-aerl011 l p,~r t, fre sh
.,.so
.21+ 2.711
. 2)+2.99
. J)
.Sio+
. 06+
.29 +
.17+
- 92+
.]0+
. 22
- 79 +
·"
.85 +
-97+
. )0•
-79+
.2)
. OJ
.11
.25 +
.2] +
.20
-
.11 +
. 12 +
. 2)+
.26+
.2] +
.26+
.12+
IS.+
1].+
...
2. •
.as.
.J1
-97+
.12+
.JO
.J•
. ]1+
. 81+
-
-
185
Fol i c
Entry
,_
'~
g~
Sele-
"'~ Zinc
(.,/ (""/
dine
Iron
nese
(.,/
(.,/
(.,/
kO)
kg)
kg)
kg)
-
kq)
Vita-
Vit.-.
"'"
"'"
02
"'"
812
(IU/
g)
(IU/
kg)
("9/
•
Vit..-
kg)
llio-
"".,,
(""/
""'(..,/""
l ine
P•nto-
Ac id
(fola-NI•cln)
.,, .,, ' .,,'"
(""/
(""/
Vita- Rlbo-
"''
""
(""/
kq)
111in
••
(""/
kg)
"~
"'"
(.,/
••>
Tt'dl111ine
(.,/
kg)
107
108
109
110
112
11)
11.
115
116
117
118
119
120
~lo . t
I 5. +
106 . ..
61t.+
]/].+
loll,+
H. + -
,..
21.+
121
122
,.
12)
"'
126
127
"'
26.+
129
1)0
1)1
1)2
Ill
n•
1] 5
) 9.+
22 . +
136
208 . .. 11 9 . •
137
26 ~ . ..
1)8
)00. +
:)9
;64 ...
140
)00.+
"I
I"
-
99-•
259.+
Jo8.+
282.+
-
3"6. +
-
6) . +
1).0+ l it.]+
6.8+
3979-•
-
69.+
1).8+ 16.0+
],lo +
1.)+
'·"·
186
Table2S. l'llneral .Jnd Vi tamin Content of SOI'Ie t01m10nly Used Afri c an feeds (Cont. )
..
....
I ntern a-
Entry
'~
,
t iona\
lnternat i onilll
FeedM-.me
C.LYCINEI'IAX . (Cont .)
"'
'"
S-<llo-fdO
"I
-seeds, meal solvent extracted
s-oto~o~o
" 7
-seeds without hulls , llleilll solYent
5-<1 .. ~12
"'
"'
Hllo-$67
150
GOSSYPIUI'I SPP. Cotton
-see<ls
S-o1111o
153
-seeds, mea l solvent extracted, " t
'II
-seeds , mechou'lical
c aked
S-11-589
157
158
-seeds without hulls , me• I sol~ent
extracted, SO' pro tein
s-20~12
'"
159
160
,,,
"'
'",
163
..•••
167
•••
'"
5-<11--'21
prote i n
'"
GRASS
-.er Ia! pflrt, fresh
2-<l2-26o
.29+
·"'·
·"'·
.20.
-
.82+
''·
.)0
\00.
. ]J
"·
. 26+
. 29+
...
1.]0
100.
1.lo6
"·
,.
.16
• 17
• 21
. 2)
"· ·"
·"
"·
.16
. 17
. )2
''· ·"'
]-1 &-361
25.
-..erl<~l
p&rt , sll&ge wilted,e&rly
]-16-]62
.so
·"
HELIANTHUS AHNWS. Sunflower, COI!tiiOfl
-seed heed s, ,,.,_cur ed
1-Q9-7J6
87 .
100.
...
HELIANTHU$ SPP. Sunflower
-~er l&l pflrt , sl !age. ,.ature
J-o lo-7J S
2) •
. Js
S- JO-Q32
-seeds with some hulls, me1l solvent
5-25-6311
-seeds withollt hulls . meal so lvent
S-JG-oJ~
1. s~
''· ·"
88 .
....
.21o+
2.02+
2 . 20+
.)5+
. )8 +
,lolo+
.4]+
.&S+ 2.16+
.]1+2 . )6 •
.20+
.21+
. lolo+
.loS+
,11+
.12+
. 2)+
.os
·"
.08+
.]9+
·"
·"
-S9+ 1.07
l.Ob
1.1S
.56+
. O'o+
-25+
.OS+
.27+
-
.lo6+
2. JS+
.01+
.Oio+
-
-
.)0
.OS
·''
.12
.)6
.OS
·"
-
·"'
. 18
....
.n•
,28+
.29+
.25+
.29+
-
.so•
.85+ 1.21o+
.96+ 1.~2+
.01+
. 0 1+
-
1.2 7
1.] 5
2) .+
• ~8+
.sJ+
19.+
21.+
-
-
.52
.56
. 28
21.+
.0]+
-
.]7+
.39 +
''· ·"
2 1.+
2], +-
.0]+
-
.02+
.02+
.S6+
. 10 +
-
.17
-
18.+
20 .+
.22+
.21o+
.25
.,.
kg)
1.37+
1.5 1+
.OS+
.OS+
.os
kg )
.26+
1.28+
1. ]9 +
100.
100.
.so.
.loB+ 1.01
. 51 +1.0 9
. 60
100.
100.
-
(t)
.22+
·"
.28
p.&rt,sllage. full bl00111
-seeds, meal solvent e11t r acted
. OS+
'"'
(•9/
'"
.12 ...
-
-~erial
177
·"'·
Co p-
b al l
(mg/
.11 +
.65
.Sio+
CoSui-
1.8o+
. 17
.52
.12
.51
100.
.92+
(\)
,,..
"~
(t)
1.67+
. 7J
...·"
·"
-
2).
100.
J) .
.OS+
. )0+
,3) +
(t)
.10
3-<12 -218
100 .
.)0+
,;~,~~~
·""
.10
part , s l l&ge , early bloom
100.
.Oio+
Phcu- Popho-
-
20.
100.
-~er l& l
171
176
'"
.2]+
.03+
100.
s-oB-sJ o
(t )
. 03•
-Mr l&l P&rt , sl l &ge, early Veo;]etnl ve 3-<12-217
blo01111
m
. )2
100.
-seed s
180
"· ."
100.
173
'7'
'"
(tl
Chlo- nerlne
S i llll
100 .
100 •
e~~:t ract ed
'7'
'7'
(\)
100 •
,,,
11ag-
tal-
l'lattercl~,~~~
100.
"'
151
152
,,,
2].+
25 .+
2.5()+
2. 85+
]0.+
]lo.+
187
,_
En tr y
·-
...
...
"5
147
149
110
I I"On
kg )
nese
"I~
kg )
as .+ 37. •
92 . +
ItO .+
. 1} +
122 .+
. IS+
13) .+
)0, +
]2. +
,\1+
.12 +
Zinc
kg )
kg )
. 11+
. 12 +
6 2.+
. lo] +
59. +
57-•
.51+ 61o . +
"'"
(I U/
g)
fol ic
Vlt.min
\lit,_
.,
,,
"'"
( I U/
kg)
'"''
kg )
-
<h~
kg)
kg )
kg)
kg )
291t 0.+
Al;;id
kg )
VI t .- Ai bom in
'6
' ""
kg)
-
-
H .+
16 . 1+
l] .lo+
.67 + 28 .+
16.8 +
6. 0+
jl ,+
\8,) ..
6.5+
t6.1t•
2 ) .+
I.,] +
6.9+
],6+
!.lo6+
1. 6 1+
lol, +
l}.] +
loS. +
1) . 1+
39 -•
CJ, 8+
6.5+
lt 2.•
10. 6•
]. O•
)I, +
-
!88. + 21.+
-
....
-97+
6.0+
).2+
278).+
3058. +
}00 .+
15. 1+
2. 9+ II,)+
),2+ 12.2 +
s.~~+
,,., ..
- 75 + 22.+
kg)
5 . ..
• 82 +
.)6•
Till a-
,.,,
lfll ne
)
28oO . +
JOSit. +
,Jl +
kg )
).0 +
),) +
,7) +
sa .•
I .,I
6.5+
2896. +
61, .+
"~
vin
).0 +
).2 +
.)6 +
lol. +
6 1. +
cl n )
)181o ,+
.
67. +
line
2657- •
.)9 +
)8. +
2). +
(Foh- Hi.-
. lol+
!)) ,+
206. +
Clio-
.n•
,. ,...
,...
P&n t o-
.,_
"'"
" I'
<I"
,..,,
,.,, ,..,, 'I,.,," ,.,,
26]. +
151
152
'"
IS'
.
VI t a-
Sel e-
,.,, ,.,, ,.,, ,.,, ,..,,
dine
k g)
"'"'
l'lolng~
).0 +
s.s•
.....
].2 •
155
• 5•
157
158
Ill , +
2668.+
120. +
288), +
-
-
)2. •
159
..,.,'"',
1~
••
I,,) +
"·1• -
) .1•
15.9•
-
...'"
...
16 5
...
167
169
170
'"
'"
'"
"'
,,.
175
"'
178
...
179
so .•
22.• -
Sli.•
2) . •
20 ) .+
2)2.•
2 ). •
26.•
-
68.•
]3.•
92 . •
105 . •
).)+
).5+
·'·
.5•
188
hble 25. l'lineral and Vit;nin Content of SOllie tonnonly Used o\frlcan Feeds (Cont.)
...
Intern.-
,
Entr y
tiona!
International
feed Name
181
182
Ntl'llber
HOROEUI'I VULGARE. 81rley
-brewers grains, dehydrated
S~0-516
-bre-rs gr•ins, "et
s-oo-s1 1
185
18&
-9raln
•-oo-549
:u
1,1
1,2
1"
1,.
('I
"·
2 ....
100.•
...
100 .
HYPAIIIIH[NIA HIATA-THUt£0" TA lAMORA,
-aerlll part, fresh
-hay ,
Mag-
Cal-
KUter ci1111
100.
18)
18k
1"
190
,,,
1'1
2-16-359
1-1£1-372
SUn-tUf"ed
LOLIU/'1 I'IULT IFLOAUH, lly11!'9r;us, i t .. ll.~n
-hay, sun-cured
-hay, sun-cured, late vegetiltive
,2]
.0 /
·"
. 08
.o,
)2 . •
100 . •
...
J-Qio-<l69
8,.
100.
. 28
J-()/o-()65
8/.
100.
,]]
...
20.
100 •
...
1"
200
2].
. 08
100.
.]5
201
202
-hay , ,...,_cured, e ...-ly b\00111
1-<14-o7S
88.
. 25
.28
"'
100.
1-()4-()62
wil ted
)-16-308
J-Hr-)69
213
2"
215
216
]1.
100 .
LON ICERA IMPLEXA. Honeysi.ICkle, i111plelU
211
212
]2 ,
100.
LOLIUI'I SPP-TRIFOLIUI1 SPP . Ryegrass-eloYer
-;aerial pilrl. slhqe
208
209
210
1/ •
100.
2-'l7-iJ76
-Drowse, fresh
100 .
LUP INUS SPP. lupine
-.erial pilr t, f re sh
2-<12~91
'"'
(*I
si~
.]0
·''
-
....
-
eo.-
b a it
'"'
1'1
(mg/
per
(mg/
•ol
•ol
......
.., ...
.so
.o•
8.•
.IS+
.17+
.\]+
.19+
. 06+
.01+
] .•
. )Ot-
.06+
1 ) ,+
.0] +
,I]+
II,+
•··
-
.15
,1,
.15
.1/
.28+
·"
1.}8+
.2]
1. 56+
,2]
.]1
1.)6+
.05
. 22
·"
-
1.)8
1'1
CoSui-
.0&
. 18
-
-
diiiJI
,.
.os
,1,
.6 1
1'1
·-
.so
.
·"
-
,.. ..,
P~
·"
.so
.]2 +
·"
,1]
.•0
Phol-
,llo+
. ]0
. 0/
,....
.15+
,]8
2-<lil-<186
lOLIUPI SPP. Ayegru.s
-•rial p.art , fresh
-
,)2
1-1 ]-oQ]
LOLIUM P(R[NNt, Aye; r ns. pen::nni~l
-aerial part, fre sh
sil~e
.12+
.\ ) ...
.21
,2]
100.
- aerial pan.
-
tri•ndra
.0/
.21
- aer l•l part, fresh, latevegetatiYe,
cut 1
205
20&
1'1
.31+
,Jio+
·29
100.
1-27-521
"'
20]
20k
(,1
CooleulgrOIIu-k~garOO(JtiiSS,
1"
1"
1"
Chlo- nerlne si~
.2/
·05
. ]0
1.56+
.]8+
1.92+
-
-
1.69+
1.92-t-
... ...
] . 18
.5]
-
.0/
.22
...
.2,
-
... ..,
1.]1
.02
.06
.so
.os
-
-
"·
100.
f'IEDICAOO 1Ul80AEA. Ke<lle,
-.erial IMI'"t, fresh
'"'
1'1[1)1CAG0 SATIV A. Alhlfa
-aerial ~rt , fresh, late veo;eutlve
2-27--671
2-()0-181
2/.
100.
!.SO
18.
100 .
.25
1.1to
.....
.u ..
.os
.1,
.OS+
.2]+
.os
·"
1.86
.
,,.
2.14+
.20
....
.21+
.09+
.'<8+
2.•
189
.,,
Vita-
·-
Erltry
lodine
'""'
kg)
,.,.,
Sel~
11ese
"I~
(ogl
ko)
kO)
'""' '""'
Iron
kO)
120.+
ss.•
2)9.+
59 . +
-
.os ..
75 -+
16.+
.15+
. 05+
8],+
18.+
,I]+
181
182
min
g~
Zinc
kO)
(IU/
rol ic
Vitamin
,,
(IU/
kg)
Vlt.-
"'"
.,
,,,
""I <mol
'•' '""' '""I
8io<I"
COoline
kO)
P•ntoVIta- Aibo-
(fola- Hi•-
cln)
kol
Cmol
c.,l Cmol
kg)
kg )
7] . +
....
......
loO.+
191
192
2]9.•
)20 .+
19\
196
197
1')8
199
200
201
202
20)
200.
201
206
207
2o8
209
210
211
"'
"'
2"
211
216
20 . +
Ill , +
1··
"'··
-
"~
Thlantlne
,,, ,.,,
,,,
"'"
Cmo/
72 .+
189
190
I ...
kg)
66. +
187
188
"'
"'6'"
Acid
18)
18'
181
186
nic
cin
loO.+
221 . •
. 16 •
1053.+
.\]+
11]1.•
-57•
. 61o+
85.+
8.0+
6.1 ..
1.6+
6 .8+
1.8+
lo.S+
s.o•
190
Table 25. Mineral and Vit.llftin Content of Some COft'fi'IOnly Used Afr ic an feeds (Cont.)
·-'"
Intern.-
Entry
217
21a
tiona\
Feed
In t ernational
Feed Name
~tter
(')
HEOICAOO SATIVA, (Cont.)
-.er hr.J part. fresh , e ilrly bloom
219
220
- iller Ia\ part , fresn, full
221
-hay , '"'-cured
bl~
2-(10-184
2~0-188
-nay,
Slii-CUI'"ed ,
lateY1e9etatlve
H)0-(154
"'
22S
226
-hay , Sill-cured, full bloom
1-<IO-Q68
227
-IteMS, SI.I'I-Cured
1-Q0-164
220
2)1
)-()8-332
MORUS SPP. ~ulberry
-leaves, f re sh
2-()9-732
OLEA EUROPo\EA. 01 ive
-bro wse , fresh
2-27~69
"'
2JS
"'
2l7
2)8
.J7
.11+
1.67
.49+
)0.
.)J
.ll+·
. It]+
.12+
1.)8
.3]+
,3]+
.)0+
"·
2-()8-50)
.18+
.22
. 2! •
a9 .
-
.21o+
100.
1.20
1.)5
·"
9).
.JO
-
.1]+
lo-Q)-928
-pOIIshlngs
lo-Q)-9It]
lk9
250
''l
. 10+
.44+
\8, +
.09
1.0'}+
].6]+
1.9 ..
. OS+
.09+
.IS+
...
'··
.16+
, )\+
·"9•
15.+
.Ia
.20
.25+
. 28+
.25+
.28+
10.+
.lo]+
.s...
. 25+
10.+
.12•
....
.22
. 25
1.]9+
.06•
.2] +
1.56•
.0]+
.)0+
·''
·"
2.}0+
2.1o8+
.os
-
. 29+
. 20.
.2)+
10,+
.02+
.O'J+
.lo2•
2.•
a ••
11 . +
12.+
9-•
.12
-
.JJ
)0.
''·
.6)
1.36
2\.
- 39+
1.8)+
''·
100.
2"
2'>
2kS
-57
1.58
kol
2.1]+
2.51+
.)0+
)6.
100.
(')
\,]2
.)4 +
.29+
(')
. IJ
.20
'-'0
100.
ORY ZA SATIVA. Rice
-bran with ger•s
lo-Q}-9)5
,..
.07
1.62
·"
topP<'
(111!1/
1.96
86 .
.2]+
(mg/
·" ·'' ·"
.t.o• . 22
,Jio+
bait
'"
m
.06
100.
100.
ONOBRYCHIS VIC IIFOLIA. Salnfoln, c oonnon
-aerie! part, fresh
-groats, gro ....d
213
1.55
Sui-
dl~
100.
239
210
"'
,.,
""
·' ~ <*l
!*l '"'
")
toSo-
,,~
PhOs-P~
ne-
rine
"·
100 .
SATIVA-GRASS . Altai fa-grass
-aerial part, si laqe wi !ted
2)2
2JJ
m
,...,_
Chi~
100 .
~£01CAGO
229
2)0
Hag-
ta l c!'-'ft
100.
1-(10-(178
222
22)
,,,
-
.07
. IS
.08+
.)]+
·"
1.0)
.Oio+ .61+
.19+ 2.88+
.....
.II
.... -
.12
.OJ+
.0)+
.OS•
.86+ l . lo2
1.5s
1.]1+
. I]
1.88•
.ot....
,18+ 1.)9+
.20+ l , SJ+
. os
, 11+
.12+
- S9+ 1. 18
. 66+ 1.]1
1.2]+
l,lol +
.0..
.I]• ].87+
.06
.10+
. 1'J+ 1,.]1+
.11+
.65+
-
"·
100,
...
100.
PASPALUH OILATATUM. Dilllllsg r us
-H"r l•l part . fresh, e.vlyvegetetlve
2-QI-738
.a.
100.
-aerl •l
p~r t,
fr esh, lite vegetative
1-10-212
.08+
.lo2+
..
a ••
-
22.
100 .
-aer l•l part, fresh, ear ly bloom
2-() 1-]lo ]
25.
100.
PENNISETUH CLA NOEST IMUH. Kikuyug rns
-eerlal part, fresh
2-Q9-IoOO
251
252
-eer l•l part, sl 1aoge wilted , 29tolt2
diii'!S 1 gro wth
3-16-365
2SJ
2Sk
-eerl•l pert,s11agewi1ted, It] to 56
days' growth
3-16-3611
100.
--
100 .
• 20
-
)2 •
• OJ
100.
·"
.06
"· ·"
25 •
. os
.08+
. )1+
.08
. JJ
.... -
1.1olo+
.oa
...
.)0
·"
-
...
21o,+
191
Man -
.. .. .. .. ..
g~
Entry
(
/
kg)
217
"'
/
nese
( /
kg)
kg)
]0, +
)1.+
d ine
(
/
(
kg)
(
/
kg)
Vita-
min
A
(IU/
g)
'2
(IU/
kg )
"'
220
29) , + 111.+
221
2)8.+
21. +
17)8.•
222
268.+
g, ..
19(;,2.+
223
200.+
3J . +
42. +
loS . +
lol.•
2)2 . +
lo],+
~25
1)8. +
126
155-•
]8. +
U,+
227
156.+
!lo ••
218
168.+
IS . +
.,
Folic
Acid
..
P~nttt-
tine
(Fol.- Niac:in)
cin
(.,./
(
Ch~
kg)
/
kg)
loot
kg)
'"~
nic
Acid
( .,/
kg)
Vit.-llloo--
vin
"~
Thiamine
(.,/
(.,/
kg)
kg)
loot
-
12.5 +
14.2+
111in
'6
kg)
ItO.+
II.+
)6 . +
2"
Vi lotmin
Biotin
("9/ (.,./
kg)
kg)
9->
)16. • 1)8.+
88 .+
Vita-
SeleniiMII Zinc
-
q . lo+
)I . ]+
-
) . 01+
) ,loO+
.!]+
. 20+
)6 . +
loQ, +
22.8+
25.7+
2.6 +
2.9+
J2.+
3].+
2). +
26.•
-
s.J+
s.J•
"'
2)0
2) 1
232
2JJ
"'
2)5
26. +
8. •
2)6
110.+
loO.+
-
2l7
) 16,+339. +
-
2)8
) 46.+ )]2. +
...
)8 . +
,It) +
12)6.+
2.21+)01.+
22.9+ 1),)+
2.6+22.5 +
lol. +
.47+
1357.+
2.42+330.•
25 . 2+ llo . 6+
2.8+ 2~. 7+
2)9
""
"I2"
"'
"'
"'
246
247
"'
""
219
251
252
253
25k
81. + 126.+
90.+ litO . +
-
6).+
.6h
1242.+
]0 .+
.68•
1]8). +
-
50) .+
1.6.2•27-7+
1.8+ 19.9+
560 .+
51.lo• )0.9+
2 .0+ 22.1 +
192
TAble 2S. rliner• l .1nd Viu•in Content o f Some C001n cmly Used lfr ic 1n Fe~s (Cont.)
·-
lnternr
tion1l
Entry
'"
l55
l56
l57
l58
l59
l60
l61
l6l
reed
lnternltlo•HII
Feed Name
No.-nber
PENN I SETUM. ltlo\UCUH . Pearlmillet
-~rl1l P.lrt, frestl
,,, t••-
M1tter clo.m
(')
(')
H)]-115
19.
100.
1-(J]-1 12
-hly , sun-cured
PEHNISETUI'I PURPUREUrl. N41piergrns
-aer i al plrt, fresh
PHALUIS TRUHCATA, C~~nvygrus, VW>Ciotl
-aeri&l ~rt. fresh
2-G)-1&6
2-27..fl61o
l65
l66
l67
l68
l69
)1.
.1)
100.
·"
)3 .•
PHILLYREA ANGUSTIFOLIA LATIFOLIA. leafcroton, lnlfolif,
-browse, fresn
2-2]-66]
l7l
l77
l78
l79
'"
,.,
'"
'"
PI SUM SATIVU M ARIJEHS£. Pea, field
-seeds
...
PISUI'\SPfl .
-seed colts
S~8-lo81
Hl)-f:I02
PITURAMTHUS TOATUOSUS. Pituranthus, tortuosus
-aerlll part. fresh . post ripe
2-27-657
POUlTRY
-m..,ure..,CI litter.
dehydrat~
PROSOPIS OUI..CIS . Hesquite, dulels
-le1ve1 , fresh. s t - cured
s-os-sa7
2-2]-6SJ
(')
Sul-
Cobait
,.,
Cop-
,,) (•o/
,,)
'"
("
(mg/
. os
. 06
-
·"
·"
.o8
"·
.15
. 17
·"
.5/
.ll
\ , 1)
.67
-
.28•
.57 2.1.2<-
. ]1 ..
.6)
2.6'j•
. 01•
. Oh
ss .
.OJ
100.
.06
.J9
·7'
·"
- 77+
16.+
1.78+
1.87+
1).•
.ss· '7·•
'1·
96 .
100 .
. I)
• I)
-
.IS•
.IS+
"· ·"
lo-27-f:lloS
.•a 1. ~1·
.so l.lo9•
.o8
--
-
·'1
.n
.06
1 . )8+
I.SS+
.lo2 •
1.80
.os
.a,
.Ol
1.6S
·"
.19
.OJ
66.
100.
.a9
1.36
89 .
2.00
...... 1.60
100.
2.2S
.ll
s• .
-
·"
.98
.so•
.00•
.oa
100.
-
.oa
.oo. -
·"
.09
·"'1• -
87.
100 .
QUERCUS llEX. O•k . holly
-lelves, fresh, stem cured
2-27-647
2-17-631
liS
l86
-roo ts, fresh
lo~J-8SO
l87
-hole. fresh
l88
(')
"~
(')
.l]
100.
QUERCUS (AHARIENS IS. ():a;k , Clnary
-frui t , fresh
SATIWS. ROJdish, garden
-lelves , fresh
lBJ
Sosi~o~~~
100.
PISTACIA ULANTICA. P istachio , mt . atlas. mastic vee
-b r owse, fresh
2-27-f:l61
l7'
l75
l76
-
.ll
100.•
100.
l]O
'7'
l7l
s-oo-SC)AI
-seeds
.so
Phos- Popho-
87.
PHASEOLUS SPP. Bun
l6J
l6'
·"
MagCillo- roerlne
si o..11
(')
(')
60 .
.76
100.
1.27
.os
.08
.JI
.OJ
.)2+
S. JI•
.os
AA~ANUS
11 .
100.
2-16-JSS
6•
• 01
100.
.10
B.
100.
-
. 02+
.2S+
.so
-
-
ll .+
29).•
})I.•
193
...
,.,, ,..,, ,..,, ,.,,
Milln·
·-
Entry
,.,,
dine
ko(
Iron
kol
nese
kg)
Seleni1.111 Zinc
kg )
•gl
.
Vita-
Vit~
"'"
( IU/
( I U/
g)
Vit..min
8io-
Folic
~ .· ItO-
Acid
( Fol...- Niacln)
'"~
Vlta- llibo-
rr.,, ,..,, ,..,,
"'' "'"
.,,.,, ,..,,
,.,, ,.,,
'••I
" ""••I ,.,, ,.,, ''"
,,, ,.,,
,,)
••I
'•I
"'"
Cl1o-
line
'g)
'g)
Thia -
Yin
Acid
mine
••l
••l
255
216
,,
,,
218
260
261
262
263
lo)8. +
)I. +
26'
1.87.+
]lo .+
S6.+
62.+
168'j.+
2] ,+
1876.+
]0 . +
2.2 +
1.1 +
2.5+
261
266
"'
268
269
270
20lo. +
22 . +
21),+
2].+
,lol+
,lo ] +
lo9. +
51.+
"'
"'
"'
"'
27S
226
lo ]S,+ 292, +
53). + )28.+
.sa• 1.7'- ·•
.6S +Io2 0. +
"'
278
..
,"'
"'
282
28)
"'
28S
286
287
288
2. •
)7, +
1.]+
1, ) +
. 20+
.2 1+
686.+
718.+
.)8+
, 1.0+
]b.+
].8+
)7 . •
S. h
1.1+
1.1+
1.5 +
1.5+
lo.)+
lo.S+
194
Table 25. Hinentl
o~md
Vitamin Content of Some tonmonly Used African Feeds (Cont.)
l'lag-
En t ry
tlonill
Feed
N..,.ber
Internation al
Feed Name
AETAI'I A RETAtt.
289
290
"'
O•y
Cal-
~tter c:i ~Mn
"'
(>)
Chlo- nerine si~Mn
(>)
(>)
irm~ature
4-27~37
)4 .
100.
RHUS TRlPARTITA. Sumac , tripartiU
-browse, fresh
2-27~35
)L
100.
·''
.)8
-browse. fresh
2-27-633
48.
100.
SACCHAROMVC£5 C£REIIIS IAE. Yeilst , b r ewers
295
-dellydrued
J-oS-527
1-olo-686
"'
-bag use, screenea dehydrated
H)4-700
"'
-b<Ui)USe , wet
l-<lcr-909
)OJ
-rno1•ues
lo-1 3-251
'"
-rno1nses , dehydrated
lo-<Jlo-695
·''
·"
·"
-
·''·"
.08+
. 0]+
.04
.oa
.24+ 1.54
.26• 1.66
SMILAX ASPERA. C.reenbrier , eurasian
-aerial part, fresh
2-27~32
l-27-629
-brewers !lrillns, dehydrated
5-16-373
-brewer,!lralns, wet
5-16-374
·"
·"
.0]+
.42+
.18+
1.8) •
.08+
. loS•
.20+
]1}. +
42.+
• I 1~
.12+
.10+
.18+
.20 ...
.41 + 1.09•
. ~oo
1.21+-
79 ·•
.)4+
...
-37·
''·
.12+
. )5 +
.0)+
. 10 +
.09+
.2]+
.)lo+
.OS
L)l+
.os
).llo +
7).
')0.
·"...
.)0
. )8
100.
''"
1.2)
1.0)
"·
.)4
.82
.0'3+
-
- g r illn
4-<Jio-428
as .
)9.
100.
- tleilds
4-<Jio-429
2-27-628
·"
.2)
"·
"· ·"
.lo]+
-
·"
.02
).60 •
..
]1,+
·" ·"
.04
1.60
.22
.04
. ))
·"
.so
. n ...
.05 ...
• 06 +
·"
"·
...
,
28.
.10•
·''
. So
).20
. )0
.JS
-"
.)6
.15...
.I ] ...
.0)
. 08
100.
SUAE OA J'\AR1T1MA. Seepweed, seil
-aerial part, fresh
.20
.24
.0)
100.
SORC.HUM B !COLOR-SETARIA SPP, Sorgn..-ml11et
-aer i ill part, ,;\age
)-16-370
}.1]+
.lo]+
.lol•
.17+
.50+
82.
100.
100.
)22
'"
(mg/
1,]0+
.29+
100.
B \COLOR CArr FIORUH. Sorghl.>'",kllflr
-aerii11 part without he;jds , sun-cured, 1-26-107
len thiln 85\ dry 111.1tter
)20
)2)
.5)
1.20
.2] ..
SOR~UM
"'
. 06
.08+
100.
SALSOLA S1UERI. Russianthi stle, sleber I
-aerial part, fresn
'"
'"
"'
,,,
.,,
'"'
(\)
,,,_
'".,,
·" ·"
·" ·"
1.00
.OS.
100.
JOS
"'
·" ·"
·''
.04
.51+
100.
)06
'"
'"
,,,
l''
,,,
ba it
(mg/
100.
)02
)0,
(\)
Sui-
.))
. ~7+
"·
100 .
)00
)0/
9).
100.
SACCHARUM OHICIIIARlR'I. Sugarc1111e
-ba<)asse, dehydrated
lOS
(\)
.20
.0/
-
ROS HARINUS OHICINALIS. Rosemary
"'
,.
"'
'"'
(\)
s.,; ..,. diiMI'I
Retama , reti!lm
-seedS, fresh,
292
29)
294
Co-
Phos- Popho-
-
·''
. JS
. 24 ...
. 2)
. 1] ...
.)0
.os
.20
.0/
.2)
• )8 ...
. 16 ...
• 1a ...
.)9•
.4 } ...
.,....
195
Folic
nanlo-
Sele-
nese
niun
,_ ,.,, ,.,, ,..,,
,,,
Entry
dlne
Iron
kg)
kg)
.)6+
. )8•
86 .+
92 . +
Vita.-
g~
,.,, ,..,,
kg)
Zinc
kg)
kg)
,1)1•
. 98 +
)9.+
lo2.+
"''"
'(IU/
g)
VIta-
Vita-
., .,,
min
(IU/
kq )
'"''
kg)
Biotin
(mg/
kq)
"~
,.,,
line
kg)
""
Po11nto-
kg)
,_
VIta- Ribo-
(Fol;t- Mlo11cln)
cin
(mg/
,.,,
kg)
"''
Acid "'"
,.,, ~~/ "'"
,.,,
kg)
kg)
kg)
Thiamine
(mg/
kg)
"'
'"'
"'
'"
"''"
"'
296
297
298
] .+
].+
1, + 1.0) ..
)824, + 9 - 37• 445 . + 9 '- -5+ ]4 .6+ )2.CJ + 86 . 0+
lol\6.+ 10.09+ 479-+ 101.7+ )7 . )+ )S.Io+ 92.6+
189 . •
206.+
"'
)00
)01
)02
)0)
)04
lOS
)06
225.•
250.+
52.+
')].+
-
]0 .+
)], +
)0)
loB
"'
)10
)ll
"'
,,,
)l)
)lk
)16
)I)
6). +
16.•
.SO+
llo,+
.21o+
4)8.+
.20+
)8.+
12 . 0 +
6 . ]+
1.2+
'"
,,,
71·•
18,+
.89+
IS . •
.27+
493-•
. 22+
loJ . +
IJ.Io+
7-S•
1,4+
)20
;21
)22
)2)
'"
),8+
lo,J+
8('
so ·
,,.
Zl'[
....,,
....,,
- so·
+SO'
+'10'
+bt '
+lt '
,. ,.
,.
+'I Z
•' 61
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• LZ '
•'I£ ·
·~ z ·
H ('
•ZZ'
··9
• 6CJ'
•oz ·
+~'
+ QL'
(0'
+' 01
•'It'
•ZL'
•t ( '
+'10 '
+'10 '
+'8 1
•19'
+' 9t
+SS·
+QZ'
• Qt'
...
...
+BZ'
.,.
SS't
(O'
,.,,.
'001
£o •
(0'
-
,.
"' .,,
[Z•
•oo·
•' 001
+00'
.. · £,(,
,,.
"'
,. ..,
ZI'Z
+Zt'
+II'
• 'f( 'I
+ LZ'l
9Z ·
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+ (S '
• 8'1 '
9( '
• St'
+60'
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t ( 't
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l'l'l
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90'1 +0'1 '
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H 't •M ·
• 90'
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6t9-lZ-Z
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lS'I-
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<)OZ-SG-'1
Jaqu \5 '6
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n:q 'IIIJ 111-
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en.-so-s
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+[O'Z
l( •
bz ·
•t S '
•9'1'
+0('
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+ ZL'
+Z O '
+ ZL '
+ZO '
+[Q ' L
+'f('
z" ·
so·
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~Jq -
'4S ~ J J
sp~~s -
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ltr't
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sH-to-t
[Z'L
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£s£ -t o-z
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P~ll !" ~liet !S 'lJeCl II!! JHSOI-ZZ-(
SS1i' J6 -~l!i.l" 'J~IIOIJ ' SSYII'l-SN]d ] ll W0110JIII.l
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p;un ;:, -un s '1\ 14-
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.,,
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91'
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OL't +S Z'
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+ 'l}L
+ ' 'II
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[I[ J;Je-
'00 1
01'
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-
'lJitd
'VWI!LI:IY W W3N t'JII n
)eatlllOOOIS '"'13 ' VilOJINidii Y:l Snlolln
80'
[O '
,., .
l,ISOIJ )
UOJuot'~
o11n
(I•
• [0 '1
09(
St~lt-t
"'
""
lz(
9lt
'001
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l.lS ~JJ
'OIS,.OJq -
Sz£
ptill.lilUO:J 'ilual.ttJ_ ' SOl'O'.lldY') SO WAH.l
t'' f6w)
t''
/~W}
...,,,
"'
11e q
-OJ
(\)
JnJ
- tns
(\)
Uri!P
-os
(>)
(\)
sn J
""!'
-sn -ot.ld
-Od -SOI.id
(>)
(>)
1161 !5
~U t J
~u
-ott.lJ
(\)
(t)
Uri!;) JillltW
-tt')
,,,
JilqwnN
POIOIJ
ttUO!l
OIWIN pililj
[tUO!liUJ:Il UI
,.(JlU]
-fitW
{ ' lUOJ) SPililj ue:J!JH' pi!SO ,(\UOUI!>OJ ;;wQS j O lUOllUOJ U!Ul'l!" pu• \ IJOIU!W ' SZ Ol( Qii'J.
961
197
Han·
·-
Entry
...,,), ...,,), ,.,,,,) ,.,,,,) ,.,,,,)
d]/'Ul
Iron
·~
ne$e
Sele-
,,~
Zinc
.
Vitamin
(I U/
g)
Pan t o-
Folic
Ill tamin
Aci d
VIta-
,, ,,.,
" ,.,.,
"",,)
,,) ',,)
111 in
11io-
(IU/
...,,),
'"~
l i ne
,. ,
(f'o l..- Niaci ,)
cir~
( mg/
,,)
•ol
Vita-
,,
nic
min
{mg/
(mg/
,,..
~ibo-
.
Thlami ne
""
,,) , ,
,,) ,,) ,.,,
''I
•I n
321
326
327
328
329
JJD
JJ•
Jl2
65.+
1 ]. +
)61.+
72.•
.2]+
429.+14 0 ,+
.)0+
~
JJJ
JJ'
76- •
1 S6.+
152.+
loO.+
169 . +
lo S. +
-
10 . +
11. +
I S.+
1]. +
-
lo. ] +
llo.l+
IS.J•
).8 ..
1 ] . 0 ..
lo.h
8 . ] +1], ) +
IJ . ] .. 14 . 8+
JJS
336
lJ7
338
m
3'0
'"
3"
96.+
.0] +
111\.+ 11] , +
. &s+
.0]+
1$6. + 129. +
, ]2+ 106 .+
.]8+
.112•
IZ io l,+
1)]1.+
.11 +
• 12+
1jlt, + 114.•
· II• 86.+
- .zs•
1271. •
9]8, +
3'3
3"
3' 1
"'
J'7
1102. +
61 , + 12 ]. +
6 8 .+ 142 , +
3"
"'
310
1011.+ 12].+
.09 +
. 10+
56.•
60 . +
46 , +
49. +
. 8) +
95 .+
312
-
353
35'
145.+
15 ], +
)8 .+
,. 1,+
-
-
.... .
Jll
316
317
318
319
360
1!9. +
181. +
,..
].•
6 1 1, +
662 . +
· 97'+
26 . •
29. +
1].0•
'})
1] . 5+
...
! lo,]+
-
-
S-9+
6.6+
2. 1• IS . li•
2.)+1].1+
5. 6 + l),)+
6.)+26.2 +
1.08+ 10).+
l'} . lo+
.24•
6CJ.+
J7.+
!8.6t 10 . 1+
20.9+ 11.)+
.10+
.11+
895. +
965. +
. 45+
.48+
60. +
65. •
11.9+
12.8+
, ) 1+
,)4+
1015. +
1118 .+
1.09+ 11]. +
1. 20+ 129 . +
.....
8.6+
9-5+
8.9+
9.9+
2.14+
2.'-0+
3) ,+
) 5. +
"'
),8 +
lo.Z +
llo09.+
.zz,..
CJ6. + 105 . +
105. + 116 . +
28.11+10.}+
]l,lo+ 11,4•
)08CJ. +
)465. +
.2]+
, lo]t 120. +
-52+135· •
.29+
,)1 +
!. 81 + 191. +
2.00+212.+
) .6+
3 . ..
1).8+ 10 . 6 ...
15 . 2 .. 11.]+
1,\+
1. 2+
5.0•
s .4+
2.1 + 15.4+
2.4+ 1] . 0+
2.2 +
2 .4+
-
198
Tilble 1S. f'l i ne~•l M~d Vit.,.in Content of Some t OifW!IOnly Used lfr iC:iln reeds (Cont.)
·-
.
Entry
)61
1118\JRNUM TINUS. Laurestinus
-bro .. se . fresh
f'lilg-
,,
Ory
Number
I>)
tio!'lill
lnternltlonll
FeedN.-e
1-1]-i;JI]
)6l
"·
VIC lA FAU.
Bro~be¥1
S-<19-262
)64
I>)
Crdo- nerine
··~
\" (\)
1-ol~loS
-hily, sun-cured
S-(l1-fl61
369
liD
1-(ll-6lo9
.18
"· ·"
.)8
')0.
1.)0
.IS +
100.
1,U
,I]+
...,..
92 .
.10
100.
.10
·"·
.1] •
.29+
-aer i•l part. fresh,
2-()2-801
late bloom
)]2
l7l
l7'
-aerl1l pilrt, fresh, .. ilk stoage
2-<12-302
)75
-aerial part. sl l'9e . mllk st0119e
H)2-818
)76
l77
-Hrlill part.
sll~e,
,.ilk suqe,
-aerial
sil~e .
douqh stage
,,.
)78
l79
~rt,
]-o2-81'~
)80
-a.er1a1
)8)
-aer i al part vithout
husks, su~ured
)"
''·
~rt.
sil~e,
dough
.)0
22.
100.
.07
"·
"·
)).
sta~;~e,
few )-16-367
)) .
100.
~~~s
without
385
)86
'"
-cobs, QrOI.I'Id
J89
-ear s,
1-(12-776
')0 .
1-(12-782
')0 .
...
100.
~-o2-81r.9
~;~rot.l'ld
390
100.
)91
-~:ars
'"m
-qr!ts by-prod..:;t
with husks.
~;~rot.l'ld
lo-<12-8SO
4-Ql-887
l9'
"·
•oo.
-g,.,in
/'1.1.'1'5 1NOE:HTITA. 1'\aiz.e . dent
-~;~ r ain,
QrOI.I'Id
y~:llow
lo-26-<123
.10
..,
·"
.20
...
·"
.os
1.06
.os
.os
. 12
Co-
Coo-
bOll it
(mg/
( mg/
,,, ''",,,
-
2.0lo+
2. 2(, •
,1]•
.JS+
.01•
1.20+
.16•
.u••
1.)0+
,I]+
.28+
-
.59
·"
·"
·"
.0]•
.0]•
87.
. 04•
.Qio+
·"
.02
. 26+
. 29•
. 06•
·"
·"
·" ·"·
·"
"·
.]2+
.]8+
.OS+
.06+
,0] •
.OS •
.lit+
-
.lit+
• 16 •
.OS•
.06 +
.2lo•
.26+
.02-t
.02-t
.os
.21o+
. )2•
. 06+
,,....
.]9•
1. 57•
·"
...
·"
·"
·''
.20
-
• 5)
100.
100.
.10+
.lol+
.os -
.05
100.
zu
l97
)98
4-(12..,28
.]2
'"'
(\)
. ))
.10
.os -
')0.
ZEA MAVS 1N0[NTATA. l'taize. dent white
)95
)96
(\)
Sui-
. )0
·"
·"
·"
.))
"· ·''
.oo.
~-o2-8~1
)88
.OS+
,lol•
.os -
100 .
100.
)8•
)82
di~
92.
100.
3-16-366
( \)
·-
•oo.
lEA MAYS . ~lze
l7'
,;.,..
.,
·" ·"
100.
367
)68
\>l
. OJ
.08
VIGNA SINENSIS, Cowpeil, c01m10n
l6S
)66
,...,_
PI'IOs- Po-
. I)
1.]0
100.
)6)
C•l-
~tter CI YII
.01·
-
-
·"
1.0')<
.06•
1.28+
.0]+
·"
·"
··'
.6S•
.]Z.
•• 6
·''
·"
.2 ..
. 29•
·"
·"
. ]8+
.87•
.lob+
.SJ•
.08+
.08•
-
• ~2·
.It]•
.•2•
.lo]t
.12+
. 1)+
,,....
. 02+
. 02+
.14 •
.16 •
.1]•
. )1 +
7.•
8.•
.12 •
.1] +
-
.03 •
.OJ •
.OS+
.06•
lit. +
IS.•
. 06t:07 ..
6.•
.... .]1•
.SIJ•
.6S•
.08+
. 09 •
.26•
.]0•
.12•
• 1~ ..
. 2)
.26
.)2 ..
• )6 ..
,..
'·'
,!lot
.l]t
.0)+
·"·
.II•
.69•
1.02 ..
,..
...
).•
199
..
".
nese
·~
Vi u -
Se l e-
Ent ry d ine
Ir o n
,_
,..,,
,,, ,.,,
,,, ,.,,
,,, ....,,,,
'"
n i ~
,.,,
"'"
k9 1
ol
Zinc
'( IU/
vi u -
,,
111in
(IU /
kg )
Vl t ~
" '"
'"
'"''
•ol
Fol lc
P ~ to-
(f o l.- Niac ln )
c in
n ic
"~
,..... '" '
"~
,.,,
...., ,.,, ,.,, ,.,, ....••, ,.,,
VI a- llltu~
Bio-
' '"
'""'
kg)
I ine
•ol
•ol
'" in
vi n
Acid
k9)
kol
•ol
-
k9)
Th i •111 l ne
k9)
"''"
36]
"'
J6S
SH.•Io) l),+
] 66
600.+485 .•
'"
'"""
'"
216.+
42. +
25.+
16.0+
2)5.+
loS.•
27. •
1} . )+
.,....
s.J•
,_,.
)68
2.]+ 1).6+
2.5+ IO.Io+
l1l
l7l
"'
'"
liS
J7)
liB
319
JSO
,,,
'"
'"'"
"'
,'"..
'"'
,,"'
1}0.+
200.+
]86
"'
'"
"'
,,.m
"'
"'
20 7. •
2)0 . ..
. 02 +
.0) +
......
16,+
. 09•
42.+
18.+
. 00.
lo ] .+
-
79-•
20 . +
.0] +
91. +
2). +
. oq .
....
12. •
.0) +
llo. +
1.5+
1.7+
].8 ..
1.0+
lo.2+
JSS. •
.21! ..
1}. +
11.1 +
loll.+
.28•
20 ....
4.8+
lo.6 ..
5.2+
...
1.0+
..... ·•·
5-9 •
1.0+
2.9+
),]+
'·"·
\\, +
1.5+
6}.•
Jlo.+
75. +
16.+
26. +
. ..
...
]') . •
10, )
,. . . ...
/.•
so ...
-
.
.
.}0+
loJ.+
8.2+ 10.9+
2 . 1+
8.0+
,) I!+
52.+
I). I+ 12.1+
2.1o.
8.1)+
.06+
IS . +
l,,.lo+
1/ . ..
).8 +
lo . ...
1.}+
.iJ}+
20. +
2) .+
s.s. .
1.2•
!.lo+
lo.lo•
,1 )+
.IS+
20. +
2).•
] ,lo+
] . 9+
.06 +
.07+
115 1.+
1280.+
loglo,+
sEtS .•
.)0 +
.)lo+
s.~+
.
'.s• s...
) .8•
200
Table 25. Kiner•l and Vitamin Content o f Some t OITI'IOOnly Used Afr ico.n Feeds (Cont . )
·-
Ent r y
,,..,
tiona!
lnternatiOnll
Feed Name
,,,
Call'latter c! ~n
(>)
(>)
f'lag Cillo-
n~
si~~n
(~)c I'
I
,.,._
PhOS-
P~
"'
ttl
SiU!I
di llll
(>)
(>)
1.06
2.20
1.23
s..-
ZIZIPHUS LOTUS. Jujtbe , l otus
399
- bro wse, f resh
2-27-616
39.*
400
"'
"'
lYGOPHYLLUI'I AlBUPt . Be.Jr>Ca!)er,white
-browse, fresh
2-17-615
...
100.
·"
.20
.,
Sui-
'"
'"
Cotlalt
Cop,.,
(mg/
( mg/
kg)
,,,
201
,.,_
Ent,.y
"'
""
•••,
..
·--,,)
dine
lrol'l
nese
lmg/
lmg/
( mg/
,,, ,,I
"'~
lmg/
.
Vi tilmin
SeleZinc
l mg /
'') ,, )
(IU/
g)
Folie
VI til-
Vlt~
,, ,..,,
,,) '",,J ,,J
min
(IU/
P01nto-
Acid
8io-
Ch<>-
tin
( mg/
line
(mg/
,,J
(Fola- Nia-cll•)
cin
( mg/
(l'fl9/
kg)
kg)
"~
Vit.- Ribo111in
rio- Thiil-
"" .,
Acid
mine
"'" ( mg/
,,, ,,,
,,J ( mg/
,,J l mg/
lmg/
202
Proximate Compos i t i on and Energy Content of Some Coovnon I y Used Asian
Table 26 .
Digestible Protein
,_
Entr y
lnte rnat lonOIII
Feed Name
001
002
-blood , meal
003
004
-meat, meo11l r endered
oos
006
-meat
00/
008
Intern.tiona!
,,,
r eed
t'I,Jlter
Number
(\)
S-Q0-380
with
bone , meal
s-oo-385
rendered
s-oo-388
ARACHIS HYPOCAEA. Peanut
-aerial part, fre5h
2-<13-638
1-<1)-619
01•
-pods
1-oB-o28
"'
-seeds without coats
s-oJ-657
017
0>8
-seeds without coats , meal mechar1ical
S-GJ-61.9
0>9
020
-seeds without co.us, mec:l'lani c al
s-oJ-6t.B
021
022
-stems ,
016
c•ked
2-IS-IoloS
fresh
023
021
1-30-12 1
ARTOCARPIJS HETEAOPHYLLUS. Jackfruit
-le aves, fresh
s.o
'·'
17.1
"·
26.
as.
.8
.8
l.S
3.8
...
2. /
2. 9
.s
1.9
12.]
48,2
26.3
1. 9
2. 2
]lo . l
24 . ]
...
'·'
6.7
'"
m
'-'
'·'
/.3
··~
(i~"
79.1
56. ~. 56 .~ ,
8] . 6
&2 . 4+ b2
50.2
loQ,Q+
8.1
ss.t.
2].]
47.5
51.7
29.8
...
2.2
3 .8
-gradn
029
0)0
-tlay, $Un-c;:ured
031
0)2
'"""""
falo
m
-
-
40.01 44,4+ lo4.4+
H.2 + 44 . 2; 41J.I+49.h
-
4S.J•IoS.3•
loCJ,J•
lo9.)+
2.8•
2.7*
2.7*
2.7•
11 . 0• 10.6 • 10 . 6• 10.6*
10.3* 10.911 10.2 * 10.2•
39.9 28 . 9
11.6
17.)
12.1 *12 .] 11\1.9* 11.9•
35 .2
~ 1 .8
3./
39 .3
~6 .
...
7-7
a.s
•• I
23.1
1.3
92 .
10,0
~.~.
10.8
1.8.2
8.s
9.2
25.1
1].2• 1] . 21
1.5
1. 6
2. 3 )0 . 2
2.S 32 . 6
12 . ]+ 22.U
1.9,1
1}.2
14. )
/.1
27.6
5-3
/.2
42.]+42.]142.2•42,,•
"·
1],\
100.
8.]
9.1
s
"·
"· ,.,
~s.
3
)0.8
29.6
7
...
'·' ..'·',
'·' ..,
s.3
42,4
) . 8"
~.
1.,2:!o
~-5*
1*
3-9""
1..3 *
}.911"
1.. 3•
15.8•15.81
-
11.. 5+ 24 - ~ -
lo } . J
47.6•47 . 611.].1 +4 ].1•
U.9
lo0,5
lo9.1
lolo.2
loO . S
lo lo.2
SL
L2
21.)
..,
1.2*
lol.S
3.9
/./
l.lo*
2. 3
21.7
lo2. ]
3. 2
100 .
2.8•
2. 3•
].1•
) ,I *
88 .
·'
26 . 0
lo] . l
/./
8.7
•. s
2 .8•
2.9*
...'·'
) . 2•
·'
2.9*
1.0
) .) •
],]*
),1*
9 . 8•
,.
3.0•
q, ~ ·
). 1•
9.b•
).1•
9.6•
8.•
6 . 4•
],1*
5.4•
5.9 •
5.1o•
5.9•
3 ••
) .o• 2.9•
29.5
)2.
100.
LO
].1
15 . 7 /.2
48.9 22.5
11.7
1).8
100.
"·
5.1
s.•
62 . )
69.0
9.8
10.8
3. S
3.8
,.8
10.8
1-o)-28o
92.
100.
2.0
2. 2
3 )0.2
8 .•
48.4
]3 . 0
1-o]-28)
as.
2.3
2.7
41.0
48. 3
'·'
32.6
38.4
5-7
6.7
100.
BAMB USA SPP .
8uf -
ilo,B
1.0
4-o)-)09
(\)
15.0
53-5
]./
AliENA SATIVA, 06lS
027
028
.~ ,
tat<lo
10.0
100,
2-27-195
SheepC.oat
(>)
(ti
"·
100 .
e~ttr..cted
1.3
LS
(%)
18,9
100.
0"
rlber
(%)
12.5
100.
s-oJ-653
"'
1] . 8
100.
-pods with seeds
Crude
tract
m
10 . 0
10.9
100.
-hay, sun-cured
02S
02b
91.
··-
Total
100.
100.
009
010
"'
on
"·
100.
Ether
~.~.
...
/.2
3 .•
'·'
l.b*
1.6•
) . }•
).2•
2.9•
) . 2•
·"
.I'
.2•
. 2•
.3 •
.3•
] . 8•
8.8•
8 . 2•
9·3"
].7•
].7•
8 .8•
•.o
... ...
033
03'
-bro .. ,e. sun-c::ur ed
1-2'}-502
sa.
100.
.8
29.9
)4,1
n .o
18.0
20.6
12.0
)0.8
OJS
O)b
-leaves. sun-cur ed
1-l<r-503
88.
2.9
].3
32 . 8
3].2
26.4
)0 . 0
10.1
11.5
15 . 8
18 . 0
11.211 11. ]11 11.0* 11,0*
\1,]• IJ.J* 12.5*12 - 5•
1.0
2.5
1).9
)6 .)
11.6
)0.2
s.•
1.1. . 5
16.5
4,8• 4.6• 4.1)• 4.6•
12 . 4• 12 . 0• 11 . 9• 11.9•
100.
BAI1BUSA 1/ULC.AIIIS .
037
0]8
-1e•ves, fresh
S~oo.
·'
c::mrnon
2-29-388
)8.
100.
l j .]
.. ,
8.8•
203
Feeds.
Data Expressed on an As -Fed and Dry Basis (Mo i sture Free)
Energy for C.Oats
Ener9y for Sheep
feed
Entry DE
"",.,
"'
TON
(1'1ca1 ( M e;~ \
/kg)
(\)
/kg)
so.•
"'
Unit
DE
""
(Mcal (Me ill
/kg) /kg)
/kg)
Energy for Buffalo
Energy for t<Jttle
TON
Feed
Unit
m
/kg)
(FU
DE
"'
N£ 111
lUg
HEt
( Mc411 (l'lo;al (Meal (11ul (Meal
/kg)
/kg)
/Kg) /kg)
/kg)
001
002
3.51"'].14*
),88* ).41*
88,11 1. 2)* ),88/].lo]i
as.,
00]
) . 65* ) . 28*
4.0io* ).63*
8).* 1.16* ] . 651].281
8J,J 1.16/).82•).45*2.17* 1.52 *2.0 1•
92.# 1.291 4.22• ).81• 2.40* 1.6S• 2. 22*
005
006
2. lo6* 2 . 0]*
2.6S*2 . 26*
56 . •
61.•
. ]~* 2.lo6j 2.071
.So• 2.6a1 2. 261
56 . 1
61.,
007
ooa
. ]5 * .61. •
2. 95* 2. 51~
1], *
67.*
.2) * .]51 .61ol
.90* 2.95#2.531
009
010
2. 11o• 1.]8•
2. 51* 2.08•
lo9. •
57.•
"'
012
-95 11
1.06*
. SO*
.62 •
Oil
3.551> ].17*
].a6to ],4)*
"·
"·
'"
'"
015
"'
92.• 1. 29* lo.Oiof ) . 6]1
~.M*
J . 6l* 2.28* 1.59"' 2. 12*
020
].18* 2.80 *
] . loS• ].06•
'"
1.25* 1,0]* 28. •
2.loJ* 2. 00* 55.•
02]
2.29* 1.92 *
2. 60* 2. 1]*
)2.
"·
"·
"·
025
026
.8911 .]6* 20.*
2.79* 2. 37* 6) . *
027
028
L]O
2.55
1.88
2.08
029
0]0
2.27
2. 1o8
1. 85
2. 02
"'
1.91* 1. 55*
2.25• 1. 82*
/kg)
"'
(Meal
/kg)
Unit
m
(ru
/kg)
8]. • 1.16*).65• ).28•
92.* 1.29•4.0'-• ) .6)*
8).* 1.16•
92.* 1. 29"'
8],11 1.22•
J,Bz• J.~s·
96.• 1.]5*1. . 22* ].8\t
8] . * 1 . 22*
96.• 1.35*
.]a*
1.]1*
l.lo] •
.]6 * 1,]]*
.Slo t l.lo9•
60.*
66 . •
.]a * 2.57*2 .1 9
.as• 2.ao• 2.18
60.*
66.•
.as•
.2 ]1 .n• . 62* .}7•
.90/2.8io •2 . io2• 1.45*
. 37•
67./
.87• l,lo6*
16. •
64. *
.22 * ·12 * . 62•
.ao• 2.8b 2.lo2•
It).*
61o.•
.22*
.86•
.6) * 2.1lo#1.781
. ]lot 2.51# 2.0Sj
"9 -l
57-1
. 6)12.09* 1.]) * . 99*
.]lol 2.lo5 * 2.02* \,16•
.51 * 1.06*
.60* 1.21o t
lo].*
55 . •
.61 *2.0':1* 1.73 *
.72 * 2. loS * 2.02*
.20* .<;lSI
. 22* 1.061
22.1
2lo . /
. 20# -95*
.121 1.06*
22.•
2lo.•
.20*
.56#
. 62#
1],1
.ao1
.2'2•
.56* -.03*- .49•
.62 * -.03* -.51o•
.42•
. 4]1>
81 . 1 1.1)/ ] .lo2 * ).Oiot 1.90* 1.2';1* \,]<;! ~>
sa., 1.221 3-7'* ].]0* 2. 0]* I. loU 1.9lo*
OJ]
.9<;1•].1.5
1.09* ).77
2.82
) . 08
.]]*1.25/1,0]/
.n• z.loJI 2.001
.68•
.n•
.9]
1.06
77-1 1.071 ).0011 2.6]
as., \,19# }.35* 2.9]
)8.
"·
28./
55-l
·"
·" "·"·
1.6)* 1.19* 1.67*
\.8211 1. }2* 1.86•
1.00* 3.DO* J, 22* 2.03* 1.'-0* \,89•
1.09* ].9)* ).52* 2.21 * 1.5 ]* 2.06*
.,..
.95•
.22 • 1.06*
.62 •
]8 . * l.o8* ] .lo2 * ) . Oio•
Sio.• 1.17* ] .71* ) .]0*
55.*
.61*
. ]2*
22 . *
2lo. •
.20*
.22•
lo],*
7a.• 1.08*
Blo.t 1. 17*
.,.
73.* .9] " ] . 00* 2.6]
81.* l.OittJ.JS* 2.93
73.* . 9]11
81.* l,Oio*
82 . • I. I lot ].60• 3.22• 82 . * 1. 1lo*
89.* 1.25•3 . 93• ] .52 * 89.* 1.25*
-371 1.21*
.ss•
.71/2 . 35* 1.92*' 1.08*
.61*
.53* 1.18•
2].*
53.*
.]5* 1.21 *
.68•2.35* 1. 92*
·"'
2].*
5J.•
.]5•
.68*
. 2]* 1. 66• 1.28"'
,]\* 1.88• ' - ~5*
.62 *
.]0*"
. 15*
.17*
. 82•
.93*
]8 . •
I,].*
. ~5* 1.66• 1.28*
.51* 1.88• l.loS*
)8 . •
~3. *
.loS*
. 51*
• ~7·
,2]t
-73*
.o6•
.1')'
.]0*
.9lo*
"·
''·
,\]* .6 1• . ~ 7*
. 52 *" 1.91 * l.loB*
"·
''·
. \]*
.52*
. 95• ].06" 2.68•
. 61*
1.91*
.2]*
.27 * .891 . ]6/
, 81o•2.7912 . J7t
20-1
6]. /
.67*2.}0# 1.881
.1lo* 2.551 2.081
60.#
66 . /
.671 ).06* 2.b8• 1. 67* 1.09* 1.59*
. 11.1 J,JS* 2.9}*" 1.84• 1. 21* 1.76*
}7.* 1.05* ),)8• 2.97*
69.* -95*
11·* LOS*
. 66*2 . 27/1.851
. ]2* 2.1181 2.021
59.1
61o .j
.66/2.11* 1. ]1*
.]2/ 2.)0* 1.87• 1.0"*
·"'
. ~5• 1.06•
.1.9• 1.16*
loS.•
52 . •
.61*2.11* \,]1*
.6&• 2. ]0• 1.8 7•
loS.•
52 . *
. 61•
.66*
51 . *
. ss• 1.9111 . 551
.65 *2 . 25# 1. 821
4] . #
51.#
.sst 1. 9lo * 1.57• .8]*
.65/2 . 28• 1.S5• 1.0]*
.~o ·
. 97*
. 48 • 1,15*
lolo. *
52 . *
. 56* 1.9lo* 1.57*
.66* 2.2a• 1.85•
H.*
52.*
. 56•
.66•
1.82 * \ , lolo* 1.\, t
2.08* 1.65 * 4] . •
. 51* 1. 82t1.4loj
.58*2 . 0al 1. &51
lol.j
lo]./
. 51 # 1.69* 1. ]2*
.58# 1.93* 1.50*
.19*
.21*
. 95'
]B . •
ltJ.. •
,lo] * 1.69* 1. 32*
-53* 1.9]* 1.50*
]8 . •
lolo. •
.lo]*
.53*
-57* \,1)*
.65* \, 28*
so.•
57.*
. 66*2.22* .a~·
·1•* 2. 52* 2.10*
~0. *
57-*
·"'
.25* .lo9*
.61.* 1.27*
22 . *
57-*
.28*
·"'
22.*
57-*
.28•
.]lo*
"·"·
"·
''·
lo).*
.271
.a~,
l.~a·
.65*
-75*
"'
'"
2.22• 1.85•
2.52* 2. 10*
so.•
57-•
. 66• 2.22# 1.851
.]lo* 2.521 2.101
so . ,
57-1
.66, 2. 22* 1.85• 1.07*
• 7~~ 2. 52* 2. 10* 1.22*
037
0]8
1.0)* .8 ]•
2.69* 2.26*
2] . *
61.•
,]1* 1.0]/ .au
.so• 2.691 2.26t
2)./
61.1
,)1# .96*
.~6·
,80#2.51* 2. 08• 1.21 *
035
(Mciil
2.So• 2.38
n.• 1. 0]1t),)aj) . 011
as . • 1.19*3 - 77/3.)6/
'"
0]2
1.231
( ru
/kg)
5. ]0to lo.9"* DO.* 1.75 * 5.)01 lo.94l 120 . / 1.7S#S . IoJ*S.07*3 . 1':1*2.J3* 2.91 * 123. * 1.ao•S.1o}t5.07* 12], * 1.ao•
s.nw 5.33* 1)0.• 1.89• 5.721 5.331 1]0.1 1. a915.a6• 5.47•J .Io1ot 2.51*J.IIo* \]).* 1.9"* 5.86* S-"7* 133 . * 1.9lo*
}.]a•J.O I*
3.77* ].)6*
'"
80 . 1 1. 11/ ) .65* ) . 28• 2.07* 1.44 11 1.92*
f eed
DE
,]lot 2.57* 2.19
Sl.• 1.1)* ].SS/3.171
88.• 1.22• J.a6 t J.1.Sl
017
018
022
1.11*).51#).141
'"
("
feed
Unit
·""'
. 84•
69. *
,
.SO•
.]U 2.51* 2.08•
.71.*
204
Tab l e 26 . Pro><imate Composition and Energy Content o f Some C01m10nly Used Asian Fe eds (Cont.)
Digestible Protein
·-
Intern..tion a I
Feed
Entry
International
Feed Name
,,, ,,_
Toul
Ether
Cr ude
, , ~
~.Jtter
tra<::t NFE
f iber Ash
tein
SheepC.Oat
1%1
1%1
t>l
ttl
ttl
1%1
m
m
Cat-
B~o~f -
"'
1%1
1%1
falo
BOMB'fX 110AI. Silkwor m
039
5-11-787
-pup ae , dehydrated
"O
9>.
14.0
100.
15 . ~
9'·
.]
.]
1.,
>.6
80S SPP. Catt le
s-o•-•7s
o;,
0"
-sk i ..,.,. ilk , dehydrated
o•J
-sld ""' ilk , fresll
5-Q I - 1 ]0
o•5
o•6
-wl'ley , dehydrated
4-QI-182
O"
0'7
"'
100.
BAACHLAAIAitUTI CA. Paragrau
-ae r lil l part, fre sh
2-Q]-525
2-10-25 1
051
052
-ae rial part , s il ag e
3 ~ 3 -529
053
05'
-nay, s un- c ured
H J3 -517
2~1~47
2~1-715
-hay, sun-cured
1~9- 7 4 3
061
062
-leaves, sun-cured
1-11-772
06J
-pods wit h seed s , u.n-cured
" -2 "-275
5-o3-716
Co\11\CAPAPAY.I.. Papaya
-browse . f resh
068
0]1
1.5
·'
11.8
47.6
-leaves , fresh
Jlo .S
8. 2
]6 . ]
]\.2
.]
) .5
6 .•
] 1.6
).0
7-7
12.8
8.1
).2
]1.6
12 . 5
14.1
j .D
1\,8
29.9• 29.91
3 1. 7• 31.7#
9. 2• 9. 2• 8.1* 8.1•
9.0*
g.o•
1. 9*
7-5•
2.0•
2.0*
]. 9 *
] . 9*
.9•
1.1 *
4.1t •
1.1*
4,4 *
10.1 • 10.1 *
>.6
6. 2
7-8
,_,
) 1.4
11.8
1.9
7.6
2.2
8. )
1. 0*
] . 8•
1.0*
1. 0*
) . 8~
J ,B t
).8•
7.0
7-9
2. 0
2. 2
} . 5*
4,0 *
) . ]*
) . }*
).8•
].8•
. 6•
.6•
.6•
8. )
...
1.0*
4 . 1*
I .0*
3.7 *
]7.5
]1.0
17.2
26.5
)0.1
IO.Io
100.
lt1.6
~ 7. 4
'·
.1
j .)
1.5
.a
.a
.a
)7.2
19 . 6
19 . 7
20. ~
16 . 0* 15 . 5* 15 . 2* 15.2*
18.2
54.6
) . )
22 . 0
1. 8
5-'
) . 5* ) . ]* }.lo* ),U
10. ~· 10.0*10.1* 10 . 1*
11.9
2-29-" 35
2-29-4 34
5-28-264
)l .
1.2
...
).6
100.
2.) 44.) 26.7
2. 5 49 . 2 29.7
...
I ~.4
100 .
5.0 ) 8 . 2 19.0
5. 6 41 . 8 21.)
5.1
5.7
22.0
2" . 6
16.6• 17.4 * 16 . ]* 16.) *
18.6• 19 .5 * 18.2• 18.1•
"·
2. 6 39 - 7 1 ].0
2.9 " J,I 29.3
6.1
16. 7
18 . 1
11,8* 12. 4• 11.6• 11.6*
12 .8* \],lo t 12.6* 12.6*
89 .
1. )
100.
'-'
89.
2).
18.
88.
100 .
5-27-968
...
.6•
100.
100.
CEIBo\PENU.NOf!A, KapOk
-seeds
·'·'
] . ]
•.6
5.9
88.
100 .
CASSIA TORA. Senna, si c kle
-seeds
10 . 0
.1
•6
64 .5
2.,
2.7
2] .
100 .
065
066
'"
Dll
"'
10 . ]
4\,8
100 .
CAJANUSCAJAN. Pigeonpea
-aerlii11 piilrt, fre s h
059
069
DID
.6
2.•
25 .
77.2
..·'
5.]
6. )
Ca bba~e
'"
'"
"·
100.
'"
. 2 6.6
>.6 59.8
]0 . 2
\00 .
BRASSICA OLERACEA CAP 1TATA.
-out side le iil ves . f resn
54 . 0
.5
.6
100.
part, fres h , l atevegetn ive
-al'!rial
057
o5a
9>.
100.
"9
050
055
056
\00.
50 . 9
5.1
5. 6
86.
100.
9-l
'·'
'-'
9. )
42,1
4 7. 2
10 . 0
11. ]
16 . 2
18.1
19 . 6
21 .9
1.6 9-D
7. 0 39 . 6
6. 2
27.2
2.2
9-5
16.7
1.1
&.2
7. )
).5
1.9
).9
41.1
19. 8
10.9
22 . 0
6.8 "8.6
7- 7 54.9
10 . )
6 . 6 1] . 4
7-5 19.7
21. . 0
28.0
6. 1 2] . 5
7-' 2].4
12.1
14.2
20.0
2).4
9.1
).8
lo.4•
4 . 9*
~.
7*
5. 2•
lo.S *
s.o•
4.5*
5.0*
2.9* 2.8• 2. 7* 2. 7*
12 . 5* 12.1* 12 . 0 * 12 . 0*
).1* ).0* 2.9* 2.9*
17.5* \],1 * 1&.6* 16.6•
205
Energy f or Goats
Energy for SlleeD
"
EntryOE
( l"ocill ( 1'\c;al
/ kg) /kg)
Feed
Un it
m
(FU
/kg)
DE
"'
(11c:i11 ( ."tea l
/ kg) /kg)
Energy for tattle
Feed
Unit
(FU
/k9)
m
DE
"'
Enerl_Jy f o r Su ff alo
HE m
NEg
(f'lcal (Me al {Kcal ( Jical
/kg)
/kg)
/kg)
/kg)
,,, TO'
Un it
DE
m
( FU
(Meal (Mc;al
/k g )
/ kg)
( Meal
lkt;~}
Feed
"'
/kg)
88.11 1.15*].89•} .52 *
97 . * 1.)8•4.29* ).89*
TON
m
].09* }.]2 *
Sit.• \ ,18* ] . &91 3.321
'+.0811' ).67 * 92 . * 1.)0* lo .OBI ) . 6U
Sit . # 1.18# ) . 89• ] . 52• 2.22 * 1.56• 2.05*
92 ./ 1.301 4.29* ].89* 2.'-S* 1.]3*2 . 27*
0"
) . 56* ), 18*
) . 79* ].31 •
81.• 1.13*).56#).18#
86 . • 1.20* ) .]91 }.37/
81.#1. 1]1 2. 77*2 . ]8
!.lolo•
1.50*
66 . •
.8h 2.17*2.)8
66.•
86 . / 1.201 2.9h 2. 52
1.5)* 1.02* 1. 59*
70. *
.91)* 2.9 ..
]0.*
O"
,loJ• .]9*
].93* ].52 •
Sg.• 1.25• 3-931 ).521 89.1 1.25#2 . 94*1.52
]0 . *
.89* 2.94 • 2.';2
O' '
].]]*
0'7
0"
2.0}
O'>
o•J
o••
10.•
,14•
.It)#
. )9#
2.99*
76. • 1.06* ).37# 2.991
} . ] 1*].}0*
84.•1.17* ),]1#).)01
·''
·''
1.66
11.
"·
10./
.141
.n•
.28
....
,I]• ,II* • 18*
1. 5}• 1. 02* 1.59*
76 . # 1.061 }. 06• 2.b8• 1.66• 1. 09* 1,59*
8~., 1.1]1 ].)6* 2. 95 * 1.8 )• 1.20* 1.75*
. IS* . 521 .4}1
-59* 2.03/ 1.66#
1 2.1
lob . #
.151 .64• .sJ• .]0*
.591 2.48 • 2.06* 1,19•
. 531
llo.j
.191
.so•
56 . •
.IS*
1~-
. 64~ -53* I~. t
2.57*2 . 15* 58. •
.76• 2. 5712 . 151
sa.,
05'
051
\4, •
.63 * .52 *
2. )8• 1.95* 54 . •
. 63/ .52#
.&9* 2.38# 1.951
14.,
5~.
os•
013
1. 52
1.73
I, 2~
I.~ I
35.
.44• 1.521 1.24#
.so• 1.]31 I.~,,
35.1
J9,J
055
056
,II* .09111
2. 75' 2.33*
62 . *
'·'
.0)*
.8)*2.75#2.}31
....
62.1
057
058
1.00* . 86•
2.99* 2.57111
2).*
68 . •
. )0* 1.001 . 86/
.91* 2.991 2. 57#
059
060
2.1 5• 1. ]6*
2.39• 1.9&*
49 . *
5~ · *
.6]* 2.15#1.761
• ]0• 2.391 1.961
0"
061
2.69• 2.]1•
].01*2.59*
61.•
68.•
.82• 2.&91 2.)11
-92• ),01 1 2.591
06)
06'
2. 49* 2.10*
2. 70• 2.2S•
56 . •
61.•
• 74* 2. ~9# 2. 10# 56./ . ]41 2.47• 2.08* 1.2)*
.81• 2.70#2 . 28# 61. # . 811 2. 6S• 2.2&• l.)lo*
065
066
2.9 1* 2.54•
) . 26* 2.84•
66.
-90* 2.91 # 2.541 66. # .90# 2.65* 2.2]• 1, )8•
1.01•3.26#2.841 74., 1.01# 2.97• 2.55* 1. 55*
06/
068
-59* .49•
2.59* 2. 17*
1).*
59 . *
069
070
.51* .43 * 12.*
2.87* 2. 45* 65 .•
on
) .25* 2.88•
] . 67* ).26*
74. • 1. 02* 3.251 2. 88, 7'- ·1 1,02/ J,o8* 2.72* 1. 69* 1, 1)* 1. 61*
8) . * 1. 16* ).671 ] . 26# 8)./ 1.16# ) .49*3.07* 1. 91* 1.27* 1.82•
on
2.67 11 2.)1*
] .1 1*2 . 69*
60 . *
71.*
050
on
07'
)9.
I'·
.(,I.J
.18 1r
·"'
.60'
·''
14 . •
*
.l'J•
8. •
. 10*
]0.•
.89*
69.•
-95*
]6.• 1. 0511
.64• .SJ *
. ]]•2 . 48•2 .06•
56.•
.n•
.so•
II. . *
.18*
.18•
....
llo.•
.19*
. ]1*
-59* 1.23*
ss.•
. ]l't.
,181 .&s • . s•• . )1*
.691 2.44"' 2.0111< 1.15*
.I&* . 33*
-59* 1.2)*
IS . *
ss.•
. 19* .65111 .54* IS.*
,]11112,4h 2. 01* ss.•
. 19*
.l\ *
. 44 1 1.55* 1. 1]111
.501 1,]6* 1.33"'
.06111
.0]*
.76 •
.86•
35 . *
40. *
• ~ I * 1.55 * 1,1]111
. ~ 7fl 1.76* 1.))111
.~] fl
,0)1 .10111 ,09• .os•
.8)12.60* 2. 18* 1.28•
,O)fl . OS*
.]1* 1.)3•
2.•
59 . •
•O)fl .10fl
. 77* l.&o* 2. !8111
59.*
.n•
2), 1
68. /
,)0/1. 0)* .89•
.91 / ).09*2.&7*
.ss•
.)4*
2) . *
I.&~*
-53*
1.0]* 1.60*
]0 . *
.32* 1.0)111 . 89*
. ')5*).09*2.&7*
2].*
]0 .*
. 32*
-95*
~9 - 1
54 .1'
.6312 . 17"' 1.78• 1.02*
. ]0/2.41* 1.98• 1.1)•
-51* 1,01*
-57* 1.22*
so.•
ss.•
.&)* 2.17•1 . 78•
• 70* 2.~1 .. 1.98•
so.•
55-*
. 6)•
.70"'
61, ,
68. #
,82/2 . 82•2 . 45• 1. 50*
1. 46•
. 921 3. 16 • 2. 7~· 1.68•1.07• 1.6)*
64.•
72.*
.8]•2.S2• 2. 45*
-97• ).16• 2.7h
&4 .•
]2 . 111
.')]*
56 . •
61. •
.]4• 2.47• 2.0S•
.so• 2. 68• 2.2&•
56 . •
61.*
.So•
.8s• 1.)7* 60.*
-95• 1,53* 67.*
, 811112.65*2.27*
. 90* 2. 97* 2.55*
60.*
67.•
....
IS . *
65.*
. 20* . 65* .ss•
. 86• 2.85•2.4)*
15.*
65.*
. 20*
.8& *
"·
.IS * .lo9• , .41 *
. 82• 2.74•2.31*
''·"·
. 15*
.82*
i
1./
.5 ) *
.60fl
....
. 70• 1.26•
.]6* 1.)7*
.1 St .&S * .ss• . ))*
-77# 2.85• 2.43* 1.46*
.20* . ))*
.87• 1.46•
.IS* .511 ,4) 1 12. 1
.87* 2.871 2.45# &5 . #
. 151 . 49* . lo!* .2U
. 8]12 . ] 4* 2.3 1* 1.]8*
.so•
.82* 2.671 2.)1#
.95*) ,1 11 2.&91
. )2*
. 84•
. 90*
.29*
.]&12.lo3 * 2. 01* 1.15*
1).#
59-i
. 18• . 59# .49#
. 77* 2. 59# 2.171
. 10*
2.52
69 . * .gs• J.oe.•z.e.a•
76.• 1.05* 3.}6•2.95*
,It• . ]2*
.62• 1.26*
o••
.19*
...
*
/kg)
88 . 11- 1. 25*
97-• 1.]8*
039
o<o
Feed
Unit
(FU
60. 1
]1. /
.82#2.49•2.1 )• 1.29*
-95#2 . 911112,49* 1.51•
,llo*
. 25*
1. 40•
61.
2.4]• 2.01*
35.*
40.•
.... '·'
]0.* .96* J.o8• 2.72*
79 -* 1.09• ) . 49• ).07*
.]8* 1.28* 57 . *
,')1 * 1.50* 66.*
ss.•
- 76fl2.1o9fll,l)*
.88• 2.9 1* 2.49•
]0.*
. ]1•
,4 1*
.0]*
.87•
,]4*
.S I*
....
79 . * 1.09111
57-*
66.*
.]6*
.S8•
206
Table 26 .
Proxim~te
C0111po s ition and Energ y Content o f Some C0111100nly Used As ian Feeds (Con t. )
Digestible Prote in
11'\ tern~
En tr y
'~
075
076
tiona\
lnt er n;~t ion al
Feed
,,,
CENTRO SEMAPUBESCENS. Butterflypel!l , pubes cens
-aerlal part , fresh
2-11-4 59
··-m
Crude
l'lalter tr.et NFE
(>)
Feed Name
Total
Ether
2) .
100 .
Fiber Ash
(t)
m
It I
...
'-3
8.9
7-5
)8 . & 32 . 2
2.1
8.9
49 . 9
1'- . 9
16.5
...
loS.b
s.•
CERE ALS
077
078
'"
-brewers grooins, dehydrated
-dis t i llers solubles , dehydrated
s-o2-1io7
5~1-218
COCOS NUCIF EIIA . Coc::onut
-kernels wit ncoats . denydrated
4-oB-190
4-o1-S7~
-k ernels with coats . manually
e,.;tracted
5-21-28)
o89
- kernel s with coats , meal solvent
5-o1-573
091
092
5-30-1 ~3
093
-kernels w ith coats waste, ca ked
S-29-668
099
100
101
102
103
1"
lOS
106
89.
"·
51. 5
6. 1
3. 2 56.3
3-5 62.2
6. 7
7- '
3-7
16. 0
3-7 21.
~
2).]
9.1
26 . ]
10. )
29.7
SheepC.oat
1>1
1-QI-57}
1-29-566
-t ubers, tre !l.h
2-29-1.12
li-10-Io6)
2<:1. ~
)1.6
1) . ]
1 ~- 3
1.7
1. 9
11.4
22 . 6
1.9
l -7
1.0
13 . 9
15.7
~0.
9-5
'-'
~9.
~~.
2. 7
-hay. sun-cured
2-Q2-333
H12-327
2.8• 2.]tt 2. 7* 2.7*
11.9* l l. S*l i. S* lt.S•
19 . 6•1 9. 6119 . 8+ 19 . 8·
2 1. 7• 11.7/ 22.0• 22.0+
11o.5
16.0
14. 0•
'"-7 14.0+
15.4 + IS.h
16. ]
3 . 8•
) . 8•
4.0*
2.0*
2.8*
2 . 0*
~.o •
8.2
2. ~ *
4. 8•
2. ~ ·
4.8 11'
1.8*
] . 0*
1.8•
] . 6•
...
10. 7
6.1
6.9
21.5
1
54 . 8
11.6
1].0
7.2
8.0
21.5
2.8•
1q .o
1 7.0+ 17.0+
18 . 9 + 18.':1+
1'3 . ]
46.0
5 1. 5
11.8
1] . 2
s.s
17.0
"·
2].9
3 1.1
12.6
14.0
'-7
S.3
17 . 9
20.0
88 .
1.0
1.1
27 . 8
3 1.4
51.9
58 . 7
2.6
3. 0
S.1
5.8
1.6*
1.8 •
1.7•
2.0•
1. 7•
2.0•
1.7*
2.0•
'-7 1. 2 .5
S. 2 47 . 1.
18 . 9
21.0
12. 0
1].4
11.7
1].0
] .lo •
8 . 2•
a.,.
] . I. •
8.2*
8.2•
,..
9 .1
.s
6. 2 19. 0
3 .9
1.6
1.2
2.3
100.
5.2
40 . 4
16. 9
1 ].0
21o.5
26 .
.s
21 . 5
84.1
.9
3.6
1.2
'- S
l.S
S-7
7- 7
3. 6
10 .
"·
.s
11.6
41.8
100 .
1.7
83 .
1. ]
1.6
]2 . 4
~6.
100 .
CVNOOON OACTYLON. Be nnuda<j ras s
- hay , sun-cured
f ilO
6 .9
2
3
~5.
1>1
10.2
2. 0
CYAMOP SIS TETRAGONOLOBA. Guar
-aer ial pa r t, fresh
,..
Buf -
"'
1\1
26.6
29.7
100.
COLOCASil ESCUI..E NTA. Oas~een
-lea >~e s . fre!l.h
q
]2.0
63.5
Cat-
"·
100.
COlEUSIILUMEI . Col eus. c ormoon
-hay, sun-cured
~1.8
3.3 21 .1
3- 7 2] . ]
1>1
100 .
100 .
COHEA SPP. Coffee
-hulls
107
108
109
110
so.
100.
- kernels with coats . mecnanlcod
ext r acted ca ked
097
93 .
100.
088
'"
9 '-
100.
-kernels witn co ats. fresh
'"
09S
096
2. 2
2.5
100.
o86
"'
89.
1!5.1
1>1
ARIETINU tl. Chlckpu
o81
082
'"
S.1
S-7
100 .
CIC U
o83
"·
100.
oso
"'
085
s-oz- 11•1
·tein
·~
5-29-677
"·
H)0-70J
9 1.
100.
}.8•
}
.....
1.9" 1.8* 1.8• 1.8•
19.8*19 . 4* 18.7•18.7•
.6•
.6•
. 3•
. J•
2.5•
2-5*
1.]•
1. 3*
u
3-'
27 .9 12.8
IS.8
12.1
1] . 7"' 14.4 • l }. h 1].4•
16 . 5*1] . )*16.2•16.2 •
1].1
20.6
1].]
16 . 5
18 . 5
22 . 2
3-'
3- 7
2
50 . 5
8.5
9. 2
3.7
29 . 7
]2 . 5
1.S
1.6
52 . 9
58 . 2
20.8
22.9
9. 1
)9 . I
1].1* 1}.1 * 12. 1*12 .1 *
1 ~- 7* 1 ~. 7• 1) . 5* 1) . 5*
'-'
10.1
6. S
7.1
2. 7*
] . 0•
) .1 * ] .I * ] .1 •
11.3*11. ]*11 . 3•
3- 3
3.6
2.8•
] . I•
2.8•
] .1 •
207
feed
01>
076
Ul'lit
( FU
/kg)
" "' '"
t•l
(~ al
(Kcal
/ kg)
/kg)
. 53 *
I~ - *
.19*
. SJI
llo.t
1.]0* 2.27 *
61. •
.81 • 2.]01 2.2]1
61.1
72.*
. '}9*).1Bt2 . 80i
1.10* 3-511 ].101
. 63•
.631
DE
(FU
/kg)
(J1C:a1 ( Kcal (he al (Hc i l ( " cal
/kg) /kg) /kg) /kg) /kg)
,E
HE m
NEg
NE I
,IS* ,]1*
.]9* 1.39*
71 -1 -991 2. 86• 2. lo8• 1.5]"
. '}]* 1.48•
. 191
""
t>l
Feed
Unit
( FU
/kg)
llt~fhlo
feed
" "'
Unit
(Heal Otca l
/kg) /kg) (>)
62.*
'"·*
.19• . 6]* .sJ•
.82* 2.]2* 2.)0*
65.•
72.*
llo.•
62 . *
(FU
/kg)
.19'*
.82*
.88• 2.116* 2,lo8•
.97 *] . 17 * 2. 75•
65.*
]2.*
...
]0.•
.96•
]g., t . Ogl ] .lo6• }.OS* 1.90• 1. 26• 1.80•
70.• . 96• ).07* 2. 70*
78.• t .o8• ) . lt6• ).OS*
7S.• 1.08*
.87•).21•2.8]• 1.11• t.t8• I .68•
.96• J , Sh 3. 13• l.gS• 1,)1• t .as•
1. 01* ).21• 2.8]•
so . • 1.11 • J .s•• J.1J*
n.•
n.• 1.01*
ao.•1 . ll*
Blo./ 1.111 J.7s• J,J6• 2. 12• t.A.J• 1.g7•
90.1 1.261 ~o. ot• J,6o• 2.21• 1. 58• 2.1t •
as.• 1.1g• J.7S* J ,J6•
91.• 1.28• 1o.o1• ).60•
as . • 1.1g•
91 .• 1.28•
on
3.18• 2.8o•
3. 52 *] ,10*
So.•
079
080
) . 09* 2.]2 •
]0./
) . log• ) .07*
70.* .96 • ] . 09/ 2. 72 1
7g.• t , og• J,l!gl ] . 0]1
08 1
082
). 28• 2.90•
). 62• ] . 20•
8 2.
''·
68.
76 .
oSJ
oSlo
J.6g• J,J t •
J,g6• J.ss•
81o.• t . t7• J . 6gl 3.111
go.• t . 26* J .g6l 3-55#
2.1o6
2. 71
Feed
Unit
.6}* .5 3* . ]2*
,811 2.]2• 2. ) 0* 1.)7*
078
1,0)*).01
\,\lo*].)2
El'lergy for
Energy for C• tt l e
Energy for C.Oats
Energy for Sheep
EntryOE
1'\E
TON
(Meal (tical
ber
/k9) /kg) (l)
80./1.101 ].17*2 . 75* 1.69• 1. 08* 1.6lo'*
.96 1 ] .0 ]* 2.]0* 1.68* 1.11* 1.60•
-97*
085
o86
2.3S* 2.15 * 53. * .76 * 2. 351 2.15# 53 .# .76# 2.81 • 2. 61• t.61o• 1.19* !.SO * 64.• .•B• 2.81• 2.61 * &4.• ,gJ•
4.&7 • 4.27 • to6 . • 1.51 • ~o.on "'-211 too., t. Sil s . s8• s.1a• 3.2&• 2.37• 2. 9a• no . • t,Bh s . s8• s.tS• uo.• t . B"*
087
088
J . SI * ),\ lo t
}. 95* },)4•
089
090
].00* 2.63* 68.• -93 * ).00# 2.&31
).) 5* 2.9) * ]6 . • I.Oiot ) .JSI 2.g31
091
092
2.93* 2. SS*
).27* 2. S5•
66 . • .gl•2.g)#2.551 6&./ .gil ].]2* 2.95
'"·* 1.01* ).27#2 . S5l ]4./ 1.01 / ],]1* ).)0
t.85• !.lo1* 1.89•
2.07* 1.58*2.11*
82 . * 1.os• J.J2• 2. 95
91.* 1.17* 3-71* }.)0
82.* 1.05*
91.* 1.1 7*
09)
094
).'9)* 3-57*
4.)8• }. 97*
89.* t .26* J,gJ/J.S7 l
99.• t.'-1*"·181 J.'IJI
a9.1 1. 261 2.95* 2.sa
99./ 1.41# ].29* 2.87
I.S9* I.IS*I.b4•
1.78• 1.28• 1.82•
]1 . •
. 91*2.95* 2.sa
79.* 1.02* ).29* 2.8]
Jl.t . 91*
79·* 1.02*
095
096
1.65* 1.2]*
1,87* 1,lo]*
)7.
JJ./
42.1
097
098
2 . 21ft l,8}•
2. 1t]t 2. 0io•
so.•
so.•
.65*2 .21/ 1.8]/ so. ,
. ]2* 2.1!71 2.0io# 56.#
0...
100
. 29* .2s•
2.99* 2.$7•
6.•
68 . •
.291 .2S#
.9 1* 2. 99/ 2.571
101
102
.97* .S6•
J.So• J , J8•
22.• .)1* -97#
S6.• 1.20• ) . SO# ].)81
.so•
So.• 1.12• J.Sii }.lloi 80./ 1.121 ) .40• ] . 0]* !.90* 1.}1* 1. 78• n .• 1.08• J.loo• J,OJ*
90. * 1.26• 3.9S/J ,5Ioi go,, 1.26# ] .8)• ] . lo2 •2 .15* 1.4]* 2. 01 * S7.* 1.21 *) . 8)• J ,lo2t
"·
"·
so.
10)
104
.61*
2, 21* 1. ]8•
105
106
2. 19* t.S U so.
2. 64• 2,2 1* ,0.
107
108
) . 04• 2 . 66*
).]2* 2.90*
109
110
2. 1]* \ , ]8•
2.}9* 1.96•
69.
"·
~9.•
Sli.•
·"5*1.6S# 1. 27#
.51* 1.8] / t.lo]#
...
.
....
, 18* . ,8
. 6}•2.81
68.,
6.1
68. /
·" "·
18.
2.29
.<}4• ) . 041 2.66#
].~2# 2 . ~ ,
.6)* 1.82
.70* 2.00
""8
1. 6)
.9S*1,4S •
.lo5J I.7S*1 , J7*
,)\#1.98*1.55*
.,..
.]9*
.22*
.25*
6".*
71.*
. 87• loO.*
. 98 * loS . •
,....
.6S# 2 .}9* 2.01* 1.19*
. ]2/2 .66*2.2'-* 1.32*
.6]* 1.22*
.]S* 1. )6* 60 . *
.19* ,10*
.91/2.]6• 1. 9'-* 1. 09*
.
.... .n•
,. .
.os•
. 11*
s.
1.19* 54 •
22 . / . ) 1/ . 89• . ]8• ·"9* .)2* .46•
86./ 1.20# ) . 48• }.06* 1, 91* 1. 2]* 1.81•
.65•2. 19# 1.84J SO./
.]8•2 . 6"1 2.211 60.1
l.'l)*
. 9)/2.8t •2 . lo] * \,log•
]6. / I.Oio# ).1}*2.72* 1.67* 1.06• 1.&2 *
. 86• 2.81• 2.lo]t
.g6• }, 1)*2.72*
n.•
\ , 08*
8].* 1. 21*
61o.•
Jl,*
. lo9*1.7S* 1.37* 40.*
.55*1.98• I.SS* "S · *
.]1*2.)9*2.01* st..•
, JI*
.]<J*
.0 ]* • 2)* .19*
•69* 2.]6* \ , gltt
20.• .28• .89• . ]8•
79-• 1.09* },loB* J .06*
s.
54 •
. 0]*
.69*
20 . • .28•
19 ·* 1.09*
.]2* \,]lot
16. •
59. *
.22* .n• .61* 16.•
. 7S•2.62* 2. 20* 59.•
.651 2.0)* 1.68 * .96•
. ]8 1 2."5* 2.02* 1.16*
.so• 1.o3• lo6.•
.60* 1.2lo * ss.•
.60• 2.0}* 1. 68• 46 . •
.]2*2 . 45•2 . 02 * ss . •
.)7*
.49*
.ss•
. ]'9* 2.66* 2.2lo* 60.•
.2)* .n• .61* .}6*
. 81• 2.62• 2. 20* 1.29*
. 20*
.86•
. 96*
.22*
.]8•
....
. ]2•
69 .# .'}lt / }. 19*2 .81• \,]5* \,17* 1.6]•
75-# 1.031 ) .49* J , O]* 1.92* 1.27* 1, 82*
72,* 1 .oo• }. 19* 2.81•
?9.* 1.09* ).49• ).07*
72.* 1.oo•
79·* 1.09*
..."·
li9 . •
)4 . •
lo9. *
54 .•
.sJ• 2.17• t.79* 1. o1 •
.sa• 2.39• 1.97* 1.12*
.s1• 1.10*
. 56• 1.21*
.63*2,1]*1.79*
. ]0•2.]9* 1.97*
.6}*
. ]0*
208
Pro•i~n-.te: Compo$ition and Energy Contel'lt of
hble 26 .
SOI!te COIImOflly Used Asian Feeds {Cont.)
Digestible Protcdn
Intern.-
,_
Ent.ry
tlol'lal
lnternnlonal
feed
NUiflber
feed Name
Ill
112
OI GITARIA SPP. flngerg r ass
-hay, SUI'I-cured
1~1~57
Ether
o.,
hl'Q.tter tract NFE
m
89.
100.
2.)
l.6
"'
115
116
117
118
"'
lo-IG-1193
)8,\
30 . 0
1). ~
1.4:11
1.4 •
33-9
IS. I
...
1.1•
~3.0
5. <
1. ~·
1. 6*
1.6 *
1.6*
..,
..,
2.7
1.8•
1.8•
].lo•
] . lo•
1.5'*
6. 2*
1.5*
6.2*
l-o9-]0)
2-<)2-lo.t.)
1-26-'-87
-hay, surt-cured
"'
Ill
,.
-whole, dehydrated
1-29-619
- .. hole, silage
3-29-656
ll4
ll5
Ill
·'
28.0
6.1
)S . 9
1).
.)
100.
l.O
5.)
41.9
1.8
l.O
JB . s
.l
).)
'·'
lo~.o
"·
8.
100 .
ELEUS\N[ COAACANA.
-grain
Ragl~r~lllet
~-2]-716
EUCHLAUIA "UICAMA, Teosinte,
-aerial part, fresh
I))
IJ'
"'
-~~~ea1 B~oeChanic:al
lo 1. 9
5.0
11.0
l.l
).6
12.7
21.2
..,
1. 9
)3.1o
14 . ]
1.0
8.0
... s•
lo,\fl
. 6•
lo . J•
)1.8 12.)
3lo . 7 13. ~
p
8. 0
),lo•
).8•
3-7•
lo,O•
).6•
3.9•
1.)
16.7
... . ,
20.9
15 . 1o
1o2,5 23.2
lo6 . 1 25.1
10.5
.)
..,
1].8
!lo . 9
100.
l.7
lolo.lo
l.l
23.2
l.O
21.5
.8
8.l
...
l.O
l.l
77-3
82.1
'·'u
).1
].8
100.
).)
8.)
16.
100.
.)
l.l
6.6
lo2.6
1.7
1\,0
15.)
87.
100 .
5.5
6.)
...
' ·5
29.0
1.6
2.0
l.)
27.5
59-3
6.6
22.6
8.9
)0,)
0.0+
0.0+
.8
l.8
1).0
U.3
'·7
9.6
6.1
2} . 0
"·
'·
2-I0-500
fiSH
"'
u
l.l
II.~
m
l.lo*
2.8• 2 .8• 2.7'* 2.7*
16.7• 16 . )* 15 . 9• 15.9*
.6•
. 5•
.6•
"·'"
) . 6•
) . 9•
... ... ... ...
12.6• 11.2 •12.1 .. \2,\*
6.)•
6. 8•
6.)•
6.8•
6.6•
7.'2•
6 . 3•
6.8•
.)•
.)•
.)•
.)•
].7• 3 - 7•
).7•
3-7•
~ .6•
lo.S.
3·'"*
3. ~·
3.6•
~-6•
lo.8•
) . 6•
.eJ~ican
1)0
1)1
1'~.
l.)
'·5
100 .
ll8
"'
l.l
17.
100.
EICHHOflNIA CAASSIPES . !Jaterhyacinth, c:onmon
-.erial part, fresh
2-29-1o55
Fiber Ash
2
]B . It
100.
ECHINOCHLOA Cot.ONU". Junglerlce
-aerial p•rt, fresh
llO
Ill
"·
Bufhlo
··~
tein Sheep Goit <I•
<•l m m m m
Crude
.l
.8
100.
OOLICH05 LABLAB . Oolicho$, hyacinth
-.er hil p•rt, fre sh
Cat-
m
m
DIOSC~EA
II)
ALATA. '1~, winged
-tubers. fr esh
m
Total
eottracted
5~1-977
GALLUS DOHESTICUS. Chicktf'l
-egg•. fresh
5..01-213
"·
GLYCINE KAX, Soybean
-aerial p~rt, fresh
2-(llo-57-"
l8.
100 .
l.l
~~.s
5-(llo,\0
89.
\00 .
17.1
19 . 2
29.9
1)6
IJI
1)8
..
12,1o
)3,1,
5.8
20.8
'-'
1.7* 1.7* 1.7* 1.7•
11.3* 10 . 8• 10.9* 10 .9*
21o . O S\ . 6 S1.2+S1.21Sl.S+SI.S•
58.9+ 58.91 59.2 • 59.2+
5.1• s.o• lo.9• "·9*
18.
18.0• 17. ~ · 11 .
"'*
"*
5.6
6.)
'-1 )2.0 ]) , lo+
5.)
35-9
3), 1,, )3,6+ 3),6+
3J,Io . 3] . 1,, 3].6+ )1 . 6+
1)9
110
- seeds, mea l mechanical ext r acted
5-<llo,OO
87.
5. 8 )0 . 2
6.7 )lo.5
s.o
5. 7
5.8
6.6
lo0.7
46.5
35 - 7• 35-71 35,io+ 35 . 1o+
lo0 . 8+ lo0.81 loO.S+ loO.S+
I"
I"
-seeds, meal solvent extracted
s-o~o,o~o
100 .
"·
1.7
1.9
29.6
)2.7
6.1
6.7
6.)
7.0
46.8
S\.8
lo2 . 1+ U.l# lo0.8+ lo0.8+
lo6.6+1o6 . 6#lo5.1+lo5.1+
"'
-seeds , Meeha.nlc:al extracted caked
5-30-1-"S
85.
100.
8.8
10.Io
28.1
)3 . 1
"5
116
-soysauc:e process residue, wet
5-(16-138
"·
&.o
26.S
)9 . lo
IU
100.
9.0
..,
5. 7 37.5
lolo.2
5.6
'·1
8.)
12.)
16.8
25.1
9.5
1lo.2
6.9• 6.9•
10.2• 10.2•
6.1•
9.0•
6.1•
9. 0 1
209
Energy f o r Sheep
feed
·~
Unit
(FU
/ kg )
/ kg)
1.8t• 1.4] *
ltl.*
. 51*1.81 /1.4]/
112
2. 05• 1.62 •
lo6. •
-57* 2.051 1.621
11 )
11.
20. •
.28*
) . 65• ),21ot
11S
116
,loS• ·"O* II.*
2.80• 2.31* 6).•
·"''
/kg)
-79•
m
"
ME
(He• I ( Me• I
/ kg )
·"''
8) , 11 1.15 * ).65/
.I ll*
. loBi
/ kg )
. ] 91
) . 24#
"'
41.1
46.#
Unit
(FU
/k.g)
"
..
HE m NE g
NEt
TON
(11C:• I (/'lea l (r\cll (/'leal (11ca 1
/kg) / kg) /kg) / kg) /kg)
'"
.51 /1.8)•1.45*
.571 2.06• 1.6'<*
./6*
.86•
. 28•
.91 *
lo! , :l<
, ) \ * 1.0) *
47.*
.n•
10 ./ .281 .82•
.loS* .29* ,loJ•
8]./ 1.151).35* 2.9) * 1.82• 1.19* l,] lo*
..., ''·'
.au 2.8o1 2.HI
....
""
Energ y for 8ufr1lo
Energy for C•ttle
Energy for Coats
reed
ME
TllH
(/'leal (1'1<:•1
Entry 0[
6).1
·~'
Unit
( FU
/kg)
"
..
(/'leal ( l'lc olll
/kg) / kg)
.st• t.BJ * 1.1os•
.ss• z.oe.• 1.64 •
19.* .25* . 82• . ]2*
]6 . • l . Oio* ).)5* 2.9)*
.I)*
.II)* . )6•
z.s1•2.n•
-"1* .)6* .21*
.Bioi 2.53• 2.11• 1.23•
.11* . 22•
.66• 1.29*
10.•
57·*
.1s•
.29* .2)*
.65•2.27* 1,81o•
.!Iii
'·' ...,
. ,. ....
"'
"'
"'
. ) 1 * . 25 *
/.•
2.U• 2. 00• ss.•
. ]I I
.251
. ]1* 2.42# 2. 001
55-l
. 29• . 2)• ,1)*
- 111 1.21* 1.8/it 1.02*
.....
.... 06•, 1.1'-*
51.*
1.98* 1. 58 •
2.1S* ! ,] 2*
loS.•
49.•
. S6• 1. 981 I . SS#
.61• 2.151 1. ]2/
loS.#
lo9./
.56# 1. 9lo * 1.55*
.61/2.11* 1.68•
.82•
.89•
.)2• -97 *
.)5* 1.05*
H. •
loS. •
'"
,18•
2. 79* l.Jl•
6).*
.06• . 111 . 181
. 06# .20 • ,I]* .10*
. 81o•2 . 791 2. J71 63 . # . Slot 2. 70* 2. 27* 1. ) 5*
.n•
. 10•
1.)8:1-
61.*
.20* . I ]*
.81 • 2.70* 1,1]*
2. 12 * 1. ]3•
2. ) 0* 1.87•
lo S.•
52 . •
.61* 2.121 1.131
. 66• 2. )01 ! . 8]1
loB. I
52./
.61/2. 1)*\,]lo* .9J•
.6612 . )1* 1.88• 1. 05*
.lo6• \ , OJ*
.so• 1.16*
loS.•
52.•
. 62•2 . 13* l , Jio •
.67 * 2. )1* 1. 88•
.2)* .19*
2.1o]t2.00•
.2)/ . 191
2. /iJI 2. 00#
. 07/
ss. •
55 .#
.ou .10*
.) 8• \ ,OJ*
lo9. •
3- 57* ).18*
) . J9• ) . )8•
81.• \,\]* 3-571 ].181 81.#1.1}/).26•2.87 • 1.79* 1. 19*!.70*
86.• \,lO* ).]91 3.361 86 . / l.iOI J . lo6• J.os• 1.9(1• 1.26• , ,ao•
Ill
"'
"''"
.21•
,.
'·'
'·'
'·'
"'"'
"'
'"
"'
,,
. 4h . 3]•
2.82 • 2.)9*
10.•
61o.•
. I)* . lo41 .)71
.as• z.B2 1 2.191
I) I
2.)2* 1.95*
2.67• 2. 25•
SJ.•
61.*
. 69• 2.)21 1.951 SJ . #
.80• 2.071 2.2SI 61.1
133
•J 4
1.•o' 1.28' u., ·"5' 1.1o01 1.281 32-1 .•s1
4.82£ 4. 1o2' 109., 1.57, •.au lo.421 109.1 1.571
1)0
'" ·"'
'"
'"
.OJ*
.]I•
.16*
. 09•
.92*
. 131 .Ill* .)5* .21*
.85# 2.67•2.25* 1. ))•
. 691 3.07* 2.Jl
. ao, J.!l)* J, ll
•.•a 1.29,
~o.as, ~o.•H
....
.60* 2.11* 1. 68•
,.. .....
'·'
....
. 81•
/k.g)
.s'"
.sa•
19 . • .25*
76.• \ , Oio*
10.•
57 -*
,..
51.*
......
,I)*
. ]5*
...
.
.65*
.ss•
48.•
·"'
61. *
'·'
.06•
.81*
loS. •
52 .•
.62•
.6J•
'·'
.06•
.61•
. 20• . 16*
.61 * 2. 15* 1.]2* '-9·*
, .. . . 1.02* ). 26• 2.8J• Jlo.• 1.02*
79 . •1.08t
~ 9 . • I.06• J. Io6*) .05*
...
.12* .2 1*
. J6• 1.37* 61.*
..,. ...
. 12•
.)5*
.so• 2. 6J• 2.25•
1. 69* .88• \,]J* 75-* .96• ).OJ• 2. ]1
1. 911* 1.01• 1.99• 86.• 1,10* ).53* ],1\
z.ao•
"'·*
It] . *
Feed
Unit
( FU
61.•
• 12*
.So•
.....
75.*
86.• 1.10*
.sa, .Js' 12., ,fo6, L4u 1. 29' 32,, .~o6,
1-ou z.s8' no., 1.58, ~o.as, •.~os, no., 1.s8'
....
-78•
].22• 2.80•
20.•
73.*
IJI
) ,8 J•J.SO*
lo,J)*J.92*
88 . • 1.24*) .871 3.501
98 . • 1.)9*1t . )]#] . 92#
88./1.2lo#].81o•).li7* 2.19* 1.5... 2,0)*
98./ 1. 391 lo ,JO* ).89• 2.1oS• 1.73* 2.27*
87.• 1.2]* ] .81o t),lo7*
97.• 1,)8t lo,JO* ),89•
'"
'"
'"
'"
J,Jio*2.98* 76 . • 1.06* ) , JI+# 2.98/
).82•) . 41* BJ.• 1.21*),82#) . 41#
]6 ./ 1.06# ) . )]• 2.97* 1.86• 1.27* 1.74•
8] . / 1. 21#).80* ).)9* 2.1)* 1.46• 1.99*
7S.*I.OS*J . 3J*2.97 * 75 . • l.OS*
86.• 1. 20• J.Bo• J,J9* 86 . • 1, 20•
).2lo•2 . 86•
).58•).17*
]).• 1.02* ] . 21oi 2. 86,
81,1r 1.12* ) . 581 ] . 171
JJ,f 1.021 ).JS* 2.98
81.#1 . 12#] . ]1* ),)0
J.JS" ).00*
).95*1.5'-*
76 ... 1.0]* ).)51 ] . 00/
90.• 1.26" J.9SI J.Sio#
76.#1.07#).)61r),OI* 1.89* 1. )1* 1.76• 76-* 1.07"), ) 6*) .01 * ]6.•1,07*
1.261 J.96• J.ss• 2.23• I.Sio* 2.08• 90.• 1.26• l -96• J.ss• go.• 1.26*
1.13* 1.1os•
2.58•2.15*
sa . •
"'
'"
"'
"'
]9. •
.28•
.781
-99* ).22 1 2. 8o#
10 . #
6/o .J
.20*
.]\# 2.15* 1. 72*
.06*
.ss•• .CJ~o •Lss•
"'
m
·"'
.SI*I.7JI1.lt51
-76• 2.581 2.151
20./
]) , f
"'·'
39 -1
sa.,
, ]U .~os• .28• ·""*
. 281
-991 ).07* 2.65* 1.62* 1.01* I.SS•
19.*
JO,t
,]lot
.26•
.94• ).0]* 2.65*
1.87•1.113* 1.91* 82.• 1.06* ).)5* 2. 98
2,0]• 1.58*2,11* 9 1. * 1.17*3·71*),]0
. S112.0)* 1.75* !.0]*
. 76# ).0)* 2.61* 1.59*
.67 •1 .05* lo6.•
.99• 1.S7* 69-"
19.•
]0.•
. 26•
,glo•
87.•1.2]*
9J.• 1.) 8•
82 . • 1. 06•
91." \,1]*
.62* 2.0)" 1.75• lo6.•
-93* ).0]*2.6 1* 69."
.62•
.9)*
21
a
T~ble
26. Pr oxh11ate C0111position a nd Ene r gy Content o f SOllie Comnonly Used Asian feeds (Cont. )
Digestible Protein
Ethe r
Dry
Exl'lltler trACt NFE
(t)
ttl
(%)
Entry
Number
"'
"'
In ternational
Feed Hiilllle
GOSSYPIUM SPP, Cotton
-hulls
1-()1-599
"8
-seeds
150
Tou l
Pr oteln
Cr ude
riber Ash
('i)
('i)
(t)
s 45.0
2. 7 1o9.3
37 . 2
4o . J
2.9
1. 2
21. 0
2).0
26. ~
2a.9
22.6
24 . a
~-
~.a
17.0
Ja. 6
·"
11.9
49.7
7. 2
)0.1
2.5
10.)
2.0
a.)
9-7
91.
1oo.
2.
91.
100.
2lo.
100 .
I. 7
4
]. 8
"· '
Sheep
(\)
. 2*
.3*
C.ou
ttl
. ~·
.~. .
Cutie
('i)
. 5*
. s•
Bufftllo
(t)
. 5*
.s•
11.9+ 11.9+
1).0+ 1).0+
CRASS
151
152
-aeria l part, fresh
15)
2-()2-260
]-ol-222
26.
100.
I,'}
10.5
39.9
3].2
).2
12,4
1-(11-115
as .
100.
2.5
2.9
33.1
3a.9
27 . 9
)2.8
8.9
10.4
12.
100 .
.)
2.5
4.9
42.2
2.5
21.2
2. ]
1.3
23 . 0
11.1
lo-12-()11
89 .
100.
9.6
10.9
35 . 9
40.5
21.4
211.2
3.3
3.7
18. 4
20 . 8
4-o0-549
90.
100.
2.9 69.2
) , 2 77.2
4. 9
5.5
2.6
2.9
10.1
I 1.2
15 '
15S
-h•y . sun-cured ground
156
.5
2.)
a.6
12.7
H.'}
1.1*
lo.7*
1.0*
4.3*
1.1•
lo,\11
1. 1*
1.2*
~-9*
1.1*
1.2*
"·9*
~.I*
4, I*
1.1*
4. I*
8 . s• 8.9•
10.0 * 10 . 5•
8 . lo*
9.9•
8.h
9-9•
. 8•
.<;J*
].} *
·9*
7-3•
HELIANT HUS ANNlJIJS. Sunflower, c01m10n
157
158
-aerial part, fre sh
2- IH97
-9*
7-3*
6.9•
HEVEA BRASI LIE NSIS . Rubbertree, pa r a
159
160
161
-kernels wi th coats, meal mecha ni c a l
e~t r acted
HOROEUM I/ULGo\RL Barley
-gr iilrl
162
J araguil
-aerl• l part, fr esh
llo . lo • 14.4* 13. 4• 13.4•
16.)•16 . 3* 15.1* 15.1*
7.2
8,1
6.7*
] . 5*
5 - 7•
6.3•
5-7*
6.)•
HYPARAHENlAR UFA.
16 ]
165
"'
1&7
168
100.
1.1
3.0
loi.O
15.5
lo2.6
2.6
7.2
2.3
6. 2
1. 0•
2.8•
-9•
2. )•
1 .2•
3.2•
1. 2•
3.2•
91.
100 .
2.0
2. 2
lo }. 8
48.1
29. 2
}2 . 1
9.8
10.8
6. 1
6.7
2.1o•
2.6•
2.8•
2. 5•
1.8il
2.5•
2.8•
27.
100.
.s
1).0
1.9.0
8. 1t
1.8
2.8
1.8•
1.7•
1.8•
1.9
31.9
6.8
10 . 1t
6.7•
6.3•
6.]il
1.8*
6.7•
J.S•
"·'-•
1.8•
s .1 •
1.8•
s.1•
)7.
16'
-hay , sun-cured
IMPERATA CYLI MDR ICA. Satintai1, CQ90n
-.eri~ l piirt. fre§h, 1 to 1" day§'
growth
15 .0
2.6•
169
170
-.erial part, fresh, as to 9a d&ys'
growth
1-29-"00
35.
1oo.
.5
1.5
27.3
78 . 5
2.5
7.2
2.9
~o.to
s.s
1.7•
1t.9•
111
-.erl• l p•rt, fre s h , matu re
2-28-620
61.
100.
.6
1.0
29 . 2
24.}
39.7
4,1
6.8
3.0
lo . 9
-9•
1.5•
- 7•
1.2•
2.0•
1.2*
- h•y, sun-cured, late vege tat i ve
1-2a-756
97 .
100.
1. 6
1. 6
45 . 2
46 . 4
36.3
6.5
6. 7
2.5•
3].)
].8
8. 0
2.7•
2.a•
2 . 7•
2. 7•
2 . 7•
2.7•
26 .
100.
.4
1.7
10. 3
)9.6
8.1
31.2
3. 0
11.5
4.1
16.0
) .1• } .O• ).0* ) . O•
11.9• 11.5• 11 . 5• 11 . 5•
14.
100 .
,4
7-3
2.5
51 . 7
17. 4
J.a
12. ~
2.2
2. 7
15.7
1. 7• 1.6• 1.6• 1.6•
11.7• 11.2* I I. J• 11. 3*
20.
100.
.~
9.a
2. 1 lo '}.l
3. 3
2."
~.o
16.7
12.3
19. 9
.a
1. 2
"·3
1.6
s .a
1]2
173
17'
175
IMOICOFERA EMOECAPHYLLA. Indigo, c reeping
-aerial part, fre s h
2-(12-lo28
1]6
177
1]8
IPOHOEA BATATAS. Sweetpotato
-aeria l part, fresh
179
180
-leaves, fre sh
181
182
-tubers. fresh
2-29-195
1.5
2a.
.)
100.
1.1
~7 . 8
1} . 6
a 5.8
J.o
1 . 6•
2.0•
3. 1• 1.o• 2 .9• 2 .9•
15.5* 15.1• 14.8• 14.8•
.].
2.5 •
. J•
2. 5•
. 4•
1.1•
·"*
1.1•
211
Energy for Sheep
·-'"
Entry DE
"'"'
"•
150
151
15l
"
Feed
Unit
1>1
(FU
/kg)
( I'ICII (~ill
/l<'lj)
/kg)
2.06• 1.66*
2. 25* 1.82•
),]1*2.93*
].62* ),2011
....
.st.•
-59*
. 48•
2.66• 2 . 23•
''·
51.
Feed
DE
"' '"'
m
(/"cal (Meal
/kg)
/kg)
-59* 2.061 1.661
.65* 2.251 1.821
/5.
1.0~•
''·
1.1~·
].311 2. 'BI
].621 ) . 201
.19~
.Slol
'"·*
[tlergy for Suffllo
Energy for Cattle
Energy for Coats
,,.
...,
~7 ·'1
51.
" "
N[ 111
lUg
NEI
(/"cal (/"cal (/"cal (l"ctll (l'lcal
/kg) /ltriJ) /kg) /k!iJ) /kg)
-591 2.17* 1.78• 1.01*
.65/2 . 3] 11 1. 95* 1.10*
.so•
.ss•
,,.,,
-79* 2.66# 2. 2] # 60.#
1).•
TON
Feed
Unit
m
(FU
/kg)
*
1.10*
~9 .
1.20*
Slo .•
75.1 \,Oiol ), 16* 2.]8t 1.7)• 1.15*1.65•
82.1 1. 1~1 ] .lob• ] . 05* 1.90* 1.26* 1. 80•
60.•
·"'
Unit
(fU
/kg)
" "'
.6)•2.17* 1.]811
.69* 2.31* 1.95•
72.* -~·] . 16*2.78•
78 . • 1.08• J, lo&• ).OS•
.61* .51* . )0*
.}91 2.5S•2.13* 1. 21>•
.16* . ]1*
. 6}* 1.)0*
14 . *
58.•
.18• .61* .51*
-75*2.55 *2.1)*
.lit*
1).•
"9·*
.16*
.ItS•
. 61* 2.1S* 1.]2*
. 191
.,..
56 . #
....
1.9 . •
.53*
.6]*
.as•
.6'-*
,Jl* 2 • .1o51 2.021
55 . •
.]0* 2.40# ·-~1
55 . #
2.]1.•2.)6*
).09• 2.67*
62 .
.8lo*2.74#2.]6#
-95*3 .09#2 . 67#
62./
16 1
162
).2)•2.86•
).60• ) .1 9*
)l.
16)
16'
.87•
2.)9• 1.97•
s•.•
.26• .811 -121
.}0*1.]91 ! . 9}1
20 . #
51,, ,
. 26# .8}• .]1*
.}012 .]}* \ , C}llt 1.10*
.Sio• 1.20* 51, . •
165
166
2. 0U 1.65*
2.25* 1.82•
It& . •
51.*
.59* 2.04# 1.65#
. 6S• 2.251 1.82 #
lt6. #
51.#
-591 2.04• 1.65* .91•
.6S#2 . 2"* 1.82• 1.00*
.lt1• 1.02*
.ItS• 1. 1)*
16)
168
.]lot .63*
2.78*2 . )6•
17.•
6).•
. 21•
.631
.Bit• 1.]81 2.]61
·'"'
1}.1
6]. #
.221 .}2• .61* .)6*
.8" ' 1.}0* 2.28• 1.15•
.21* .]]*
.}81 1.)8•
.28• .9]* .78•
-79* 2.66• 2. 23•
21.*
6o . •
.91 • . )6• .ItS•
.]9• 2.61* 2.18• 1.28•
. 25•
1)0
. 9]* .]8• 21.t
2.66• 2.2)• 60.•
.]1• 1.))•
59.*
.n• z.&••
1)1
1)2
l.S7*1.)1*
2. 56• 2. 11o•
)6.•
sa.•
.46• 1.571 1,)1 1 ]6 .#
.}6* 2.561 2. 141 sa. ,
. lt6#1 . 48• ! . 22* . 69*
. ]6 1 2.lo2* 1.99* 1.1)*
.]5* -75*
-57* 1. 22•
]lt , t
ss.•
I)J
1).
2.21• 1.80•
2. 2}* 1.85•
so.•
52 . •
. 64t 2.21 # 1. 8o/
. 66• 2.27# 1. 85 #
.64/2.16* 1.}1ot
.6&1 2.22• 1./9*
-95*
.42• I,Q8t
lt9.*
175
176
. 7J• .62•
2. 8 1• 2.39•
16. •
61o .•
. 22* -13 1 .&u l b . /
. 85•2.81 / 2. ]9# blo./
. 221
-57* .})t
. 851 2. 6 1* 2. 18• 1.28•
. 18• , ) lo t
.}1* 1.33*
6} . 1
, I] # · " '* . Js• . 21*
. 89# 2.90* 1."8• 1. 50*
1~.,
70 . #
.191 .(,0• . S1* .)1•
. 951 1. 99* 2-57* 1. 56•
159
"'
...
.n•
... ·""'
)0.
82.
20.•
...
,28#
1.01*) . 23
1. 1)t].61
,2}#
..,.,
}0.1
)l.
2. 9S
82.
17)
178
. lt 2t . )6•
2.93*2.5'*
67.*
• 1}• . loU . )6#
.89• 2.9)1 2. 511
. 6211 . st.•
] . 11•2.69*
11..•
70.•
. 19*
.Sit #
.95* ).II # 2. 691
181
182
1.05* -9" * H.• . ]]t 1. 05#
).82t),j,jt 8] . * 1.21fl),821 3.li11
"'
·"''
,81•
'·' ·""'
2 . 64
1)9
lBO
.16*
.61*
.53* 1.86* 1.50
.63• 2.19* 1.]6
56.•
.n•
1).•
.]2* ,1)1* I. I.*
. )8• 1.08* lo'j.•
~.45• 2.0~·
1.98•
.18•
.}5*
,10* . 28•
.)8• 1.07*
. 6•• 2. oa, 1.n 1
. 28 •
'"·'
58.•
.92•
.17* .S9#
.65* 2.27# 1.8loi
..
l.loQt
]B.• 1,08•
.611 1.86• 1.50
. }2#2 . 19* 1.76
51.•
2.08• 1.}2•
157
158
72.*
.63 •
. 69*
....
.17# .56* ·"S*
.651 2.15* !.]2*
2.27* !,Slot
155
156
,..
49 . *
5~ .•
Feed
Unit
(FU
/kg)
1).#
51.1
15'
15J
,,.
(f"cal (/"ca l
/ kg) /kg) (')
so.,
52.#
..,
.26• .21• .12 11'
.]0#2.21ot 1,82• 1.00*
... ,,..
.I)*
1. 1]•
51.*
. 26• . 21*
.61!•2.2/ot 1.82•
51.•
.84#2 . 78•2.lol•l.l.8• .91o• 1,1o lo t
-951 ),1)* 2.}2• 1.67• 1.06* 1.&2•
6) . •
}1.*
.8S*2 .78*2 . Iolt
.96*] . 13*2.]2*
63.• . . 85•
]l,t .96•
.91o•).49•). 12
!.OS* ].89• ).loS
. 28•
....
.... ....
J.os•
.~ts•
1.96• 1.52* 1.94•
2.19* 1.70* 2. 17*
.....
.)) #
8}./ 1.111 J,I,J •
H .#
... ·""'
l.'j ,t
lol.•
.20*
,lo4t
"·
"·
1.11*
1. 21.•
.25* . 8}• .}It
. 69• 2.]}• 1.')4•
20.•
Sli.•
. 2S•
.69•
lo6.•
51.*
.59* 2.0/it 1.6s•
.61,t 2.24• 1.82•
"6-•
Sl.•
.59*
.64•
16 . •
61.*
.21* .]2* .61*
, 8\t 2.70* 2. 28•
16.•
61.*
.21*
.81*
. 2]•
.27*
2.18•
21.•
59-*
·"l* . . ..a• 1.22•
. 11•2.1o2• 1. 99•
]4.•
ss.•
,It)•
.}I•
.62t2.16*1.71t•
.6)* 2. 22• 1.79•
49 . •
so.•
.62•
.63•
.
-57*
z. &•• 2. 18•
15.•
59 -•
.20•
9) .
20.*
.16• 21.*
.98• ·"l* 1.11* so.•
....
....
. 13*
.19*
l . ll *),lo9*). 12
1. 2lt•J.89t], lo8
. 20•
. Cjl t
.)6•
...
9) .
.n•
15.*
59.*
. n•
1. 1.9*
bb . •
.12* · " '* . ] 5*
.88• 2. 90* 1. 1o811 66. •
.88•
. ~1·
!.S"*
l it.•
.su l lo ...
2. 57* 68.•
. 18*
.91*
.2 1*
.s2• .)5* . so•
1.90• 1.26* 1. 81•
...
68.•
12.•
}~ . *
18•
.\0•
.91*
2.~9·
.... ....
.Jo•
1.08• J,lt]t ].OS*
...
.n•
• 12*
22.• ,JO•
79-* 1.08•
212
Table 26.
Pro~timate Coonposition and Ene~gy Content
of Soone tomnonly Used Asian Feeds (Cont . )
Olgestlble Protein
Intern aEnt r y
'"-
'"
tiona!
Feed
lnternation•l
Feed Name
HW~~ber
,,,
··-
Platter tract
(>)
Tout
Ether
t•J
"'
(%)
Crude
Fiber Ash
ttl
t•J
Cat-
p,~
teln
Sheep Goat
(>)
t•J
(>)
"'
(t)
Buffllo
(tl
IPOMOEA BATATo\S . (Cont.)
183
184
4~8-536
-t uber s, meal
91.
100.
1. 2 81.5
1. 3 89 . ~
3.1
3- '
2. 8
3.1
2. 6
2. 9
I.S
12.0
15.)
3.S
35.8
) . 0• 2.9* 2. 8• 2 . 8•
)0 .'-* 30.0•28.4•28 . 4•
16 , )* 1] . 1*
10.]
21.7
23.6
2. 7
6.7
'·'
6.1
-.1*
-.1 *
- .1 *-1 . 2* -1.2*
-.1* -1.)* -1. )*
IPOMOEA REPTANS . l!;angkong
18S
\S6
-aerial part without flowers, fresh
2-28-299
10.
100 .
187
IS8
-hay, sun-cured
1-2~556
92 .
IS9
190
191
192
gro~d
ISE ILEI'IA \IlCHT II. rseile~~~a, wlg ht ll
-aerial part, fresh,llllidbloom
2-28-628
2-<l2-49S
19)
19'
-hay, sun-cured
1-<12-492
195
196
-leaves , fresh
2-29-421
197
198
-le1ves , fresh, irmature
2-29-420
199
200
-I elves, sun-cur ed
1-20-730
201
202
..
,
-seeds, meal mechanical extracted
5-<l2-<l45
lOS
206
-seeds, mechanical extracted caked
5-<12-Qlo)
209
210
211
212
213
1.0
18 . 6
15.5
'·'
~6.2
)8 .6
'-'
11.6
..
5-o5-o1o2
2-27-211
-flour
2-<l<r-627
lo-Q1-15Io
"'
liS
216
-leilves, fre$1\
2-<ll-15)
217
l\8
-leave$, sun-cur ed
1-1)-552
219
220
-pee l ings, dehydra.ted
4-11-937
. 9•
2.6*
2.2 *
1.2*
).0*
1.2*
).0*
'-S
2 .1
7. 9 6.5• 6 . ~· 6.1* 6 . 1*
7. 7 28 . 6 2) . 611 23.2* 21. 2• 22.2•
92.
• . s 47.1
7. 1 51.4
S-7
6. 2
8 . 8 2) . 5
9. 6 25 . 7
17.9*18.8•17.6• 17.6*
19.6*20 .5 * 19.2 *19 . 2*
1.7
5.6
14. 3
w5.6
s.1
2. 8 7-S
8.8 2).8
6.0• 5-9* 5- 7• 5-7*
19.2* 18,8• 18.1• 18.1 *
.s
2.2
5o.~o
1) .5
S-' 28.5 23 . 6• 2) . 2•
5. 7 )9 . 6
8.3
9.1
26.7
29.1
20 . 8•21.8•20 . )•20.)*
22.6• 2).7* 22 . 1* 22 . 1*
17 . ]
19.2
14.4
15.6
)1.
2).
"·
11.6
16.2
3.1
1.2
6. 6
100.
'·'
lo ),1
11.5
12.6
92.
)3.)
100.
)6.1
29.0
)1.4
6.3
6.8
6.0
6.5
3-7 42 ,1
8. 9
• .8
6 . 2 29.8
6.8 )2.8
8. s
8.0
8.8
18.2
)0.8
.9
7-S
2).5
10.0
91.
92.
'-'
lo6 . S
6 . 3 40 . 6
6. 8 44,4
..,
12.
1. 2
3.9
).2
100 .
10.)
)2 . )
26.1.
1•• 21.2
3. S 53.5
24.5
3 ••
8.s
I.S
7.1
8. 6
3.)
1.7
100 .
~ 1. 5
15 . 7
e.•
27.)
·'. 3
2.8
3. 2
2. 1
l.S
2.0
100.
79 . 2
91.7
"· '··.9
90 .
S- 3
11, 0
49.7
3- 3
100.
14 , 8
I.S
6.6
100,
S-9
39 . 7
44 . 2
15 . 5
17 . )
7.1
7-9
2lo . J
87 .
l.S
2. 9
]2.]
8).)
'-'
3.6
•• 1
' -9
...
100.
I'IANIHOT EStULEIHA. tassava,cQITIIIQn
-aerial part, fresh
1.1 •
16.5
100.
1'\.t.NGIFER.t. \NO ItA. 1'\ango, CO!miOn
-1e11ves, fresh
16.0• 16.0*
1].7•18. 6•17 . 4•17.4*
' · 9 42,)
2].
100.
LVtOPEAS ItON ESt UlE NTU/1. Tomato
-po~~~ace, wet
47.5
9-S
100.
100.
203
207
208
,
100 .
5-<l2-<l52
'"·"
15.7
100 .
100.
LIHU/1 USITATISSI 11lll'l. Flu, comnon
-seeds
3.2
)2 . 8
4) . 8
100.
LEUtAEICAGLAUC.t.. Leadtree , whltepopinac
-browse, fresh
'·'·'
2.7
2.9
21 .
...
100.
9. 7
u
5 . 4•
s.J•
14,41
15.61
21..0
26.2
5.1•
2~.1·
5.1•
22.1•
)0 . 4+ )0.4+
3).4+ 3).4+
24.0
26 . 2
2. 8
3-9
S-7
'"'
s .s
24 . 9
22 . 2
.. ,
2.5*
6.)•
2 . )•
5.9•
2.5•
6.411
2.5*
6.'-*
4 . 7• 4.6• ~. ~· ~- "*
22 . 5* 22.1* 21.1* 21.1*
- .5•
- .6•
- .5 • -1 . 6• - 1.0•
-.6•-1.811-1.8•
~- 5* lo.lo• 4.2* 4,2*
20 . 2• 19.8* 19 . 0* 19.0*
16.8*17.6•16.4* 16.4*
18.7* 19 . 6* 18 . 3• 18.)•
1.5*
1.7*
1.5*
1,]11
. s•
.s•
.s•
. s•
213
Ene~gy
"'
"'
185
186
J ,Sli * ) .17*
] . 88 • J , li]t
. n•
. 29*
Energy for Buffalo
Feed
feed
EntryOE
tiE
Hum- (t;cal (l'oCal
ber
/lr.g) /kg)
(~)
Energy tor Ca.ttle
Energy tor Go.us
f or Sheep
Unit
DE
(FU
/ kg )
(Mc~l
/kg )
"' '"
!>1
(~'\cal
/ kg)
Unit
(FU
/kg)
DE
ME
HE m HE g
HE I
(Me al (11cal (Heal (11ca1 (Meal
/ kg ) /kg)
/ kg ) /kg)
/kg)
so.•
1.12 *3 ·5'-1 3. 17# 80./1.12#] . 21*2.83*1.76*1.18• 1.67*
88.• 1. 23* ) ,881 J,lo]l 88./ 1.231 ) .52* ].10* 1.93* 1.29* 1.8)*
...
],loQt2,98•
n .•
2.65 •2 .26*
60.*
.n t
. 10*
.29#
1.06* ] . 110# 2.98#
.28• ·' 1*
7].1 1. 06# 3.2 6* 2.Bio• 1. 76•
8.1
. 101
.]2*
• 11*
1.\lot
.17•
1.69*
21 . *
.29* -93* . Bit
1.05• }. }8* 2.96•
21.*
7].'*
n.•
.29*
1.05*
. ]0# 1.00* .8]* , t.B•
.]lol 2.t.8• 2. 05* 1.18•
21.1 .181 .93* ,81•
75 -1 1.0)/3.)8•2.96*
]O.•
195
196
- 97* .81!•
].10•2 . 68•
22.*
]0 . *
. )0* .971 , Bioi 22 . #
-95* ).10/2.681 ]0.1
197
,.,
.8]* ,]I!* 19. • . 26• .8)1 , ]lol
].6]* ).21 * 82.* J.ll,t ).6) / ].2 11
199
2.86•2./o]t
).11* 2.69*
200
6s.•
71. •
201
202
.r. .n• ... 36* 107.
5.13• "'·73* 116.
20]
2o.r.
].25* 2, 8]*
3.5811 3.16•
2as
206
207
61! . /
70./
. 51•
1.8~·
60.•
.8]1).12•2.7"* 1. ]0• 1. 12* 1.62* 71.* -97*).12*2.7ll•
-95 1 ] .40* 2.9<)* 1.86*' 1.22* 1.77* 77-' 1.06• J .~o • 2.99*
, ]0 # .]6* .6)* . )6*
-95#2.lo] •2.01* 1.15*
. 10*
]lo . • 1.01*
.33• .~8 ·
1.21* 1.76*
.)0* 1. 011 .Bioi
. ]4• 2.511 2. 081
.87• 2 .Bioi 2. ~ 51
-95* ].101 2.681
1.10*
.29*
1.0\lt .St.•
2.51 *2.08•
21. 1t , 28• . 911 . ]91
75.• 1.0]• ],) 1#2 .891
7'- ·* 1.01* ).26* 2. Bio•
,,.
23.•
56 . •
189
190
6t..•
.28•
.29* 1.00* .8)•
. 73• 2. ~8· 2.05•
.82 * 1.)6*
.89* 1.t.8•
. 91 10 . ]9*
).3 1•2.89•
.)2•
23 . *
56.•
. 8]1 2.88• 2.46* 1. 1!8•
2.8t.•2.lo5'*
). 10* 2.68•
.1 0•
73 . * 1 . 00*
so .•
.25 * . 51*
.62 • 1. 26*
. 80• 2.651 2.26# 60./
.8]• 2.8]1 2.451 65./
19)
19'
1.00• 3.2 1• 2.81•
I, 10* ) .52* ], 10*
Unit
(FU
/kg)
65.*
2.87*2 . 1!5* 65.*
191
191
'·'
"' ""
1>1
(Mc&l (Heal
/kg)
/kg )
.Bo•
. 80/ 2.65* 2.26* l,]]t
23./
57-1
n.•
80.*
/ k•;d
Feed
DE
.eo• 2.65* 2. 26* 60 . *
. 8 ]* 2.88• 2.1!6* 65.'*
187
188
23.•
57. *
""
m
Feed
Unit
(FU
. 18• . 39* 1/ .
-59* 1.23*
"·
.22* . ]6* . 6) *
. ]1*2 . /o) lt 2.01•
. S]*
. ]J*
]1,* -97*
17·* 1. 06*
1/.
"·
. 22*
,]1*
19.# .26# .81• , ]2 * . t.s• ,]0* ,lo2 t 18.• .25 * .81• .72* 18.• .25 *
82.1 l,llol ) .5 )*) ,1 2* 1. 95* 1.]0* I.Bio* so.• 1.11• ] .53* 3.12 • so.• l.llft
.88• 2. 86, 2.ll7# 65.#
.95• ].11 #2.691 71.1
.881 ) . Oio * 2. 6S* 1. 61!• 1.0 7* 1.58• 69.* .9lJ•].Oio*2.65* 69.* .94*
-951 ].]0* 2.89* 1.79• 1.16• 1.]1* ]5 . * 1. 02* ] . ]0 * 2. 89• 75- * 1. 02*
~ - 361 IOJ . I
~ - 731116 . /
1.551 li . S3* JJ . 16• 2.62* 1. 88• 2.~o• 103 . • 1... , . "'-5J• ... 16• JOJ . * 1.1!7•
1. 681 1!.90• 11.so• 2.84• 2.o~· 2. 6o• 111.• 1.60• "'·90* ... so• 111.• J.6o•
1. ss• " -73 1
1. 68• s. 131
71.*
81. • 1.1211 J.SB t ].161
1"·1 1.02# ],llt 2.]3* 1.]0* 1. 12* 1. 62*
81.1 1.121 3.1o311 3.01• 1.87• 1.21o• I.JB•
3.2o• 2.82•
J.so • J.o9•
n.
79.
a2.
90.
1.o1• 1.22• 2.8s•
ao.• 1.1 0• 3.52• ] . 11•
108
.31* .26*
2.56•2.13*
sa .•
109
210
.52* . ~2·
1.]2* \,0]*
12.*
21 1
"'
"'
. 65 11 . s6 •
) . 12*2 . 70*
] \, It
. 22* . ]0* . 61*
]6 . • 1.05* ] . J7* 2. 95*
16.* , 22 11'
76.• 1.os•
) . )8*].021'
].91*3.50*
1.01• J.3BI 3.021 77 -1 1.071 ] . 02• 2. 67* 1.66* 1.11* I . SB* 69.* . 95 11 }.02*2 . 67*
89 . * 1.2 .. * 3-911 ].50# 89. # 1.21!1 ).50* ] . 0.:.1* 1.92* 1. 28• 1. 8]* 79-* 1. 09* ].50* 3.09*
69 . * -95*
79 . * 1. 09•
215
.sa• .so•
'"
]lt,t 1.02' ],25# 2.8]1
1.oo• 3.61 2.95
1.09• 3.95 3.22
,,. ·"''
) O,t
15.*
1.os• 1. 22• 2.Bs• 1.18• 1.19• 1.68•
l ,llo* 3.52• 3.11• 1.9t.• I . JO* I.Bt.•
.)1# .261
).1
.]6•2. 56#2.1 ] 1 sa.,
.091 .)1* .26* .IS*
.]6#2.S6•2.1]* 1.25*
.15* • 52* .ll2* 12.*
.38• 1. )2* 1.07* ]0.*
. 15* ·-'5*
.]8• \,lit*
. 20* . 65 1 . 56#
.96*3 .1 2# 2. ]0#
. 201
.61* .]8* . 25* . ]6•
.961 ].Jl* 2.95* 1.8}* 1.20* 1.] 5•
15. #
] I. I
.28•
- 70*
.as• • 16*
. 68• 1. ]0*
. 02*-.18•
.as• - . ~6•
.20*
.51*
,,..
n.•
,,.
sa.•
.09* .)1* .26•
.]6* 2.5611 2.\)11
10 •
,\Qfl
"·
-"'5*
. 25• l.llo•
.28•
,]0*
16. •
n.•
.181 . 58• . ltCJ• .29*
.Btl 2.621. 2.20* 1, 2'J*
"'
"'
2.6S* 2. 26w
1).*
60 . *
2.0 1* 1.62*
2.2411' 1.8 1•
'5·
51.
220
3. )0*2.91!•
] , ]8* 3.36•
75.• I,Oit•].]0#2.9lt# 75 . 1 1. 01o 1 J.os• 2.69* 1.67• 1.11*1.59*
86.• 1.19 11 ].]8# ].36# 86 . # 1.19#3.1!9• 3.08• 1.92* 1.28• 1.82*
,."'
.97• ].II* 2.73•
]8.• 1.07• J.I!J• J.O I *
.18* .581 . 501 1). /
. av• 2. 651 2.26' 60.#
.sa• 2.01 1 1.62' liS.# .5812.2]* 1.84 • 1.10*
.611*2.2lt# 1.81# 51. 1 .641 2.1t8t 2.0]* 1. 22 *
.58• .49*
. 16*
.)0*
I),
. I]*
. 72•'
\,)~II
5'·
.78* 2. 62 * 2.!0*
. 56* 1.1)* so.•
.62* 1.26* 56 . •
]1 . * .97*
78.• 1.07*
n.•
1. 0111
so.• 1. 10•
,,.
·"''
sa ...
• ]6tt
10 .
. \011'
.25*
"·
1) •
59 •
.66• 2.21* l.B.r.• so . •
.lJ* 2. ~a• 2.os11 56 . *
.I]*
.]8f'
.....
. 7]*
69 . • . 95"" ] . OS* 2.69* 69 . • .95*
79 ·* 1.09* ]. lo9 *).08* 79 . * 1. 0<.1*
214
T.t>le 26. Proal-te to-position
~d
Eru:~rgy
Content of Some (or:ftQn\y Used Asian Feeds (Cont.)
Digestible Protein
Intern~
Ent.ry
N~
tlon•l
Feed
lnternatlon•l
Feed Name
Ether
Ory
Ell-
Hatter tract HFE
1'1
(tl
11:1
Crude
fiber Ash
(''l
(l)
Total
Proteln Sheep Goat
(\)
(\)
{\)
Cattie
(\)
ISufhlo
(\)
t'IA NIHOT ESCULENTA. (Cont.)
221
-st•rch process res id ue , dehydrued
11-11-91o7
222
223
"'
,.
"'
"'
it-IJ-SSJ
-tubers without peelings, rne al
1'1[0\CACO SATIVA. Alhlfl
-~erial part, fresh , hte vegetltlve
2-Q0-181
2)0
2)1
2)2
237
I~G-111
.5
.o
71.1t
ao. 9
s.B
&.6
B. lo
q. s
2.2
2.s
,]
)7.2
1.1t
,q
.C)
1.3
1.5
-. It• -1.5* -1.5*
-.s• -1.7'* -1.1•
-.)* -.]• -.8• -.8•
100.
.]
91.1,
].5
2.2
Ll
-.8•
- . 8• -2,0* -2.0•
oo.
.]
.8
80.9
89.9
).0
),]
).1
l.]
-,)*
],I,
2.6
-.h
- . 3• -I. It* -l.lo*
-1.0• -1.6*
.6 B2.s
2. 1o
1.6
2.1
-.s• -.s• -1.o• -1.6•
100.
,]
92 . 5
2.7
1.8
2.3
-.6•
19.
100.
.a
lo,J
6 . 9 "·9
H.J 25.1o
2.2
11.1
... 6
23.9
90.
2.2
3).8
21.0
10.3
H1 .2
12.5
12.0• 11.1• 11. 3*
37-7
)0.2
11.5
18.1
1].9
l].h 12.6• 12.6*
]1 . ]
)6.0
].8
1].9
)11 . 7
)9.8
8.6
''·"
100.
.lo
8. )
2. 1 lol.5
7-9
39.5
1. 8
9.0
1,6
7.9
15.
100.
.]
4.9
7.2
2,1o
1. 7
~9.0
16.]
ll .lo
2. 7
18 . ..
7.6
).6
C).O
II.]
~o.o
8 ••
100.
m
"'
ns
""
...
100.
ll8
,.
88,
100.
-tubers , fresh
90 .
100.
z.s
t.lo
1.6
-.It•
-.6• -1.8• -1,8•
J - 7* J-7• J.s• J.s•
19.2* 18.8• 18.2• 18.2•
9 . ]•
9.8•
9-3*
9-3*
10.)* 10 . 9 .. 10.2* 10.2•
f'1ELIHIS HINUTIFLOAA. 11olusesgr ass
2~]-1]0
-aerial plrt , f resh
10.
. C)*
.8•
lo,lo*
lo.O*
.9*
lo.6*
.9*
lo . b•
HOIIINGA OLEIFUA , Hornradlshtn:e
2-21-971
-leaves, fresh
2)8
f'1UClloiA SP9. \lehetbe¥1
-hay,
I'IUSA PAIIAOISIACA SAPIENTUtl.
lloJ
1-Q5-o8o
•~cVt'"ed
hn~a.
-aerial part, fruh
'"
,..
,..
"'
"'
m
85.
J,J
100.
].9
)9.0
116.0
2-IG-S~It
18.
100.
.2
1.0
10.7
59.5
2.2
12.0
1.0
21.0
2-11-906
s.
.1
2.7
1. 3
.C)
.2
100 .
2.2
51.7
25 . 6
17. 3
1.2
7.0
28.8
2.2
~.2
).2•
1.8
'}.]
17.3
1].1•
7-"
-1ea¥e$, fresl'l
-ste-s, fresh
2-11-910
ORYZA SATIVA . Rice
-b r Mwlthgerllls
-bnn " ltll ger111s, boiled dehydrned
•s•
257
258
lt-l'r}) l
H.
1.1o
C).)
\00.
6.0
}8.6
.4•
2.1•
.J•
I.]*
.5•
2. 6•
2. 6•
.6•
.6•
] . 0*
j.O•
.o• -.o•
.o• -.lo•
.5•
.o•
1-<l]-'))1
s.
.1
J.J
1.0
.s
.1
2.6
65 . 1
19.1
10 . 1
1.2
-.s•
.6•
. 6•
C)O.
100.
8.8
9.8
lo) , l,
loS.Io
1).5
15.1
12.0
13 . )
12 . 1
1) . 5
8.6• 8.6•
9.6• 9.6•
7. 5*
S.lo•
7-5*
8. 1o•
92.
9.1
9.9
1,],6
15.0
1].]
6.8•
16. 4
11o.9
10.2
11.2
6.8•
1o7.6
7-S•
7.5•
5.7* 5.7*
6.)* 6.3•
1 . 7 1oo.8
23.2
J. 1•
J.5*
J.lo•
1.8•
3.2• J, 2•
3.6• J.6•
"·1*
5.1•
lt.7•
5. 1•
).]*
).]•
6.9* 6.9*
7. 6• ].6•
5.8•
6.1o•
5.8•
6.U
89.
100.
-grain
-grain, ground
'' ·2
16. 0
6.9
26.1
1.7
1.9
1.6
1.8
],C)
1.1
77-6
86.5
8.0
8,9
lt8,1
53.2
II,]
12 . 5
12.]
llo.O
1..2 lt6.o
')0.
.C)
1oo .
C)O,
100.
7. 7
8. 8
10.2
1\,)
-.o• -.o•
12.6• 12.6•
1oo .
100.
"'•s•
2SS
5-5
I'IUSA SPfl'. lanana
250
2SI
2S2
31.1 15.1* 16.2* 21o.1o• H.h
}6.8 29.6• }O.C)• 28.8• 18.8•
coonnon
.o•
.o•
"·'* '·'*
215
Energy for Sheep
·-
Entr ~ DE
"
(Kcal (1'\c•l
/kg) /kg)
TON
Unit
It I
/k;)
IF U
....
" "
( Meal (/'\cal
/ kg)
.86• 2.8o,
/ kg )
TON
Fe ed
Unit
m
/kg)
2./t)l
6].1
}. 11# 2.]51
72.1
Energy for
Energy for Cattle
Energy for Goats
Feed
lfU
8~o~fhlo
TDH
Feed
Unit
It I
/kg)
Feo:d
ot
"'
N[ ~
NE g
N[ 1
( f"cal (Meal (J1ca1 (/"cal ( Me a l
/kg) /kg) / kg) /kg) /k!J)
TDH
Unit
1%1
/kg)
IFU
"
"'
( 11Cal (t1ca l
/kg) /kg)
IFU
·"'
m
"'
2.80• 2. It]*
].17*2 . 75•
6) .
"'"'
,.
1.5':1• 1.42•
36.• .so• 1.59il.lo2J ]6 . / - SOl 1.'-3*1.26• . ]9* .52 * .]$*
89.• 1.211• ) . 91 1 ].50# 89 ./ , , , . , ).51•).10• 1. 93* 1.29• 1.8)*
so.•
1.10• J .SI• ],10*
32.• . ItS•
80.• 1.1011
71.• . 98• ).IS* 2.77•
79 . • 1.09• J .so• J.o8•
71.•
79- 11 1. 09•
) . 91* J.SO•
"·
.86/ 2.91* 2.54• 1.57* 1.02• 1.51*
. CJB/].29* 2.88• \,]8• 1.16• 1.71*
66.• .90* 2.91* 2.5h
75-* 1.02* ] .29* 2.88•
]2.*
66.•
75 -* 1. 02*
.45•1."-3* 1.26•
....
22S
).1.8•).11•
).87• ). Jo6 •
79.* 1.10• ],lo8J ] . II# 79 . I \.101 ],15* 2.77* 1,1}* 1.15• 1.6Jo•
88.• 1.23• ).8]1 ) . lo6# 88.1 1,2)1 ).SO• ) .08* 1.92• 1.2811 1.82•
"'
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SO.• 1.12• J.Slo l 3.171 80./ 1.12# ).1611 2.79' 1.711*1.16• 1.65• ]2.• .99* ).16* 2.79* ]2.• .99•
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2.6lo• 2.22*
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2. 89t 2, 1o6t
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1. ]9
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2. 11o•
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79-• 1.09•
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67.• -91* 2.97• 2.61•
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2 16
Ta bl e 26 . Pro.o<imate C<lftlposition and Energy Content of SOllie Coormonly Used Asian Feeds {Cont . )
Oigestlble Protein
Toul
Etl'ler
Entry
Humber
25'
"'
,.,
Ory
International
Feed Name
ORYZA SA-TIVA, (Con t. )
-groats
~-Ol-9 36
-groa t s, polished broken
,.,
2.2
i!-29-703
20'
2.5
-hulls
2••
267
2.8
,.,
1'1nter trKt NFE
Crude
fiber Ash
Protein
Sheep Coat
Cattie
Buffalo
{\)
ttl
ttl
ttl
1\l
(\l
sq.
(\)
(\)
ttl
6.2*
6.2*
10. 6
s.,. s.,.
.a
I, ]
1. 5
] .6
1
a.
).9*
4,1*
"·'*
] .9*
~o.~ot
~t.s•
~o . s•
2.5
2.8
1.4
1.6
J,J
8.6
4.5*
5.1*
4.5*
5.1*
3.5•
3-9*
J.S*
).9*
.6
35 . 4 )4 . 5 1].8
2. 5
-.9* -.8• - .6•
- . 6•
.]
]8 .9
)8.0
1'~.6
2.]
-1.0*
-.':!" -. 7*
-.]*
1. 2 60.4
1.4 68.4
1] . 5
15.3
].1
6. I
6.9
2.1o•
2.6t
a.o
2. 6t
2. 9*
n .a
s. J
4.6
s .9
88 ,
100.
1.2
1.3
]6.]
.]
B7. 1
Bq ,
100.
2.3
2.6
75.7
84.6
''·
88.
100.
Cll
'-.6
s.•
,.,, os.a
1oo.
100 .
-mill run
h-
z.a.
) .o•
15.1o
4~J. o
2]0
100.
1].2
51!.8
4. )
10 . )
1) . 1!
9. 5*
9-5*
"'
90,
100.
1.5
1.6
39.0
4).5
29.4
)2 . 8
16.3
18. )
]. 4
) .8
-.1•
-.1*
.s
272
27J
276
,,,
'"
"'
2.6*
2.9•
) . 9*
a.s• a.s• J.s• J.s•
8.)*
8.3*
. 2•
. 2*
. 2•
.2•
.2*
.6•
.5
-straw, silage
3-28-736
39.
100.
.9
2. 3
1] . 2
44 . 1
11.]
28.9
]. ]
19.9
1.9
4,8
.2 •
. 6•
.2•
. E.•
.6•
-nraw, treated with sodium hydro.o<ld e
de hydrate d
1~3-927
88.
.1
Jo.4
34 . 4
16.4
18.6
1.9
4.4
.5•
. 5*
.6•
.,• • ,.
.a• . 8•
8. 2
32.7
4.0
16.1
2.6
10.3
1.5
6.1
1.5*
6. 2•
1.7*
6.6*
1.7*
6.6•
3.5
14.9
2.5
10.8
1.7*
1.6*
6.6•
1.7*
1.7*
].0*
]. O•
],0*
2.0
5.2
.4*
1.0*
.1!•
1.0*
.b
1.0*
1.0*
]. 7*
lo.1*
). 7*
27'
27S
9. 2 12.o
J.o• J.o• s.B• s.a•
qo .
-pollshings
J.B
q.s
100.
.e
36.9
41.8
25 .
100.
.9
3. 5
9.4
37.5
24 .
100.
.5
2.1
9-7 ' ],4
41. 0 ]1.2
)8 ,
.6
1.5
1] . 0
IIi . ]
1;4,]
]8.7
].8
9-9
2. 1 39.8 28.9
I 1. I
7. ~
3 .6*
2. 1t
U.6
]2.4
\2.4
8.}
4.0*
] . 9*
4. 3*
15.2
48.2
8.8
2.6
8.1
4.2
2].8
I).5
).0*
9.5*
2.9*
9.1*
2.9•
9.3*
2.9•
9.)*
.J *
PANICUH I'IAX I MUH . Cuineagrau
277
-aerl11l part , fre sh
"'
282
-ae r
28)
28,
-hay, sun-cured
lo~ l
part, silage
\-Q2-J36
89 .
100.
.4*
4,1*
PANICUM REPENS. TorpedO<Jrass
285
28.
-aerial part, f re sh
Jl.
.8
100.
2.4
21.
100.
.s
8.s
6.8
3.1
1.5•
1. 6•
1. 6•
)9.6
)1.9
14 . ]
2. 4
11.4
L6•
2.4
].6•
] .2•
] . 6•
] . 6•
22 .
.6
6.7
)0.8
).0
1).8
2. 1
9· 5
1. 2
5.4
1.2*
5· "*
1.3*
5-9*
5-9*
PASPALUH COtiJUCoHU/1. Paspall."'l, sour
287
-aerl•l part. fresh
2-HH)84
288
PE NN ISETU11 PURPUREUI'1. Naple r g r au
289
-aerial part , fresh
'"
"'
-aerial part , f r es h , It} to 56 days'
"'
2qJ
-aer ial part. fresh . 57 to 70 days'
"'
-aerial pa r t, silage, 15 to 28 days'
,.
2qS
100.
2.6
9.5
4J . Io
2-10-o76
18.
1oo.
·"
1.9
7-7
42 .4
6.1
n .s
2.4
13.4
1.6
8.8
.9*
5.1•
. 9•
4.7•
1. 0
s.6
1. 0
s.6
2-IQ-255
\8,
100.
.)
1.1o
].8
2.6
14,1
1. )
}.0
.6•
3·5*
.E.•
1t2.2
6.5
35.2
J,l*
.8
4.5
,8
4.5
)-12-146
19.
100.
.)
1.6
8.8
4] . 2
5.0
26.9
).]
18.0
\,2
6.4
. 4•
2.0*
.4•
2.0*
gr owth
growth
grO\IIth
\, )*
·"* ....
2. 0•
2.0*
217
Energy ror Sheep
EntryOE
(~ill
/kg)
"' '"
(Heal
/kg) (l)
DE
(fU
/kg)
(t1cal (Heal
/kg) /kg) (l)
219
260
3.26*2.89•
261
262
2.62* 2.26*
].00* 2.)8*
59.*
68.•
26)
264
).52* }.15*
}.9)* ].52*
80 . * 1.12* 3-521 ). 151
89.* 1.25* J.'HI 3.521
"'
1.17*
1.29*
27 •
266
).65* ),24*
. ]7*
.as•
74.• 1.02* ).26/ 2.891
83.* 1.15*J . 6SIJ.141
"·
..
Feed
"' '"
.so•
2.621 2. 26/
. 91* ] . 00# 2. 581
. 27* \,1]1
. 30* 1.291
Energy tor Buffalo
Energy ror Ca.ttle
Energy for C.Oats
Feed
Unit
Unit
(fU
/kg)
DE
Feed
'""
HEm
NE g
NE 1
("Cill (11ca1 (r\Ca l (11cal (Heal
/kg) /kg) / kg) /kg) /kg) (%)
74.1 1.021 ) . 07* 2.70• 1.68* 1. 11* 1. &0*
83./1.1)#].45* ).03* 1.89• 1.25* 1,80*
59-I
68 . 1
.ao, J.76*
J .41
2.15* 1. ]2* 1.77*
-911 4.]0* ) . 90
2. 46* 1. 96* 2.0)*
"·
so.
.so•
40.
4S .
-51 11 2.14• 1.76
.57• 2.}9 11 1.96
1 . 8~·
20 . •
51.*
. 25* . 881 .]21
.&5•2.271 "a~,
20./
5 1. 1
.6)*
.251
.65/2.04 * 1.61 "'
.81o1t
1.66* 1.2811
1.88• 1.45•
)8.•
4} .11
. loS• 1. 661 1. 281
.$1 11 1.881 1.451
]8,,
4)./
.451 1.57* 1. 19*
.511 1. ] 8• 1, }1,11
.&2*
277
.56• .11511
2.2 4• 1.81•
1).
11.
.16* .561 .loS#
.61o•2 . 2lol 1.811
1].1
51.1
.161 .57 11 .46* .2&•
.M/2.28* 1.8S• 1. 0211
280
279
.60' .so•
2.52* 2. 1011 57 -11
'"·"'
. 18*
.SOl
.]411 2.521 2. 101
·""'
14./
57-1
,\81 .16• .lib• .26*
-741 2.36• 1.9lo* 1. 09*
281
282
. 87* . ]111
2. ]0* 1. 87•
20 . *
52.•
.25* .871 -711
.66• 2. )01 1. 871
20.#
52.#
.251 .8]*
.661 2.1811 1.75"'
28)
28<
\,91)11 1. 61*
2.2]* I.Bo•
loS . •
-57"' 1. 99# 1.611
. 61o• 2. 231 1.801
'+5.1
so.,
-571 1.99* 1.60*
.641 2.22* 1.79*
281
286
20.*
65.•
.2]•
2. 86• 2.lilt1t
.86• 2.861 2.lolo#
·"''
65 . #
287
288
.Sio• . loS * 12.*
2.52• 2.09* 57.*
.16* .St.# .451
.]4* 2.52# 2.091
12./
5].1
.161
,.
2. 18
.1'+* .loBI . ]9#
. 6]* 2.181 1.781
II. I
51. #
,lo]* .25*
. 141
.6]#2.41* 1.98• 1.1 ]*
.2 ]*
.s1• 1. 22•
291
292
. lo S* . )8*
2. lo9• 2.06•
.0 ...
289
293
"'
295
296
.48
.n•
·"
1.78
.ItS* .37•
L. 2t 1.99*
11 .
1 1.
10 . *
56.•
.I]*
.n•
1,)8•
.....
.76*
. 8811
2.27*
....
]2.*
n.•
1.96" 1.57"
2. 19* 1. 76 10
so .•
"·
88.
52.•
sa. •
.661 2.27* 1.90* \,11*
-75#2.sa•2 . 15* 1.26•
273
278
n.
88.
.6]* 2.27* 1.90•
.76* 2.58• 2.15*
51.1
sa.,
.27*
.)0*
271
272
276
....
1.21*
'"·' 1.031 ] . 39* }. 02* 1.90* 1. ]0* 1.78• ]7 . * 1.07* ].39* ] . 02*
8].# 1.151 J . /9* ].38* 2.12 "' 1.1os• 1. 99* 8&.• 1.2011 ) . ]9* ).)8•
.66• 2.251 1.871
-15* 2. 551 2.121
-.su
2 . 2~· 1.87•
2.55*2 . 12•
"'
271
]0,11
]8.* 1.08•
1.21*).76*).41
1. )8* 4,)0* ).90
.20*
. 22*
-17
.62
-.51*
).27* 2.90*
] .65 • ]. 2~11
1.62
2.70*
]8.* 1.08• ].45* ).0]*
\],*
• 271
. )01 1. 06*
1. ~5
),0]*
('I
Feed
Unit
(FU
/kg)
1.11*
-.0]
-.0}
27-1
29.#
1.11
. 62* 1. 98
.96•
TON
16.•
....
267
268
. ]2*
(11ca1 (Kcal
/kg) /kg)
eo .•
-111
.as,
7"·* 1.03* }, 271 2.901
8}.11 1.15 11 ] . 651].21o;
DE
(FU
/kg)
80.1 1.1 2/ ) , 17* 2.8o• 1.75* 1.17* 1. 65• n.• .99* 3.17• 2.SO•
89 . 1 1.2513·5"*3.1)* 1.95* 1. )1* 1.85* 80 . ' t.11*J.Sh ),13*
269
270
51.*
sa.•
]0 . *
"
Unit
· 771 20.;
....
16 . •
1] . *
.61* 1.16• 52 . *
.69* 1.}1* sa.•
....
.20 *
.22* 1.06*
-17
. 62
.67 ~
1.07*
86 . 1< 1.2011
.62:1 2. 1" * 1.76
-70"' 2.]9• 1. 96
42 .
47.
. 62•
.70*
.n•
.121< .]9* 18.•
. )0"' 1.01 * lo6.•
. 22*
.6)*
.57• 2.04• 1. 6111
lB.•
46,11
.22*
.57*
.su
.0811
.09*
\,OQit
1.11•
.so• .93•
.56" '.o~•
42.
47.
....
.87"'
40 . •
.42*1.57"' 1.19* ]&.•
. lla• 1.78• l.]lo * 110 . *
.42*
. loB*
.29*
I . Jio1t
1],:1
52 . *
.16* .57* .11611
.66• 2.28• 1. 85*
1) .*
52.•
. 16*
.66•
.28*
. sll• 1.19*
1],11
st. .•
.1611 . 16• .116•
. 69*2.]6* 1.94*
1) . *
54.•
.16*
.69 11
19. 11
.IS*
.40* 1.09* lo9.*
.21o• .a]"'
.62112 , 1811 1.75*
19,11
119.•
.21o•
.62*
.]9* 1.00•
.4)• 1.12*
loS . •
so.•
. 57• 1.99• 1.60*
. 64•2.22• 1.79•
los.•
so .•
-57*
.61o•
. 271
-75* .loS•
.861 2.80• 2.]8* \,lo)1t
-27* · '-5*
.Sio• l.lllo•
20 . *
61o . 1t
.27•
-75*
. 8lo* 2.8o• 2.}8•
20.*
64.•
.27*
.84•
.21o•
.12 • .2611
.Slot 1.2011
12.•
5'-·*
. 15• .51• ,1,211
.69• 2.3]* ' ·9"*
12.•
Slo . •
.IS *
.69*
.12•
12 . *
ss .•
.IS* .Sl* .It]•
.]0* 2. Io1* 1.98•
12 .•
ss . •
.]0*
u .•
.10•
.Sio*
.....
....
-5'*
.42•
.)611
.91t*
........
.]41 2.37* 1,94* \,10*
.sJ•
. i!Sl . ]81
2. 1o912.o6t
10.1
56 . #
.131 • JS
.]3# 1.9 ..
.27*
1.51*
1.69*
10.*
·*
.l)t
~.
5~
... s, -371
.]1•2 ... 2/ l . 't9#
10./
SS - 1
,1}1 .)9
. ]182.12
. • s• .)]*
2.lol* 1.98•
10.•
ss.•
.1}* .lo51 .371
.70•2 . 411 1.98#
10.1
55.#
,\)1 .]9* .)1*
.70#2.11* 1.68•
• }I*
• 14*
.]5•
....
.12*
·"'"'
-77"' 36.•
,I]•
·"'"'
.15•
...
.22• .85• 4l, ,1t
.18•
.96•
,I]*
.0]*
. 36*
. I ]*
.o6• .2o•
.]5* !.OS*
.89•
...
9-•
9. •
48.•
.....
....
. 10*
. )1
.s~o •
1.911
,11:1
. )9
,60• 2.12
. 27*
l.SI*
...
.31* 9.'
1.69* 48.•
·"* .]9* , ]1*
.60* 2.11* 1.68•
9 -•
loS.•
.IS*
.11•
.6o•
. 11*
.60*
218
Table 26. Proal111ate Composition and Energy Content of Soone COII'mQnly
Uu~d
Asi,.n Feeds {Cont.)
Digestible Protein
,_
297
298
,.,
tion•l
,,,
Feed
Munlbe r
(>)
Intern.-
Entry
lnternltlonal
feedN-
P[NNISETUJ't SETOSUH . Pennlset~. wenlndles
-aerial part, fresh
2-29-'-11
Be~.
PHASEOlUS AUII[US.
IIIUnCJ
-aeri•ll part, fresh
)01
2-oo-619
-pods, sun-cured
l-2)-o68
JOJ
'"
lOS
"'
-seeds
s-os-•as
S-29--328
PHASEOLUS "Ltl(i(),
Be~.
S-18-037
lll
lll
'"
l17
)18
,,,
5-oo-594
-feathers,~~~eJo l
5-29-671.
-hay, sun-cured
321
"'
,.
J27
2-1G-H8
1-29-617
2-21-()69
·'
ROTT&OE:LLIA ElALUU. ltchgrJoss
-.erlal part, fresh
2-IQ-910
-hay, sun-cured
1-29-465
1- 28-783
SACC HAR~YCES
CER EV IS IAE . Yeast, brewers
-dehydrated
Sot.CCHot.RUI1 OHIC!Not.RUI1 . Sugarcane
-.erlal part, fresh
7-<l5-527
2-<l ..-689
"'
1-()4-686
331
-bJ19nse, wet
2-()9-909
.s•
1.6•
2.1•
2.0*
l.'J*
8.2•
].]*
.]•
. ]•
).0•
] .0•
1.9*
8.1•
1.9*
8.1*
].2
2.1
10.1
2.9
11 . 0
18 . 1
8.2
•. s
100.
57 . 5
20 . 9
11.0
5.6• S-9*
6.1o• 6.8 •
59 . 5
66. 1o
).8
) .7
•. 1
21.0
19.5 " 19.51
100.
1.1
1,]
57.3
66 ...
s.s
J,l
100.
2.0
2,)
''·
•. o
58.8
6~ . 7
) .8
,,,
100.
2 ••
51 .1
56.1
11.2
12.)
•. 1
s.o
s.s
100.
"·
2.7
)6 . )
'·'
)6.5
•• 2
15.)
2.h 2 . )• l.)* 2.3*
11.]* 10.9* 10.9• 10.9*
92.
).2
)2.8
35.8
)0 . 5
3) . 2
].7
8.)
17.6
19.1
12.6* 13.2*12 . 4*12.4•
1).7* llo.lo t 1).5• 1).5•
u.o
13.9
12 . 6
39 . 9
2.7
8 ••
s.•
8. )
7-l
).1
...
86.
"'
..
,. "'
,, s.s
)2,
"·
..
J.S
..
.s
.
'·'
...
'·' '·'
'·' '·'
..
7.7
72./o
8 .•
79.1
lo0,2
35 - l
15.0
100.
"'
35.)
)8 . ]
]3 . 7
)6.5
Jlo.6
15.9
28.6
] 1.1
10.8
6.4•
6.1t•
1).5*''"·'* 1).2*1).2*
1$.6•16.4*15.3* 15.)*
2} . 6
25.9
/.]
2. 9
,,
18.)
21.2
21 . 8
2).9
.,
s.6• 5-6•
2).5 11.8+21.81
'·'
s.o
100 .
).2
22.1+ 22.71
21o.9+
2~.·u
-
... ... ...
....,,,. ... ... . .,.
•.a
.8•
2 ....
2.0•
2.9*
2.9*
]•
..,'·'s.J
).I•
2.7•
) . 5*
J-5*
2.1o•
2.6•
2.6•
2 . 6•
2. 8•
2.6•
2.8•
1 . 2•
1.3*
1. 4•
1.5*
1. 4•
1.5*
2.8•
92.
,,
1o7.8
100.
.8
52 . 0
100.
1. 0
1,1
)8 . 0
41.]
"·
IL2
,..
100 .
2.2
52.0
)),)
1.8•
'·"*
2.]*
2.]*
1.)
LJ
1o5.9
.. 8.6
t,o.8
lo) , 1
"'
1.2
1.1
91.
)./
2.9
- . ]*
-.4•
-.7•
-
).0
-.6•
- . 6•
8.0
s.•
z.a
.2•
.8
61.5
J8, 1o
,,
100.
330
... ...
&ufhlo
m
(\}
19.8
100.
-b.;aue, dehydr•ted
332
'·'
2.1
"'
11.2
100.
RHYNCHELYTRUH ROSEU", NUJolg ra u
-aer ial part, fre sh
J2J
'"
10.)
...
m
m
lo6.1
100 .
PUERU!ot. PMASEOlOIOES. kudzu, tropi.;Jol
-~~er!Jol part, fresh
)20
321
J22
loO . J
CatSheep Goet
so .o
100.
PHot.SEOLUS SPP . lie an
-seeds
POULTRY
"'
10.1
lol.l}
(\}
1,1
1.)
a,.
u rd
)10
'"
'"
·'
1,8
te 1n
··~
m
PHASEOLUS CALCARATUS. Bean, dee
307
)08
"'
"·
"·
100.
)02
··-m
CriKie
Fiber Ash
(t}
(\)
Hitter tract MFE
100.
)00
Toul
Ether
,a.
100.
2.6
.s
..
,,,
'·'
10.2
'·'
/. 1
1· 7
1. ]
'·'
],1
lo2.1o
lo6.1
J,S
I,U
1.5*
3] . 2+ )7 , 21 )9.8+ )9.8+
loo,~o+
...
.)•
loO.IoJ loJ . J + lo J,J+
.J•
.s•
-.lo•
.s•
....
- . 4•
... ...
. ]•
.7•
219
"'
(f1cal (Meal
/kg) /kg)
,.,
291
,..,
300
'"
"'
.sa•
. ~8·
2.41• 1.99*
TON
feed
Unit
m
/kg)
1].*
tru
.1]*
" "'
(~al
(Kcal
/kg)
/kg)
.sa,
.loBI
ss.•
.]1* 2.411 1.991
.67* .56• 15 . *
2.76•2.] 4* 6].*
.20* .6]1 .56#
. 8]* 2.76#2.]1.#
2.20* \,8]*
so.•
2.5)*2.10*
57·*
.65* 2.20# 1.8]1
-75* 2.5}# 2.101
Feed
Unit
t•l
l].J
ss.1
15.1
63.1
so.,
57.#
Energy for Buffalo
Energy for tutle
Energy for Gooots
Energy for Sheep
Entry DE
tru
/kg)
" "'
HEm
NE g
NEt
(Kca l (11cal (11cJI (/'leal (Mcill
/kg) /kg) /kg) / kg ) /kg)
.ss•
.11•
T~
Feed
Unit
m
/kg )
tru
" "'
(Heal (l'lc•l
/kg) /kg)
.16* .ss•
. 65*2 . 27* 1.8511
TDH
Feed
Unit
m
/kg)
·""* 52.*
,28*
12 .*
.47* 1.14*
52.•
.101 .6}11 .SJ* ,] I *
.831 2. 62• 2.20* 1.29*
,I]* ,]2*
.]2 • 1.]4*
14.•
60.*
. 19* . 6)* .sJ•
.]8* 2.62* 2. 20*
60.•
.65#2.17* I.SO• 1,011*
-75#2.49* 2.07* 1.19*
.ss•
4').*
57-*
.&4* 2.17* I .SO*
.n• 2.49* 2.07•
49 .*
57.•
.1]1
,lolo•
.15*
.]1#2.27* 1.85• 1.02*
1.10*
. 6)* 1. 27*
1.72* 1.28• 1.76* ]6 .• . 98• }.12* 2 . 75
1. 92* 1.4)• 1.96• as.• 1.09* ].lo9*].08
12 . *
\lo,'ll
tru
.16•
.os•
.19*
. ]8*
.....n•
....
JOJ
JO'
).51* ]. IS* so.• \ . 12*).511] . 151 80.# 1.12#}.12*2.]5
].9}*].52* 8') . * 1.25* ].')]# ) .521 8')./1.25#3.49* ],08
lOS
306
2.7J* 2.]6*
], 16• 2. 7~·
62.*
72.*
JOI
JOB
] . 54*} . 17*
] . 89• ) . ~8 ·
So . • 1.1 2• J . Sioi 3. 171 80.# 1. 121 ].27• 2.90* 1.81• 1.22*1.]11• ]4.* 1.03* ].27* 2.~·
88.• 1.2]* ] . 89#].481 sa., 1,2]# ) .60* ].18• 1. 99* 1. 3~· 1.88• 82.* 1.1]* ].60* ). 18•
309
310
3.23*2.85• n.• 1.01* ) . 231 2.851
J.ss• ],I)* so.• 1. 11* ]. 55#].131
13.1 1.011 2. 9~* 2 .s6• '· sa• 1.02 *1.53*
80./ \,111 ].2)* z.a1• \,]lo* 1.12* 1.68*
67.* .')1•2.9lo•2.56*
]3.* 1.00* ],2]* 2,81*
67.• .91*
7J,* 1.00*
'"
'"
'"
'"
] . loq• ] .1 2*
].82• ] , ~1·
79.* 1.11*].lo9#].12#
a, . • 1.21* ).82/ ].411
79 . I 1. Il l 3 - 17* 3. 39* 2. 1~* I, 49* 1.98*
8]./ 1.211 4.12* ].}I* 2.]~· 1.63* 2.17*
ss.•
85.•1,20*
')],* 1. ]2*
JIJ
-57* . ~a·
2.]1*2.28•
n.•
.17* -571 .loS#
. 81• 2 . ] 11 1 . 281
1].1
61.1
.1]1 .s4• .~os• .26*
.8112 . 58• 2.16* 1.26•
.IS* .28• 12.•
.69* 1.}1* 59.•
. 16*
61,111
. ~lo· . loS•
2.58• 2.16•
12.*
59-*
. Iii*
-77*
JlS
2.lol* 2.02*
2.62•2.20*
55.*
59.*
.77.* 2.lol# 2.02/
.78• 2.62 1 2.201
55-I
59-I
.]2/2 .lt0•2.01111\,18•
.781 2.62* 2.1')* 1.29*
.66• 1. 22•
-72* 1.]]*
Slo.*
59 . *
,]\* 2.40• 2.01*
.]8•2.62*2.19*
54.•
59.•
.]1•
,,,
.]8* .65*
2. 1o8• 2.06*
lB.•
18.#
)6. 1
. 1)1
56 . •
.2]* ,]81 .651
.73* 2.lo81 2. 06#
1].*
53.*
.21 *
.&a•
319
.47• ,]8*
2.28• 1.85*
11.*
52 . •
.14* . lo71 ,]81
.66• 2.281 1.851
11.,
52-1
1.86• 1.46*
2.02* 1.59*
42.•
46. *
. 52* 1.86# 1.1!61
.56* 2.021 1.591
42.1
lo6.#
2.0it • 1,64*
2.21*1.7a•
~6. *
so.•
.sa• 2. o1o1 1.641
.6)* 2.211 1.]81
),llt&2.76&
] , 4\& ] ,00&
]I.+
]7,+
• 98& ].1412.]6#
1.06& ]. 411 ].00/
.61* .5 1* 11• . *
2.57* 2. 15* 58 . •
,18* .611 ·5'1
.]6*J.57#2.1)#
Jll
"'
"'
"'
m
'"
'"
,,,"'
"'
loB,•
51.*
JJO
2.1]* \,]3*
2.25* 1.8)*
Jll
Jl1
2.38• 2.05* 54.•
).0]• 2.61* 69 . •
319
.8lo*2.7JI2.36#
-97* ). 161 2. 7~1
62./
71./
.a41 2. 76* 2.40• !,loB• -95* 1.4]•
-971 ).20* 2,]8• 1.71*1.10* 1.66*
.,...
6].*
73.*
.as• 2.76• 2.1o0•
.99* ] . 20* 2.78•
1, 20* 3-77* ).]')*
93-* 1.l2* ~. 12* ]. 71*
.n•
76.•
as.• 1.09*
63 . •
73 . *
.as•
.99*
]~ . * I, 0]*
82.* \,\]*
,JB*
•61* ,)U
-7312.}5* 1.92* 1.08•
,I]* ,]]*
. 5]* 1.18*
''·*
5].*
.21* . ]lo• . 61*
. 6a• 2.]5* 1.92*
,141 .loS• . ]]*
.661 2.19* 1.76•
....
.20*
.09* .2]*
.41• 1.10*
so.•
10.*
.1]* .loS* .37•
.6]•2.19* 1.]6*
10 . *
so.•
.6]*
.521 1.86• 1.46•
.561 2.01* 1.58•
-75*
.81•
.92*
.2]* 1. 00*
lol.•
lo6.*
.52* 1.86* 1.46•
.s6• z.o1• 1.58•
42.*
lo6 . •
.52*
.s6•
46 . # .sal 1. 97* 1.57*
so., .6]1 2.14• 1.71*
.84•
.91*
.]lot
4S . *
loB.•
.s&• 1.97* 1.57*
. 61* 2.1U 1.]1*
4) . *
loB.*
.56*
.61*
]1.1 .98# }.20*2 . 82
77 -1 1. 061 J , ~a· 3.07
.25*
....
.3]* 1. 07*
1.76*1.16* 1.80• ,a . .. 1.00* ].20* 2.82
1. ')1* 1.27* 1.96* as.• 1.09• J,4B• J,OJ
. 1]•
]B.• 1.00*
1.09*
as.•
,18# .60•
.29*
.]6 f1 . 55*1.1]* \,llo*
,16* ,] 1*
.67* 1,]0*
sa.•
14,•
,18• ,(,0>
-!6* 2.SS*2.13*
.so•
\4,•
sa.•
.18•
.61* 2.1]# 1.]31 48.1
.65• 2.25# 1.831 51.1
. 61 # 2.07* 1.66•
.65#2.19* 1.76*
. )8• 1.0]* 4].*
.41* 1.09* so.•
. 59* 2.0]* 1.66•
.62• 2.19* 1.76•
It].*
so.•
.S9*
.62•
.])•2.)812 . 051
.9)* ].03/ 2.611
.7312.1t1*2.08• 1.27* .SO• 1.25*
,')] 1 ) . 08•2.66• 1.6]*1.02* !.59*
.]lt*2.&.1•2.08• 55.•
.')lo• }.08* 2.66• ]0.*
, ]4*
.94*
14,,
sa.,
54.,
69 ./
.so•
.')0•
.9S*
ss.•
]0.*
.]6*
220
Table26.
Pro~ti•;r.te
t<nposition and Energy Content of Sor.le t011r.10nly Used ltsi.11n Feeds (Cont.)
Digestible Protein
,,_
Entry
'"
lnternatlonll
Feed Name
Intern ,_
tlon•l
,,, ,,_
Feed
Nl.ll!lber
Platter tr&ct NFE
Toul
Ether
It)
It)
Crude
Fiber Ash
(>)
(\I
(>)
,,~
tein
(>)
Sheep Goat
m
!'I
tn-
sur-
"'
I' I
It)
hlo
SACCHARUI'I OH ICINAIWH (Cont) .
JJJ
"'
-Je•ves, fresh
2-Qio-691
-rn:~l•nes
337
))8
-top of aer i ~~~ part, dehydrated
1-13-565
339
-top of aerl•l p;r.rt, fresh
llS
2-1)-568
-top of aer ial part, sil<t9e
s-an,
31.
)-<18-528
18.
3'3
3"
3'1
-po<ls
li-}0-2}6
S[SAI'IUM UID ICLIM. Sesame
-seeds
5-o8-5o9
"'
-seeds , meal llleChanical extr.tetec:t
5-<llo-220
351
-seeds,
5-11-5ll
lSO
extr.tetedeaked
SESBoUIIA GRAPIDIFLORA. IJ!surlatree, scarlet
-l e aYes, fresh
2-21-<l87
lSI
SETARIA SPHACELATA . Millet , golden
-aerial p•rt , fresh
"·
2-11-528
SOfiC'.HU/'1 IIICOLO'I . Sorghlll'l
-aerial p•rt witl'w)ut he.Os, sun-eure<l
361
366
367
368
.8•
).)*
. /•
2. 9"
/.1
9.3
1. 7
1.1
-.6* - . 6*-1.5*-1.5*
... ...
-.8•
-.8• -2.0" -2.0*
1.2*
1. )*
l.lo•
J . lo•
1.)•
1.5*
'·"*
1.5*
./•
.8•
.8•
.8•
U .2
)2.1o
ioJ . S
J" .s
10.&
\.1
15.6
10 . 5
1 .•
/.6
1,0
6.•
1.1
1.3
.o•
.o•
.o•
.o•
.1•
.1•
.1•
.1•
6.7
).I*
5.0•
\],1,
13.2 •
n.ac
10 . 1
11.8
6.9*
8.0•
6.5*
7.6•
.s
1.7
so.1o
3) . 9
.6
1.0
llo.CJ
5).0
8.6
1.9
)0. 6
10.2
\],0
60.'
1.4 . 6
4].6
16.6
100.
"·
12.1
1] . 2
2'-.6
26.8
"·
10.]
ll.lo
25.1o
28,1
18.
...
8.s
1.3
1!6 . 9
12.9
.s 8 . s
1. 6 46.)
35.8
'·'
'·'
"'
1,,
1.7
lo2.1o
,.9 . 9
29.0
Jl•.1
6.8
8. 0
1.6 ]1.)
1. 9 81.7
1.3
1. 6
...
18,
1-.Qli-302
8S.
100.
-grain
ii-Gio-)8)
360
363
36'
.0
.8•
) . )*
1.1
6.3
1.3
1.1
...
100.
318
361
361
.o
.6•
l.lo•
1.9
8.0
100 .
316
"'
)b . )
100.
100,
363
lSI
8,8
3
~6.
1.0
1·3
100 .
~~~eehanleal
11,)
2.)*
2.5• 2.5• 2.5*
r;r. in tree
2-29-179
"'
1,8
1.9
100.
S~AN.
-leaves , fresh
'"
3. 1 63.8
•. 1 Slo . J
100.
SAI'IANU
317
3'8
"·
9),
100.
3"
'"
.8
3. 1
100.
336
3"
3U
"·
100.
lo-1)-251
87 .
100.
SORGHUM HUEP£MSE . Sorghl.ft, johnsongrass
-~e: r l•l p•rt, f resh
STYLOS APITHESGRACI LI S. Sty 1o
- ha y, sun-c ur e<l g r ound
TA MAR IM OUS INDICA. Tamar ind
-leaves , f resh
2-Gio-lol2
1-29-(, 10
2-29-loSli
31 .
2-28-187
70 . 1
\] . ]
100 .
.s
1./
12.8
loi.S
87 .
1. 9
lo O. ]
100 .
1.1
" 7-0
18.
...
llo . 7
51.9
100.
TRIFOLIUM A[SUPINATU/'1 . Clove r, pe rsian
-aerial part. fresh
,8
4} . 7
11.
100 .
1.3
.s
1. 6
8.6
loO,]
10.9
28.1
1. >
s.s
... ...
...... '·'
..,
u
11.6
6.8
"'
8.>
6. 6
6.1
12.2
2}.7
11.)
12.4
17.5
1!0.9
11.8
35-5
39.)
1] . 1
-
1..9* '-·9*
11.6• 12.6*
6.8•
7-9*
6.8•
7-9*
]6,4 • )6.1o•
)9, 7• )9 . ]+
1,] •• 8 lo.O* ) . 9• l-7* ] . 7*
•. 3 26.) 21.7* 21.]• 20.Io• 20.1!*
...
...
1. 1
,,.
].9*
...
),lot
.8•
. 8•
1. . 1•
1!.2•
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6.1
1./
1.0
1.9*
2.)•
1.9*
2. ]*
1,9*
1.}*
•• 1
6.0*
6.9*
6.0•
6.9*
'-·9*
5 . 7•
lo.9*
s.7•
2.0*
10.5
...
11.8
]8 . ]
1 ••
3. 3
1· 1 10.7
b.fl•
2.2•
7. 0•
2.2*
6. 0
26. 7
)0.8
,,,
\.1
12.2
\lo,l
8 . o•
9 - 3*
a.s•
8 . o•
9 . 8•
9- 2•
8.0*
9.2*
2.9•
10 . 1*
2.7*
21.0
"'
•.o
2.8•
9.8•
2.8•
9.8•
'·'
1.1
3.7
11.9
17. 6
6.0
2],1
8.6
11o.0
9-7•
] . O•
1.8• 1.]• 2.7* 2.7•
1),4fii).O* 12.9•11.9•
221
(nero;w for Sheep
EntryOE
Hum-
ber
))]
HE
(Hcid (Mc,l
/ kg) /kg)
(\)
.60•
.so•
3J'
2.47• 2. 04*
JJS
).0]*2 . 77*
))6
4.06• ].66*
JJ7
1.813• 1,48•
2. 02* 1. 59*
338
TOtl
14.•
56 . •
"·"·
"·
Energy for Goats
Feed
Unit
(FU
/ kg )
Energy
for
Cattle
"' '"
m
(Melli (Mea l
/kg) /kg)
·"''
Unit
DE
(FU
/kg)
(!'\cal (Hcal (!ieal (Meal (Mea l
/kg)
·""
11[
/ kg )
.so•
NE ""
/kg)
-SOl
14,,
.181
.7]*2 . '-712.04#
56.#
. 7JI 2.lo'J* 2.06• 1.19*
. 18•
Energy for Buffalo
Feed
DE
.98• 3.071 2.]]1
]0./ . '}8/).01*2.70
92.# 1.30#).98• 3-5 7
43 .
.52* 1.88# 1.48#
.so• 2. 021 1.591
4].#
.52# 2.01 • 1.61*
~6.1
16 . •
53.•
.21* . ]21 .591
.67•2.]21 1.901
16./
5] . /
,21/ .n•
.67/ 2. 29* 1.86•
1] .•
1.]0* lo .06J ).66t
.29*
1.]0*
ME g
/kg)
N[l
/kg)
. IS * . ] 1*
.6)* 1.26*
1.33•
!.]lo ft
2.25* 1.]6• 2.)0*
'"
m
14.•
56 . •
Feed
Unit
(FU
/ kg )
,18*
DE
"'
·"''
.so•
.]3* 2.1.9• 2.06*
75.• . 96•] . 01112 , ]0
99.• !.27*Vi8•J . S7
.]6* 1.01*
.]9* 1.08.,
lo6.*
. 5612. 16* 1.7}*
,8]*
-93*
.sa•
.]2 *
1.0~·
.IS* . ]6*
. ~8· 1,15*
TON
(f'teal (Hcool
/kg) /kg) (%)
14.•
56 . •
Js .•
feed
Unit
(FU
/kg)
. 1St
....
.7J *
99-*
1.2]*
~6. *
49.*
-57*
.61 *
16 . •
52.*
.20*
.66*
~9-*
-57*2.01*1.61*
.61*2.16* 1.73•
16.•
52.•
.20* .]1* . s8•
. 66* 2.29* 1. 86•
15.*
5~
340
. 59*
2.32* 1.90*
341
341
.])• .61*
2.59* 2. 17*
.22 * .7}/ .611
-77* 2. 591 2.171
17./
59-1
.221 . 67* . 55 11 .]1*
. 77/2.]9* 1.96* 1. 11*
.16* • 3 ~·
.s5• 1.21*
5~ · *
.20* .07• .s5•
.]011 2.39* 1.96•
15.*
.•
.20*
59 . *
343
3'4
1.11* .91.*
2.85•2.43•
25.•
65.*
. )]*1.11/
.86• 2.851 2./oJI
·"''
25 . /
65./
. Bl 1.17* 1.00• .61*
,861 J,OO* 2. 58* 1. 57*
. ]8•
-97 * J.SS*
·""
26.•
68.*
. 36* 1.1 7* 1.00* 26.•
.92* ],00* 2.58* 68.•
.]6*
.92*
34S
3'6
2.6]*2.31*
].1 1* 2. 69*
61.
.82• 2.67/ 2. ]II
.96• ],Ill 2.691
61./
11.1
.82J2.8)*2 . 4]A 1.5)* -99 • 1.lo7* 64.• .88• 2.8] • 2.~7·
-961 ].]0* 2.88• 1.78• 1.16* 1.11* 75.• 1.02*].)0*2 . 88•
347
348
s.oo• 4.63* 113.• 1.64 • s.oo, ~-6 3 1 IIJ . , 1.64/ 5.18* 4.81* ].0)* 2.20* 2 . ]6* II} . * 1,]0* 5. 18* 4.81* \17 . * 1.]0*
s . n• 4. 9~* 121.* 1.75*5 . )3J4 . 941121.1 1.}51 5.52* 5-13* ].2]* 2.35* 2.95* 125. • 1.82•5 . 52*5.13* 125 . * 1.82•
JJ9
. ]2*
71.
. ]0*
64.• .88•
75 . * 1.02*
349
3SO
] . ]6* 2.98•
].66 • ].25*
76 . • 1.06• ).]61 2.9111
8] . * 1.15* 3.661 ].251
76.1 1.06/].57*].20•2.01* 1.)8• 1.88• 81.* 1.1]*].57*3.20* 81,* 1.1]*
8].1 1.15/].89• ].1.8•2.19* 1. 51* 2.04* 88,t: 1.23* ) .a9• ] . 1oa• a8.• 1.2)*
JSI
352
],I]* 2.80*
J.51i*J,09*
72.* -99* ) . 171 2.8ol
]'}.• 1.10* J,SOJ ).091
12.1
JSJ
.49* • ~2·
2.6}*2.]1*
11 .*
61.*
.15* • '-9* • ~2*
.82*2.67*2.]U
II.*
61.*
.2)*
. IS* .118•
.82•2 . 61*2.19* 1. 28•
.]1* !.))•
.47* .]9*
2.54•2.12*
I I ,*
58.•
,I'+* ·"'71 - 391
-75• 2.Siol 2. 121
II. I
sa. ,
.1'+1 .lo6• ,]8• .22111:
-751 2.5 1* 2.09* 1.21•
. 12* .2 4* 10.*
.61o• 1.28• 57 ··
3S8
2.11• 1.75*
2.lo9* 2. 06*
loB . /
56 . 1
.621 1.92* 1.56* .86•
.])1 2.2]* !. Slot 1. 02*
lolo.•
51.•
"'
J.ilo• J , OI!*
).90• ].lo9*
"·"·n.•
.62•2.111 1. 75 1
• 73* 2.lo91 2.061
20.
.25* .87/ -111
. 82• 2.82 1 2. )01
"'
m
JS6
lSI
)60
)6 1
·''
1.08• J.ltO, J.OII,
a8.• 1.24• J.<l01).491
''·'
.991 ).)7* ) . 00* ~.aa• 1.2a• 1.77* 76 . • 1. 06* ).3]• ).00•
t,IOI ].73* J,j21t 2.08• 1.~1• 1.95 *
1.18 *3 ·73* ].32*
as.•
....
77-1 1,081 ) . 16* 2.8o
aa., 1.24/].62• ).21
.n•
,I]*
....
.2 '+ * II .
-97*
. lo]* 1,111•
"·
....
• 1'+* . ..a •
.]8• 2.61* 2.19•
II •
,14•
, 14•
. lo6• .]a•
.]h 2.51* 2.0'}*
10.*
57-*
.14*
-74*
-55•1.92* 1. 56*
.65•2.27* 1,84•
114.•
51.•
-55*
-65•
1.75* 1.]2• 1.79• ]1.• . 99* ].16* 2.80
2. 01* 1.52* 2.05* 89.• 1,14* ] . 62•) . 21
....
]6.• 1.06*
as . • 1,1 8•
.n•
"·
]1.•
.1a•
·"'
89.* l.tl••
.20*
.]9*
.61+• 1.28*
18,1<
57-•
.2)*
.]4*2.51* 2.09*
·"'
18.•
57 -•
.23*
.74•
-59* 1.13*
. 68• 1.]1*
so.•
sa.•
.&6• 2.2)* 1. 86•
-76*2 . 57* 2.15•
58.•
so.•
. 66•
.]6*
362
2. 82
64.1
.)7*
.251
.821 2.51* 2.09* 1.21•
363
36'
2.26* 1.89*
2.61* 2.19*
.67* 2.261 J.a91
,]8*2.61 12.191
51.1
59-1
. 671 2. 23* 1.86• 1. 09*
.]812.51* 2.15• 1.25*
366
"'
.... ....
51.•
S9.*
2.8)• 2.lo1*
18.•
61ro.•
. 24•
. 85*2.8)12./ol l
18,,
6'+.1
• 2~ 1 . 85* -73*
.BSI 2.97* 2.55* 1.ss•
.2]* . ~4·
-95* 1.5)*
19 , 111:
67.*
,,6.
· 73*
.91* 2.97*2 . 55*
1'}.*
67.*
.2':1* '
.91*
367
368
.w .51*
2.85*2 .43•
14.•
65 . •
. 1a•
.51#
.a6• 2.851 2.4)1
·"''
14.1
65.1
, 181 .57*
.29*
.861 2.72* 2. 30* 1.)1*
.17* .29*
-79•1.)9*
I] , *
62.*
.17* -57• .4a•
. 81*2 . 72*2 . ]0*
1).•
62.•
. 17•
.81•
. )1
2.30
"·
.... ....
20.1
...,.
....
.
.as•
222
Tlble 26. Prox !mate COftlpo!>i t ion and Energy Content of Some Comnonl y Used As ian Feeds ( tont, I
Digestible Prote i n
...,,_
Total
Ether
Intern~
tiona!
o,
lntern;ttlonal
Feed
I'IU ter
FeedNa-ne
NUI!Iber
Entry
m
··-
troac:t NFE
m
m
TR1T I C\Jl1 AESTI\IUM. Wheat
4-0S-190
'"
)71
J72
-flour, leu than 1.5~ fiber
lt-<15-199
J7J
-germs, ground
s-os-z1s
"'
-g ra in
.lo-oS-211
l7S
J76
J77
"'
379
)80
)a1
)81
)8)
28\l protein equivalent
s-os-o1o
1.2
"·
51.8
,,1
4.7
91.
1.4
1.7
]2 , ]
59.2
79.8
1,)
1.6
1.9
\.1
s .a
teln
··~
(>)
"'
"'
1.7
1. •
Sheep Cio •l lt
m
(;)
1~- 3 11 . 0
16. ]
1. 1 12.0
1.1 13.6
--
12.5
8 . 5*
9-7"
12.]
s.s•
9-7 *
-
20 . 9
2] . 9
11,5
11.0
ll.S
-
8.1• 8.1•
8 . 9• 8.9•
Cat-
sur-
m
"'
m
falo
9.6• 9.6•
10 . 9* 10.9*
7-S*
7.5•
a.s• s.s•
22.]+ 22.]+
25.9+ 25 .9+
] . 0•
].0*
}.]•
].]*
1.5*
1.5*
s . z•
285.0+
-
1.8
6.1
2.1
a.6
1.5*
s . o•
l.S
23 . 2
1, ,
12 . 9
1].1
29.2
n.o
10. 1!
11. 8
1).0
1lo.]
)0.0
1.6
12 . ~
),1
2~. 3
2.5* 2.5" 2.lo* 2.h
19.&*19.2•18. 5• 18.5•
20.6
26.3
16 . 8• 16.5• 1S . 8• 15.8•
21.5* 2 1. 1* 20.)ft 20.3"
99.+
100 . +
-aerial part , fresh
2-26-590
VICNA SINENSIS. Cowpea , coo:rrnon
-aerial part, fre:~h
"·
100.
1.1
12 . 2 12.5
~1.7 ./j2.S
100.
.1
1.1
44,]
Z-oi-6SS
28\,]+
.)
u
1.,8
1.4
1].1
1.3*
4.6•
5. 2•
1.3* 1.3* 1.3*
12 . 5•12.5ft 12.5 ft
-hey, sun-cured
J-o1-61!5
100 .
1.6
,a
-le•ves. fresh
2-ol-656
1) .
100.
.4
1 ••
s-o1-661
,a.
100.
1.7 lo6.8
1. 1 60.0
2-o2-7~
1a.
100.
,a
9.1
52.0
\.1
28.8
1.1
a.6
1.6
a.a
s.J
.
lo.]•
s.J•
s.J*
100.
1.\
14 . 6
54.1
a.o
29.6
1. )
a.,
1,,
\.1
.s•
1.8•
.4•
1. 3•
. 6•
1.2"
.6•
2.2"
)0.
.s
1.•
1,0
).1
),Oft
J.o•
] . Oft
)88
ZEA I'IAYS. l'la lze
-aerial part, fresh
)90
,.1
)91
-;;,erhol part, fresh, dough stage
,.,
"'
-aerial p¥rt, silage
]-o2-B22
"'
'"
"'
'"m
-g1uten,Mea1
5-o2-900
2-o2-B03
88.
"·
,)
,,
~~~eal
5-o2-901
lo-o2-B79
401
401
-grain, g round
4-o2-861
•oJ
,04
- husks, sun-cured
\-o2-78S
"'
-stems, sun-c:ured
J-o 2-795
,,, 3.'
'·'
'·' "'
'·'
)O.Io
,,,
,,,
a.6
'·'
9.1ft
10.2*
.a.
8.5•
9.& *
a . 5•
9.6•
... ...
... ... ...
1 ••
•. a
1.1
2lo.8
).1
J,S
) .a
'·'
40.5
lolo.8
) .1
53.7
59 . 1
a.1
• .0
'·'
s.a
20.7
22.8
"'
"'
"· "'
"'
1.a
1.6
,a
•• 6
10. 9
s.J
6.0
, .a
a.a
s.J•
100.
]0.]
79-7
6.0*
S - 3*
6.0•
100.
•. 0 69.2
80.1
1.9
1.1
1.1
1.\
•. 1
10.6
6.0*
6.9*
6.0*
6.9•
s.o•
5-7*
5.o•
5-7*
).9
) . 6*
4.1•
) .5* ).S*
10 . ]
).1
a.1
),9ft
J.CJ*
1.1 *
1.2•
1.1*
1.1*
1.3*
"· '·'
88 .
100.
-grain
)8.8
16.6
56.0
.... ..,
"'
100.
-oluten with bran ,
] 4. )
}9.2
lo].lo
100.
400
•o6
,,,
a. ,
(>)
VETIIIERIA ZIZANIOIOES . lletiver
)86
"'
"'
63.9
72.8
82.6
\00.
nitr~en
56.2
1,1
1.)
100.
UREA
-.loS\
).6
,,1
m
6.,
7. 4
88.
100.
)84
"'
88.
100.
370
Crude
Fiber Ash
88,
100 .
1. )
l.S
"· "'
100.
1.6
so.o 20.5
56 . 5 2) . 2
lo2.B
t.8.2
)) . ]
3J.9
..,
6.6
'·'
u
s.o
)6.3• 36.31 35 . 5• JS.5•
40.2• 40.21 ]9 . 2• )1) .2•
-
...
'·'
1.0*
20.0•20.0•
22.0+ 22 . 0+
1.}•
223
reed
EntryOE
f't[
TDN
(Jtill (t1eill
ber
/ kg)
/kg)
,.,
} . 00* 2 . b}*
JIO
J,ltlt 2.99*
J]1
].48• } . 11 *
).9lo* ) . 5}*
lll
J7]
"'
)75
l]6
(:t)
68 .
"·
Energy for tutle
Eroergy for Goi1l5
Energy for Sheep
Unit
(fU
/kg)
..
,
reed
DE
"'
Unit
tr.r:•l (r.cil l
/ kg )
/kg)
. 93* 2. 8o
2.28
1.06* ].18
2.59
79 . * 1.10* J. '-81 ].Ill
89.* 1.25* ) . 941 ].531
(FU
"'
6'.
"·
/kg)
DE
KE
HE .,
NE g
H( 1
(t\cill (11ci11 (1\cill ( 11cl 1 (Mc•l
/kg) / kg ) /kg) /kg) /kg) (\)
.81*2.58•2 . 21
.92 * 2.9)* 2.51
.89• 1.)9* 61.~
1.52* 1.01* 1.58* 69 . *
I.Jh
Energy f or Buffalo
Feed
Unit
(FU
/kg)
DE
{ ~ill
/kg)
"'
..
,
Feed
Unit
( FU
(ttcll
/kg) (\)
. J8*2.S8•2 .21
.89• 2. 93* 2.51
/kg)
. ]8•
.89•
6 1. *
69.•
....
79.# I, 10/ } .OB* 2.]1* 1.69• 1.11 * 1.60 *
89 . 1 1.2SI ].49• J . oS• 1.92* 1.28• 1.82•
]0.*
.%* J , o8t 2.]1*
79.• 1.09* ) , 49* ) . 08•
]O.•
3-SS*J,lCJ* so.• 1.1]* ] . 551 ).191
li . 061r ] . 65 * 92.• 1.29* 1..06/ ) . 651
so.,
I. l)l },]h 2,1)811 1,8]* 1,28• 1.]5*
92 . , 1. 29/ ) . 8)• ). ~l<fr 2.1 ~ · 1.~7· 2. 01 *
76 . • 1.06 * ) . ]lo* 2.98•
8] . * 1.21* ) . 8j* ),lolll
]6.• 1.06•
8] . * 1.21 *
].66* ).29 11 8).
t..ot.• J.6J•
8)./1.171 ) ,I ]* 2.79* l,]h 1.16* 1.6s•
92.1 1.291 3.50* ).08* 1.92* 1.2 8* 1.82 •
]2.•
.99* ]. , ,. 2. 79*
79 . * 1.09* 3.50* ] .08 t
]2.•
.w
16 . •
ss.•
"·
1,17 * ).66/ ]. 29/
1.29* lo,Oio/ ].6]/
19 -* 1.09*
-99*
79.• 1. 09*
l77
JIB
m
)SO
,.,
)81
..
,,,.
.6S * 1] . *
2. 6]t 1.11• 60.*
.29
l.lJ
.2) * .771 .6St
.]8 •2.63/2 . 211
.09*
. 8)*
53.,
. 59*
.66*
.12* , )81 .HI
.90• 2.95/ 2.5)1 67 ./
• 121 . JS* .30 * • 18•
.90/ 2.75* 2. 3)• 1. )9*
.10* .18*
. 91 * 1.1.1 • 62.•
. II* . 35* .)0*
.8]• 2.75* 2.}J•
62.•
,II*
.8]•
.So• .67•
18.
61.
"'
'"
"·
) . JS*2.97•
).68•].27*
]6.• 1.05• J,JSI 2.971
8].• 1.16* ) . 63/ ).21/
"'
""
'"'
"'
...
76.
2.081 1.701
lo].l
.68 • 2.]5/ 1. 92/
...
.C)It 2. 881 2.;6/
I. 16* ).69/ ] . 21/
"·'
. 16• .5)/ . lo6J
.91* 2.98/ 2.56/
12.1
68./
.161 ,lo]*
. 21.•
.91/2.67* 2.2h I,)J*
.ss.
16./
.211
. 21* .69/
.76• 2.571 2. 151
sa.,
. 2lo* .Sol . 6]1
. 81• 1.]01 1.181
18./
61./
·"'
.llo * .lo]• .loO•
.80•2.67*2 . 2lo•
II,*
60 . *
.llo*
.80*
. 19*
16.*
SCJ.*
.21•
.]61 2. 59* 2.16* 1.26*
. ]6•
.]0* 1.32*
.ss•
2.59• 2.16•
16.•
59 -*
.n•
. 11.1 - 75* .62• .)6*
.811 2.53* 2. 11* 1. 2)*
.20* . )8•
.66• 1. 29•
57.•
.22* .]5* . 62•
.]5*2 . 53* 2.11•
1] . •
57.•
·"''
.ss•
. ]lo*
1.68• 1.2]*1.73*
1.86• 1.)7• 1.91•
1.06•
78 .
1.02*J,Jt•2 . 9/o*l.aS•1 . 26* 1.73 •
1.15• ].7S*) . ]Ioll 2.09• 1. 43*1.96•
JS.• l,Oio *J .]1*2.C)Io •
as.* 1.18• J,JS•J . Jh
75 . * I. Oh
as.* 1.18•
71 - 1 1.081 ) . 10• 2. 74• 1.72* 1.15•1 . 6211
· 97*) . 10*2 . Jio•
81.• 1.1]*3.59•] . 18•
]0.• . 97•
81 , 11 1.13*
59 .
.79*2.6112.2lol
.90• 2.9SI ~.SJI
59.1
"5
2.00• 1. 62 •
2. 25* 1. 82•
~os . •
.57• 2.00/ 1,62/
.65•2.251 1. S2/
loS./
"'
8).
.22*
.]5*
....
.9]•
11 · * 1. 06•
89 . / 1. 25/) . 59• ] , 18* 1.99* 1. 3)• 1. 88o
51.•
8).
75-
.97 * 1.11• 2.n•
7] . • 1.06• J.lo2• ).oo•
'"
"·
"·
.96* ).08* 2. 70
1.06• J,loo• 2,99
.21•
]0.•
11 · * 1.08• ) .]91 ).Oio /
89.* us• J . 9JI J . 521
2.61* 2.2h
2. ':'S* 2. s ~·
1].*
.n•
,Jo•
76 . JI.05/).11*2.7J *1 .]0•1.12*1.62*
8] ./ 1.16/ ) . lo2• ] . 00• 1.87• 1.2)* 1.7a•
...
...,.,"'
·"''
11.•
60.•
) . 39"') . 04•
).9)*" ).52*
La7
) . 25
...
65.•
8) . * 1.15•
. 1]* . 2~*
.75* 1.]6*
·9"' * ).0)1 2.66/ 69./ • 9loJ].Oa•2.]0
1,0io* ),)61 2,91./ 76./ I.Oio/ ],lo0•2 . 99
1.05* ].52
1.19• ] . 99
...
.911 2.8&• 2.53* 1.59* 1.07• 1.1.9• 65.• .90* 2.86• 2.5)*
81. . / 1. 16/ ) . 66* ) . H* 2.0)* 1.)1*1.91* 8).* I.IS•J.66*J .ll.•
).32• 2.96•
).77"' ).)6•
/5.
,..
63.*
1.6.•
52 . *
1.]0* 2. 28•
"'"'
2.56~~c
.69 * .sa• 16.•
2. S7'*2.15 * sa.•
.21*
·""'
).0)*2.66*
].36* 2. 91.•
)91
12.
.n•
.s9• 2.o1 • 1.65*
.66* 2.)0• 1.87 •
"'
"'
"'
.lob *
16.*
ss . ~
. )0* . 25*
.8)*2.76•2.j]*
. SJ*
2.98*
..
.59*
lob. •
52.*
,
...
.n•
.]1 * 2. 1olo • 2.02*
. lo]*I.02•
.49• 1.16*
.)8 • .)2*
2.95*2.53 * 67. *
65.•
St..•
. 21*
.09* .IS *
/.•
. 81• l.lol • 6). *
2.88t 2.56*
3.69* ).27•
''·
Sl.
.17* .]6*
.59* 1. 21. •
.091 .)0* .25* .IS*
.]9/2.76*2 . 33* 1. )9*
J87
LOB* 1,]0 *
2.JS* 1. 92*
,]h
. 231 .]1*
.]8/2 . 1.1.•2.02* 1.16•
.60/ 2.0)* 1.65 * . 92*
. 68/2 . ]0* 1.87• 1.01o •
. 29/ .2/o/
·" "·/. ·""'
· 79* 2.7)/ 2. 21./ 62./
'·'
.60•
2. 24
,
,.,,.,
J8l
1]./
60 . /
"·
f,]./
51./
- 79/2.10*1./2* .9]•
• 5{} / 2.J7*1.9S* 1.• o•
.sn 1.95 • 1.57•
.65/ 2.20• 1.77*
....
.as•
]0 . *
70.*
.loS• 1.06•
. 5... 1.20><
loS.•
51o . •
.61• 2.10* 1.72* loS.•
.6-J• t.Jl• 1.95• 5~t.•
.61•
. 3]•
lolo . •
.S6•1.95*1.S7•
. 6]* 2.20* 1.77•
lolo.•
so. •
.so•
.63•
....
,lo1• 1,10*
so . •
.6<t•
224
Digestible Protein
··-
Entry
,,,
"'
"'
'"
Inter natio na l
FeedNatr~e
ZU I'I AYS I NDENTATA. Maiz.e, dent white
- grain
lEA KAYS IND[NTAU, l'lai:te, dent yello"'
-grall't
Inter fl.tiona\
,,, ,,_
Feed
Number
l'latter trKt NF[
lo-Oi:-928
lo-o2-935
Total
Ether
'"
m
Crude
<>l
''·
).1
]0,]
100.
J.S
81.6
88.
u
'·'
100.
]0 . 9
80.9
Fiber Ash
<>l
(t)
teln
··~
m
'·'
'·' . , '·'
...
'-'
2.8
1.8
2.1
1.7
).0
10.0
SheepC.Oat
<>l
m
Cat-
luf-
"'
m
<>l
s.s• s.s•
6.4•
~. S*
5.2*
s.s• s.s•
l..h
6.1.•
6.2 *
6 . 2•
f 1l0
lo.S•
5.2*
s.o•
s.o• '·'"*
225
Energy for Goats
Feed
EntryOE
Hum-
ber
,.,
•••
..."'
ME
TON
(Meal (Meal
/k g ) /kg)
(t)
Unit
DE
1'1[
(fU
(11Cal
(Meal
/kg)
/kg)
/kg)
TON
(')
Energy for Buffalo
Energy for Cattle
Feed
Unit
(FU
/kg)
Feed
0[
t1E
HEm
NE g
~E 1
TON
(Kcal (11Cal (~a! (Heal (Meal
/kg)
/ kg )
/kg)
/k.g)
/kg)
(~)
n .•
Unit
DE
TON
Feed
Unit
(FU
/kiJ)
(Meal (Meal
/kg)
/kg)
(')
(ru
/kg)
ME
.% * ].08*2 . ]2*
3-39*] . 03*
1.08* ) . 391 3.031 77 -1 1.08/ ) .08 • 2.72 * 1, 70 * 1. 11•• 1.61*
].91* ) .50 * 89.11 1.2lo* 3.911 ] . SO/ 89 . / 1.2lo/J.S5*J,l'• * 1.96* 1.]1* i.BS•
81.* 1.11* ].55* ] .!It *
]8.• 1. 09*" ]. ~31 3.071 ]8./ 1.091 J,ilo* 2. ]8* 1.73* 1.16• 1.61<*
Sg.• 1.21o• ).92/].51 1 89./l.H/ ] . 58* ] .1 ]* 1.98* 1.33* 1.87*
81.* 1.12* ].58•) .1 7*
].lo]*].D7*
].92* ],5 1*
]0 . *
]I.•
. 98• ]. ilo *
2.
]0 . *
. 96•
81.• 1.11*
78• 71.*
....
81.* 1. 12*
226
Table 27 .
·-'"
Mineral and Vitamin Content of Some Commonly Used Asian Feeds.
t iona!
Entry
001
002
reed
Interna tional
ANI HAL
-blOOd, meal
s-oo-Jso
-men, meal rendered
001
-men with bone, meal
s-oo-1ss
rendered
5-()0-]88
"'
010
011
012
AIIACHISH'f'PQ'"A[A, Peanut
-aerial part, fresh
2-()J-638
Hl]-619
-hay, sun-cured
......
J-o8-o28
Chlo- nerinc
sil.lfl
(\)
m
!')
,.,
Cop-
Sui-
bait
dl~
!')
I')
'"
'""' '"''
(>I
kg)
kg)
.]0+
, )) +
·" ·"
.o<)•
. )2 •
.33+
.09•
. 10 •
,JS •
.3]+
.IQ ..
12 . +
I ~. •
''"
.25+5. 17
.28· 5-71
- 55 .. 1. 15•
.61• 1.2f•
.so•
.loS·
. IJ•
).
"·
II .
~2
. 7] •
· 11 ·
.25•
. 18•
,lJ+
. 1] +
.1 9 •
.20+
.2 ) +
.as ..
.os
·"
.09 +
.11•
16.•
• 10 •
.1 2 ..
18 . ·
.61+
.66•
.lh
.1) •
. 25+
.26+
1.12+
1.2S•
.20+
.2)•
.26•
.29•
100.
12.11 1!
"·
. JJ
1.27•
.so •
. 0.
. 16
• 18
.1 ] +
.28
•• so
].08
·"
l.)h
l.lo J ·
. 25•
100.
1. )0
.SO•
85.
100.
1.05+
.42+
.lo9 +
,I)+ 1.18·
. IS .. 1,)8•
"·
. 28
·"
.os
"·
"·
01)
0"
-POds " ith seeds
S~J-653
011
01,
-seeds witi'IOut coats
5~3-657
01)
018
-st!edt withOut coats . meal mechanl c•l
extracted
S-<l3-M9
019
020
-seeds "ltl\out coats . mechiilnic.ll
e.o.tracted c•~<ed
S~)]~lo8
-steMs, fresh
2-IS-4'-S
11.
100.
1-30- 121
88.
1.2)•
.28
. )1
100.
"·
100.
. 1,
.os
. )2 •
- 35 •
100.
.10
·"
.19
.21
.02•
.02•
.\ ] +
.0) •
.OJ •
.28•
. 19 +
.)I•
"· ·"
.2)
·"
·"
•• 1
•• 8
. I)
100 .
021
'~
'~
SoSilol!l
ph~
1.15•
100 .
02)
Pnos- Po-
10.22
11.29
·"
"· ·"
100 .
oo•
oos
tta~-
(0)
100.
00)
0"
00)
,,,
Cal/'latter cl um
(0)
Feed Name
Data
. b)
-97+
.2)
. JO
.14•
..
2 .•
2.•
.0]+
.52 •
.56•
-
12.•
\),+
.12•
.28
.}0
IS.•
16.•
11 •
1).
O>'
021
02.
02)
028
029
ARTOCUIPUS HETEROPH't'LLUS . Jackfrult
-le1vcs, fresh
2-2]-19S
o\V[NA SA TI VA. 0.-ts
-gr1ln
~~ 3 - 309
-h.ly, sun-cured
1~3-280
H))-283
.22
ss.
100.
·-00
8AMBUSA SPP.
-browse, sun-cured
0)4
1-29-502
88.
100 •
-I elves, sun-cured
1-29-503
88 •
100 •
O)b
V\JlliAAIS.
-le.1ves, fruh
B~BUSA
OJ)
0)8
''· ·"
"· ·"
100.
0)1
0)2
0)1
·"7
1. ~6
100.
OJO
OJJ
)2.
100.
B~.
. 20+
. 21.•
) 8.
100.
.18
.os
·"
.09•
. 10+
.\lo..16•
.)0
..
.52+
.22•
.2~ ..
.1,
.20
• ]8•
.IS•
.1]+
.06• 2.17•
. 0]• 2.SS•
. ~oa
....
. 27
.1,
• 22
.1)
.11
• 18
• 20
·"
.OS
.as
.1)
ccmnon
2-29-)88
.06
-
·"
-
·"
.lol•
... s..
1.85
2.03
-
-
.2h
.2 ) •
.as
J.
.06 •
,\]•
.18+
.21•
.2)•
.11
11.
. )6•
.lo2·
.19•
.20
1•
1.
.OS•
.2J...
'·
·" "·
.06
·"
22 7
Expressed on an As -Fed and Dry Basis (Moistu r e Free )
Folic
,.,.,.
I~
,_
Entry
dine
Iron
(mg/
<g )
(mg/
<ol
001
002
lo061o .+
003
lo21o . +
3675- •
..,
005
006
lo&S.•
,_ ..
,..
1.)0•
··-
(~i
<ol
...
5. •
5.
5.
Sel~
...
ni
(
~n
/
<ol
- 72 •
line
(mg/
<ol
Vlt•-
02
g)
Vitamil'!
(IU/
kg)
..
'"
("'/
....
...,.
]0 .•
]8. •
.26 •
9].+
116. •
.28• 101.+
12] . +
6.
22. +
'·
7.
H.+
''"
(mg/
line
(mg/
kO)
lolo. •
log, .
5.•
8.
c•~
kg )
... 2 ...
1).+
8io-
kO )
.SO •
61o2 . +
]00 .+
'"··
Vita-
111in
A
(IU/
"·"·
.0')•
,1)+
.1 0+
"'"
P;,nto\lit.- Ribo-
(Fol .. Ni•cln)
(mg/
(mg/
kO)
ko)
Acid
(mg/
kg)
''"
nic
578.
6]9.
,II•
16.
18.
2.1
2.)
]lo] •
. )8 •
21.
825.
.1.2+
1.9
2.1
.10+
2).
fl~
"''" •'"
(
/ (mg/
••...
kO)
,..
kol
Thi<~-
mine
(mg/
ko)
..
io.S•
1.5
'-'
..J•
}.8·
1.8
2.0
.2•
.2•
1..6•
. 2•
.2•
~ .
lo,2+
1958 .
,J] +
so ••
s . ~o.
6.0+
21)1.,
.loO•
55-•
5.,.
6. 6+
s.o.
007
008
""'
8.)+
9-7•
010
011
012
013
0"
015
0 16
017
018
.06+
• 0] +
"'
020
\] .•
18 . ·
18.+
20.•
151 ...
25. •
28.•
169. •
981.
1072.
25.
2].
21 1.
1).
2)),
"·
6J.
-
loS.•
61. +
I
66. +
156 . +
• ]2 +
32. •
JS . •
-
J> .
35.
.12+
• 2.. +
Jl .
1570 •
-35• 1752 •
.6) + 167 -•
-71 •
186.+
.loO +
..
]lo . ) +
]7,\ +
-
1.8•
g.o...
2.0+
9-7+
lolo .S+ ]. 1• 6-9• 6.)•
'-9- 7+ 8.0. 7-7• ].0+
021
022
023
024
025
026
027
028
. II+
. I)+
029
038
I S).
167 -
0)1
191.
"·
OJ>
225 .
5).
8ll
OJ'
035
"'
037
0)8
'5·
"·
1.
2.
"·
!SJo4.•
5- •
6.•
S61. +
662 . +
)8.
1lo1 ]. •
-
• 2] +
. JO.
6-'17•
] . 0]'•
lo22 •
lo67.
.
~
....
I·
6 .1
6.8
1.7+
).0.
.s
-5
&.h
6.8+
228
Table 1], l'lineral and Vitamin Content of Some ((II!I'"Only Used .lsi an Feeds (Cont.)
·-
tiona!
,,,
Feed
rto~tter
Intern~
Entry
International
(\I
FeedNIWI\e
BOHBYX I'IORI. SilkworM
"'
'"
'"
"'
"'
-pupae,dehydr.ned
S-11-787
t.Htle
-sldrm~ ilk, dc:hydr.ned
-skirm~ilk,
fresh
s-o1-175
- ... hey. dehydrated
811ACHIARIA ttUTIU. Par01gr•u
-.erl•l pilrt, fresh
lo-oJ-182
2-o)- 525
051
OS2
-at:~
05)
05'
-hay,
2-IQ-251
050
sun-cu~ed
H)J-51]
811A SSLCA Ot[IIACU CAPlTAU. Cabb-.ge
-outsid e leaves , f ~ esh
2-o1-o1o7
CAJANUSCAJAN. Plgeonpea
-aerial part , fresh
2-o3-JLS
06 ,
061
-leaves. sun-cur ed
06)
0..
-pods witt\ seeds. sun-cured
t-o9- 71o3
1-11-7]2
~-2~·275
0/1
072
s-oJ-716
-seeds
"'
1.]0+
-~9 ·
·"
.87
.II••
1,29•
''·
1.16
.0]+
. 08+
·" ·''
·"
...
88.
100.
. )8
-
'· ·"'
-
2/.
. I)
. )5
,,,
·"
·"
,,,
100.
1,10
JJ ,
, )7
1.1 1
-
1.01
!.L)
-
·'5
-
2-29-435
·leav es, fresh
2 -29-1.3~
1) .
.)1
100 .
1. )9
''·
.15
100.
CASSIA TOIIA.
-leeds
Senna, sickle
S-28-26~
88 .
100.
5-27-968
·''
...
100.
..,
.o,
·''
. Oio +
.01->
,II+
12. •
1.09+
.<J l • I.OH·
,II ..
loS.•
1.19•
1. 00+ 1. 12+
. 12+
so .+
2.61
.06
-
·" ·"
.;;
, ,8
·"
. 02
1.S7
.oB
.11
1, ~~
.)8
.2 5
1. 6~
·"
-
. 0)
./1
. )1
·"
. ))
. )1
. 08
·''
...·"
· 5'
12.•
. 32 +
·'1
·''
·"
-
'"
,lo]+
.))
...
"·
...
("'9/
kg)
/
kg)
. OS +
.51
·''
8g,
Cop-
(
. 12+
...
. ))
-
100.
..
c~
~a I t
. )2+• )~ +
!&.
100.
CAII LCA PAPAYA . Papaya
-browse. frest\
CEL8A PULTANOIIA. Kapok
073
1.08
100.
068
069
070
. lo6·
.11
100 .
066
"'
I .60+
. 1)6+
.12+
.08
'"'
!tl
·"
.01•
lS.
(0)
1. 02
.Sh
"·
Sui-
dil.lll
(tl
. II
.06+
1. 28
SoslUM
...
-
....
·~
(.)
·"
100.
-hay, sun - cu.-eel
(tl
1.26
100.
059
060
o•s
]-QJ-529
,,~
sh.rn
m
100 .
100.
1.11 part, silage
1.28
PI'IOs- Po-
n~
rine
1.)6
100 .
-ioe rial part. fre sh . i• t evec;~etative
057
058
''·
100.
o••
055
056
. 21
Mog-Chlo-
100 .
S-ol-110
0'6
0'7
0"
·''
u~us.
O"
o•s
,.
100.
sos
talch..,
(0)
-
.OJ •
. OJ•
-
12.+
229
·-
Entry
....
dine
·~
Iron
ne1e
nio.n
line
("'/
("'/
(.,/
k9)
(""/
(""/
kg)
k9)
.,,
Vitimin
Sel~
(IU/
k9)
kg)
.12+
. I)+
..39-,...
Folic
viu-
"'"
o,
Vlt.-
8io-
Ch~
''"
'" (""/
line
"'"
(IU/
(..,/
kg)
k9l
k• l
"·
"·
. 3} ..
1009 .
.)5,•
1072.
(""/
k9l
""
.
P•nto-
.. •• .......,,, .
Vit.- Ribo-
(Fo l a- Hla-
cln)
( /
k,)
cin
( .,/
kg )
nic
Acid
( /
k,)
.. in
(.,/
,
( .../
k,)
Thiamine
( /
k9l
0)9
040
O"
0<2
.,,
"'
"'
"'
11.•
22.+
10 . •
90 .+
165.+
181,+
..,,...,,
2.•
2.+
1120 ...
~
.. ...
...... 2 .•
51.+
J. •
],+
lolo6.+
.,..,.
g.
10.
.... ..,,
.02+
I .+
12 . +
,)It+
.)8+
llo09.
1551 .
. 8)+
,Cjl+
,,s.
15.1
k.) +
16.0
'-·5·
lo.l•
)6 . 9+
19. )
21.2
J. J•
.s
.s
~-3•
20.8+
10 . 4
).6+ 11.5
} . 7+
) , 9+
....
.s•
} . Cj +
4,) +
047
050
051
OSJ
.,,
055
OS6
057
oss
.,,
...
061
062
..,
06)
064
066
067
068
"'
070
071
on
OIJ
07'
80. +
90 .•
......
)0.+
)4,+
....
1. 6+
..
.0•
.
230
Table 27 . Mineral and Vitamin Content o f Some Comnonly Used Asian Feeds (Cont.)
Entry
,_
tionool
lnternillltloflal
Feed Name
Feed
N161lber
,,,
Molg-
Cal-
Matterci~,rr~
(.)
(.)
Chlo- n~
rine si~,rr~
(%)
(%)
Phos- Po-
So-
Sui-
slum
diiMII
(\)
(.)
'"'
ph~
(>)
{%)
. "'.
'~
bolt
(
/
Cop(
/
kg)
kg)
.0]•
21.+
CENTROSEMA PU8ESCENS . Butterflypea, pubescens
075
076
-aeri11il part, f r esh
2- 11-lt59
CEREALS
077
078
-brewers gr01ins, dehydratl!d
s-o:z-1t.1
079
o8o
-distillers solubles, dehydrated
5-Gl-1 ,.7
·"
·" ·''
·''
.0)
. 13
.60
. 08+
. 09 +
. 51 +
.7J
I .90•
. 19•
.58+
.8 )
2. 11o+
.4J+
. 49+
.18
"· ·''
. 21
.81+
.89+
.OJ+
• 03+
• 18
.20
.0)
·"
·"
-57•
-
.12
, 2f) +
.2]
.S2+
.S)
-
2).
100.
,..
100.
89.
100.
1.03
.2)
·"
. 07
.IS+
.\]+
·'7
.20
l.]J
. IS+
.1& +
. 29'
.2 J •
.32+
.oa.
5-QI-218
·"
TOO.
COCOS NUCtF[RA. Coconut
08)
OBk
-ke r nels with coalS, dehydrateCI
lo-QB-190
08S
086
-kernels with coats, f resh
lo-ol-57'+
087
D88
-kerr~els
s-21-283
089
090
-kernels .,;th coats. meal solvent
5~1-S73
091
092
-kerr~els
with coats , mechani cal
e><vacted caked
S-J0-143
09)
09k
-kernels with coats waste, caked
S-29--668
09S
096
097
098
099
100
101
102
103
10 k
., ith coats, manually
9).
100.
.D)
so.
100.
.OJ
.os
-
89.
.Q6
-
100 .
e;~<trac;ted
90.
100.
COHEA SPP. toffee
-hulls
CO LEUS 8LUMEI. Coleus, cam>on
-hay, sun - cured
COLO(ASIA ESCULEJoiTA. Dasheen
-leaves , fresn
1-o1-577
1-29-S66
2-29-412
100.
·"
90 .
. SJ
89 .
-tubers, fresh
4-IG-46)
2~2-333
lOS
106
-aerial par t. fre sh
2-o2-333
107
108
-hay, sun-cured
Hl2-327
.s9
88.
.))
100 •
. J7
.33 ..
. 3]+
.26
. 29
-
·"
. 59• l. ~2+
. 66• LS8•
·"
·''
.09
.10
8•
9•
.02+
.OS+
'0~ ~
.04+
.JJ•
.37+
12•
.11••
'.66
1.86
9.•
10 ...
"·
2).
-
. 07
.08
-
90 .
\.49
100.
1.66
.)6
.kO
10.
.11
1.10
.00
. 0)
26.
.Ok
.07
100.
·"
·"
28 .
28.
100 .
8).
100.
109
S- 29-677
92.
5-29-677
92 .
..,.
. ,.
1.64
-seeds
'"
.OJ+
.OJ +
.2)
100.
100.
CY AM OPSIS TETRAOONOL08A . Guar
- aer ial part , fresh
.07
,1] +
• 19•
.61+
1) .
''·
C ICERAAIETINUI'I, Chic:kpu
081
082
24.•
100 .
1,64
.08
.10
-
·" ·''...
·"·" ·''
·>9
.k9
-
.09
.10
. 0<)
. 10
7.
9.
...
12 .
"·
"·
2 31
..
l'lan ·
g•-
Sele-
I'IUe
ol~
/
Iron
(""li
(")/
(
kg)
kg )
kg)
I~
,_
Efltry
d ine
(
...
/
kg)
.. .
viu-
( IU/
mlo
02
(IU/
g)
k g)
Zinc
(
/
kg)
Pan t o-
Folic
Vita-
mit'l
Vi totno in
Bio-
'"
("'/
kg)
..
(Fol;t- Ni c in)
cin
nic
Acid
/
(.,I
( .,/
kg)
( mg/
kg)
( .,/
kg)
kg )
kg )
tiro
(
Acid
"~
lir1e
Il l t.- llibomin
"~ Tl'lla.I,
mine
(mg/ (""l/ (""li
kg)
kg )
kg )
••
011
016
017
. 06 •
018
.07+
"'
220. •
2iolo.•
29].+
)7. +
t.o .•
2.
2.
080
33 1.+
oBI
082
151.
10.
166.
12.
........,
08)
2] .•
]0 .+
....
13) . ..
1.78+
1$0 .+
2.00+
2J.
Z6.
. 22 +
. 211+
117'1..
2000.
. 80·
• ] 1•
..
_,.
.
6]2.•
750.+
16 1.
.,,"'
180 •
8.0 +
1.0 +
lo]. •
so .
8 .] +
9 . ...
1066.•
1189. •
61o . +
}2 .•
...
...
1].
'"
..."'
.,,
...
.,,
100
101
102
10]
"'
lOS
106
29 1.
28 .
108
3~0.
109
110
''·
''·
'-77·
12 .
lo ]6.
"·
12.
"·
lo]6 .
"77·
"·
]8.
]8.
]8.
"·
910.
1018 •
.29•
.3] ..
...
_,.
s.J
s.o.
6.0
6 . }•
]0. •
1.2 +
2.5+
!,] ..
L]+
...... ....
_, . _,.
..
.
JS, +
88 .
l.lo +
1.6+
H .+
,_.
! ], +
091
...... ,
, _ ...
I.] , +
......
29 . •
...
"'
loB!~-
SJ3J,
]I, •
.....,
...
"'
.61+
25. +
28. +
6.2 ..
4. ] •
].]+
6.9•
4.8+
).7 •
.
.
1.0+
..._,.
232
Tatde 27 . Minerill olnd 1/it..,.in Content of SOfhe Ccmnonly Used Asliln Feecu (Cont.)
Intern~
,_
t
En try
lnter11atlonal
FeedNIIIIe
ion~ol
fee4
CYNOOON OACTVLON . Ber mudAgrass
11)
'"
-r"Y·
J-oo-703
sun-ct.U"ed
DIGITAIIIA SP9, Fingergrilss
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
"'
"'
Hll-957
-holy, sun-cured
125
"'
"'
"'
DOLICHOS LABLA&. Dol ichos, hyK inth
-ae r ial p.trt, fresh
ECHINOCHLQl COLONU11. Junglerlce
-aerial part, fresh
-hily ,
sun-cur ed
lo-io-493
1)5
1)7
'"
"O
'"
"'
"'
(>)
(>)
(>)
100.
...
, lo}+
,4]+
...
.3)+
. )]+
"·
. 04
.16• 1.]9+
.1] •
.ss•
.
. 62+
1).
100.
.0)
.18 ..
"·
·"
l.lo2+
1-26-487
100 .
.)l
.)5
8.
100.
.1)
1.]2
"·
1.55
1-29-619
-no I e. sii*Je
3-29-656
~]•
Sui-
(\)
(>)
.0]+
.oa ..
Cop-
. 19+
,II •
H. •
.12+
2].•
2~·
·21·
.1/
.11
. 19
1.11
. 0)
. l)
...
...
·"
. 15
-
..
...
1.67
·''
·'•
.19
.20
·"
16.
100.
·"
100.
I,
'~
b~d l
,.,, ,.,,
'" •ot '"<ot
·~
diiTol
. 04
-
2-Ql-t.lo)
-wnole , dehyd r ated
(>)
.l] •
...
EICHHORNIACRASSIPES . Waterhyaci,th , corrmon
-~oer i ~~~ Dart, f r esh
2-29-"SS
"'
(%)
....
,;
.a.•
1/.
100 .
. 1]+
2.10+
LSI.
I. GS
-
100.
4-27- 716
-g r ai"
100.
EUtHLAENA11[XItANA. Teosinte, mvcican
-~~erial Di r t, f resh
2-ID-500
-me1l mech111ical
e><tr~oeted
5-<11~77
"·
100 .
GALLUS OOIIEST1tUS . Cllielten
5-<11 - 213
-el}gs, f resh
. 57
....
7.88
.l)
1.19•
1.37 •
-~ r \1\
Soybe~n
"· ·"
"·
2-<1'<- 57"
Dirt , fresh
.,.
·"
.o8
...
100.
5-<1'< -610
- s eed s
100.
- seeds ,
~t~elllllechanical
extriiCted
5-<1~-600
.,.
·"
"· .,
·"
100.
"5
-seeds,ftleal solvent
"'
-seeds,mec:ll.,\c:al Vltractedc:aked
e.~<tr.cted
5-<lt.-60•
100 .
5-]G-145
.
·"
"·
100.
·"
2.92
.)5
).36
·"
..
1.17
. 2~·
2. 01<
. 21•
.12•
....
·''
.
. )0•
1.08 +
.
-
. 0)
-
100.
GL YC1NEf1AX.
1"
"'"'
(>}
2-Q9-703
FISH
'"
'"
,,~
Sii.OII
• 1/
ELEUSIIIE COIU,tA.NA, Rag imillet
1))
1J'
Phca- Po-
n~
rine
Cal-
100 •
1)0
1)1
1)2
f'tolg-
Chlo-
100 .
DIOSCOII[A AI.AU.. Y.-n,.,.inged
-tubers, fresh
1>'
"'
,,,
1'\.. ttercil.fn
.1 5+
• 5 ~·
. OJ +
. OJ +
. 26+
. 29+
.OJ +
·"
.08 +
. 04 •
. ot..
.oa.
. 29 •
. )8
·" ...
·" ·''
.6)
. 28
) .•
. Ol
.Ol
. 22 +
1.87
2. 1.
.Ol
. Ol
. }h
,,,.
. ]7 •
.20 +
1. 99•
,)h
2.20•
.)8 •
,t.] ...
, t. ] +
.10+
·'' ·"
- 5'
...
.26•
.92 •
. 2~ ·
.,.
18 ,+
20 . +
21 . •
2t. . +
21. •
2]. +
233
...·-
Ent~y
Ill
OC'5C'
niY!I
Zinc
("9/
("9/
(.,/
.
<g)
<gl
(..,/
<g)
<g)
g)
"""-
·~
dine
(mg/
<g)
,10 +
261o . +
"'
290.•
liS
62.•
"'
"'"'
"'
]0.+
Vit<t-
g~
Sele-
"'"
(IU/
VIta-
,,
"'"
(IU/
<g)
VIta-
"''"
'12
Bio-
("'/
(
<gl
...
,,.,._
li ne
tin
/
(..,/
<g)
<gl
rolic
P.ntoVita- Aibo-
Acid
( Fola- Nia-
nic
cin)
( "9/
<g)
cin
Acid
(.,1
(.,/
<g)
<g)
"'"
••
( .,/
<g)
"~
''"
(..,/
<gl
Thi<Jmine
(.,/
<g)
53 . +
99- •
sa .•
\()CJ ,+
120
121
122
12]
12,
12S
126
127
128
129
1]0
I ]I
1]2
,,,
I]]
JS7.•
1]5
1]6
~II .+
"·
]I.
,"·.
''·
as.
ss.•
-
2Sio6.
22.
"·
292] .
..,
].)
1).9•
16. 0+
'·'
'·'
1.2+
l.lo+
1]7
1]8
sa.•
"'
'"
'"
'"
"'
'"
"S
. 1] +
"'
. IS+
"'
"'
33 . +
208. +11 9 . +
35 . ..
82 . +
92 . +
loO .+
158. ~
)0.•
1110 , +
)~. ·
120 . +
13} .+
.II ..
. \ 2+
,]] +
281.o l.o .+
. lo l +
}181o.+
56. +
• )2 +
\ISO •
t,lo, +
. )6•
62 .+
,lO t
. II +
29. •
. lo6 ·
sa...
)2, +
. 51+
6~ . +
-
1)15.
.)) +
266].
. )6•
2949 •
6 . 21+
].10+
....
. 73 +
22. +
24 . +
15 - 5+
'·'
"· 16.5•
8. 1
28. +
)I. +
2 -9 • 10. 9+
l ] .lo+
12 .
IS.l•
) . 2+12 . 2 ...
6.} +
I.J
) ,8+
] . 2+
o.s
5-9•
2.9+
5-9•
6.5+ ).2 +
6. 5+
4. )+
234
Table 2]. Mil'leral and Vitamin
Coote~>t
of Some tomnonly Used As ian Feeds (Cont.)
Intern~
tiona I
fcca
Entry
lnternatlono~l
feed Niiltlle
"'
GLYCINE MAl , ( tont.)
-soysauc:e process res i due, 10et
S-<l6-738
ISO
,,,
GOSSYP lUM SPP, Cotton
-nulls
1-<lt - S99
,,.
'"
2-<ll-260
)-()2 - 222
-nay . svn-cured ground
Hl2-21S
'"
'"
'"
...,.,
167
168
...
2-lo-697
HEVEABRASILIENSIS. Rubbertree, para
-kernels with coats , P!leal PIICC:hanical
lo-12-oll
6) .
...
...
~~O-Sio9
1~'r"t.O]
1~9-1o55
-hily, sun-cured
IHPERATA CYLIH OIIIC.t.. Snintaii,COCJOn
-.erhll part, fresh, 1 to 11o days'
growth
171
176
-aed•l pilrt, fresh, MUure
177
178
-hay , Sill-cured, lne vegetati"e
2-29-198
18)
•8'
. 22
26.
·"
100 .
.88
81 .
·"
.0]
.02 +
.02+
.I J
·"
·!l• .OJ
, llo +
.DB
- 79•
. 02 +
.8 ] +
.02•
·" ·''
·'•
.09•
-39 •
.oq
.,..
.J6 2.JS •
.Olo+
. II
.lolj+
. 01 +
·"
1. 88 ..
. 02 •
. 08+
.0')+
.os ..
.17+
. 02 +
. 02 +
·''
·"
. JI
-
kg)
-
-
.2)
kg)
• 01+
12. •
IJ.•
,.
6.
-
,..
.JI
-
.JI
"·
"·
.20
. 22
... ...
.08
gro~o~tll
...
"·
Jl.
100 .
2-28-i.10
61.
100.
1-28- 756
. )8
.12 ..
.I } •
·''
.13•
.15•
.
. JJ
.
• OJ
. OJ
• 18
.20
...
1.08
. 03+
. 0} •
.IS•
.17•
.,.
.29
.)1
.06
·"
·" ·"
. 2)
.8]
...
·"
...
-
.18
-
.18
·"
.68
.II
.20
. JJ
100 .
IHDI OOfEIIA ENOECAPHYLLA.
-aeri•l pilrt , fre sh
ln d igo,cree pi n9
1~1 -lo28
"·
100.
IP0110EA UTATlS. Sweetpot il t o
-aerial part, fresh
1..Qio-]81o
2-a-395
-
..
-
"· ·''
.
100 .
-lea ... es, fre sh
...
1 . 56
20.
100.
·"
1.99
...
. JI
. 08
·''
1.]1
...
.00
.02
lo.21
.OJ
.I)
...
..,
.01
2).
-
J7.
100 .
100.
1-1or-t. oo
180
181
182
.I)
·"
·"
100.
HYP.t.RAHENI.t. RUrot.. J•r aqua
-ilerlal pilrt , fre sh
'"
.,.
.01
. )8
"· ·"
100 •
HOROtUK WLC.t.Rt. Barley
-grain
-ae r Ia I part, fr esh , 85 to98days'
'7'
·"
(\)
100.
170
1)1
172
l"'ll
'"
(\)
Ill
. )6
HEll ANTHUS UINUUS, S~flower, c onwnon
-.erial part, fresh
(\)
I' I
160
161
(\)
Ill
100.
-.eri1l part, sll~e
l"'ll
··~
'"'
C1l-
GRASS
part , fresh
b iilt
'"'
(\)
sium
100.
-~erial
Cop-
Sui-
dium
Phos- Po-
n~
rine
100.
S-<ll-f.llo
c~
Sosi~M~
1'119-
Cillo-
100.
'"
,,,
'"
'"
,,
,,,
,,,
11atter cil.ftl
-
JO .
·"
.os
,,..
235
l't.an·
g~
Entry
dine
(mg/
kg)
,.,, ,.,,
kg)
kg)
Vit.Sel~
nio,~~~
'""'
kg)
,.,, '
line
kg)
(IU/
g)
VIta-
o,
(IU/
kg)
Vit ...
min
8 io-
,..,,
'" ,.,,
tin
kg)
kg)
Folic
P~nto-
( Fol.- N i•-
<h<nic
I ine
cin)
Al;i d
'""'
""
,.,, ""
,.,,
kg)
'"~
kg)
kg)
'""'
kg)
v l u- Ri bomin
fl~
Tllhomine
,.,,
••
kg)
''"
'""'
kg)
,.,,
kg)
,,."'
,,,
120 .+ 109 . •
'"
,,,
'"
1)1 .+ 119. •
20. •
22 .•
"·
''·
"·
271.
]0) .
'"
'"
'"
68 . ·
...,,,
2&1. +
•S8
) ,8+
lo . l+
-
]9.
19 ...
71-•
8.•
31.•
39 . ..
),8 +
lblo . ..
15.9•
--
,...
&92.
,,,
,,,
''l
"'
'"
166
86 .
n.
...
26.
"· "·
• Oio•
. OS•
21 8 .
2 /o ],
..
8.
• IS +
• I]+
17 •
]0 .
...
167
169
170
171
'"
17]
"'
'"
liS
177
' 78
...'"
"'
'"
'"'
18]
6.
"·
•s.
)2 1.
''·
)2 1.
.
1.
. 16 +
. I] +
no .
-57+
815.
.&It+
22.
).1
6.1+
"·
].6
6.8+
.
·1
.\ .S..
s. o.
236
hble
27.
1'1iner•l ilOCI V i t....,in Content of SOftie CQimiOn l y Used Asi•n Feeds ( Cont.)
lnternot-
,_
'"
tiona!
Entry
lnternationll
Feed
Feed Name
,,,
Ma~-
tilM•tter cil.ll'l
Cillo- ne-
r ine
Si~oJ~~
(\ )
l>l
l>l
(\)
Phos- Po"~
,;...,
(\)
(\ )
So-
"-
'"
Sui-
'"'
(\)
,.,,l, ...,.,,
'~
'')
......
IPQMQU BATATAS . {Cont.)
'"
'"
,,.
'"
-tubers ,
4-o~-]88
r resh
186
lo-<18-5]6
- tubers , me•!
188
191
'"
'"
"'
,,
'"
2-18-299
1-l9-SS6
2-28-628
-browse, freih
2-o2-lo9S
-hay , Sl.l'l-eured
1..()2-loljl
-leaves, sun-cured
I-2Q-7JO
l-19-loll
fresh
LI N U~
USITATISSirnlt1 , flu,coornon
s-o2-os2
20S
206
e.o.tr.::ted
207
208
-SHCU, Mealllleeh<W\ic::a1
209
210
-seeds, mechanical eJttr.::tedcakeCI
.06
·"
.16 ·"
·"
·"
.19
.18
· 'S
.21
..
·"
.k9
.)1
.Oh
.I)+
) .
).
.
.II
1. 1 ~
"·
s-o2-o1o5
S-<12-oi.J
...
.27
2.61o
2.88
)I.
. )8
1.21
2).
·"
I.Oio
LVCOPEIISICC.. ESC\Jl.ENTISII. Tomato
-pOIII.::e , wet
s-os-o1o2
-
"·
"· ·"
100.
.16
91.•
100 . +
.JS
.)9
"· ·''
.s6
.00
2.05
.01
·''
·''
.OS
-
·"
·" ·"
.02
.17
-
.)0
.,,.
• lo]+
.Oio•
.olo.
.)8+
.&4•
...
.J7
.81
.88
1.22+
l.]lo+
·"
.so
...
-
.82
,l\+
.12•
"·
100.
HAH IHOT ESCUl ENTA. Cassav<~,cOimiOil
- aerial par t, fresh
-flour
119
120
-leaves , fresh
2l1
-leaves, sun-cured
2-QC)--621
lo-o1-151o
2-QI-1)}
21.
1-1}-552
.SJ
1.]5
1.}0
86 .
.II
100 .
. 12
22.
.18
. 81
...
-
.OS
. 20
·"
100 .
100.
,3]+
.41•
. ~I.
.lo&+
·"
·'9
l.Oio
1.1 ~
.&lo·
-
·"
·"
.26
. 66
.06
t'li11190oCorm>On
2-2}-211
.2]+
.2)+
II.
"·
II .
12.
.os. -
"·
100.
MANCilf(RA INOICA.
-leaves, fresh
. 07
.27
.28
l.Oio
2.22
· '9
217
218
"'
.IS
100.
100.
202
li S
216
27-
100.
2-29-420
'"
. olo ..
.16•
"·
100.
-leaves , fresh, lrnnature
11)
...
.0&+
100.
201
"'
.02+
. 11
"·
LEliCA(NA COLAUCA. leoidtree, wtli tepopin.c:
-leaYes,
211
.0)
100.
ISEILEI'IAW'!CoHTII. lse l le~~i. wighti I
-aerl•l p&rt, fresh , •iciOIOOIII
'"
'"
10.
100.
-hay, sun-cur-ed gro .....a
200
20)
9'·
100 .
IPOHOEA REPlANS. Kangkong
-.erl•l p•rt without flowers, fresh
196
197
"·
100 .
Coo-
bait
1.]5
1.50
·"
.OS
.J7
.01
2. ]&
.OJ
.20
1.20
.12
...
·"
. 02
...·"
.)8
·"
-
).
8.
-
-
·"
.01
.os
-
'·98.
9.
237
~~
Entry
·~
Sel-
,.,, ,.,, ,.,, ,.,,
dine
kg)
ISS
186
Iron
kg)
Zinc
'•I ••I '"••I"'
1),+
) .•
48 , +
11.+
187
188
nil.l!l
..
.
Folic
viu-
Vi t.-
Vlte-
min
"'"
'2
"'"
.,
(IU/
g)
( IU /
'•I
''I '"''
Sio-
Ch~
till
line
'""'
kg)
"'"
Pan toVit..- ll i bo-
(fol..- Niacln)
,.,, ,.,,
''"
••l
••> ''I '""'
"~
.,,..,, "'"
,.,,
,.,,
,,)
nic
Acid
min
Tl'd•mine
••l ••I '""'
••l
...
...
20.+
2 . 0 ..
·•·
).h
"·
] .
"·
18.
2].
102.
189
190
191
192
")
194
"'
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
..
,..
,..
,.,
"·
so.
89.+
96. •
65.+
259.
,
20)
20S
207
.0]+
1]].+
. 07•
194.+
....
1].
19 •
.81+
J3,+
.89+
]6 ...
,.
2"
"'
21)
2"
s.
"·
1] .
235.
).
1].
1149.
,''·.
]0.
"·
"'
"'
"'
218
2"
220
m
"'
"· "·
soo.
8.
)6.
28.
)I.
--
,Jl+
.]6•
]2].
2.84+
800.
),I)•
"· '·'
IJ.
].2
s.s•
6. h
I.S
1.7
lo,l+
lo,6+
238
Tab le 27. 11 ine r.t1 ana Vit.:wnin Conterot of Some (OIN'IOnly US'!d A5ian
·-
Entry
be<
lnte r no~tlonoil
tiona!
,,,
Cillo-
n~
Pr.os- Po,,,_
Feea
11Uter ell.l!l
rine
t>l
(')
i~J"
(')
feed tlame
ESCULENTA, (Cont.)
-peelings, dehydrated
~-1
-sto~rcll
lo-11--'Jio}
1'\A~IHO T
223
1-qJl
22'
llS
"'
-tuber I, rr esh
lo-QCJ-599
-tubers, meal
lo-QC)-598
"'
m
- tub e rs .,]thout peelings. meal
lo-13-553
88.
"· ·''
l.l f al fa
-aerial part . fr esh, lattYecJtloltive
89 .
2~ - 181
,,,
100.
- hly, sun-cured
1-'JO-'J}B
-nay , 1161-cured grouml
1-Q0-111
H)J-130
-le;wes,
2-21-971
fresh
f"'UCUNA SPP . VelYetoea~~
-hay , sun-c:ure<~
~~s-oao
- e rl 1ol part , fresh
2-10-S'•'-
.lolo·
to p-
,.,, ,.,,
'",,)
•ol
. 0/
.OS
·" ·'' -·"
. 02
. 02
1.
],
,]7
.2Jo.
.26+
.05•
-21·
. 3J+ . JO•
·"
·"
·"
. 0/
• 42+
2.11•·
..
.09+
.2h
,loS+
.25+
. 28+
. o~
1.8)·
. 0] •
2. 05 +
. OS•
2 . 0} •
2.21o+
. II •
,]1+
"·
·''
·" ''·
. 21+
].
.12+
. JS •
.2'-•
].
. ]lo +
-57•
. 2'l"
. &) +
.]2+
. lS
.os
. 0/
. 26
·"
·"
.0]
,]8
·' I
1.57
·"
.os
.41
2.01 •
2.]] •
-
.26
-
.48
.• 8
2.•
. l]
. J]+
I,I,Q
.os
. 0)+
. I} •
. 22
1.07
,,,
'~
b alt
1.
10.
•8.
100.
-StC'fiiS,
fr esh
2-1 1-906
'· ·"
100.
I'IUSA SPP . hnan1
-leaves. fresh
2-QH02
·"
. 8,
. l]
"· ·''
·"
100 .
-stems . fr esh
2-11-910
ORYlA SATI VA. Ric:e:
-br.Jn .. l thgerms
I,-Q]--'}28
s.
.OS
. 0/
·''
. ]1
·"
,o,
·"
.85+
·"·" ·"
.,.
.o•
2.2]
'·'·
-
100 .
"· ·"·''
"· ·"
"· ·"·"
"· .os·"
100.
2S4
lSS
- brill'l with ge:r,.s, boiled dehydrated
lo-29-331
lS I
2S8
-br.Jn witn germs with hulls
1-Q)--'})1
"'
-gra i n
260
Sui-
'"
m
('I
ean<~na,cOimlon
250
"'
"'
"'
Sodium
-
. 20
.09+
''· ·"
"· ·''
100 .
MUSA PARAOI SIA(A SAPIEIHUI'I.
sh."'
m
.04
.20
100 .
l48
2S'
20.
100 .
OLtiFtRA. Horserao i shtree
·~
. 18
1.05
1. 55
HOALN(i.A
"'
. OS
·''
·"
"·
·"
,.,,
100 .
2]9
"'
,0]
"· ·''
·''
100.
11E DICA&O 5.\TI\IA.
"'
"'
"'
·"
.os
100.
HEliN I S 1'\INUTifLORA. 11olusesgrau
-~~erial p1rt , fresh
"'
"'
"'
·"
·''
·"
.2]
100 .
238
"'
m
"· ·""·"
100 .
229
230
"'
"'
"'
237
Mag-
Ca l-
100 .
process r esidue , deh ydrnea
221
228
m
F~cds (Cont.)
100.
.1)
. OJ+
.08+
-
100 .
.7]
·"
.18+ 1. )] +
.20+ 1.5)+
..
I·
.]9
·"
.os
·" ·" ·" ·"'
·"
. 64
100.
lo~Jl-9)9
. 91o+
-77
. 08 +
.oq•
. 7]
.OS
. 18
. OS+
. 0~ ·
.so-
.69 +
'·,,
239
Entry
g-
Sel ~
ne$e
' m1/
Iron
(mg/
(mg/
niun
(mg/
Zi nc
(mg/
kg)
kg)
kg)
kg)
kg )
2.
..
o1nl:!
.
Vito-
Viu-
min
mlo
( IV/
g)
(IU/
kg)
'2
VitaBio-
/
tin
(mg/
kg)
kg )
'"...
(
,..,_
line
("'9/
kg)
Folic
Pan to-
,._
Vit..- Ribo-
Acid
( Fola- ~i aCil'l)
cin
(mg/
(mg/
kg)
kg )
Acid
.,
(mg/
kg )
( "'9/
kg)
nic
vin
( mg/
kg)
Thiamine
("'9/
kg)
22]
224
221
"'
"'
"'
s.
a.
228
s.
2.
11.
.. ''·
230
20.
2)1
2)2
22 .•
2))
"'
...
~3 .+
221 . +
~ 1 ....
2lS
295 .
12 .
"'
3}0.
"·
"·
] 85.+
237
2]8
426.+
''·
11.
"·'·
2J9
210
2 11
n.
"'
5).
.08 +
. 08+
"·
24, +
2] . +
1JS7. +
. 17•
] . 04+
2].0+
. 20+
-
36 .+
1962-+
J. ~o ...
~0.
25.7+
.)2+
)62 .
J . SO+
).87+
''·
''·
'·
. JS•
....
+
11.4
12.6
12 . ]+
2.6+
14.2+
1.9•
2.0+
5.2
2. 8+
2.2 ...
'·'
) .1+
22.2+
24.]+
..
)8.
213
"'
"'
"'
"'
"'
''·'· "·
,,"'
2)6 .
250
3.
13.
252
,,
"·"·
253
25 5
256
100.
Sr .
90.
-
.4)+
. It]+
13971555-
.,.
1111.+
2. 18+ 116.
2.42+ 129.
9.3
1) . 1+
1.3
10.)
14.6+
'·'
lt.S+
1.2+
1.)+
257
258
"'
260
.OS•
. os ..
)2 .
JS .
''·
18.
"·
28.
.08+
997-•
.42+
.47+
) I,+
8 . 1)+
JS . +
9 - 9•
s.O+
2.9+
) . 2+
240
T.tlle1].1'1iner11l .11nd Viu.min Content or Some Connonly U~ed .lsi11n Feeds (Con t. )
·-
Intern.tlon1l
Feed
Entry
261
,,,
,,,
,,,
,,,
,,,
lnternat lon•l
Feeo N-
(\)
ORYZA SATIVA . (CQnt . )
lo~]-9]8
-g r 11.ln, ground
lo-Q]-93&
-gro11ts, pol isned broken
lo-Q)-9]2
261
268
-gro1t1, touted
lo-21}-703
"'
-hulls
H)8-Q]S
Ill
-111111
"'
"'
"'
181
'"
'"
"'
'"
"'
lSI
188
,.,
"'
191
"'
"'
"'
"'
1-QJ-9Io1
·~
-pol isl'lings
lo-o)-91o]
1-QJ-925
"'
300
(t)
.0 } +
• 0].+
.II
...·"
Cl'llo- ner loe sil.l'l
(t)
(\)
.0}+
.08+
.or·
. 0} +
·'I
. I]+
. llo +
91.
.II
88 .
.os
... ·"......
"'· ·"
sll~e
)-28w7]6
P-MICUI1 t1AXti'IUI1 . Cu ln eotogrotoss
wteriiJ potort, fres h
wterlill pil r t , fresh
1-<l)-927
2-()2w)loS
1-()2w]loS
.JI
100.
"·
.18
·I'
"·
. 18
· I'
100.
waerlill Pilrt, fresh , lue vegetototlve
2-o2-)38
"·
100.
-ileri•l
~Yrt.
slli~<je
3-Q1-)Io'j
. )l
l.]lo
(t)
(t)
(""/
.]]+
.loS+
. 06+
. ]6+
.SJ•
. OJ+
.as ..
.Oh
.OS+
. ]0+
. 02+
. kj
. ]lo •
.OJ•
. II
.19
·"
·"
·"
-
.06
. 59+ I .Ok
. 12+
. 66 + 1.16
1.27+
l.loh
1. 17
1.32
. \0
1. 75
1.95
.28
·ll
-
...
·"
1.20
1. 36
-
. 18+
.]&+
.06
. 0,.
.I}+
. 10+
.1 9 +
• 01
...
·"
.01
. )8
l ,61o
. 08
·"
3.&)
lo.O]
·"
).&)
lo.OJ
.01
.08
.6)
1.99
·"
.\3
k.
'·
.09
. 10
. OJ
"·J.
.OJ
)
.
'·
'·
l•
'·
·" '·
....
. 01
.06
] .&'J
......
\0, +
...·"
...
·"
·"
·'I
·"
·'I ·"
J . &'J
-
• 08+
. 0} +
kg )
"·
"·
.... .... ...
.11+
...
. 82 +
.OS•
,I]+
.10+
.1)+
.Oio+
.19+
·"
.10+
kg)
. 05+
-57•
-
·"
ocr
(""/
.so•
"· ·"
88.
Co p-
bait
· ll
. JI
-
100.
dl~
. 6] •
. 69•
.\3
100.
wst fl\0, trelte d v lth sodll.lll hydr011ide
dchydrUed
('i
us- so,,~
.01
.08
.OJ+
.08+
. )l
.II
··~
.OS+
.09•
c~
Sui-
'"'
(t)
Pl'los- Po-
...., ·"
.01
• 01
100.
100 .
-st r •"'·
Ma•r
C~d -
100.
.06
l.
) .•
,J7•
1).•
38.
100.
-hily , • ...,- cured
I-Q2-])6
-l'lly , sun-cured
1-()2-336
"· ·"
"· ·"
100 •
100 •
P•Nit1Jt1REPENS . Torpedograss
-aer l •l part , fresh
PASPALUI'I t ONJUCATUM. Paspalun, sour
-ae rl1 l Plrt, fresh
"' __,,,,
291
198
"·
100 •
118
180
88.
100.
l1l
l17
89 .
100 .
liD
l1l
...
100.
-IJrOi-.tS
l7l
,,,
l'llltter cl ~~n
PENNISETUt1 PURPUREUtt. N1pie r grus
pilrt, fr esh
-aerl 1 l plrt, fresh . loJ to S6 d1ys•
9ro wt h
2-<l'J...flloO
2-IQ-08~
) I.
. /l
. IJ
.16
-
·"
·"
·"
..,
.08
10 0.
.so
II.
.J)
.01
100.
!.51
.)l
3.0 7
·"
.)9
),OJ
.D)
1 . 20
.DO
.Ol
2-<l)-166
ll.
100.
2- I Q-0]6
18.
100.
· 'I
... ...
...
·"...
·"
...
-
. 10
·''
....
. 01
.01
-
-
l.
II.
Z41
P·-,to-
Folic
Han-
·-
[ntry
'~
dine
Iron
Sele-
nese
n i um
kg)
kg(
kg)
18, +
-
261
262
-
263
264
28 . ·
20 . +
)2.+
2) . •
265
266
Zinc
'""' '""' '""' '""' '""'
kg)
27.
20 .+
..
)1.
10.
VItamin
(IU/
VItamin
02
( I U/
g)
kg)
kg)
Vita-
g~
kg)
IS .+
!] ,+
llo .+
16. +
min
A
'"
("'/
Vi t.- llibo-
'"~
line
cin)
olo
(""/
(
/
(""/
'""'
kg)
...
....
-27 + 28.
. )\ •
.
""
"~
tin
kg)
941.+
101o2. +
(Fola-Nia-
kg)
(""/
kg)
• 25 +
. 28+
lo S.+
8 . 0•
.19 +
4] .+
. 21 +
log ••
10. 8 +
12.1 +
22-•
].]+
26.•
3-7•
].8 •
8. 6+
1061o,
1216.
)2 •
kg)
nic
Acid
4 1. +
] . 2+
'6
(..,/
kg)
-
"~
vin
kg)
.,.
.8•
.
Ttl lamine
(""/
,,
kg)
-
7-9•
.,.
.,.
],0+
) ,]+
-
.,..
1.6•
].1 •
..
\,lo+
267
268
'"'"'
582.
!Oio .
,,.
28. +
6/oo,
lilt,
6].
]I.+
"'"',,,
27J
5]8 .
61o6 .
1]0.
27S
276
402 .
1.4 9.
24] ,
"'
,
'"
278
.
281
'"
,.,
,.,
,.,
286
"'
288
,,.
"'
,.,
291
"'
"'
"'
"'
"'
296
298
)00
219.•
2/19 . •
...
,..
,,..
,,..
"·
97 -
20) . +
..
102 . +
115 .+
10. +
10.
146.
,..
52.
276 .
"·
loSS •
16.
519.
8.
6.
"·6.
]1 .
8.
22 .
]1.
6) ,+
860.• 267- ·
-
!]. •
12- •
.,.
)9 .+
12)8. •
1]8), +
-
291.
325 -
2.1o+
. 6•
2 . 1..
l.lo ..
...
35- •
.61 +
.68+
'·'
s.s
27 -7+
]0 . 9 +
2. 2•
.6•
.8
·'
"~-8 ·
22 . 1+
242
Tfltlle 21. Klneral .and ¥it-In Content of Sa.e CQftftOnly Us« As i an Feeds (Cont.)
Intern.-
Entry
,_
'"
PEN N I SETUX PUIIPUII:[UI'I., (Cont.)
57 to 70 days'
)01
)02
-.erial part, f r esh,
gro• th
)OJ
-.er ial part, si laq e , IS to 28 days'
growth
'"
)OI
"'
307
"'
"'
'"
'"
,,,
Oty
Call'tltterc;l....,
Nunoer
I' I
2-•o-ns
)-12-2'-6
PENHISHUP\ SlTOSUtt. PennisetU11, ..estind l es
-aerl•l part , fresh
2-29411
,,,
"'
,,,
,,,
,,,
2-oo~t9
-pods, ,,.. .. cured
1-2]-068
-seeds
S-03-i8S
m
"'
'"
"'
"'
'"
321
"'
PHASEOLUS CALCAIIATUS . Se W'! , rice
·''
.08
. J)
S-29-128
thlo- " r ine si1.011
(\)
(\I
.,. ·''
·''
-
.17
-
''· ·"
-
.I/
S-28-<1)7
100 •
PHASEOL US $P9.
··~
POULTRY
-feutlers,-•1
S-oO-S91o
S-2~7~
• 10
2-1o-228
1-2~11
2-21-o69
ROTUOHLI.l EXALT.lT.l, ltc hgran
-aerl ~~~ part , fresh
2-10-910
So-
Su i-
bait
"~
(\)
·~
(og/
(\)
•ol
,,.,.
.,.,
.../
••>
(
-
-
...
·"
-
. )0
1.0] •
·''
1.15+
.01 +
"·
"·
-
.JI
·"
·"
·"
.28•
. SI•2.IoS ..
100 •
• 1) +
.)1+
. SS•2.69 •
,. ·"
·"
-
·''
.10
"· ·"
-
"· ·"
-
·"
·"
•• 1
AHVNCHElYTRIJP'I ll0S(IJI1. Mua1gran
-aeri al ~rt, fre:s"
(\)
• 12+
100.
-hay,s~cureCI
c~
,;.....,.
91 •
100.
PUEAARtA PHASEOLO . O£S. ICu•u:u, tropic•\
-aerial ~rl, fresro
'"'
(\)
·"
·"
100.
-u:eds
ph~
.JJ
-
...
·"
... ...
Pt.os- Po-
...
-
"·
'"·
PHASEOLUSI'I.UtiC.O. Selin, urd
.O io
.]8+
16.•
.8S+
17 . •
• 18•
.20•
)9 . •
1.2. ~
-
·''
. )0
)2 .
100.
...
·" "· ·"
"·
.os
.10
100.
-hay , sun-cured
)]I
1-21)-l.fiS
1-28-78)
Jl2
SAttHAIIOf\'l'tES tEREVISIAE . Yean, brewers
"'
"·
.o8
100.
330
JJJ
''·
'"·
(\1
100.
)10
]21
18.
100.
100 •
PHASEOlUS AUAEUS. &eiin, .....9
-..eri1l part, fresh
)12
'"
l'laq-
Feed
t lon1l
lnternetlonal
Feed NIIIIe
-e~ enyaruea
7-oS-527
92.•
\00 . •
"· ·"
·"
100.
.0]•
.08 •
"
.
1.27
·"
·"
.)9
·''
·''
1.26
1.)6
1.68+
1.8) •
...
·"
.0]•
.08•
.... ,.
~S•
243
·-
Erotry
Iron
(..,1
( ...1
ko )
ko)
·~
(""'
kol
...
Vita-
11an-
·~
dine
,
Sel~
niln
Zinc
( ..1
("'ill
ko l
ko)
,,
(IU/
VI t.-
Viu-
mi n
min
.,
( IU/
kg)
llio-
'",,, ""
("'I
(ogl
kg)
,..,_
ll 11e
("'ill
ko )
..••
Folic
P.-nto-
Aci d
(Fol e-N r.ci n)
ci n
nic
( "'ill
kg)
Vlt.- Rlbo-
Acid
(.,1
( ..,1
ko)
kg )
, "~
.,,
(""' (""' (""'
ko )
Th l .-mi ne
kg )
kO)
)01
)02
,..
)OJ
)05
)06
)07
)08
)09
)10
...
80.+
) II
) 12
• 8+
90.+
2171 -
21! . ...
2.1 ...
J,Cj 't
]10] •
2],+
2.it+
lt . ] +
)1)
'"
)15
) 16
.lt87.
......•
)17
) 18
)I. •
57-•
]4, +
62..0.
1]10.+
1876. •
--
28.+
)0. +
1.1+
1.2+
--
l.)+
2.5+
) 19
)20
)21
"'
)2)
'"
)25
)26
'"
'"
"'
))O
))1
ll2
)))
.JS+
"'
,)8+
as.•
9~ -·
,,....
........
]Cj . +
1.+ 1.0)+
32SO.
lt2.+
1.+ l . l l t·
)5)2.
1•.
Cj.28+1tloi,+ CJJ . 6•
l• J~.s · ss.:z•
10.09+ loJCJ.• 101.7+ J7 ,J • JS.h 92.6•
244
Table 2].
,_
Miner~il
•nd Vitamin Content o f S~ (OII'I'IOnly Used Asl&n Feeds (Cont. )
JJ5
"'
International
Feed Name
SACCHARUM OHICINARUM . Sugarcane
-Aer ial part, fres h
Dry
no..~
rlnc
,;...,
ph<>-
MU t er Cl \.1!1
1*1
1*1
(>)
'"'
m
Hllo-689
-b•gasse, ClehycUated
1-Qio-686
JJ9
-b~IUC,
l-Q9-909
'"
'"
,,,
,,.
,
J'S
..
fr esh
-I CIYCS,
2-Qio-{,91
lo-1 3-151
-top of Aer i.al polrt, •enyd r Ued
I-1]- S6S
-top of ..eri•l p,ut , fre5h
2-IJ-568
m
J-o8- S28
-to p o f .er 1•1 part, sil•ge
2- 29-379
SESA"l.t\ IHOICU'\ •
..._
360
"'
367
368
369
370
)71
J7l
"·
.08
. ]2
.oa.
. )5 +
"·
./1
.•.
.1 5•
. OJ
-
·"
·"
.1 0+
. I)
.os
.os
.2 ] •
.so•
. \6
. OS•
-
.01
1.06+
·" ·"
.2]•
(%)
.)9•
'~
bill
,.,
Co p-
,,, I ..••I/
l""li
2.•
-
. 06
. 2]
,lo6+
\,1)0 +
.00•
.02+
.0) +
. )6 +
.OS
. \2
. 02
.4 ] +
.II
2. )1o
).09
. 12•
.16
.OJ
.os
.os
''·
]I.
2. •
6-•
]
.
'·
1/.
"·
..
I.
28 .
lo-]0-2]6
..."·
...
~~~ea1mf!Chani c a1
.ss
.
. )7
.08
'·"'
.
. 2\
.01
. 01
100.
5~8-SOCJ
100 .
-seeds . IR4:Chanlca1
36S
)66
.10+
100.
-pods
-seeds ,
'"
. Js•
~aintree
-leaves , fresh
357
JSB
363
100 •
. 10
Sui-
'"'
1*1
100.
s~an .
JS6
'"
'"
"·
,..
. 06
. 06
1*1
So-
"~
100 .
352
"'
\00.
. IS
.16
si..-n
100 .
SAMAN[ A SAMAN .
l5J
.10
100 .
JSO
lS I
1*1
Cillo-
.0)
.]1
100.
-rnoluses
C•l -
"·
100 •
we t
Pllos- Po-
t lon•l
reed
ll7
JJB
'"
'"
'"
,,,
Mag-
'"tern..,.
Ent.ry
extr~ted
e•tr~ted
c aked
S~lo-220
5-11 -5 33
S[SIIAHIA 'AAHO!rLORA. Wisu r in ree , sc•rlel
2-21~87
-le•ves , rresh
"·
"·
100.
100 .
2.)1
2.ss
100 .
SETARIA SPHACELAU . " i llet , golden
-aerl•l p•rt. rresn
2-11-528
SOAi.HUM III COLOA. Sorgho..m
-aerl11 p1rt witl'lout neads, sun-cu r ed
1-Qio-]02
.
2.2~
1. 76
1. 'J2
18.
.
. 60
2. 10
. 2]
1.1o8
. 06+
.0] +
. lo6+ 1 . 22
. )0 + 1.)3
.ss
. 61
-
1. 22+
1.))•
·"
.,.
.10+
. ]2 +
.]) •
. 06
l.OS
. 06
.0]
"·
.I]
.I S
s.
s.
s.
-
"·
100.
as .
100.
-gr1 i11
SOA<iH W1 H.ll[P[HSE. So rgho..m, john songr1u
-aer i al ~:~•rt, f r esh
lo-Qio-]8]
2-Q~-412
1-29-f,lO
·"
''·
.o8
100.
.0.
]I •
• IS
100.
STYLOSA HTH[S GIIAC IllS . Stylo
-n•v. sun-cur ed ground
.,.
100 .
. 16
. I.
.Jl
.so
. 08 +
• 09+
-
2.51o
2.'JCJ
.
·''
·" ., ...
. 08
. JO
.08+
.2S•
.os
. 16
....
] , 12+
. II
.I]
.02
.IS+
. 02
. I]+
·"
.os
6.
245
·-..
..
Entry
d l l'l e
Iron
,
( "'9/
(
llS
Jl6
lll
JJ8
JJ9
JkO
J kr
'"
"'
'"
kO)
/
ko )
("'9/
(mol
( "'9/
ko)
ko)
ko )
.,, .,
Folic:
lllte-
Vlt~
Vita-
"'"
"'"
'2
"'"
Bio-
tin
Clioline
cln)
(uo/
(.,/
("'9/
("'9/
kO)
kO)
ko)
kg)
( I U/
(I U/
kg)
""
P.nto-
'"~
Vlu- Aibo-
..
.. ;n
(mo/ ••
""
"" ""
(Foh- Ni•-
("'/
kg)
(
kg)
rr~
Thla-
"'"
("'9/
mine
/
ko)
kg)
ko)
("'l/
1] 9.
2).
) 1, +
128 . +
1] 4 .
J kS
516.
SSJ .
Jkl
Seleni 1111 Zinc
,,.,"·
'"'·
•s .
.•. "·
JkJ
"'
,,,
1'1an·
nese
·~
2)0 .
8.•
) 4,•
-
...
s.•
22.+
r8.
].
"·
]8 .
)2,
"·
J k,
116 .
36.
''·
92 .+
100 . +
52 . +
J6 .
s.
"·
JSO
JS•
352
JSJ
J Sk
JSS
JS6
l SI
J S8
I. ], +
359
286.
].
'"'
'"
)I ] ,
8.
-
99 . +
642.
108 . +
...
70 0.
"·
1642 .
.. . .
J, ]
].
12 . ) +
1) .4 +
.
2.] +
,]
), 0+
lo . O+
1..6+
li!SS .
36•
36J
'"
365
366
us.
379.
Jl .
361
122.
lloO ,
.•."·
'"
369
JIO
"'
J72
''·
25.
"·
.25+
. 2..
6 ] 1..
.21+
26.+
8 .0+-
),] +
1. 1+
773 .
.24+
)0.+
9 .2+
4 , 2+
1. 3+
246
Table 27 . l'liner0111 •nd Vitamin Content of Sane (DI'fOOnly Used As i 011n Feeds (Cont.)
I'IOIICJ-
Phos- Po-
tiona I
Ory
n~
1'\;~tt er
COllic1 <.1'1
Chlo-
Feed
rl l'le
sio..on
N~er
(\)
(\)
(\)
(\)
··~
'~
Intern.-
,_
Entry
lnterl'lational
f eeoNeme
t•l
lAS-
•I~
(\)
·~
"~
(>)
Sui-
'~
Dor.lt
'"'
t..,l (.,1
kol '•l
(\)
Cop-
'"
TMARINDUS INDICA. T<rnarlncl
J7l
"'
"'
J75
2-29-~Sio
-le•ves, fresh
2-28-287
..
. 06
"· ·"
·"
. 10
.20
100 .
TAITICI.t1 AESTIVU I'I, \lhen
11-()5-190
377
378
,
. So
2.81
28.
100.
pen i~
TRIFOLIUtt RESUPINATUtt, Clover,
-~rial p011rt. fresn
88.
100.
379
-flour, len th;m I.S:t f iber
1o-o5-199
)81
)82
-ger.111 , grouroo
s-os-z• B
J83
3..
-11rain
1o-o5-211
88 .
. I)
·"
100.
. os
. 06
87 .
.02
100 .
"·
100.
. OS+
.06+
'"
-loS% nitrogen 281\ protein
equi~•lent
s-os-o70
2-26- 590
\liGNA SI NENSIS. towpe,_, CO'!WIIOI'I
-.erial part, tresl'l
391
-l'lly, sun-cured
"'
393
-
...
.OS•
h~ • ... e s
, fre11'1
.25 +
.IS
.I/
.21o+
.n
.0) +
.Oio +
.2]+
. 12 +
9· ·
.)1+
,!lo +
10 . •
.18+
. 62+
3.
. 20 •
.6~·
.9) •
.88
! . 0] •
. 20
.19
.0/
.09 ...
.22
. 3s
. 39
.... -
...
·"
.04
'·
,,.
,..
. 00•
29 .
..
2~ 1~S S
"·
·"
100 .
2. 26
~~~~.loS
88.
1.35
1.5]
2~1~56
1) ,
.19
1.48
,
5~1~61
J9S
ZEA1'1A'1'S. 1'11iu
-.erl1l plrt. fresh
"·
. )0
,)8
2~2 - 799
18.
.09
·'9
-aerl•l p1rt. tresl'l, dough st•11e
2~2-80)
2/.
100.
.os
'"
402
-aerial part, si
3~2-8 2 2
JO ,
100.
403
-9lute11, meal
5~2-900
·"·"
'"
405
-glute11 with br¥t, meal
5~2-903
407
408
-gral11
4~2-879
409
110
-ljjrlill, ground
399
.22+
.06+
.28 +
99-·
39 '
397
J98
.06•
1.21
.08+
,OJ
"·
IJ.
1. 07
100.
388
389
390
. 81
. 06
100 . +
VET I VEil lA Z IZANIOIO~S. Veti11er
-.erlll p1rt, fr~· h
·"
·" .I /
.19
UREA
J8S
)86
. JI
,JS
'DO
l~ge
406
""· ·"
100.
• IS
91.
,'J'l
100.
1.0~
88.
.os
. 06
100.
4~2-861
.20
86.
100 .
.02
. 02
.02+
.18•
. IS+
. 17•
...
.... .sa
.OS+
.It)•
. 38
.18•
1. 66•
.0)+
.2S•
.03 •
.)1•
. 66
2.00•
2.26 •
.21<•
. .loS•
.27•
. )1 +
. JS +
• 1)•
.17•
.22+
.28 ...
,,
.04+
. OS +
. 0/
.2)+
. Jl
. 2~ ·
·"
.I ..
.8~·
-
..
.
·"
.10
·"...
.09
1. 02•
1.)0 ...
.)8
.01
2.11
,OJ
-
-
J,
'·
...
s.•
. os
.28
..
3. •
9· ·
I.
.01+
. 0) +
.Oio+
.12+
.0)•
.10+
.03 •
.0) +
.09+
,10+
. 20+
. 22+
. 02
, OJ
"·
.....
-95 •
1.05 +
. 21 +
.2 ) <t
. 06
J2.
.)6•
.89
. 98
.29
, Jl
.,
.12+
.
.08
. 12
.26
.))+
.j8 +
.07+
.22•
•• 6
.07 +
• 06+
.06+
.n •
.23+
.25+
...
-
.)6+
1.22 +
. OS+
.1 8+
....
-
,.,
·"
.21
·"
. 30
.sa.
.
,)0
.01
.01
.00•
.oo ...
.JI• •
.
·"
.06
.89•
1.0) +
IS •
J5.
,,
8.
2. •
J. •
247
...
,_
Envy
,.,..
lmg/
1"'9/
.
kg)
kg)
g)
viu-
11in·
g~
dine
Iron
lmg/
1"'9/
ne5e
1"'9/
kg)
kg )
kg)
Scleni LR Zinc
min
(llJ/
\/itain
vru-
.....
I'll
min
Oz
1../
'" "'
I"''
(IU/
kg)
kg)
kg)
Folic
Acid
Pinto-
'"otine
( Fola- ~iaci n
cin)
nic
Acid
lmg/
lmg/
lmg/
kg)
kg)
kg)
"~
Vitam in
'"''
l mg/
kg)
.,
.. ,
Rib~
"~
mine
l mg/
1../
kg)
kg)
kg)
IO.h
11.4.
1.0
8,)+
Ttl II-
l1l
37'
375
'"
,'"..
377
• 06+
ns .
.0] +
1}1.
379
"'"'
"'
JBJ
.09+
.
. 6]+
. ]2•
-37 •
. 112 +
798.
908.
9]1.+
1102.+
1.76+
2.00+
-
.loG+ 11 8.+
• 21 +
• S2+
1)),+
.24+
Sit.+
.28•
)2.+
35. +
,10+
519.
....... .
,II +
5]2.
.48+
78.
. )! ...
!JSI,
1$,45 •
2.10+
2.40+
"·
II,)
go.
1).1
26.+
1).0 +
21).+
]I,. ] +
-
-
67.+ 18.)• 9-9 •
17 . + 20.9+ 11. ) +
s.•
"·
27 .
6.0
21. +
1),) +
17.+
1].)+
] . )1"
).g.
... s.a•
9-S•
. g.
6.6+
s.s• 22.9 •
6-J• 26 . 2<-
,
.s "·9•
.s .....
,..
7. •
1]9.+
18 ! .+
385
-
"·n .
59-•12/o,+
68.+ llol.•
60.+
,
70 .
"·
387
'"
389
390
86 , +
798 -·
39 1
392
5)1.
99.
29.
600.
112.
)2.
"'
J9'
391
391>
45.+
l29 .
)I.
...
397
...'"
15-•
18).+
2)5.+
-
6•
"S
106
.07•
• 07+
lo61o .
SlO •
llolo.
16].
·09•
. 11+
27.•
) 1.+
-
6. •
1)0. +
1), +
21.+
lo )Cj. +
lo ). +
IS.
17.
19.
.19 •
.2 1•
328.
36) .
"·
os.
.28+ 100.
. 30+ 110.
. ))•
15)2. +
16811. +
)6 1.
•o•
"'
12. +
lot . +
.... "·
107
409
52.+
1 ]) ,+
1·
1.00•
.28•
...... 8.
2.0+
8.2+
l . S+ 10 . 11+
"·
399
"'
"2
'03
•o•
..
-
• }H
.)6+
7-9+
1. io+
1.6+
. 2•
10. ~
. 28 +
.)0+
7 1.+
78. +
1}. 7+ 13.5+
IS. I+ l t.. 6+
2.Z.
2.5+
2.0 +
2.2+
. 09 +
.11 •
25 . •
....
.1..9+
S-7•
9- 9+
.2 •
.!.It] .
2).
26.
20.+
2 ....
....
. JO• lt9 . +
.J)• s s.+
507 •
lo . 8+
s.s•
2S.•
29.•
-
.10+
.12+
loOS.+
lo69 . ..
29.+
}.S•
.. . 1+
}.0+
J-"• ""•
2~8
Table 2], t'liner• l ¥\CI Vit amin Content of SOllie COftf!IOn ly Uu~d ols i~n feeCi s (Cont.)
·-..
,
tiona I
,,,
feed
t'lnter cl i.A'II
Intern.-
Entry
1ntern1tlonal
FeedN-
m
Hag-
C•l-
411
411
41)
"'
...
41S
"'
"'
1-<12 - 785
-steons . sun-·•red
Hl2 - 79S
88 .
,,
·"
.,.
...
100.
ZU 1'\AYS INDENU"A .
- gra in
l"'<~ i ze,
dent wh ite
4..02-928
10<) ,
ZU t'l o\ YS t NO(NTATA. 1'\a i l.e, dent yellow
-grll/'1
1.~2-935
• 16+
.IS+
...
100.
88.
100 .
r lru:
si..-n
"' "' '"
us.
ZEA 1•..
( Cont. )
-husks. sun-cured
Chl~n~
-
..,
Phos- Po-
·~
m
,1)
. 1.0•
.loS+
tas-
··~ m
"'
-57+
. 6S •
. IS
1. ~S•
...
.)1
Sodil...
.IS
,,
.os
.06
.....
1.6/o+
.. ...
,_ ,
,.,
,,,,, ,,.,
,,,
'"
'"
Sui-
b•lt
.06+
.0] •
. IS+
, I]+
-
.06•
.OJ+
.OS+
.11
. )0
. ]2 +
.01+
.06 •
,I)
, J,
. J7 •
.01+
. II+
. I)+
. )8 +
.lo]+
...,..
249
rol ic
Entry
..
lt<ln-
·~
(
Sele-
Vit•-
VIta-
min
A
(IU/
min
02
(IU/
111 t r
P.illto-
'"•
Bio-
Cho-
tin
line
(to! a- Ni•c;in)
cin
(.,/
(.,/
(.,/
"~
.
nic;
Acid
(
/
Vi l l - Ribo-
111in
"~
Thiamine
(..,/
(.,/
(.,/
,,, ,,, ,,, ,,, ,, ,,, '",,, ,,, ,,, ,,, ,,, ,,, ••,,, ''",,, ,,,
'•'
dine
/
("'9/
"'
"'
'"
(.,/
niU'II
Zinc
(.,/
(.,1
(.,/
( mg/
"2
...
"S
26. •
"1
}3, +
3], +
"'
)0 .•
...
. ..
10.+
,I)+
'· .
2.
,~.
19 . •
22 .•
.
15.+
),8 +
.0]+
'7·•
lo.lo•
•07 •
.oa.
)12 •
,) 1+
JS6.
.JS•
,,
"·
2.)
2.6
s.J•
6.0+
1.)•
lo . lo +
l.S•
S.l+
·'
.s
3-7•
"·2·
250
Table 28.
Proximate Compos i t ion and Energy Content of Some Corrmon I y Used Latin
Oig-=sti b leProtein
lntC!rnr
,_
Entry
ti0/'111
lnter111tlon11
Feed
Feed Name
001
002
00]
004
oos
006
007
008
009
000
o ..
002
OO]
ANDROPOG0N81tORNIS. 81uutem , bicornls
-acrill p.ut, fr esh, midbloom
-hay, sun-cured
2-13-672
1-11-229
1-11-lJI
Pro-
Matter tract liFE
!>)
1%1 1\l
fiber Ash
!>)
1\l
tein
SheepCooit
1\l
1\l
AHDROPOf.ON SPP. Blueste.
-aeri1l plrt , fresh
2....o()-8l]
]0 .
.4
1.2
~~ -
"·
1.4
I.S
<JO.
0.8
2.0
)0 . 6
) 1. . 0
] 4.
100.
-hly, sun-cured
Atllt\Al
- blood, IIIUI
ARACHIS HVPOGAEA. Peanut
-h;~y, lUo-cured ground
l....oo-819
5- oo-J8o
1-Q)-627
91.
-pods
1-Q8-028
-seeds
s-o8-120
019
020
-seeds vltnout co.Hs . me011l SOIIICI"It
5-QJ-650
021
022
-seeas without coats, rnechal"lical
e11tra.cted caked
5-Q)-6io8
90.
1.3+
100.
1.5+
2-Q)-292
-aerial part, silage
)-Q)-298
027
028
029
0]0
-cereal by-product. leu than lo\fiber lo-Q]-)0)
0]0
O]l
-grain
0]]
0]4
-groau
lo-03-BI
OJS
0]6
-h•'f· sun-cured
1-Q)- 280
037
0]8
-hulls
1-Q)-281
2.9*
-9'
-9'
2.9*
46 . 9
3).0
51.1
35.'}
6.8
7-S
].8
4.0
.2•
.J•
.4•
.4•
.s•
. s•
.s•
.s•
32.7
1 ] .5
II.]
].!*
12.6
1-5*
15.0
'·'*
/-9*
].It
36 . '-
8.)*
7-9•
7-9*
12.2 • 11.9+
~9.
0
53 - 7
) . 4+
),8+
2C..6
29.1
0.0.
l.h·
2 . ..
s.s..
11.6
12.7
6.0
1/.8
J.S
j.9
7
54.0
] .0
0.]
26.1
57 .1
7-7
8.0
48 . ]
52 . 4
11.5
12.j
J-7
4. 0
100 .
"·
.8
.8
23 . 9
2&.0
"·
7- 0
7-6
2] . 9
)0.2
JS.
o.o
2.9
18.6
53-7
1.0
s.o
/.6
20.
2~ .
)8.8
.. ,
1).1
7-4
13 . )
llo.4
51.6
4.9
1o5.8
1o9.s
.. ,
.o•
. 2•
.]•
.]•
8.b*
3-7•
],8t
).9•
3.9•
". lt
.]•
.]•
--
9.2 11
9 - 7• 10. ]•
8,]11
loJ.S
7-0
28.2
·"'
. o•
9 · 7•
lo. O•
8.6t
9.]t
),8t
1o.o•
j. 4 25 . 8
J .6 1].]
b. 8
7. 4
9. 8
4.U lo,lo• .. . h
13 . 6• 1j.2• IJ,Ot 1).0*
lo.6•
5. 3+80./u-5] . 1+57.11
s.8+ 87 . 9 • 62. ~. b2.'-l
9].
'·'
-
lo ) .2•lo) .2 +
loJ,!+Io ] ,\+
2.7
7-7
'-'
.8
2.2
1.2t
) .5t
1.5t
lo.l t
2. 2
2. ]
1.0
S-7
l.h
],It
!.lot
].1•
/.I*
l.bt
L8•
2 .8t
2./1
LO•
LC)fl
2.]•
2.9•
Jl . l
7-S
...
12.0
,..
l.lot
52.1o
56.5
7.0
7.8
62.5
&8 . 9
3- 0
4.9
S.4
59-6
66.1
12.2
J-7
4.0
10.9
6-6•
] . )11
6.6•
13 . 6
6. 6
7- l
b].2
]lo .lo
j.O
J.]
0.7
0.9
11.8
1) . 0
8.)11
9.2 11
11 . 3•
90.
0.7
0.9
lo9 . 3 2].5
Slo.S )0 . 6
6.7
7-S
4./
s.J
1.2 *
1.3*
9'·
0. 6
'-7
52.)
55.6
s.8
6.1
].0
j.2
-.511
- . 6•
-.s• -.)• -.)•
90.
100.
jO.
100 .
90.
100.
100.
25-3
1].)
j.j
)1.4+
)),lo +
s .o
I.St
lo, 2t
].7
1.0
9].
100.
lo-03-309
.6•
2,11<
100 .
100.
1-11-2"1
.8•
14,]
100.
OH
1\l
2.5"
12.)
IUO.
falo
(\)
1.8
S- 9
lb.8
)0 . 0
"·
lluf-
"'
1.8
6.0
)5.9
40,2
..,
C1t-
1}.0
lo2.6
2. 4
2. 7
89 .
1\l
4
1] . 5
2.5• JS .6•JS.h
-7
.8
100.
•VEMA SATIVA. O~u
-;~erial part , fresh
...
100.
100.
OlS
006
Toul
100.
100 .
00/
008
02S
026
Crude
Ether
100 .
ANOAOPOCON /oiOOOSUS, 81uestesn, ang le ton
-hly, sul'l-cured
004
02]
,,, ,._
2.0
2.2
6.9
16.1
\],8
9-1
12.)• 12.) * 1\.lt 11.2•
11 .5 • 11.s• 12. J•I2 . J*
] . ]11
5.5t
6.1*
s.s•
6,111
9 - 2*
] . 2•
8 . 0•
a.o•
1.3*
1.5•
J. )t
1.5 11
1. ):1:
1.5*
- . 411
- . )11
- . ]•
].111
251
Ame ri can Feeds.
Data Expressed on an As - Fed and Dry Basis (Moisture Free)
Energy for Sheep
Entry DE
" "'
(/'\cal ( Mc:at
/k!]) /O.g) (')
...
.&s•
(ru
/kg)
(~a t
(KI::oil
Feed
Unit
(fU
/kg)
/kg)
/kg)
" " '"
1'1
(ru
/kg)
Feed
DE
HE
(r.cat ( Meat
/kg) / k g)
.n•
"'
l>l
Unit
(ru
/kg)
sa .,
t8 . J
.2)1
. )lo•
. 7)• . 60•
.]6#2.40* I,'J]• 1.12*
.56* 1.2111
S"·*
. 70*
z.too•
1.97*
Slo.•
'-7 · 1
.5912.0)* 1.64"'
. J9• 1.02 *
46.•
.sa•
2.03• 1.64*
.65* 2.251 1.82#
51.1
lo6.•
so . •
....
lo),lr
loB. •
.5)"
-59*
1'} . 6
5].&
.256
4) . *
1.961r 1.58"
2.18* 1. ]61r
loS . •
50. *'
.56 • 1.%1 1.581
.&2• 2.181 1.]&1
loS . /
so.,
001
008
.8]& .]26
2.$]6 2.156
20.6
sa.,
.266 . 8]1 ·121
.]6& 2.571 2. ,,,
00?
010
1.95* 1.5& •
2.14• 1.]1 11'
lolo, t
loB. •
01•
2.]06 2.)16
2-95& 2.5)&
&1.+
6].+
.65/ 2.2111 1.78•
.,.,
.89•
-97•
.I] *
- 37*
1] . *
. 21*
. 60•
so.•
.6)*2 .2 1* 1. ]8*
.)l lr
.]lo* 1.05*
.....
lo) . lr
,SJir 1.8'}• 1.50*
loB . •
-59* 2. 10* 1.67*
.~2 *
1,11*
1] . *
. 21 •
.]0*
.fl) lr
, .89* t.so•
.62/2 . 10* l,i)]fl
.88•
10.1
.261
.lol•
sa.,
.]&/ 2.516 2.09& 1.21 1r
.221; , lo)(.
.61or. 1.286
19.&
5].6
. ]lo& 2.51& 2. 09&
.ss•
t . 9Sil.Sf.l
.& t• 2.tlol 1.711
44.,
,.8.1
-551 1.90• 1.so•
.61 /2.08• 1.65•
- 79•
.8&•
.)0*
. )2• 1.0] *"
lo). *
4].•
.SJ* l,C)Oot 1.50*'
.sa•z.oa ~~ 1.65•
lo].•
.$}*
.sa•
.826 1 . ]0/2 . ]11
.C)O& 2.9512.5)1
&!.I
.821 2.66+ 2.19-+- 1. )8-t
-901 2.'}1+ 2.40+ 1.50•
1.}3&
.'}2& 1.45&
&0.+
66. +
. 78& 2. &6+ 2.1'};. 856 2. '}1 + 2.40+
60. +
66.+
.]8&
.856
. &3/2.1 )• 1. ]5"
. ]012.)9* 1.97" l.lllr
-50* 1.08 1r
.56* 1.211r
loB.*
Slo. •
.]011 2.]'}• 1.9]*
54 . •
.]0*
1.8011' 1.)9*
-591 1.90* t.lo ]•
. 18 *
·'9*
. 8'}*
lol. •
lo ) . *
.49• 1. 80• 1. 39*
.52* 1.9011' 1.47•
lol. *
lo].*
.lo9*
.sz •
6].1
01)
011
2.15* 1.77•
2,,.111 1.'}81r
lo 9.•
ss.•
.&3•2 .15/1.771
.]0• 2.lolt 1.'}81
lo'} . /
Oil
1.97*1.56"
2.08• 1.65"'
loS.•
lo7. •
.56 •1 .971 1.561
-59* 2.081 1.651
45-1
"'
"' "'' "'
l'l
.59* 2 . 071 1. 6]1
sa.•
001
006
011
HE M
.23 .. .]81 .651
. ]6* 2.561 2.1)1
2 . 0] *
016
"
18. •
2. 56* 2.1)*
00)
'"
DE
{ Me al ( f1cal (l'lcll (Me; at ( Meal
/kg) /kg) /kg) /ll.g) /kg)
Feed
Unit
1.67* 1,],11
2.25* 1.82 • 51. *
. ]811
002
'"
Un it
Eneryy for Buffalo
Energy for Cattle
Energy for Go11ts
Feed
55-1
lo].l
.856
.]Or.
_,.,
./9•
....
....
.n•
.....
·"''
.'}h
. 25l;
.85l;
.]0'
.62 •2 .1) • 1. 7s•
48 . •
.]II&
.62•
5-27* lo.91 * 120 . • l.]h 5-2714 . 911120 . / 1. 71o1 5. 1o3• s . oJ• 3. 19• z.12• 2.91 • 123.• 1.80• S.loJ• 5.07 • t2J.• 1.80•
5.67• 5.28• 1~9-" t.87 t S-671 s.281 129 . / t .BJI. 5,e,.. s.~os~r J.'oJ• 2.50• ) ,I )* 1)2,*' 1.93* s.8~t • s . to s• tJ2. • 1.93•
61o . •
]0.•
.87• 2. 83/ 2.loSI
.9lo* ).081 2.661
70.1r
]6 . * I.Oiolr
So.• 1.11*).51*),1)*
86. • 1,2011. ).80• ).)8•
SO . • 1.11*
86.* 1.20*
2.8J• 2. 1os•
) .08• 2.66•
021
022
) , S6• ). 18•
).85• ),4411'
81.* 1.1 )* 3.5613 . 181
8].• 1.12 • ).85/).441
81 . / 1.1]1 ) . 51• ), 1]* 1.96* 1.)4* 1.84•
8] . / 1.211 ) . 80* ) . )8• 2.12* 1.1os• 1.99*
02)
...,
64.1
70.1
.....
.871 J.o8• 2. 70• 1.67 * 1.1o• \,f.,O K ]O.t .96• ) , oBt 2. 70*
.941).)5* 2- 9"- 1. 82• 1.19* 1,]1,11. 76.• 1.04•).3 5* 2.91o•
019
020
.....
.....
1.02* .88•
2.95* 2.S3*
2).
61.
.]lfl1.021
-90*"2.95/2.5]1
,]\1
./9• ,4]•
.901 2.]1 • 2.29* 1. )6*
.27* .loB •
. ]8• 1.)9*
21.*
61.*
.28•
·79·
. Bt• 2.7 1•2.29*
21.•
61.•
-53* .loS*
1.]0* 2.28•
..."·
23-1
67./
025
026
.16* -531 .loS/
• 81 1r2.70i2.281
!l.J
. Jiolr
61.1
.161 . 51 * .lo)• .z5•
.8112.59* 2.17* 1. 1]*
.26*
.]0* 1. )2*
12.•
59-*
. IS* .51* ,loJ•
-71* 2.S9*' 2.1 ]*
12. *
59-*
.IS*
,7Jir
021
028
z.n• 1, C)lo*
2.51* 2.09*
53 -"
57 -*
. 69*2.33/1.941
, ]lo* 2.51/2.091
53-1
57-1
.691 2.lo] * 2.0]* 1.22 *
-7lol 2.66• 2.2)• 1,)2 *
.69 •1 .26*
. 7h 1. 36*
56.•
60.•
.]4 *2 .47*2.07*
-79* 2.66•2.23•
56 . •
60. •
. ]lo*
029
0)0
) .50* ). 12*
).86• ). 45*
79.• 1.11 * J . SOI ) . Ill
87.* 1.22* J .86i J.loSi
0)1
0)2
].0)*2 - 65*
).)6* 2. 91o•
69.• . q.t.• ).0)/2.651
]6.* I,Oio* ).)6# 1.'}41
OJ)
3-53* ] ,16*
].9 1* 3- 50*
So . ~
1.12* ) .53# ] . 161
8'} . * 1.2h ].9113-501
0))
0)6
2. 11 * 1.]2*
2. ] lo* 1. 92*
loB.•
53·*
.61 *l.ll tl.721
.68• 2.)lo/ 1.92/
loB. I
0)1
0)8
t.lo)6 1.0)&
1.53& 1.09&
JJ,+
35 -•
. )6& l,lo)l 1.031
.)9& 1.531 1.091
33.1
'"
"'
79 -1 1. 111 ) . 2]* 2.89• 1.81 • 1.22 * 1. ]11r
7~
.28•
.8\lr
-79*
8]./ \.221 ).60* ).19* '·99* t.Jio• 1.8811'
]lo . • 1. 03* ].2]* 2.8'} •
82 . * 1.1)* ).6011' ).19*
82.• 1.1 )*
69-1
.'}4/ 2.98• 2.60• \ , 61 * 1.05 * 1.55*
]6 . / 1.01o1 ] , )0* 2.89* '-79* 1.1 6* 1.72 ...
68.• .'}2 * 2.98• 2.60•
75-* 1.02* ] . )011'2.89*
68.• .92*
75·* 1.02*
80./ 1. 121 ).29* 2.'}1* 1.82• 1.23* 1.12*
75 -* 1.03• ] . 29* 2. '}1*
8] . * 1. 14* ) .64• ).2]*
75-" 1.0)*
8]. * 1.11o•
lo!J.•
89 . / 1.24/].64• ] . 2)* 2.02* 1.]6* l.'i)O*
53-1
35·1
,6112,JI R J,l)* -97*
.68/2.35* 1.92* 1.08•
. )61 1, 4]& 1. 02&
.)91 1.52& 1.08&
. ~7· l.oJ]*
.53* 1.18•
-37* - . 12&
-39* -.I)&
....
.72&
· * 1.0)*
5].*
. 61* 2. "* 1,7J*
.68*2 . )5* 1.92*
48.•
5].*
.61*
.68•
]2 .+
Jlo,+
.36& 1.4]& 1.026
.)8& t.S2' 1,086
)2.+
.]6&
. ]8&
31o.+
252
T1ble 28. Pro11i.,.te Composition and Energy Conttmt of S01ne Coom10nly Used L;~~tin Americolll Feeds (C ont. )
Oigestlble Protein
lnterna-
E11try
,_
InternAtional
Feed Name
tlon1i
Feed
"'
'"
"'
'"
,..
04S
"'
"'
J-())-28)
AX().IOPUS CO MPRESSUS. Car petgrass, tropicll
-.erl1l Plr-t, fresh
2-QI-Jio\
-h•y. sun-cured
-h•y, sun-cured
H)l-1)8
-~rial
part with crowns, fresh
2~6lo9
..-oo-&69
OSJ
-pul pw i thmolu ses , aehydrated
~ -oo-1:172
OS2
BETA VU l GARIS t\ACROIIRHIZA. Beet , manQe l
-roots. fresh
4-0Q-6]7
BO[H"EIIIA NI\I[A, R•ie
-aerial part, fresh
2-Q}-859
5-(11-160
06)
06'
-•l lk. fresh
5-01-168
067
..,
lo-08-l]lo
I-Q2- 162
2-Dl-525
0/0
07'
072
,,,
07J
2.0+ 41. 6+ )] . 2+
2.2 +4 S.Z... 40 . 4•
'·'·'
1B.s
56.)
·'·'
44 . 9
4q,)
2].2
.B
.B
44,]
2].]
)0 .1
48.6
par t, fresh , odaturc
. ,.
2-Q]-523
1-QJ-517
·'·
] . 2•
~'I+
. )•
4.4+
. J•
..,
..'·', ,
).1
,..
tlo.)
15.6
2.,
..
...'·'
10.5
\.]*
"'
(')
.
·''.,
1.6•
S·l* 4,'Jt
1.)+
1.4+
1.8•
s.s•
8ufhlo
(')
\.)+
1.4+
1.8•
5-5*
6.0•
6. 4•
6.0•
..
.,.
1.0•
1.0•
1.0•
I. I*
1.1*
s.s• s.sa s.s• s.s•
,.
.B•
. ,.
. ..
.. ,. .... .....
8. 5+
5 . or.
].8·
lt.8•
'·'*
'·"
)
8.]+
2.]• 2.0. 1.9&
2.3+ 51.]+ 11 . 0+ 19.9+ 15 . 6• 11.&• 11.1& \1,26 11.2(.
--
) ,It+
,...
100.
9 · 7•
5.0•
"·
. &+6 1,1+ 15.2+
.6• &6.5+ 16.6+
5- 7• 9 - J •
&.2 + 10.1+
6.1 +
6.]+
6 . 0&
6.5&
6 . 1+
6.1+
(,.]•
"·
].]+
. ]+]0.5 +
,.......
6-7•
9 . 6+ 11.8+
''·
"·
•oo.
,..
•oo.
...
.8
'·'
9S.
"·
7-J
~to.5
5.2•45.~
5.6+ '-9-7•
26 .1o
28.2
"· ,...
2.0
2••
...
.J•
2. )
"·
2 ••
.s
•oo.
"· . ,
,,.
1}.1
1. ] •
).2
1].9
].9&
lt.8•
,_,.
4.1o.
B.c.
8 . 0&
8.2•
...
8. 2+
2.5*
2.1t•
2./ot
2.4*
.,. _,,
.,.
\].]* 1].]* 1).1*1].1 *
9.1• 31.7• 28 . 5-+ 28.51 28.cr 2s.cr
9 · 9+ )lt . lt+ ]0.9+ ]0 . 91 ]I. 3• ] \,] +
2\.lo
22.9
.
] , ] + ),\ + ) . 1; ].2 • ] . 2•
6 .2• 26 . 7• 25.1t• 25 ... 1 25.&• 25.6•
lo , J+
10 . 8
45 . )
5.J+
..
lo].O
·' '·'
'·'
.2
I, S+ ~t, . 5+ 29. I+
1. 7+ so . O+ J2.6 +
.
~.
s.s
s.,
... 2
7] , ]
7].1o
11.
'·' '·'
20.]
29.5 • ]7 . 6 •
"·
\00.
-hay, sun-cured
29.9
,...
Cilt-
Sheep Colt
(')
(')
lt . O+
4.4+
100 .
-aerlo~l
,_,
2).4
teln
s . &r.
6 . 2&
100.
BRACH I ARIA 11UTICA. Paragrass
-aer I ~d part. f r esh
(%)
.... .... ....
100 .
BOUT[LOUA SPP. Gr ama
-holy , s un -c ured
Pro-
Fiber Ash
(%)
(')
• 5+ 58 . S+ 18.2 +
.6+64.]+20.0+
100.
-whey, f resh
Crude
• 2•62.] +
. 1+ ]9 . 9+
100.
BOSTAL.JIUS. tattle
-butter•ilk, dehydrated
S-Dl-1&7
,.,
"·
,.
100 .
- ... Ilk. dehydreted
,..
(')
•oo .
100.
06•
062
06S
''·
100 .
-pulp, denydrollted
OS9
060
,.
(')
BETA VUlGARIS ALTISSIPU. Beet , sugar
os•
'"
''·
100.
oso
"'
OS/
JJ.
.oo .
AX(ltOf'US SPP. tlrpetgr•n
lt-oo-668
oss
os•
,.
100 .
,_, 1-121
Tot II
l'lltter t r act NFE
100 .
-11'1)\&sses, onore than loal inYertsugar
nore th&n 79.5 degrees b r ill
os•
Ether
l'l
A'J[NA SATIVA (Cont . )
"'
'"
,,, ,,_
,..
... '·'
11.9
\2 . 6
8 .4+
9 · 5•
s...
2. 8
,_,
] 1. 1
11.9
39 . 0
]6.'J
12.&
lo8.1o
51o . 6
28.1
] 1.6
/.S
2.8
•-s
6.2•
2. 2
2.0
,_
,
..,,_,
8.)•
8.7*
s.,.
1·'*
],\.
7· 5*
7· 5*
2. 1&
Lit
8.] •
1. 9&
2 . 2&
2. ~&
Lit
2.)&
1. ~ ·
1. 3*
l. lo*
5- 7•
s . J•
1.2*
5 ....
s . o•
.J•
.J•
,,.
s.s•
1.2 *
2.]&
l.lo•
s.a•
1.2•
s.&•
... .s• ....s•
.s•
5- 6•
.6•
253
Energy f or Sheep
Energy for Goats
Feed
EntryDE
ME
TON
(Hc:&l ( Meal
/ kg ) /kg) (t)
ber
039
040
Unit
DE
(FU
/kg)
(Hea l (l'lcal
/ kg ) / kg) (t)
/'\[
TON
Energy for C<tttle
Feed
Unit
(F U
/kg)
Energy f or Bufhlo
Feed
DE
/'\[
N£ 111
NE g
U£ 1
TON
(Meal ( Hc .. l (l'lc al (l'lcal (Meal
/kg) /kg) /kliJ) /k g ) /kg)(%)
2. 5 ) +2 . 14&
~lo. +
.]6&2.5312.141
,.,.,,
2.]1. + 2,)2&
4] . +
.82& 2. ]S..j2 .)21
~/./
-761 2.1 1& l. ] h
-95*
. 8212-29& 1.86+ I . Oio*
. ]8•
21.*
21.1
. 281
63 -1
1'1[
TON
{Heal (Heal
/kg) / kg ) (t)
/kg)
loS...
.61& 2. 11& 1.72 +
48.+
. 61&
. 60& 2.29& 1.86+
52. +
.66&
.2]•
, 46 •
21. *
21.*
. Blot 2. 75" 2.Jl* 1.39*
. 81•
),Iolli
62.•
..,
.8 )•2 . 75* 2. J3*
52. *
. 60• 2.o8• 1.69 •
-66• 2.2 8• l.B S•
41.•
loS. •
10.1;
61.&
.!lot;
.,.,.
....
z. Bo• z.JB• 6) . •
0"
O"
2. 18• 1.79* lo9. *
2. ]9* 1.97* )4. •
.6) * 2. 181 1.]91
. 7()112.391 1. 971
49.1
)4. 1
.6]1 2. 08• 1. 69*
. ]01 2. 28* !. 85* 1.03*
.43• l,Qh
1.15*
O'S
0"
1.88• 1,49•
2.05• 1.62•
4).•
lo t.. •
- 53• 1. 881 '·"9'
-57• 1.0)1 1.6 21
~3-1
46.1
,)]11.81* l.lo2•
- 571 1.97• 1. ) /o*
.n•
.2h
.98•
11. +
67. +
.]96. .23*
. 151
. 891 2./1& 2.28& 1.1s•
.I]+
.21o&
,lo)&
2.51L
Feed
Un it
{FU
DE
52 .+
.28• .921 . ]81
. Bio* 1 . 801 2. 381
.sot
{FU
/kg)
,It)& 1.06&
. II]& 1. 15£
0"
042
.92*
Unit
·11*
..... ...a.
.72*
.]8•
....
.,.,.
• 27*
4].•
.
.
. 7]*
.2]*
.. ....
62 . •
.8)•
)2 . *
. 66•
.so• 1. 8 1• 1. t.2•
.ss• 1.97• 1.5 ...
t. J. •
t.s. •
. so•
. ss•
....
10.&
6 1.&
, ll. t;
. 81&
.. ,
0'7
0"
2.'~]1;
. IS& . SOl .lo]j
.891; 2.9]12 -51 1
11.1
67 -1
o,,
oso
2.66& 2.)3&
], t.l & ].00&
60 . + . 8]L 2. 661 2.331
77 -+ 1.06& ] . 411 ) . 001
60.1
.831 2.61& 2.29+ 1.42* l.Oio & 1.4]&
77 -1 1.061 ] . ]6L 2. 9t.+ 1. 82* 1.]3 & 1,8)t;
62 . + . 81& 2. 6u 2.29+ 62 . + . 81&
80 . + I.Oio& ] . ]6L 2. 94+ 80 .+ l.Oiot;
OSI
052
2.96& 2.S8&
3. 26L 2.84&
67.+
-92 & 2- 961 2. 581
1. 0 1& ).261 2.841
6]./ -9212.81& 2.4] + 1.'-9* 1.0)& !.SSE.
]lo . / 1. 0 11 ] .1 0& 2.68+ 1. 64• 1,14& I.]OL
68. +
OSJ
OS'
) . 1\& 2.]3&
3- 39& 2.98&
7J,+
-97&] . 11f2 . 7J1
n.+ 1.06& ) . )91 2.981
- 971 3. 00& 2. 61& 1.61• 1. 04+ 1.55&
77- 1 1.061 ) . 26& 2. 85& 1. 76* l . llo+ 1,69&
&8 . +
oss
056
-39& . JS&
3 - 59& ].I]&
057
058
. L9* .1.1 * 11.*
2.68* 2. 26• 61.•
) .66& 3.28&
]4,+
,..
8 1. t
.12&
1.1 ~ '
- 391 -351
J-591 1.n,
.IS* • 491 ,loll
.80* 2. 681 2.261
8] . + 1.16& 3.661 ].281
. 7.. 1.]8L
]1.1
,.,
. 12/ . )8& .3}& . 21* . 14&
81.t 1.1)1 !. 4)& 3.02& 1.98• 1.24S
II. I
61.1
.lSI
.lo8 •
, 41•
.24•
. 801 2-67* 2.2)* 1.3)*
.20&
.)96.
2./1& 2.28&
, S(,t; 2. 81& 2.4) + 68.+
-95& ) . 10& 2.&8+ ]4.+
] 4. +
.86&
-9S&
-93& ) .00& 2.61& 68. + .9]&
]4. + 1.0 1& ).26& 2.85& ] lo . + 1.01&
,.
!,]<)&
]B. +
,I I.* . 25*
-75• 1.36*
" ·*
6 1. •
8).1 1.161 ) . 2]& 2.8h 1.77* I.)U 1. 8]&
. 8 1~;
,12& . )8 & .))&
1.07& ].4)t ].02&
..
,..
.....
_,
,ltl * 11 . *
.8()11 2.67* 2.25* 61.•
81.+ 1. 0 1& ). 2)& 2.8lo+
. 12&
]8 . + 1.{1]&
.tb
.So•
059
o6o
J ,CJ6, 1.sss. 90 .... 1. 26s J-961 J.S51 90., 1.261 J.so' J . o8· 1. 92• 1.43& 2.03, sa •• 1.09, J.sos J . o8·
061
06 2
5.06& t..69& 115.• 1.66& 5-061 lo.69, 115 -1 1.661 lo . ]l.& lt . }]& 2.]5* 1.99& 2.S2 & 108.+ 1.55& 4.]4& I, ,]] & 108. + 1.55&
5.41& S.OI& 12J , + 1.]8& ).411 5. 011 123.1 1. ]81 5-07& &..67& 2.95• 2. 12& 2.70& li S. + 1.661 S.O]& 4. 67& li S. • 1.66&
8 1.+ 1.01&
8a . • 1.09&
063
06t.
.69& .65& 16,+ . 2]& -691 . 651 16 . / . 2]1 - 71+ .66& .42* .30& . lo(l& 16 . + .21o& -71+ . 66& 16.+ . 24&
5.62& 5.22s. 127.• 1.85& 5.621 5.221 12 7. 1 1. 851 5-75• 5.36& J,J7* 2. 46& 3.22& 12 9. + 1.90& S-7S• 5.)6& 129.+ 1.906
065
o66
).55* ) .1 6*
J , 75* J-3~*
067
068
1.7 u; 1. 33& 39. +
1.92& 1.49& ~.~ .•
.147& 1. 111 1. 331
-53& 1.921 1. 491
39 . 1
41,. 1
. 471 2.00& 1.62& .89•
-531 2. 21.t; 1.81& 1.00*
.Ita& 1. 00 & 45 . & -S7& 2. oo s 1.62 & I.S .&
.loS& 1.1 36 51. & .64& 2.2 4& 1.8 "
51.&
069
.61* .51*
2-57* 2. 1411
14.•
sa.•
.18 * .61 1 .511
.]6*2 .5712 . 141
14,,
sa . ,
.181
-59 * .49 • .28•
.761 2.t.B• 2.0S* 1.18•
.62• 1. 26* 56-*
071
072
.sh • ~4 fl
2.l.o )* 2.01 *
12. *
ss.•
.16• . s .. ,
. ]1* 2.lt3# 2.011
12.1
SS -1
.161 -51 * .41• .2)*
-lll 2.)0* 1.87* \ , Qh
.11* .26 *
. 49* 1.16*
52. *
11. •
Oil
07'
2.01* 1. 6)•
2.26* 1.8)•
45 . *
51.•
.sa• 2. 011 1.611
.6)* 2.261 1.83/
~S - 1
. sa, 1.96* 1.59•
.65/2. 21* 1.]9•
. 87•
.98•
. )8*
,It)* I. II *
loS. *
so . •
070
8 1. • 1.12* 3-551 ) . 161
as . • 1.18• J-751 J,Jiol
....,
81. 1 1.121 ) .25• 2.86• 1.78* 1.18* 1.69*
as., , 181 J -""* J.0 2* 1.88• 1. 21o• 1. 79*
51-1
. IS*
,)Ofl
.,.
7~ - · 1. 01 * 3. 25* 2.86•
78. • 1. 07• 3.44• 3.o2•
1) . *
74. • 1. 01*
78. • 1. 07•
- 57&
.64&
1) , 11
56.*
. 17*
- 73*
. IS* .51 * ... 1.
. 66• 2.3()11 1.87*
II . *
52.*
.IS•
. 66*
-56 * 1.96* 1.59•
-63*2.21* 1. 79*
45. *
so.•
.6)*
. 17* . 59* .49*
. ]3* 2.48• 2.05*
.56 •
254
Table28. Proll lfl'late COIIIJIO<J ition and Energy Content o f Some COII'P.IOnly Used LUin Ameri can Feeds (Cont.)
Di gest ibl e Prote i n
·075
0)6
077
078
,._
In t ern atlon1l
o,
Internat ional
Feed
tt.tter tr Kt NFE
Feed "' ame
NI&'!Ger
Entry
liRACHIARIAJ'1UT ICA . (Cont.)
-leaves, sut'l-cured
1-IJ-425
"' "'
"·
"· ..·•
100 .
- stems, sun-cured
1-IJ-~21o
Toud
Ether
1.5
1.7
100.
Crude
Fibe r Ash
Protein
(~)
"' "' "'
41 .0
lolo.lo
28.8
tilSheep Coat
<tl
ltl
llufhlo
"'"' '"
1] . 1
llo.2
8.0
8.6
1o .o•
4 . 2•
lo, l *
)1.1
lo. )*
4. 6•
4.1,•
)8.8
39-1
q. 8
42.3
10.6
u
'·'
·''
.5•
.5•
42 . 0
. J•
. J•
"·'*
l,,lo•
... ...
·5'
IIIIASSICANAPUS. Rape
"'
-seeds, lftel l solvent e11tracted
080
s-oJ-87'
91.
100.
IIR[ VOOJITIA TYIIAHNUS. F i sh, menhaden
081
08l
..,
...
..,
--•• mechanical eJttracted
s-o2-o09
2-(IQ-957
OS<
085
oqo
BROMUS SPP. Brome
-aer ial part , fresh
2-oo-goo
2-QJ-715
- hay, sun-cu red
1-D9-7I.o )
S-OJ-716
CAL M~AGROST
095
..."'
"'
IS INTE RttEO lA . Reedgrus. lnter ..edla
-aerial part, fres h
2-1 I-QI2
-hay , SUf'l-(;urea
1-1\-(11]
CAl.lttAGROSTtS VIC LNARUtt. lleedgrau, YlcunlrUIII
1-11-Qll
-hay, sun-(;ured
CA RTHA/1 US TUICTORIUS. Safflower
-seeds
lo-07-958
100
101
10l
10 )
10<
105
106
107
1o8
109
110
s-o1o-109
-seeds,lllf!al so l11 en t
e>~tracted
s-ot.-11o
. 9+ 19.1• 61.1+ 1,CJ,S+ '-9·51
1.0. 20.1)+ 66.7• 54.0+ Slo . OI
··5
-leaves , fresh
2-1o-1on
2- Jo-lo]8
].I*
1]. 9*
5.,
4 . S* ~. 3* ~. 3* l.o.]*
1) . 2* 12 . 8• 12 . 7* 12. 7*
22.1o
17.4
100 .
...
1. 5
5.6 ]2.&
10.6
]8.5
1. 6
5.8
17 . 1.o
100.
).1
).5
27.2
)O .Io
'-'
16.0
88.
1. 5 SJ.7
100.
&1.0
8.<
•·5
<.1
'-7
20.}
2].1
1.8
5. '
''·
5.1
.,
"· .,
11. 8
...
)7.4
l.o1. 8
100.
1. 8 ) 6 . 1
11 . 6
)2 . /o
,00 .
1.6 1.8.6
1.8 Slo.O
]0 . 2
J].6
...
... .. ,
20.1
... ,..
~<j .
/.5
...'·'
"·
Jlo.8
l1 · S
21.]
2] . 0
19 . 2
20 . 6
J. J
).6
5·'
5.8
20.1
22. 0
U . lo
46.S
'·'
'·'
<.8
"·
,. .,.... ,,......
.,
.,
''·
1.0
1.1
24 . 2
26 . 2
l) .
100.
).l
100.
'·'
') .8 • 10.]* 9-7 111 9.7 ..
10.9* 11.5* 10.8• 10.8•
.... ,
)9 . 0
l.o2 . 2
.h
'·'
.5•
1.]*
... .,. .,.
.)•
1.8•
,.,
J .•
1).)
1.q
91.
ll.o . ]
)I,\
100 .
).0• J .O•
\],J* 1].)*
).6• J.s• ) .5 * ).)111
1].2• 12.8• 12.7* 12.7*
6.5
,.1
28 . )
].0*
I} . ~·
'-'
~-"
5.9
2
Slo.O
-
'-'
20. )
.,
)5 . 8
\ 00 .
CECROPIA SPP. Pumpwood
-aerial part, fre sh
J. l
] ~. 8
''·
100.
5-o1- 162
8.1
loO.)+
18 . 1
100.
CAS[ IN
-.cld precipitated dehydrated
.,
).1
1...
]6 .S...
].lo~
14.2
100.
-se eds , me•l mech;anlca1 e><tr acted
.... ...
10.5•
6 .]+
28 . 8
100 .
CAJANUS CAJAN , Pigeonpea
-aerial par t , f r esh
091
09l
"'
"'
"'
l) .
100.
o88
089
''·
100.
8ROJ'1US INERKIS, !rome, SIIIOOlh
-.er ial part. fresh . u.rly b loom
1.6+ )] ,9f- 1 1 .9+
1.8+ ]7,2+ I) . I+
tlo.2
\C), )
2 1.1
1.8*
·'' ·''
·'' ·''
2.1*
2.9•
2. 9•
}.2•
2.8111
),\It
2.8•
).1111
IO.Io 111 IO,h C) . ]• 9 . )*
11 . 2* 11.2* 10 . 0* IO.o-.
16 . 0
17-5
16 . 0t ll.o . ]+ 1l.o,]+
'7·51 16.1• 16.1•
2) , )
25 . 2
2. 2• 81..0+ 81. S+ 81.51
2.4• 92-7+ 89 - 9+ 89.91
-
10 .1
lolo. 6
5.8
l. J
J. J
25.6
10 .1
16.11
2 . 8• 2.7• 2.7• 2.7•
12.]* 11.9* 11.8• \1 , 8*
Jt. . s
s o.&
20.7
5· '
'·'
18 . 6
5·'
11.1*
) . C)• 3 - 9*
14.]• 1],9111 1].]111 1].7*
'·'
lo.o•
257
El'ergy for Sheep
"'
Entry DC
TON
N - (f'lc:al (~'cot I
/kg) /kg) (%)
Ill
'"
Ill
'"
Ill
"'
Feed
"'
Unit
DE
(fU
/ kg )
(11cll (1'\ca l
/kg ) / kg)
....,
2.49• 2.0]*
57 . *
.16* .56,
.])• 2.491 2.071
2.07* 1.67*
2.2)* 1.81•
lo]. •
-59* 2-071
-56•
,46 •
,I, U
, J]*
2.46• 2.0}*
1] . *
51.•
.6·"*'
10. •
.1) 11
56 . •
1.6]1
2.2)1 1.811
·""'
. 371
-72 * 2. lo61 2.0)1
117
118
2.9u. 2.52'
) .15' 2.74'
....
119
120
) . 52*).1)*
J.n• J . J ••
so. • 1.11 * J . S2# 3.131
81o.• 1.17* ).]2/ ] . )11
121
. 86• . ]1'
2.65* 2.2]*
19.*
60 . *
.26•
. ]11
-79*2 .65#2.231
1. 10*
1.21 *
]lo.•
. ]9* 1.491 1.101
.lo J• 1. 61oJ 1.2 11
"'
'"
]2.
~
Energy ror Buffalo
Energy tor Cattle
Energy for C.O.ttl
reed
TON
1>1
I J .J
57-1
Unit
(fU
/ ll.g )
"'
.1 61 -52 * .It) * .24 •
-731 2.}3• 1.90* 1.06•
, \lit
. 26•
-51 *
1.1]*
• 4) * 1.06*
...,
....
.641 2. 2]* \,81, • 1.02*
10 . 1
.I)J
12 -1
"''
- 59J' 2.10*1.11*
·"'*
, Jh .1 9*
-711 2.19* 1. 86• 1.0)•
,ScJ, 2.911 2.521 66./ .ScJI 2.61£ 2.2h
-974 ].151 2.741
"'"
'-7·1
51-1
56./
"'I
TON
DE
(J"cil (Kc.al ("<:al (1\cal ( 11C:I l
/k g ) /k g ) / kg ) / kg) /kg) (')
l.]h
·971 2.8)£ 2.41 • !.loS•
.It]* 1.14•
.....
19./
....
DE
(fU
(r"al
/kg)
/kg)
"'
...
,
TON
Unit
(fU
1>1
/lt.Q)
(f1c:~d
/kg)
12. • .IS* .52* ,I. )•
53 -* .6 ]•2.}3* 1.90*
53- *
.IS *
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.61*1.10* 1.71 *
- &5*2.27* 1.8U
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.9)+ 1.61&
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80./1.111 ).32* 2.'H* 1.83* 1.22* 1. 13*
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Feed
Unit
9.•
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8o.• 1.10* ).51* ].10*
....
75-* 1.04•
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· 191 2.5h 2.11* 1.21•
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19. •
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.)5* .98•
.]9* 1.08•
loS. *
49. •
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lo5 ,11
log. •
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11)
l.lo9
!.M
121
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] .91 * ).SO* 89. • 1.24• ].91/] . 501
81.1 1,\lof ].J2*l.9h !.Slot 1.2 .. . 1.73*
89.# 1. 241 ).&2* ) . 11* l . OI * 1.)5' 1.89*
75·* I.Qio t ].J2 * 2.9iolt
82 . • 1.1lo* ] . 62* ].2 1•
75· * I.Oio•
82.• \,14•
127
128
] ,14* 2.77* ]1 . •
].52* ].II* 80.*
-98• ] .lilt 2. 771
] . 52/] . 111
71.1 . 981 }.0)* 1.66• 1.65• 1.09• 1. 58•
80./ 1.101 ].loO* 2. 91!• 1.85* 1.22* 1.7 !*
69. •
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1.oo• J.40* a.ga•
69.•
]7.* 1.06•
129
1)0
2.26£ l.ga&
j.]6' 2.94£
Sl.• . ]0£ 2.261 :.98/
76.•1.0"' ).]61 2.9lo/
51.1 . 701 2.1]' 1.... 1.17 * .8]& 1.15£
]b .J 1.04/ ] . 22£ 2.81· l.Jl * 1.23£ \.]\£
so ... • 67' 2.1]& 1....
75 . + 1.00£ ).22' 2.81+
so ... .6]&
75 · • 1.00&
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)7.•
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2. 10* 1.]1•
2.29* \,8]•
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,,,
2.98• 2. sa•
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-97* ].151 2·731
IJI
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2.S7* 2.IIo*
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....
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'-9·1
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. so•
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. sg• ,49•
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• 24•
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sa.•
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sa.•
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258
hble 28. Prolllmne: Coonposition and Energy Content of SOIIW: Ccrmonly Used Lilt in lmerican Feeds {Cont. )
Oigestltlle Protein
Entry
tlon•l
Internal ion •!
Feed
FeedNa.r.e
tlurober
Toul
Pro-
Ether
Intern,_
'"
··-
,..tter tract
")
(')
Cr ucJe
"'
(*1
Fiber
(')
C•t-
Sheep Colt
''"
(t)
m m m (I) "•
Buff1\0
teil'l
(')
CROTA.LARIA SPP. Crotill.aria
"7
"a
-aerial
"9
150
-aeri1l part, fresh, milk stage
p;~rt,
fresh
2-Q\~80
Hll-679
'-'
2.5
'-'
20 .
.)
a.)
100.
).5
4),)
10.)
12.)
20.6
2b.
100 .
·5
2.1
9-'
7-9
1.7
•• 2
...
).2*
) . 2•
] . 1*
s.o•
"·9* 4.8• lo.B•
19.6' 19.1* 18.5• 18.so
36 . 1)
]O.S
16.1
loS.Io
]1.8
!lo . 6
lo].lo
a.,
2].5
a.,
).a
1.9
12.0
loi.O
2].]
12.)
.a
12.2
9-7
2.)
2.7
\.] *
2.a
I,),~
)~ .
9- 5
9. 7
6.0•
1.6*
s.&*
11.]
.8
n .8
2.0*
J.s•
'·9"'
].0"'
2lo.J
} . 1*
16.2* IS.S* IS.Io tt !S,t.ut
t 'I'NOOON 01,CTVLON . ISe,..,udagrus
151
152
-aer ial part, fresh
2-o0-]\2
)) .
\00.
2.)
15)
-..erlll plrt, fresh. l•tevegetative
1-10-1 )1
)1.
·1
-aer i al piirt , fresh, early bloom
2-DCHOl
100.
15'
155
15b
157
158
159
1bD
1b1
1b2
1b)
1.,
100.
C'I'NOOON PLECTOSTAC.HYUS. Stargrass
-aeria l part, fresh
CYNOOON SPP. Oogtoothgrass
-acriill piirt, fresh, early vegetative
2-o9-730
2-IG-232
OAC.TYLISC LOM(RATA. Or c:ha rdgrass
-aerial part, fresh
2-1]-92~
2-0l-~51
-ae r ial part, rresn , •idbloono, c:u t 1
2-lo-486
1b7
loa
-hay, su,-c.ured
1-Q]-Io]8
111
172
17J
17'
28.
100.
2) .
100.
C.YP(RUS FLAVE.SC.ENS. f1atsedge , fl aveseens
-aerial part. fresh, midbloom
1b5
1bb
1b9
170
)1.
DAUC.US SPP, Ca r rot
-roots, fresh
l.-01-1~5
'"'..
...·'
OlbiTARIA OEC.UteEHS. Pangolag r an
- aerial part , fresh
s
9-2
).0
a.9
1.6•
a.•
s.o•
1.5* '·7*
lo.S• 5.2•
S.2 *
;.2
).9
2.7 •
10.}
12 . 6
2.5•
S.J•
2.6•
8.6•
2.6•
8.6*
'·'
2.1
t.) •
1. 2*
1. 3*
1. 3*
10.2
6 . s•
6.1*
6 .6•
6.0•
1.8•
6.6•
1.7•
6 . 2•
1.8•
6.] •
1.8•
6.]•
1.8•
6 . ]*
1.7 •
S·9*
1.8•
6. lo •
6 . 4•
9.1
• .a
3),)
2. )
2.a
100.
2.2
50.4
2].2
9-9
10.)
111. 8
51.6
7-9
2.0
2] ./o
). 1
2.9
100.
1.1
].9
10.0
31·':1
l.oO.I
2] . ..
24 . 8
12 . }
18.0
19.1
2).
9' ·
100.
"·
2) .
15.
100.
.
2. 8
2. 9
"·
13.7
.2• 8.1+
1.]+ ]0.] +
..
7-'
1,1+
g,S +
10. 0
1) . 0
....
26.0
··'
1 ••
). 1
·' ··'
] .0
1.)
a.9
2.a
1.2.8
19.]
.a
9. 7
•.5
100.
).)
1, 1,,1,
]0 . 0
5' ·
100.
1.9
J.'
22 . 8
11 2 . 0
18 .6
J lo. ]
10 . 8
179
180
-hay, sun-cured
1-D9-IIS9
88.
2. 1 1.2 . 2
)0.0
]lo .O
181
182
-heilldS,
1-1]-lo]lo
JS . J
sur~-cured
100.
2.,
~7 .g
100 .
1.)
1.,
"'·'
u.o
...
]8.;
1.2+
a . -. 1o.o..
1.2 . 9
9.a
1.7*
6.1 •
J .1
1,1,,2
...
1.7•
6.1*
11.2
.s
2- IG-Io<J9
1/a
~
2-'
2-ID-497
2-QJ-Io9J
7.
'"'
1,,1 * lo.O• ].9* ].9*
I),)* 12.9* 12.8• 12 .8*
2. 9
J-0]-1.95
177
I
8.]•
'·7*
10 . ]
-a.eriilll piirt . silillge
175
17b
2.a
2 1.
2.7
-leaves, fresh
~2
10 . 5
100.
100 .
DESMOOIUl"'' SPP. Tlckclover
-aerial pirt, fresh
.a
2.2
u
,.t.•
2.0•
J.U
1.8•
12.9• lj.6• 12.7• 12 . ]*
1).7* 14, ~ · IJ.S* 13 . 5*
....
. )t
.. ...
.
].] +
6.11,
;.2,
s.u
) . t. •
).]•
].]*
) .] *
l'j.]
15.0* 11. . 6• II. . )* II..)•
).9
).2• ) . I • ) . 0* ).0•
21.1 *20.]• 19 . 9 * 19 .9*
25·':1
2. 5
II , ]
5. 9
2.0•
1.2
5••
1. 6*
1.9
1.9
]. lo t.
a. )
a.)
2.6~~"
2.6 •
4 . 8•
2.6•
11.8 •
2.6•
~. 8'
2.6•
].0•
2.9•
2.9•
1.0•
1.1 •
1.2•
1.1•
1 . 2•
5-1
9·'
4.8 •
7-9
a.9
•. o
2 . 4•
· ·9
l . J•
10 . 2
'·5
'·9
· 9'
1.0*
2.5*
. ,.
z.s•
259
Ene rgy f o r
Shee p
Entry DE
N,_
"'
( Meal ( l'lcill
/ kCJ )
/ kg )
TON
m
"'"'
"'
-59 " .51 * 1) . •
2.'H* 2.55* 67. •
ISO
) . 19* 2. 77•
19. •
/2. *
l SI
151
. 8] • -73 *
2.6 )* 2.21 *
. 31 •
TON
Feed
Un i t
/k g )
.18•
DE
"
( r\c a l ( Mc a l
/ kg ) / kg)
(t)
( FU
/ kg )
/ kg )
/ kg )
/ kg )
.,..
. 181
/ kg )
/ kCjl )
• JO•
- 59*
.901 2-93* 2.51 * 1.52*
. )0 *
1}. •
.92 * 1.51 *
66. •
!) . *
.18• -59 ..
.89• 2.9)•2 .51 * 66. •
'9-l
12-1
-25 *
- 97* 1.Sio*
·"''
\]. •
.2h
-98* ) . 191 2- 171
. 251 - 77*
-981 2. 99• 2. 57* 1-57•
68. •
.91 * 2.99* 2.5]* 68. •
. 26 • .871 -131
. }8• 2.6 ]#2.211
20 .1
60.1
.261
60. •
.26 * .]It; . sa&
. 8)t 2. )1& 1.88&
16.& .21& .8}* .}0* , loU
52 . & .6 ]& 2. 70* 1.1 ]* 1. ) 5*
.2]• .891 .]61
. 8 ]• 2.88t2 . lo5t
65 - 1
20 . *
.89 * .]6*
2.sa• 2.1os•
20 . •
65. •
ISJ
. ]2 * .60 ~
2.56* l . lh
16. ~
. ll :t
sa. •
. ]6:11 2. 56#2 . \l.t
sa.,
ISO
160
. 7):11 . 61*
2. 67 * 2.2511
1}, 11
.22 * -731 . 611
.8011 2.671 2.251
1] . f
61. •
61.1
16 1
162
.Sio• . loS *
2. 62 * 2.19*
12 . •
59. •
.16*
\2 ./
163
I"
16S
166
-77* . 65*
1 . ]0* 2.2B•
. ]2j
. 601
20-1
16.#
.... ....
....
-2 5"
.1/* 2.58• 2. 16•
19. *
59- *
. 77"
19. •
61.*
.25*
.81 .:.
. 8)* .]011 ,lot •
. 8}1 2. 69* 2. 2}11 J. ]h
.211* .42 •
·77* !.38*
19. *
61. *
.25 * .8) 11 .]0*
.80* 2.69* 2.2/11
19. *
61. •
.So•
. 3~ "
.18* .)6*
.61oft I. 28ft
16, :11
57-•
.21 *
. ] 61 2. 51* 2. 09* I. 21 ft
·71 * . 59 * 16. •
2. 51 * 2.09* 57- •
.21 *
. 7~ ·
. 22,
-5 7• .n•
.sor 2. 5011 2.0 7• 1.20*
.I]* .)5 * IS. •
.6)* 1.2}fl 57-*
.20•
,])11 2. 50*
. 57 •
2.07*
IS. *
57- 11
. 20*
.161 .52 * .4 ]* .25 11
. 7812-53* 2. 11 * 1.22 *
,I) * .26*
.66• 1.29*
.IS * .52* ,lo)•
-75* 2.5 ]* 2.11 *
12. •
57 · *
.I S*
.]5*
.27/
.211
-71 *
.s9•
·"'
62.#
. 221 .])*
. 811 2.68°
. 2) •
-171 .6St
.81 • 2.]0#2.281
l B./
61.1
167
168
2.4 1* 2.01 * ss .•
2.56• 2.1 3* sa. •
. ] 1* 2. lolt 2.011
.J&• 2.S612.1Ji
ss . ,
sa .,
. ] II 2.4011 2.00* 1. 16*
.76#2.54-:t 2.12* 1.2)11
169
170
,44& . ]9&
] . 82& ] .4 0&
10.+ .llo& .41o1 .]91
8] . • 1. 21& }. 821 ) .loOi
a,.,
16. •
69 . •
16./
69- l
. 2)*
.llo *
.n•
,lol, :t
·"'
. 25*
. ]) 1<
. &2•
.)6 *
. 21*
. ]] *
!. ) It"
. ]6"
1.)7*
61. •
. 62 •
2.68• 2. ~6·
.,..
• 22*
. So•
.lo1 :11
!.lolo•
18. •
61o. •
....
61. •
.24 •
.24 • .81 •
.as• z. B1 :11 2. 19•
lB.•
61o . •
.llo •
. 8s•
.6]* 1.22 * 54. •
. 67* 1.29* 58 . •
,]1 * 2.40 • 2.00 •
.J5* 2.Sio• 2.12 •
54.•
58. •
-75 *
.as•
,!lot .lo2& • ]]& .2] * .16• .22&
1.21# ) .62& ] .20&2.00* 1.)5+ 1. 89&
·"'
....
. 211
. ]5*
.9) 1 2.95* 2.53* 1.53*
15.•
67 . •
. 21*
.')0*
it. •
.IS*
-98*
. 57 * . loB•
2.61 * 2. 191\
\), *
59 -*
. I] * - 511 .loBI
. ]8• 2.611 2. 1'Ji
1] . /
59 ·1
.7813.01
177
1]8
l,Jio* 1,1111
2.47• 2.0io6
)0. •
56. •
.)'}* 1.]41 1.111
. 7J• 2.4]1 2.041
)0.#
56- 1
.)91 1. ) 1* 1, o811 .62•
-131 2.1o2• 2. oo• 1, \ h
.sa•
179
180
:.o:• :. 6~ •
. SS -t 2.02 3 1.64t
.66• 2.291 I.BLI
1;6 . 1
2.29* 1.86•
lo6. •
52 . •
.sa, 2. 1)211 1. , 5• -~2 ·
2.29* 1.8 7• I.Oio•
....
181
IBl
1.9]* 1. 51o•
2.1 0* 1.68•
41,, 11
loB . •
-55* '-931 1.541
. 59* 2.101 1.681
.sst 1.87• 1.£.7•
-591 l . Oio• 1.6 111
. ]6*
.8}•
. I)&
·"' ·"'
175
176
. )lo 11
2.S9* 1. 58•
•··
82.+ 1.14&
. IS* .loB • .lo2 •
. 98* ).18• 2. ] 6*
"· * ·'5 * ·"91
75 , 11 1. 02* ] . 291 2.8]1
....
•··
.1]£ .loU .)7&
82 . + !.Jio& ] .62£ ] . 20&
.]1 *
. 21 *
. ')0* 2.95• 2.5 )*
. lo 2* . 26 * .16* .25 *
11.1 .151
75 -1 1.02/ ) .18• 2.76* 1.]0* 1.09* 1.65*
. 66
.n•
1\, 11
72 . •
. lo911 ,lo]*
) . 29* 2.87•
·"'
. 22*
. 22 * - 35* IS. *
.91o • 1. 52* 6] . •
) . 0)* 2.61 *
. '71
., . .so•
.25*
2.26"
17)
I J'
lo ~ , ,
loS. ,
12 . •
57- *
.,~ .
. ] 2*
.2)1 .81 • .69* ·"' *
. Bit 2.81 0 2. 39* 1.4) •
1]2
52 -l
. 2/oh
,C) IA
. 25 * .8] * .]0*
.81 * 2. /0* 2.2/*
18.•
61. *
,4)1
. 18 ft
. Sgtt
1') . •
61. •
59-1
.21 * ,]01 -601
. '}]* ].03/ 2. 611
.86•
.... ,,, ..
19 . •
59. •
.22 * .]51 . 6)1
.82• 2. ] 41 1-321
10 . /
.7] *
(FU
/kg )
. ~2*
1.]8•
.lo2 *
-75* .6)* I],*
2.71.' 2.32* 62.•
1].1
,JC) Ir
.
Unit
. 6')* 1. ) 1*
-11*
. ]81 2. 58* 2. 16* 1. 26*
. Slot .lost
. ]8• 2.621 2.191
. 60•
m
( Kcal
1 ) ./
ISS
IS'
. ]0 *
/kg)
( 11C i11
6]./
1-17* 2.)5*
1]1
/ kg)
,,
" "' ("
.,..
-5 11
-591
. 821
19. *
6).*
. ]2 •
"' "'"
TON
DE
NE g
N[ l
(I~•' { Me a l ( 111: 1 1 ( /'lea l ( Meal
Feed
Uni t
( FU
/ kg )
2.9]1 2. 551
·'"'
. 25 *
-111
IS J
15'
"'
. BS*
. ]I •
Un it
( FU
En eryy f o r 8uH 101 o
Eoe r gy f o r t•ttle
Energ y f o r Coats
Feed
]1. •
... .... "·
.21* .)J•
. 98* J.S2!:-
6] •
"·
. 20*
. 92* ) .01
.31*
30 . •
1.2 }*
ss. •
.]8 • \,)1 11 J.08:t
- 71 11 2.lo2• 2.00*
ss. •
,4) • 1. 02 *
.lo9• 1.16*
lo6, 11
52. •
.ss • 2. 02 • 1.65*
. 66• 2.29* 1.8]•
lo6.11
52 -*
·"'
.1]*
lo2, 11
46, 11
.52 * 1. 8]* 1,4] •
. 5J11 2.0io* 1.61 *
lo2 . •
lo6,11
-52 •
-57*
. 6] *
-93 *
.29* 1. 01 *
2-59*
6).
. 20 *
.92 *
)0 . •
. 38 •
. ] 1*
.66•
260
hllle28. P~oa i -ate (cw.~PQsitlon •nO Energy Content of SOI'I'Ie ton'IOnly Used L;nin Amer ic an feeds (Con t. )
Digest i ble Prote in
Intern a-
,_
Entry
tiona\
Feeo
lntern~~tlon• l
HM~e
OIGITARIA 0£tllfi8ENS . (Cont.)
-leaves , fresh
ISS
186
-leaves. sun-cured
187
188
-sten~s,
189
'"
191
192
193
19'
.
195
,
197
198
199
2DD
201
202
20]
'"
205
206
2-o9-595
1-13-loJS
sun-c ured
l-1]-lo]6
OIGITAAIA EAIANTHA. Fingergrass, woolly
-.crlilol part, fresh
2-1Q-481o
DIGITARIA LONCIFLOIU. Crabgrus, longiflor.a
-aerial part, fresh
2-11-061
DICITARIA ~A CROCLOSSA . Cr•ogrus. maeroglona
-aerial part. fr esh
1-11 -057
DICITARIA VALIDA. Crabgrus, vallda
-aer!al part. fresh
2-11-058
-h1y , sun-cured
1-11-06)
2-11-i.lo'J
2-D9-]03
1.1.2
44.s
"·
"·
2-17-~54
2-11 -158
1-1J-Io 38
2-D1-652
2-D2-il77
7· l
2. 2
J.D
12 . 5
1 . 1•
2.0•
2.0*
2.0•
8.6•
8.2•
a.s• a.s•
1. ~ ·
1.5*
6. 1•
LS*
6 . 1*
1.2 *
l.lo '"'
5.s•
s.s•
12.1
1
19.5
.6
'·'
].7
"· '·'
..
'·'
26.
18.
16 .
,,,
.
5.o
·1
'·'
..
'·'
11.5
7·8
~6.9
3 1.6
2.2
8. 9
2.7
3~
2.0*
1.2 *
2 . 4•
2,2 11
2.2•
2.4<>
2 .1o1il
.1 •
. ]•
.]•
'·' ·''
2.1
1.5*
9.6
s . 91ll
s.5*
2.2
8 .•
1.)*
s.J•
~.9 •
·''
·''
·'' ·''
',,,
·'
s. ~· s.o•
I.~ ·
1.]*
).6*
10. 6
11.5
7·2
1·8
) . )*
] .6•
J.s •
} . 8•
J . lo *
11.6
~lo . 5
10.5
1,,
5·5
1.6
6.1
2 . 7•
6.s
35 . 9
6. 9
42 . 1
~oo . s
s.•
'·7
19 . 9
'·'
'·'
1,6
•• 8
24.1
·1'
] .6
2 . 8•
19 . 8
I).~*
] .2
19.9
I.S*
].7•
l.U
1.5*
5.6•
3. ~ ·
3 ·7 *
.6•
.8•
.8•
2.]*
) . 1*
]. 1*
2 . ]* 2.7* 2.] *
1 S. 0* 1~. 7* 14 . 7•
2.5* 2.S*
15 . 5* 1).1*
2.4•
8t
I~.
2.U
1~.8 *
6. 8
6.•
2.1
36 . ~
]lo . ]
II.J
I).~
29 . 9
]1.6
"·9
11.6
1] .1
111.0
8 . 6*
9·' *
9.1*
9.6•
8.5•
9.0•
8.s•
]3.1
]6.2
1].2
18 . 8
6.6
1·'
2.8•
] .0*
).0•
) . )W
2.9*
] . 2•
L9*
) . 2•
14.6
J7.5
5. 1
],1
8.0
1.7*
4.5•
1.6•
1.8•
1).2
~o.o•
~ .
,.
1.8•
I,. ]*
21.}
]6 . 1
5.1
8.6
].0•
5.o•
2.]•
8.8
"·6*
].1*
5.2•
].I*
5.1•
"·
1.0
1.1
3) . 6
'·'
l lo.6
]6.}
] . 7 ]7.5
16 . i!
1. 5 U.q
.5
,,,
)~.6
1.1 *
5. 7•
10 . ~
J.5
].7
25 .
100.
,,,
11. 7
1. 1 *
5- 7•
.6
37·5
~
s
"·
"· ·•
1· '
1.0*
5 - 2*
s.t.•
)6.2
]9 .1
11.
~].
100.
]9,
1.9
]O,Io
36 . 1
]8 .2
100.
FESTUtA OOLICHOPHYLLA. Fescue, dollc:hophy I Ia
-aerial part, fresh
2-1D-919
37·5
~8.
100.
ERACAOST IS CUIVULA. lovegrass, weep ing
-aerial part. fresh
l ·7
.5
1.8
100.
EAAr.AOST 1S CHLOAOI'IELAS. Lovegrass. boer
-aerial part. fresh
s.8
6.]
6.7
7· 3
·1
].D
100.
-leaves. 1un-cured
11.1
12 . 0
] lo, (:,
100.
100.
afri c1n wo<~der
]2.)
]lo.9
100 .
2& .
BufflllO
'" "'
'" '"
1.1 *
. 5 10 .9
2.2 45.6
25 .
Cat-
1.8
•. 2
s .•
3 1.1
1.5 loS.7
1.6 49.6
1>1
...
9.1
lt.].]
2.2
100 .
DOLICHOS ~OUHGAI. Dollcnos . roungai
-aer ial part. fresll
209
liD
215
216
'" '"
'" '"
'·'
100.
OOLICt+OS LA!LAS. Oolicnos, hy.c:lntn
-aerial part, fresh
207
208
'"
·'
2. 1
100 .
OISSAHTHELIU" SPP . C.uallnig rau
-aer i al p~rt . fresh
1- li-JioS
21]
Fiber
9],
,,
100 .
ECHIHOCHLOA PQ.YSTACHYA . Cockspur.
-aerial part, fresh
Cruoe
100.
100.
-nay. sun-cured
211
212
19.
100.
Tolilll
Prote i n Sheep Goat
Ether
h1'\&tter tract lifE
It)
"' '"
feed
18]
18'
,,,
1).0
52 . 1
,,,
'·'
,,, .. , ,.
1. 1
) 5.9
5.6
2 .1 * 2.0* 2.0• 2.0•
11.]* 10.')* 11.0* 11.0•
.6•
.5•
2.211
1.8 11
'·"'
.7•
. 7•
2. ] * 2·7*
261
Energy for Sheep
·-'"
'"
,.
"' ""
C>l
EntryO£
( "<:al (1\t:al
/kg) /kg)
.so•
Energy for Buffalo
Energy f o r tntl e
Energy for CioUI
Feed
Unlt
(FU
/ kg )
" "' ""
Ctl
( MC•l ( Meal
/k g ) /kg)
(FU
/kg)
Feed
Feed
Feed
Unit
" "'
HE m
NE g
"' ""
( 1'1ca1 ( /'\ell (Mc • l ( "<:a l ( 11cal
/kg) / kg ) / kg) /kg) /kQ)
c•J
Urlit
(FU
/ kg )
" "' ""
C>l
( Meal (1'1c a1
/ kg ) /kg)
,lot •
,loq t
,llo •
.}&* 2.56* 2.11•*
''·*.•
sa
-57 * 2.00• 1.60*
.61 * 2.16* 1.]3•
1o5.c~o
"9· * .61•
. JB• 1. 01 * lo6 . •
so. •
. 58 • 2.02 * 1,6]*
. 6]* 2. 19* \.]]*
46.•
so.•
.sa•
.6 ]*
.n•
14 . •
oo . •
.19*
.64• -5"*
z.oo• 2.21o•
14. •
oo . •
.So•
.18 •
.n•
.]3*
\,JJ*
15. •
59. •
.19* .6h . §4•
. ]8•2.61• 2.19*
IS.•
59·*
.19•
. ]8•
.16•
.)2 •
14. •
.6) •
14.•
57.•
.19•
. ]4•
. 19*
-53 *
.]2* 2. 40• 2.0] *
15 . •
56.•
.19*
\,\lo ll
48. •
52.•
.61 *2 . 10 • 1.71 *
.66• 2. 28* 1.85•
48.•
52 . •
.6 1*
.66•
.16• .n•
.6)• 1.27*
IS. •
57.•
.19* .os• .s~t •
.7J* 2.50* 2.0]*
15.*
57-*
.7J•
,151 .51*
. 26•
.83/ 2. 8)• 2.lo1 * 1.45•
.16* .26•
.86• ! . loS•
12. •
64. •
,16* .51*
. 85• 2.83• 2.41 *
66.#
,loSt ,lolt .25*
.891 2. 94• 2.52 * 1.53*
.15* .25*
-93* 1.51 •
67. •
.89• 2.94• 2.52*
II.•
60. •
.IS* .SO# • ~21 .II./
-79* 2. 6St 2.2)/ 60 -1
.lSI .lo9 • . 1.1• .2lo *
- 7912 - 5&* 2.1/ot 1. 25*
2.00* J.(,O t
loS. •
2.16* 1. 73*
"9··
.57 * 2.00# 1.60#
. 61 * 2.161 1.131
4S.J
.. 9.#
. 571 2.00* 1.60•
.61Jl.16.. l.lJ*
'"
'"
'"
'"
2.0S* 1.&6•
2.2 ]* 1. Bo•
lo].•
lo].l
51. •
. 59* 2.0S# 1.66#
.64• 2.2)1 1.801
·591 2. 02* 1.6]•
. 641 2.19* \.]]*
.96•
.41 * 1.10*
.56*
2.76* 2.)4•
15. •
6J. •
.20 * .
15-1
.8]• 1.]61 2.)41 , 63·1
. 101 . 64* -S"* .]2*
.8)1 z.oo• 2.24• 1. ]2•
.18 •
-75• 1. ]6*
.04• . 54*
2 . 02• 2.2 0*
15.•
59. •
.19* .641 .541
.]8• 2.6212.201
15-1
59-I
.191 .04• .su .)2*
. ]812. 61* 2.19* 1.28•
15. •
2.6)* 2.20*
60. •
.20 *
.]8• 2.63# 2.201
IS . f
60 .#
.201 .OJ• .5 3* . ]0*
. ]81 2.51 * 2. 01)* 1.2 1•
. 611• 1.28* 57- •
. ]h 2.51 * 2.09*
.OJ • . so•
2-55• 2. 12 *
IS.•
sa. •
.... ....
....
.20* . 671
-75• 2- SSI 2.12;
15 . #
sa . ,
.101 . 64• .5]* .31 *
-75/2.46* 2.0]* 1.1/*
. 16* .])*
.60* 1. 25*
15. •
so. •
2 . 0] * 1.63*
2.20• 1.77*
46.•
so .•
.58 • 2.0)1 1.6]1
.6]• 2.201 '·771
40,,
so.,
-S812.10• 1.71 *
.6 ]1 2.28* 1.85• 1.02 •
1.06 *
.47•
. 64• -53 * Ill.•
2.46• 2.03* 56.•
.19* .041 -531
-72* 2.461 2.0]#
'" ·'
.191
56.#
.65• .s~o • ,]1*
. }21 2.so• 2.07• 1. 20•
201
202
.so- .4]•
2.77• 2.)5•
II,*
63.•
.15• -SOl . 4]1
.8 )• 2.J7t2.]51
6].#
"·'
203
20,
.48• .41•
2.9]11 2. 51*
II . *
66. •
,IS* . loBI
.89• 2.9]1 2.511
·"''
ll.f
.151
,,,
'"
,,,
''l
"s
"'
'"
'"
'"
""
....
.... ....
... ....
(FU
/kg)
. ]6• 1.00 * loS.•
.}8* 1. 08* loCJ.•
.1.211
2.&5* 2. 2]*
IBS
IBJ
Unit
51.1
.86 •
....
-93*
,I] *
.25 *
. 68•
1. ]1*
.... ·""*
......
1\, t
sa .•
.Bo•
.1 CJ*
-Sl *
....
.....
12 . •
64.•
.!lot
. }6•
-57*
.19*
.]1•
.19*
.16*
.as•
11. • .15 * ,48• ,41* " · * . IS*
67- *
.89*
205
206
.42•
2.70* 2. 28•
11 ••
01.•
.15* .SOl .loll
.81• 2. ]01 2.281
II. I
61.1
.lSI . 4]• .)9* .2] *
.8 11 2.52 * 2.10* 1.22*
.12 * . 2h
.65• 1.28•
11.•
57- •
. J9 * 11.•
,]411 2.52* 2.10* 57.•
·'"*
.]4•
207
208
2.25• 1.84•
2 . )}• 1.95•
51. •
54.•
.65•2 . 251 1.81oJ
. 69• 2.3]1 1.951
51. 1
54.,
.651 2. 29* 1.Sh 1.07*
. 6912 . 4211 1. 99• 1. 1311
.sa•
.5'-*1.16*
1.22•
52.•
ss. •
.67•2.29* 1.88•
.]1 *2. 42 • 1.9911
52.•
.6]•
. ]1*
209
2>0
'-75* 1.]6•
1.92* l.loCJ•
40.•
4].•
.48 •1. 751 1.)61
. 5]*1.921 1.491
40.#
43.f
,481 1.66• 1.26•
.5]1 1.81 • 1. ]8•
.10*
. 11*
.81 •
.89•
]8. •
41.•
.45• 1.66• 1.26*
.lo9* 1.81 • \,)8•
]8.•
41.•
.los•
.20• . 891 - 121
. 66• 2.281 1.851
10.1
52 -i
.261
- 7'* .)9 *
. 60/2.26• 1.8]• 1.01*
. 18• . 44•
,lo6• 1.1]*
20. •
51 . •
, ]\*
.25•
.65* 2.26* 1.83•
20 . •
51 . •
. 25 *
.65•
I.Sio/1.291
-78* 2.621 2. 201
35 -1
. 46, 1.46•1.21 * .]0*
.]81 2.4]t 2.05* 1. 18•
.)6 * .]h
.62* 1.26•
]].*
56.•
.4]• 1. 46 • 1.21 * n.•
·73· 2.4]• 2.05* 56. •
.4) *
S9-1
.20*
-79* 2.651 2.2)1
15.1
60.1
. 201
• ss • .n•
- 7912.6411' 2.22• 1.]1 •
,]4 •
.7J• 1.)5*
IS.•
60. •
.20•
-55*
-79* 2.6lt• 2.22•
.so•
. Sg•
"'
"'
2.28• 1.85•
20.•
52.•
"'
2"
I,Sio• 1.29*
2.62 • 2.20*
JS.•
59.•
2.65• 2. 13•
15.•
60.•
2>S
"'
• ]2•
.... ....
....
.... ....
....
....
-59•
.64•
,IS •
·'"*
. lo ]•
....
...
.
ss.•
15. •
60.•
.49•
.n•
. 20•
-79"'
262
hole 28 , Pro .. i.,.ate Conposition dna Enen01y Content of Some COO"Y"'nly Used Lat i n A"~erican f eeds (Con t. )
OLgestible Pr otein
·-..
Enc.ry
,
217
lnterno~t lonll
Feed
t-~ame
fESTUCA DOl ICHOPHVLLA . (Cont.)
-k:r ial pirt. fre sh , mature
Intern ationa\
f.:ea
o.,
Nuntler
{\)
2-10...918
J6 .
100.
118
Ether
··-
Crude
l'l atter trKt /Lr[
(\I
·'
1.0
(\I
Fiber
(\I
1}.)
IS-'J
48.1
lolo.J
C.LVCLNE f'tAX. Soytu:<On
"'
'"
1-<l'-558
-hay. sun--e;urea
"'
"'
"'
"'
'"
'"
"'
'"
"'
'"
ljl
"'
"'
"'
lJl
s-o4-6oo
-seeds, meal solvent e..:tr.cted
5-o4-6o4
-seeds .. i thout hulls , meal solvent
C.OSSYP!Uf'1 SPP . Co tton
-flour
5-<1 4-611
5-01-b\2
1-QI-599
-seeds , ground
5-01 6o8
"'
-ste<ns. sun-cureo, post r ipe
"~
5-<11-{.21
l- 13-691.o
HO
H[LIANTHUSANNUUS. Sun f lower , C()'I'IT!On
"'
"'
"'
'"
lo-IQ-101
HOROEUf'1 VULC.AAL hr 1ey
-aerial part, fre sh
2-QD-')11
-gr ain
~-OD-549
"7
- madt sproutS. dehyd r ated
5-0D-545
H8
"''"
'"
'"
lSI
2~1o
2-<19-407
LINUf'1 USITAf!SS\1'1~. Fli11t , COIIWIIOII
-seeds . meal ~hanical e~ttracteo
1.-0io- ]88
5-Q2-0io5
39 -0
)6 .2
(~)
.o•
...
IO . I t
9 - 5*
II . lo~ 10. ]"1>
9-S*
10. 7*
-.U
-.6 ~ -I.
9 -6•
10.8*
falo
1*
.o•
]}.I
JJ ,h 33-2#
s.s
31-3
)].t. ..
4],1)
3} . 0+ )] .01 ]6 . 7+ )6 . 7•
) .0
'·'
/.0
100.
2].8
] 0.]
s.8
1· 1
~2.9
40.8+ 40.81 40.~ + 40 . 5•
JJ . J
100 .
1,0
) 6.9
s.o
s.s
6 . 0 1.5.2
6 . 6 so.o
42 .1<- IoLII 40 .8+- '-O . S.
lo6 . 6• 46 . 6; 45. J.o. 1.5 . 1 ~
29 .5
j2 . ]
.6
.8
''·
6 . 0+ 2).0.
6.4.;. g,t, ~
... ...
"·
"·
1.6
4 1. 4
t.s .s
s.o
,, ,,,
8. 5
2.] •
2.5+
JC) . O
4] . 2
22 . 4+26 . 4• 18.2+
24.)•28.6+ I'J.S.
...
\.8
2 . 2•
2.5*
2.2 *
2.5*
1) . ] •
) .0
1].0
14.2
.8
18 . 9
20.8
59 - 1
64 . 9
p
8.1
•. 8
I.J
).0
J, J
16.5
18.1
41.6
1o 5. 1o
n .~
100 .
36 . 4
15.0
16.4
2].7
25.8
"·
J,l
16.4
56.0
21.S
'·' '·'
}.6
11.8
s.6
6. ]
] .0
'·'
1\,]
l.O
''·
1 . 3• ~4. S+ 15 . 0+
1.4• "7 - 5+ 16.0.
'·'
69 . )
77-3
14.0
44.]
10.5
100.
.s 27 -9
1.6 8],)
l.l
).8
,,
'·7 lob.]
8.0
J l.
Jl .
100.
·1
'·'
'·'
50.8
j] , ]
2.] *
2.5*
).S. 2}.6• \] . ')•1] . 51 14.1)+ llo.C)•
1}.]
14. 5
...
2 .1 •
2 . ]*
J.S+ 21.S. 16.h 16.11 1}.]+
' ·7
22.4
24.5
..
)) . 4+
6.4• Sb-~
6.8· 60.1 •
l.l
1.)
..
)3 . ~ ..
J7, 4J 3] .6+ 37 -6•
50.9
56.4
....,..
,,
100.
IP0f'10[A 8ATATAS. Sweetpotato
-tuben . fresh
'·'
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EntryO(
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Eoercrl' for tattle
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lable28. Proxionate ComPOsition and [nerqy Content of Some t ormoonly Used lnin American Feeds (Cont . )
Digestible Protein
lntcrnation1 l
O•y
lnte rn1 tional
feed
~tter
FeedN.,.,e
Nlllltler
l'l
El'ltry
b.-
,,_
Toni
Ether
tract NfE
1,)
1,)
Crude
fiber Ash
m
LINUM USITATISSIMUM, (Con t.)
255
256
257
258
,
-seeds, meal so l ven t extracted
l'tANIHOT ESCULENU. Cassava ,
-..criiill part, meal
5-o2-01o8
CD'IW'IOn
1-(19-652
-leaves, fre sh
2-ol-15]
261
262
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Hl-552
263
-peelings, Gehydrated
4-11•937
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- tubers , fresh
~- 09-~99
260
265
266
267
268
2"
,,"'
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273
,
,
sun-cUI'"ed
2-QD-177
2-0D-184
10 . 9
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2 . 8•)9.]+28 . 5·
100 .
11(LI NI 5 11 \NUTi fLOfiA . ~ l assesgrass
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1~9-lt56
2~o-lo8)
8.
Cl'!YZASATIVA. Rice
-br;Jn with germs
287
288
- br anwithgermswithhulls
289
290
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291
292
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2.2
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278
28>
282
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100 .
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Ener~y
f or Sheep
Energy for boau
feed
""
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EntryOE
(He: a I ( lie,. I
/ kg ) /k g )
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255
256
) . 161: 2. 78&
J . SOt. ) . 08&
257
258
2.)2 *
Unit
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( lie&! (/'\c..; I
/k g) / kg)
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Unit
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Eneer rn for Svfhlo
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Ill
Feed
Unit
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/ kg )
feed
0£
( Jo\c:a l (11c•1
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Unit
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( FU
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79 -+ 1. 09& 3- 50/ ) .08#
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259
260
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261
262
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267
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Table28. P r oxi~te (.oonpos i tion and Energy Content of SOllie tormoonly Used Ln i n A~~~eri c an feeds {Cont. )
Oi 'ileU ible Prote i n
EMry
,_
l nternatiooal
FeedlliloMe
Internetiona I
Feed
NUI!tler
ORVZA SA T IVo\. (Cont.)
1-QJ-925
293
29'
291
'"
'"
'"
297
,,, ,._
Panic...,.
-aerial part . fresh
2-ol-3'-5
Crude
P'latter tract NFE
(t)
(t)
(tl
"·
100.
PANICUI'ti'\AXI"lll1 · Gu i neo~~grass
-.erial part. fresh
,.
2 . 1 )4 .5
'·'
)8 . ]
Fiber Ash
(t)
(t)
31.7 15 . 8
35 - 7 1].]
51,111-cured
2-Q)-Io99
Hl}-l.q6
)00
en-
teln
Sheep Colt
<1e
Dufhlo
(t)
(t)
ttl
ttl
• .8
1.9
1.5*
l.l
1.6•
1.9*
8.)
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).0
2.0*
4).6
)0.8
11.2
11.2
J,St.
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2.6
10<1.
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)6.
100.
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15.0
1) . 5
l.l
lol.]
)7 . 5
"·
1.5. ~. 30. 7•
100.
2.0.
2.h
)\.
(tl
I·'
· 9 11.7
PAN I CLII'ISPP .
-hiiy,
Tot.tl
,,_
Ether
1.4*
].0•
..,.
1.5•
1.5•
l.O
]. )
l.O
part, fresh
-~ri~d
JO)
-h<ly , sun-cured
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301
306
2-0G-Io61o
1-o~l.62
1.5*
1. 5*
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1.,1 *
$.8•
1.2 *
).4 •
lo . )+
lo.6&
lo . ]+
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1.2 *
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1.1 *
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4,) 11
1.] *
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6.9*
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] . J*
8.1 •
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2.) *
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8.0•
2.h
8 . 0•
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50 . 1
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10.0
2. )
1·1
\..
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IO . Io
11 . ~
11.2
~.~
JO . S
B.S
8. 9
)0 . 1
-aerial part, fresh, midbloom
309
-ha y. sun-cur ed
2-1~221
2-1()-220
1-11-539
)10
PENNI SETUJ'1 GULICIJM. Pe•rl~t~illet
-aer ial p<lrt, fresh
2-o]-115
J\l
)I]
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P[NNI S[TUI1 PUII PUA[UI1 . Napiergr<~U
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2-Q]- 160
s-oo-6oo
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3- 11-9 }1
2-Q~756
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1-Q~]Iolo
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321
)26
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11.9
a.o•
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8. 0
2. 6
I. I
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]4.9
11. 6
6. 1
].1 •
2,6111
.8•
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100.
.8
.8
1o5 . 9
50.2
28.1
]0.]
12.)
l).lo
...
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100.
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1. )
4.9
.9•
· 9'
1.0•
1.1 *
1.1 •
1.2*
1.1*
1.2•
6.0
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9. 6
1.9
8. 1
'·' *
25-S
lo.S•
1.0•
lo,\11:
1.1*
lo.8•
1,1*
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1.3•
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2.9
12.6
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8. 6
6.1
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2.8 &l-9
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26 . 6
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100.
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18.7
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91.
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)22
12 . ]
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100.
POA SPP . !lluegrus
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.
1.]*
lo.lo&
100.
11)0 .
PISUI1SPP .
-pods , sll"9e
)20
321
\.l
10<1.
PHASEOLUS VULGARIS. lle•n, kidney
) 11
)16
)17
)18
l.)
91.
100.
PASPALU J'1 PI.ICAT\ILU11. P;,asp<lh.., , bro,.nseed
-aerial part, fresh, lateYegetiltiYe
)07
JoB
)\\
100 .
].)
6 ... 8 . ) •
6.5• 9 ...
1\, )
PASPALU 1'1 NOTATUf'1, !iahiagrass
)01
)02
\ . ]*
39- 7+ 25 . 0+
3 - 9+lo].5+2].1o+
J.'
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11.0
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1.2•
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15 . 0t- 15.01
16 . 5+ lb.SI
6.}•
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2.3 * 2. 3• 2.)*' 2.3*
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2.2 *
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2 . 2•
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8.&+ 16.&+ ll.lo& 12 . 06 11.]& II.]&
POULTRY
-feittu~~rs,
mea l lly4rol yzed
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s-o3- 79S
z-oz-~oaz
92.
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267
Ene rgy f o r
reed
En t r y O(
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( /'\c a l ( l'lca l
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293
1.81
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1.04
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29 5
29 7
298
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2. 59* Z.16t
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( Mc;:al { 111;al
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Energ y f o r Cutl e
Energy f or Goats
Sheep
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2.]0& 1. 92& 52. +
2.52& 2. 10& 57 -•
( FU
/kg)
)9. •
.&0& 2.o8, 1,68,
. 65& 2. 25# 1.8 21
. 6 ]1
Feed
Uni t
"'
44. •
~]
...,
TOtl
( Mc;:al ( f'lc a l
/kg ) / k.g) (tJ
ot
,81"~
ss. •
....
Un i t
( FU
/ kg)
-95*
.1 8•
Z. 4 )t 2.01 *
)0)
Energy f o r 8ufff, lo
.zo•
2.o8t 1.68&
2.25' 1.82t;
.
...
,
. 2·'&
.41&
1.46&
8]. * 1.23• }.Slot ] .46 •
95-* \,]lo t 4. 1'}* ).78•
.m
18 . & . 24&
. 6]&
6/o., .86£ 2.8]' 2.1ol&
87. • 1.23*
95. • I.Jio•
18,,
64,,
. 24'
.8. .
268
T~le 28. Pro;o~imate Composition and Enen;n• Content of Sone Con:oonly Used Latin American Feeds {Cont.)
Dlo;estil::de Protein
lnterna-
,_
Entry
lnter nat!OI'Ial
Feed ~..-ne
~eed
,.,.tter tr6Ct rifE
(>)
(>)
I> I
NUI'I'ber
-hay, su11-cured
··-
O•y
PUERAR!A.SPP. (Con t.)
J27
)28
Toul
Ether
tion.Jl
1-Q2 - 11]8
...
Cr ude
Fiber Ash
(\)
(>)
1.9+ ]lo.S+ 35-7•
)B .h 39 . 1•
100.
2 . 1+
88 .
'·'
1.4
SACCHARUM OFFICINARU/'1, Sugarcane
329
JJO
-hi;ay, sul\-c.ured
1-Qio-bSS
"'
-nclaues
lo-1)-251
JJJ
JJ 4
-mo lo~~sses ,
JJ5
-top o f aerial put with h:IIIC$ , fresh 2-()lo-692
'"
1110re than lo6l Invert sugilrs 1.-0io- 696
trOreth•n79.5degreesb rl•
JJ7
'"
SEto\lE CERf:o\lE,
JJ9
'"
'"
'"
,,,
'"
'"
J4>
J' 7
'"
''9
J>O
"'
'"
"'"'
'"
'"
m
-~rain
.,.
2-1]-001
lo-Oio-Oio 7
s-o~o-no
-seeds, noeal solvent extracted
s-oCJ-906
-~)ra i n
lo-03-o98
4 ••
1.)
100.
Slo .lo
.4
11. 7
)4.
.s
51o . 7
'·'
100.
.)
7) . 5
'·"
9. •
9· 9
.9
) .4
14 . ]
S6.8
).9
]0 .
.)
1. )
...
IO.S
lolo . l
)7 . 2
L)
76 . 0
82.2
1. •
1. )
,.0
,..
2] ,1,
'29 - 6
1 ••
26.8
29 . 0
"·
"·
9).
9).
"·
....
100.
SORGHUM 81COLOfl. Sorghum
-aerial part, f resh, dough stage
-Hrl•l Plrt,
s~o~n-cure:d
1-11 -]28
"·
'"·
'2-Qio- )ilo
l).
I-D7-9&0
'"·
,.
SORGHUit !IICOlOR CAHRORUit , Sorghum, kafir
-gra in
lt-Oio-lo 28
8, .
100 .
SORGHUM 8 \COLOfl SU 8Cl.A8RESCENS. So rg hum , mi \o
lo- 04-1,1,1,
-~r•ln
88.
100.
SORGHU~t
NALEPENSE. Sorghum, joh.nsongr us
-.eri al p1rt, fresh
2-Q4-Ia12
-hay, sun-cured
1-Qlo-loO]
J>8
3>9
360
J.>
8.>
100 .
SOLANUt1 TU8EROSUt1. Pot no
-leaves , fresh
'·' ,..
.)
100.
SETARIA SPP. It \ \let
q,lot
25 . 9
29 - 3
"0 .
SESAitUt1\NOICUit . Ses-seeds, meal mechanical ext r acted
8.6&
!lo . ] +
61.3
lo ,O... 65.2+
lo.S• 72 .6•
...
~
8. 9
,..
).0
.. ,
,...
).0
) .6
'·'
·9
...
'·'
,., ..,
'·'
.... ,
>· 9
l.J
1\.lo
12 . 1o
10.0
10 . 8
I, ) ,)
11 , 8
1'2.8
"S - 3
.,
.)
9. )
8.9
1,],0
L8
1.6.0
so .9
Buff l\0
(\)
8.6&
8.6&
"·"'
C) . lo&
.,. .,.
.4•
.4•
... -.8•
-.8•
.J•
.4•
.s•
.1•
. )•
.,. -.s•
-.5*
- . ]*
-. ]*
-.1 •
- . 2•
. 1•
. 8•
.1•
.8•
...
.4•
.8•
...
J.o•
2.6•
] . lo:rt
] . lo•
7 - 9"
8 . 6•
J. 9t<
6 . 8•
] . lo•
6 . 8•
8 . 611
],loa
]6.8... ]6 . 8+
)9 . 7 .. 39-7•
lo'J . O
2.]+ 11.1 +
l.l
19.s
IS.]
39- 3
8.0
)0.2
q.o
'·'
]) . ]
9· 9
...
'f. l£
9. 9&
lo6 . ]
1. )
..,
(\)
.1 •-1. 1*-1.1*
12.)
) .4
2lo.6
. 1•
.4•
] . 1+ IJ.S•
]lo.8
.2•
l.)
6.1o.
,..
.)
6 . 1+
6. ] ..
J.S•
8 . ]+
).,.
8.]+
1.61> !.S•
t.S • I.S•
11.6 .. 11. 2• 11.2• 11.2 ..
L9
1.1 ..
lo . 9•
) .8
. J•
. J•
4.1
8.6,
9 . 6&
1.0 ..
1.2 ..
S. l•
1.2•
... .,.,.. s.••.,,..
~o.s
..
.
.4•
2.S.. 72.0...
]. 1... 80 . 8+
1.0<
I. S+ IO.S..
8.8>
9.8•
'·,.
lo.lo+
1,]+ 12.1+
7 - 56
8 .46
4.4+
2.h
1.8
) .1
7J,Io
1. 9
).)
.'·'.
lo,6 t<
S.2 *
].6•
lo. O..
].6 ..
8] . 2
lo.6 ..
5 . 2•
9.2
8.)
]8 . 1
].lo . ]
"· . ,
.)
100 •
SJ . 6
"'
Sneep C.oet
(\)
(\)
I J .I+
60.]
7J.
100.
SACCHARUt1 SINENSL Sweetcanc , japanese
- .er i al part, fre sh
6 . ....
tein
(t)
.)
.)
100 .
lJl
s.s..
Cat-
Pro-
1.4
9·9
9L
2.0+ 4).7 ... ]O .Io+
],]+
'"·
2. 2+ 1,8.]+ 3] .6+
8 . 6+
).)
8. )
4.0
16 .6
6.]...
7 - S•
].0 .. 2 . 9• 2.9•
12 . 5• 12 . 0• 12.0*
) . 0.
] ,)+
].U
) . )&
J. a
) . 4,
s.o.
4. 0'
2.9 ..
n.o•
] ,\,
l·"'
269
Energy for Sheep
""
"' It)
{r\cal (Hea l
/ky)
/w. g )
reed
J27
'"
329
2.21& 1.82&
2.42& 2.00&
2.1911
1.81 •
SO.+
ss. +
Unit
DE
lfU
(rk:ill (r\cal
/k g) / kg )
/ kg)
"' ""
ltl
.(,S& 2.211 1.821
so.,
. 71& 2.42#2 . 00#
55 -1
so.* . 6h 2. 191 1. 81 1
JJO
z.rq• z.os•
J)l
Jl2
2.65• 2.)5* 60 . •
JJJ
56 . ..
Energy for Buffalo
Energy forC.utle
Energy for lioats
reed
Entry DE
• ]3• 2.lo]J1.051
SO./
56-1
Uni t
"' "'· "'• "''
I FU
DE
(11c;al (P1cal (Heal ( Meal (Heal
/k.g)
/ kc;!l
/kg )
/ kQ )
. 6St2.20t 1.81& 1.0) 11
, ]1j2.lol& 1. 98& 1,1)*
.&lol 2. 23* 1.86• l.o8•
.IJJ 2. SJ• 2. 10* 1. 22 *
/kg)
.su.
/ kg )
1.11&
- 57& 1.22&
Feed
Unit
IFU
It)
so.t
ss.t
.SS•Ltlo• 51.*
.66• 1.29*
53- *
}I.*
· Tl*2 . ]1o 11 2. 0)*
.9711 ], 15* 2 . ]]•
SJ . t
}1.*
- 72*
- 97*
16 . •
61. •
.21 *
.8011 2.6} 11 2. 25*
16 . •
61.*
. 21*
.80*
.l ] lt
1), 11
Slo.ot
. ]0•
15 .*
JJ6
~8 . •
. 19* .
. 5~1
. 7~* 2. ~"' 2 . 121
15 . /
sa . ,
. )411
.1 91
• 751 2.6]* 2. 2~· l,]]t
.]5*
.}5ll" 1.]611
lll
JJ8
.sa "' . lo8ot
2.1olo ot 2.01 11
1] . *
55 -"'
1]./
55 -1
. 1/1 - 57* . lo]* . 1]1t
. , , 2- 39* 1. 9]• 1. 1211'
. 1] * .29"' l], ot
- 56* 1.2111 Slo . t
JJ9
] .61 *] . 23 "'
'"
'"
'"
,,,
,,,'"
'"
1. 9u
82 . 11 1. 15• ].611 ].2]1
89. 11 1. 21ot J-9'' J . so,
J.so•
. ]lit
.loBi
2. 44, 2. 0 11
·"'
82 .1 1.1 51 ],1) 1t 2.81o• 1,7]11 1. 18* 1. 68•
89./ 1.241 J - "9* ] . 0811 1. 92* 1.2811 1. 8211
....
.n•
.ss •
2.Sio•2.12*
.. ,. .,.,
. ]0&
. ]5*
,8o11 1.2 1*
. 991 ].IS* 2. 7l* 1.68• 1.0]* 1.6)*
.... ....
so .& . 61o&
55 . &
57 -*
Slo .J
}3./
.,
.61o&2.20L 1. 81&
.]0& 2. 41& 1. '}8&
/kg)
~6- 11
,1J112.]8/ 2. 071
-99* ].201 2.]81
....
I FU
.n•
Slo . •
lJ , *
"'m
Unit
. 66• 2. 23* 1.86•
-75* 2.5)* 2.10*
2.]8t 2.0}11
]. 20* 2.]8*
-111 2. }4* 2.0] * 1. 25*
TOri
ltl
••
2 . 1t6• 2. 16*
77 -* 1.06* ] . ]9• 2.98•
60./ .8]1 2.1.6• 2.16* 1. Jio11 .88• 1.28•
8). / !.lSI 3- 39* 2.98• 1.8~· 1.22• 1. ]]*
). 2lo11
Feed
"'
(Heal (/'leal
/kg) / kg )
~6
57- *
. 8] •2 .6512-351
8), 11 1. 15* ] . 6~1 ).21ol
).6~·
/kg)
DE
.... .,..
.]0'11
-57"' ,lo] ot
2. ]9* 1,1j]lt
n.•
1.01 11 ] . 2]• l.Sio•
79-* 1.()911 ] . ltlj* ].0811
51,11
n.•
1.06*
.l }*
7].• 1.01 11
79- 11 1.09*
3.19' 2.81 •
J. lo5 * ) . OJ•
n.•
2.91) • 2.6 1*
] .21ot 2.82•
68.• .9]11 2.99/ 2.611
13·* t.OO* J.H / 2. 821
2.S2&2 . 1Io&
2.8o& 2. ]8&
57-·
61o , +
J' 7
J"
.))• . 2]*
2.]9• 1.96*
Slo. •
350
-59• .so•
2. 62• 2.2011
"'
1.1)9 * 1.60*
2.20* l,]]*
J5l
] . ]]&2. 96&
] .7J& ] . ]2&
75 -· 1. 05 & ] . ]] # 2 . 96/
as.+ 1.18& ].]]/ ] . ] 2#
75- i!.OSI ].18•2.82• 1.]6ot 1.18•1.67*
8S . / 1.181 J -57* ].16* 1.97* 1. 32* 1.87*
]2.• 1.00• ) . 18• 2.82•
81. 11 1.12* l -57* ] . 16•
72-* 1.00•
81. 11 1. 12 11
].loSt ] . 09*
) . 9 1'* 3-50*
78 . t 1.10* 3 -~51 ] . 09/
89. • 1.24• ].911]-501
]8.1 1. 10/} .1 ]112.77* 1,7J 11 1. 16* 1.64*
89-1 1. 2~1 3- 55* ] . \]* 1. 96* 1. ]1* 1. as•
71.* .98*3.13*2.77 11
80 . 11 1. 11• J . ss• 3.1 3•
]1 . •
. 98 *
80."' 1.11 *
,,,
352
"'
'"
'"
355
1.00* ] .1 91 2.811
]B . • 1.08* J . loS/J . OJI
12.1 1. 00/].]1 * 2. 9)* 1. 8)• 1, 2]11 1.7J *
]8./ 1.081 3- 57* ] . 16* 1. 97* 1. ]2* 1.8] 1r
15 · * 1.Qit 11 ],]1*2.93*
81. • 1.12 11 3-51* ). 1611
75 -* I.Qio t
81. * 1. 12*
-931 ] .1811 2.]9* \,JU 1. 15* 1,66 11
lJ . / 1. 001 ] ,lolot ] . 0211 1.88• 1.2lo* 1-79*
]2.•
,1)911 ).18• 2.]9•
]8,11 1.0]* ],lolo* ] . 02*
]2 . •
]8 . • 1. 0]*
64 . + I. OH ] ,]g. ] .02&
]2. + 1, 19£ ].77+ ] . ] fa
64.+ 1.0]&
]2 .+ 1. 11)&
...,
.]6&2.52/2.1lo l
. 85& 2.80# 2.]8j
57-1
M./
. ]0*
. )) / . 271
2. ]9/1.96#
Slo./
1),11
59-*
.IS •
.591
.]8* 2.621 2.201
.,,
loS. •
so. •
-57* 1. 99/ 1.60/
.6]11 2 . 201 ' -771
1· '
.10 *
...,
. 761 ] . 39+ ].02' 1,9(111 1.29& 1. ]9&
. 851 ].7]+ ].]6& 2.11* 1.1o4& 1 . 9~
·"'
...
. 28* .16•
. ]01 2.lo2• 2. 0011 !,!lot
. 118• . 17*
.sa• 1.2 ]*
ss .•
.1011 . J'• .28*
.1J•2.Io2* 2.00*
\]. /
59 -1
. 181 . ss • . loS * . 26*
. ]81 2 . loJ• 2 . 01 * 1.15*
,I] * .28 *
-59* 1.2]*
12 . 11
ss.•
loS./
so.,
- 5711. 98• 1.59*
.6 ]12.1811 1. 75*
. ]]*
.loo• 1.09*
loS. *
49.•
1· 1 .101
....
-95*
....
....
...
.n•
. loS •
.16*
,]1* 2.11]11 2.01 *
.ss•
12.ot
55·"'
.1 6*
, ]111
-56 *1.98• !. 59*
.62* 2. 18* 1. ]5*
~os. •
"9· "'
'"··
357
.69* - 59*
2. 8 7• 2.4';•
16. •
65.•
.21 11
-591
.8 7• 2.8]12.45#
16.1
6S.,f
. 21 1 .6]* -5 3* ,)\11
.8]12.61 * 2.18* 1.28•
. 17* .]2*
. 71ot 1.]3*
'"· *
S9.*
·'"
.n•
.6]* -53*
2.61 • 2. •a•
59 -*
359
2.2 ]& 1.84'
2.116& 2.0]&
SO. +
56 . +
. 65' 2.2}11.81<1
. ]2& 2.lo6J 2. 0]/
so.,
56-1
.6512 . 2lo& 1.85' I,Q6ot
.]2/2 . /o]' 2-0io, 1.18•
.56+ 1.1]&
.6h-1.25&
51.•
56.+
.66& 2. 2.. , 1. 85'
. lJ & 2. 1o ]& 2 . 01o&
51.+
56. +
) 60
.10*
ss.•
.,..
.62*
.19*
....
·11*
• 73&
270
hble28. Pro~t i mate tOIIIPOs i t i on and Eru~r~y Content of Some Commonly Used latin Ameri c a n fee ds ( Cont . )
Di gest i ble Prote i n
,_
lnternu l onal
b«
Feed Name
Intern at i onoll
reed
Entry
'"
'"
'"
'"
365
"'
"',..
"'
"'
"'
"'
STIPA BRAtHYPHVLLA, Needlegrus , br ~hy ph yll•
-iilerial part, fresh, mature
2-lo-906
H)]-202
-ha y , sun-c ured
7- 0S -S l~
-dc:hydrned
,.,
2.-ol- 4 )4
-hay , sun- cur ed
1-QI -1. 15
2-Q2-D91
TRITICUM A[STIVUI't. fJheat
fib er
281' protein equivalent
S-OS-070
5- 0 1-&6 1
]88
,.,
395
,.,
J9J
12.1
29 . )
1) .5
)2 . 6
18.)
].4
2• •
].8
2. 1 &11 . 9
12.1
7-5
1) . 4
lo i. O 1] . ]
lot..& 1':1.2
• .2
10.0
22 . 1
21.. 0
2.0
].8
.
,_,
2.1
.
11. 9
8. •
'-'
4] . ]
35 . &
u
52.9
8. ]
lo].)
2. •
•·'
5).0
100.
2-7
].0
07.5
]5 . 0
100.
2-7
] .0
67 . 5
75.0
100 .
1,8+ 1oO. J• 37·l•
2 . 0•I.S.O+Io\,] +
89 .
\,~
].]
.2'
.2•
. ]•
.J•
. J•
. J•
£,..- 4) , &+
~oa.s.~oa.s•
~).
2.] •
9 - 5*
2.&*
q ,l *
2.&•
9- l *
2.&•
9- 3•
16 . 6* 1] . 1..!- 1&. ]* I&. J•
18.1 • 19.0* 17-7* 17 - 7*
..'·'. ...
3-5*
. a~
J ,O*
1.0•
) . 8•
1.0•
] . 8•
"·
55 - S.
1.6+62.2 •
5.0.
5 . 6•
1}.8
5-9
2).5
2-D2-803
]6 .
10 .5
29 . 2
-ae rial par-t, s i lage, milk stage
)-Q2 - 818
,. '·'
18 . 8
52.4
-aeri a l part. sun-cured
I-Q2- 775
8] .
100.
1) . 5* 1).5* 12.5 • 12.5•
15.3 • 15.)* 11. . 2• llo . 2*
-
25.5
28 . 9
-
22 . ~ 22 . 9+
25.9• 25 . 9 +
1), \
\1.,6
9-5* 9 .5*
10.0• 10.&*
8 . 5•
9.1.•
8.5*
9 · "*
2.8
1}. 1
~~
9.5• 9-5*
10 . 6* 10 .6*
8 . s•
'·'
,_.,_
8.s•
q .lot
7-7·
.o
}.2•
}.0+
9. 4*
• 8•
- .)•
·•·
-.)•
...
·'>-
281.1+
- Z8S.O+
-9 55.1
100.
17,5
19 . 8
2. 8
-
100.
2-13-763
'·'
..,..,
,..
,'·'
..... '·'
...
...
...
...
100.
-aerial par t , fre sh, dough suge
].1
5-J
5-9
100.
ZU /'lAYS. rt al %e
-aerial part , fresh, midbl oOIII
].2
88.
100.
lo-05- 211
VI GNA SINENSIS. Cowpea, ccwrnon
-seeds
... ,..
2. 1.• 15 . 5• 12 .9- 11. 8& 10 . ]S 10.]6
2.] .. 17.6 • 11..0• 1),)& 12.1& 12."
UREA
nlt r ~en
6
4/.4
- . 6* -. 8* -. 2* -. 2*
- 1.2 • -1. &* -.s• -.s•
s.o
1-Q5- 175
-1.5'
...
~2.
.....
2.8+
).2 •
)82
]89
25 .
39 . 8 28.8
49.8 J&.o
'·'
2 ••
Bufhlo
(\)
8. 4
9-5
]80
'"
,.,
"'
.,.
31 ·9
<le
).)+64.2+
).8+ ]2.8·
'*-05-211
"'
28 .
18.2
S& . J
Sheep Coat
(\ )
(\ )
5-2 59 -9
5-0S- 218
385
... ....
2] . 2
te l n
m
(\)
C•t-
Pr o-
''"
m
88 .
100 .
-gra in
-gr•dn
•. o
(l)
100.
-ger•s, ground
]8]
.]
Fiber
m
1.-0S-203
t.-05-190
~1:
377
]78
'"
.,
100 .
J7S
'"
so.
100.
TAIPSACUI1 lAXUI't. G-agrass, guatem;aola
-aerial part , fr esh
-flour by-product . leu th1n
}81
.
100.
J7J
,.
"·
100 .
TRIFOL IU/'1 PRATENSE. Clo11er ,
- .er i al part , fr esh
Crude
O<y
Katte1" tract NFE
(l)
(l)
100.
TORULOPSIS UTI LIS, Yeast . torula
Total
Etn.:r
100.
STIPASPP . Needlegrus
]68
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EntryO£
11[
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Energy for C.Oats
Feed
Unit
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0£
TON
1'1£
("Cal (11co~l
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Feed
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3b2
1.28 * 1.08 •
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361
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1.151 1./oli
Energy for !uffoilo
Energy for Cattle
Feed
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. 621 2.1)* 1.]0*
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TON
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386
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396
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61.•
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272
Table
28.
Pro,.imne (Oftlposltion and Energy Content of Sonw: COI!r.IQnly Used Lnin American Feeds (Cont . )
Digestible Protein
...
397
)98
399
•••
...,
,
•••
....
.•••,
tlon011l
,,, ,,_
Feed
NUI!tler
(l)
lnte rna-
[ntry
lnter,..nional
reedNan.e
ZEAMAYS. (Cont.)
-aerial part without ears without
husks, tneid
1-1)- 325
Ether
~tter
1~2 - 782
-ears, ground
lo-02-849
·9ra ln
lo-02-819
-It-S, fresh
2-Q2-8\Io
.'·',
(l)
..,
Toul
Pro•
te l n
(l)
u
Sheep Con
(l)
..'·', '·' -.6•
.... ..
...."·
...'·' .... , ,.,'·'
88 .
100 .
-cobs , ground
tract NFE
(l)
(l)
truck
Fiber Ash
88.
...."·
....
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39 -9
45 . ]
)2 . 0
]6 . ]
]8 .0
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46.7
SJ.3
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6].8
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10.2
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56.0
79 -5
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3).9
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Cat-
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1.5•
1.5•
1.5*
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1.7 111
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1.7*
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273
Eoer~y
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N...-.
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ME
TON
(l'lc&l (t1cal
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397
1.90• 1.52* l!J. •
2.15* 1, 7)11 49. •
399
2.00* 1.62*
loS . •
Fe ed
Uni t
(FU
0£
1'1[
TON
( t1c&l (Kcl l
/ kg)
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.s~o• 1.901 1.52#
.61 • 2.151 1.731
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2.001 1.62 1
400
2. 28• 1.85•
52. •
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J . 2h 2. 88•
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8] . * 1. I~· ].&&# ) , HI
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lo.01 *3 .&0* 91.
405
406
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2.6 2* 2.20*
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59 .•
Energy for Buffalo
Energy for Catt le
Feed
Entry DE
. 66* 2. 28# 1.85#
1.1h 3- 5813-211
1.28t lo . 011].&01
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(\)
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( FU
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( 1'\cal ( Meal (Mel! ( l'l cail ( Mea l
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1'1[
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1.92'* 1.54•
.66# 2. 11)* 1.]6•
N£ 111
.,..
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N£
1
.96*
Unit
(ru
/kg)
.5)*
DE
(/'\cal (Kcal
/k g)
/ k.g)
1 . 8]11
(.)
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4 2.*
1.49•
42 . •
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TON
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1.92 * !.Slo *
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Unit
( 'U
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so. • .& 3*
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1. 02 1 ] .0]* 2.E>6* 1.66* 1.09* 1.58 *
8].1 1.1~1 ) .lo2* ] . 00* 1. 87• 1.2]* 1.78•
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78. • 1.0]* J,lo2• ].OG* ]8 . • 1.07*
81.1 l.llol ] .22 * 2.8~· 1.78• 1. 20* 1. &8 •
9 1. 1 1.281].61• ] . 19* 2.00* !, ) lo t 1.89•
73- * 1. 01* ) . 22• 2.8~ ·
82. * 1.1 ]* ] .61 * ].19*
11.1
59-1
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2 . 18 >~~1.28•
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11 . *
sq.;
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-77* 2.& 1* 2. 18•
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lJ,>il 1.01 *
B2. * 1.1 ]*
11.,>11
59-'
.llo*
-77 •
274
Table 29 .
,_
Mineral and Vita min Content of Some COI"'lno nly Used Latin Ame rican Feeds.
Intern.-
11ag-
t iona \
D•y
IIHernat lonal
feed
~"•tter
FeeciN~~~~~e
NUI'Iber
[ntry
m
C1lci UII'I
Chlo- n~
r ine
sio.r~~
1>1
(~)
I~ I
ANO ROPO!fON 81COANIS. Bluestcm, blcornl s
DOl
002
-aerl1l part, fresh,m idbl~
2-1]-{!]2
DO)
DD'
-na y, sun-cured
1-11-229
DOS
....
B l ...est~::~~~,
angleton
1-11-2)1
-hay. sun-cured
2-()0-82/
1-()0-819
ANif'tAL
-blood, •e•l
5~0-)Bo
ARACHIS HYPOCAU. Peanut
Dl)
-hay, sun-c ur o:d ground
1~]-6 27
"',
-pods
HIB-<128
..•••
..,
021
022
02)
D"
.,.
025
S-o3-6SO
-seeds wi thOut c oats, aec:h¥!ici11
e~~tr...cted C: ilked
s-o3-o~oa
AliENA SAT I\I A, O..ts
-ileriill pilrt, fresh
-iler i il l part , silillje
2-(}] -292
}-(})- 298
027
028
1- 11-21.1
029
OlD
-cere ill by-product , I ess thiln ~' t!ber ~-<)J-]0]
OJI
0)2
-gra in
4~)- 309
-groets
4-o]-3]1
.,.
DJI
.,.
D))
DJ7
0)8
...
. 29+
.]2 +
.)h
,}3+
92. +
100. +
.26 •
. 29 •
.25+
.26+
''·
·"
Jl .
. 18
sun-c: ~tred
l-(l)-28o
H ))-28 1
.1]+
. 03 +
.03+
.01
• 25+
.18+
.IS+
.I ] •
....
.10 +
,Jio+
.)5 +
. ]] +
.... ,.....
,10•
.10+
.12+
18 . +
,II •
,12•
1].•
-
.06+
.0 ] +
. 95•
. 12+
.I J +
.62+1,13•
.68· 1.23+
. ]6+
.)9+
·''
·''
-
.)h
.20
. 15
.I)
.0]+
.IS•
.6/
"· ·"
...
. 08+
-
.11
. 09+
.2)
.10•
.II
.08+
.09•
100.
-
1.26
·" ...
·"
·"
-
,..
,..
,....
,.,,,,,
,,, '"
'"''
'~
bi ll
....
....., . ....
\), +
.10+
1].+
• 10•
.)0+
.)] •
IS.•
• 2)
.I)
100 .
-nulls
.16+
. Ds
100 •
100.
'"
Sui-
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Iii
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.18
1.8 )
..,
...
.22+
.lit+
1.63
"·
"·
100.
·~
"~
.01 +
·''
91. •
100 . +
·"
.17
...
91.+
20.
100.
(~)
. Oj
-
100 . +
...
s i l.fll
.10
-
• 0 '<+
100.
-hily,
-
'··~
"'
(~)
·"
....
.., ..... ·" ·"... ·'' ·"
.88
100.
100 .
-M:edS withOUt C:OiltS , Jneill solvent
020
• )D
I. ItO
100.
01 7
018
·"
100 .
100.
s -oa-12 0
·"·''
·"
''· ·''
100.
ANDAOPOGOH SPP. lluut- aer lll part , fresh
DID
011
012
...
...
100 •
ANOAOPQCON NODOSUS.
- h•y , 1\.W\-CUI" t'd
D06
DO/
D08
)D .
100.
Ptlos- Po-
.0]+
.12
· 21
•) 1
.II••
.IS•
...·"
.28
.)0
.08•
.S2•
2.66 •
... . ... .
. 18•
.19•
. 02•
.08+
. I ~+
.22•
.2"•
. os•
.OS•
.06•
.so•
.ss·
.IS•
,\4+
.16+
.2)
.)0
.41+
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.06+
.21+
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·"
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.OS•
. 06•
.20•
.22•
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. 21+
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• Oil+
,I S+
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.16
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...
I·•
-
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-
2.11]
2.]0
.sa.
.62+
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...
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..... ·'"• ...
...
.06+
1· ·
275
andOry Basis (Moisture F ree l
,. , ,. , ,. , ,. , .
'""'
Vita-
I'II/I-
Ent r y
d·~
ine
lrort
nese
•ol
•ol
•ol
.~
Selenil.ft Zinc
min
(IU/
•ol
•ol
ol
Vit ...
,,
ll'lin
Vlt.-
Fo l ic
Aci d
(Fol ... N l~
ci n )
ci n
""", , ,
'"•ol ,""•ol, ,'"kol
••I '""'
••I
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(IU/
PM! to-
.. . . . ..
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l ine
Vit ... Al bo-
.,
,•o,l ,•ol, ,.,,
•ol
n ic.
Ac i d
• in
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,,,
Till a111\ne
'"••I"' '""'
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DOl
002
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006
-
001
008
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n.
1~1 .
009
010
011
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lo061o ...
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) 12.+
37 16. +
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. 73 +
lolo,+
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...
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.
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781. +
ss.r, ...
. 11+
...........
2.0+
2.2+
).6+
C),O +
S0-7• 6.1+
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2.4+
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]lo. +
2 . ..
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...
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01 ]
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2) .+
H. +
)9,
018
020
65.+
69 . +
, 0]+
.0 ] +
021
022
.,.
02]
02S
026
"·
llo2 .+
1511 . +
...
...
,,,
,...
''· ...
ss.•
18.+
9 1.+
.08+
]8 L+
""··
-
282 .+
.,
.,.
29 .+
• 02+
]]. +
]6. +
...
-
.]) +
.]6+
-
...
1948.+
2120. +
... ..,..
1] .•
- 27•
. !8+
1911.+
2lo.+
.65+17) . +
. 71 + 188.+
992.+
...
..,'·' ,,,
6.8+
ll).r,..
..
2.~
] .8+
.. ,.
6.2+
...
11. 0.
1.]+
1. 7+
1.8+
7-7•
-
028
0]0
0]1
0)2
.,.
OJJ
OJS
'"
0]1
0]8
...
...
''·
•..
''·
so.
loll,+
118. +
loo.•
.22+
. 2.....
28.+
) 1.+
-
]6. +
, 1] +
, \1+
. 12+
SJ.
-
19. +
20 . +
lllo),+
!Sio . +
126].+
17.
-
-
JS.+
) 9.+
''·
100.
104 ....
1 II . +
139. +
-
1]88.+
15l!4.+
-
.2] +
.)0+
979-•
.52+
- 57+
.loO+
~4+
lo84.+
.
1141.+
1264 ....
. 51+
.57+-
264,+
281 . ...
-97 +
\ ,Oio +
-
26. +
18.0"'
,,,
29.+
P) . 8+
2),
1) .9+
15 ......
1.1 .
1.2+
}.2 +
] .4+
2.2+
2.11+
...
26.
,...
2.7+
\1,1+-
6.]6+] .07+
•··
10. +
],0 ...
1.4
'·'
'·' 2.8
,,,
'·'
'·' '·'
1.6+
1.7+
....,.
276
T~le
Entry
,_
29 . " lner•l
¥~d Vitolfllin Content of Some C0111t10nly Used Lnln Americ.;an Feeds {Cont.)
tlon•l
reed
l11ternatlo11•1
Feed Millie
"''
ttl
C•l-
l'lltter cl'-""
ttl
I'IOig-
Phos-P~
Cl'llo-
n~
rlne
··~
t')
··~ ,;....,. ·~
ttl
dl~
ttl
ttl
t>l
Sui-
'"
t%)
AVE No\ SATIVA. (Cont.)
0)9
0"
0"
04>
"'
"'
OkS
Okb
"'
"'
1-Q)-28)
AXOMOPUS C011PRESSUS. Cupetgrass ,
-aer iii p•rt, fresh
92. +
100.+
2-ol-llol
)J .
100 .
1-11-:lll
9'·
100 .
.UOHOPUS SPf' . C•rpetgr•u
1-QI-1)8
-hiy. sun-cured
•..,v
8ETAVULCARI$ALTISSI11A, Beet,
-.erial p.trt with crowns, f resn
loS'
.)9+
.21+
.4h·
.2)+
-
·"
· 'l
,18•
-56+ 1.0/•
.,.
·"·
.1] + 5-79• . Sio •
.10+
. ]1 +
.]8+
. 16+
.I] +
...
"· ·"
. 2]
100.
2-<10~49
\],+
,I]+
100 ...
1.0h
.10+
-I!W;IIiUU:S,
lo-oo-668
]8 . +
100.+
. 12+1.28+
.2)+
.I&+ 1.&4+
.29•
-pulp, dehydrated
4-oo-6&9
91.+
100.•
. &3•
.70+
.O'-•
.2&+
.28+
OSJ
OSk
-pulp with molasses, dehydrated
lo -Q0-672
92.•
100 . •
. 5&+
.&1 •
-
051
"'
059
invert sugar
111Dr ethan79 - 5degreesbri:o:
BHA 'IULC·"~IS 1\ACRORRHIZA. Beet , 111angel
-roots. fresh
lo~0-6)]
II,+
100 . •
8()(HM[RtA NI'IE.l. R- le
-aerial part, fresh
2-Q)-359
''·
100 .
BOS TAURUS. C.attle
-buttenllilk , dehydrated
5~ 1-160
ObO
92 . •
100.•
. 0 4•
. 02+ .lb+
.18+ l.lol+
"'
"'
"'
OIJ
2-<1 3-52)
-hay,
1-QJ-SI 7
sun-cure<~
..,
.J'-•
.)8+
"·
. 08
. Jl
22.+
100 . •
·"
89.
·''
.Js
100.
-aerial !)art, fresh, .. iltu r e
100.
. )9+
.42 +
.21+
.2)+
15 . +
1&.+
. 02 •
.20+
.02 • .25 •
.22 • 2.30•
.OJ •
.6) +
.02 •
. 20+
.kJ
. 8Jt
.8) +
. 52•1.01 •
.&9• ! . OJ•
,.
. 14·
.]&• 1.12 •
. ss
-
·"
.18+
.20+
-
.]0+
.]2•
.01•
. 01•
.OS+ l.lo]+
. )8 +11.56•
.oo •
.)6•
.)8•
.01•
-
...·''
1,42•
·"
·" ·"
.09•
2.]5•
. )8•
1. 58•
.0)
...
.08•
2.61+
·"
... ·"
.0]
.... .
-
.... .... ....
,lOT
.so
069
010
. 48·
-53+
. 92•
95.
2-Q)-525
. 09+ 1.6)+
.10•1.78+
. 10•
.]4• 1,10•
~-o8-1)1o
BRAC HI ARI A 1\UTICA. Pa r .Jq r ass
-aerial part, fresh
.15+
.1&+
.
-whey, fresh
89 . +
100 . ...
12.+
llo . •
. 01+
o•s
o••
1-Ql-162
!].+
22 . •
. 08•
.,.
.12+
-9S•
100.
• )6+
,1\T
,C))T 1.55•
\2,+
100 . •
9'·
,..
llo.+
• ~&·
.8] • 1.45+
100 ,
.OJ•
.o8 •
. ~a. .
5-<11-168
5-QI-167
....
. 57+
.20+
. 08
-milk, fresh
"'
9.•
10.+
.60•
.44+
,48·
1 . ) 2+
1,4)•
....
. Ol~ 1!, 73+ 1. 16•
.OJ+ &.OJ + 1.1o8+
,.,.
·''
Ob)
0.,
002
BOUTELOUA SP9. CrOIIfftil
-hay, sun-cur.,::!
kg)
.19•
. 21 •
.so
"''
067
'"
t.,l
.18+
.20 +
2.]6
-milk,
dehydr.at~
-
,,,_
·"
·''
· '1
os•
052
oss
os•
kg)
·"·"
·"
. JS
Ok9
050
tholn
. 06+ 2. 35+
.0] + 2.55+
t.,l
tropi~::•l
-n•v. ·-cUI'ed
more
.22 ..
.21! +
'~
bllt
.)2
1.45
1.60•
-
·"' "·
·''
·"
. OJ
"·'·
).
277
Data Expressed on an As-Fed and Dry Basis (Moisture Free)
,.,,
.
kg)
g)
viu-
·-
Et1try
.,
..,
OkO
,.,., ,.,,
dine
kg)
I ron
g~
Sele-
ncse
ni1,1111
( mg/
'""'
kg)
kg )
151.+
164.+
29. •
]I.+
kg)
-
Zinc
Ill i ll
(IU/
viu- Vita.,;n
,.;n
8io-
,,
(IU/
kg)
...
,...,..
Folic
Acid
( Fol.- Ni .-
lin e
ei n )
''(mg/"
kg)
kg)
kg)
''" ,.,, ,..,,
'" ,..,,
'"''
kg)
kg)
P;~nto-
"~
ViU- Al bo-
,..,, ...
••, ,..,, ,..,,
nic
Acid
kg)
fl~
kg )
kg)
Ttd•111ine
kg)
610.+
5. •
662.•
Ok2
...
Ok]
...
045
041
Ok8
29.+
•··
.,,
oso
169.• 54.+
051
052
2b6 . +
29),+
05]
05k
162.+
18,+
177. •
20.+
055
056
051
osa
059
060
061
062
06]
06k
065
066
68 . +
8],+
......
5-•
}~
)8.•
-
011
on
on
01'
14.+
!8.•
-
1.•
-
..
-
579.+
&)7,+
5.•
828. +
lol.+
106),+
51 -•
s.a.
2.9+
820 . +
902 . +
\] . +
18.+
1,1.+
1.5+
./•
811o,+
1&.+
1.5+
18,+
1.]+
] .•
1. 0•
)I.+
CJ . I.+
, \]•
, .sa.
154.+
]U,+
ICJOO.+
21.
118 .
...... '··,..
-
21,+
2) . •
169.+
181.+
I~.
loO.+
"'"··
2,2-t2.lo+
11.5•
)30,+
12.1•
)5).+
~.
•
...
ll.lo•
95·•
...
2]/o ....
].•
~.~
2~.·
J.•
l.lo•
]I.
1)1.
-
''·
..
206.
"·
-
-
-
20.•
-29•
1746.•
• ]IJ+
21 .+
. )1+
1891.+
.42+
. J1+
·"'·
90'-·•
1)12 ...
-
12.+
1,,8+
6].+
26.7+
.........
•··
-1 •
./•
,_,.
·'· ·'·
].CJ+
-
],0+
16.5•
.]•
2.1!+
1.3+
] . )+
]7.0+
l.lo+ ]0.6+
2.6+3].1+
].lo+
) . ]+
22 .) -t
lo.6+ 19 . )•
... 9+20.6•
) .9•
2) . 8+
8. /o+
10.•
68.0+
1}.+
-
... ·'·...
loO.I•
1.•
u ...
-
2. 3+
4.5+
887,+
\].+
061
068
069
010
1.1+
6.6..
72.6-t
76.7•
-
-
1.7 +
j . ]+
1] . 8..
.]•
2./o-t
11.1-t
11.]-t
li.)+
lo.l+
278
Table 29 . Mineral and llitcwin Content of Some Comnonly Used Latin Americ::an Feeds (Cont.)
...
-
tiona I
&!try
Feed
lntern1tional
feed~-
075
076
071
078
BR ACHio\ltiA MUTICA . (tont.)
-leaves. sun-cured
-stems, sun-cured
BIIASSICA NAP\JS •
079
oso
1- 1)-425
-seeds , meal
1- 1J-4H
....
"'
Cal-
natter
cit.rr~
(>)
(t)
Chle>- nerlnc
(t)
(~i '"'
(>)
92 .
. ]I
.2)
100.
-33
92.
. 10
·"
·"
5~3-871
91.•
,_
So-
·'~
(t)
"~
"'
081
082
5~2-o09
..
-
.6H·
.67•
,10+
92.•
5.21•
100.•
5-69+
.ss·
-95•1 . 2"*
. 60• I.Oio+ 1. J6•
.09•
,))+
,1)+2.9()+
. ]0 +
.60•
.16• ) , I]•
-77 •
,41 ..
.41!+
1.14+
.10+ 1.25+
BII(YOORTIA T'f'RANNUS.
Fisn, meflnldtn
-meal mec:l1anlcal t ... tr.cted
Cop-
,.,,
''"
,., ,.,,
,
bait
'"'
(t)
. 20
100 .
solvt."l'll extrKttd
,,_
Pllos- Po-
.,..
.61+
. IS•
11.•
,\] •
12 . •
. 01
.02
2.
6.
BROI1US INERMI S, Br0111e, 51r100lh
08)
0"
oss
-~ri•l
part, fresh, t.lrlyD100111
2-Q0-957
2).
100.
8RC»\USSPP. Brome
-aerial part, fresh
2-Q0-900
3'·
086
CAJANUSCAJAN, Pigeonpeil
.10
.30
...
. 2)
. 10
-30
-
·'1
.17
087
088
-aerlill pilrt, fresh
2--Q]-115
089
090
-hay, sun-cure4
I--Q9-7~]
90 .
100.
. ss
. 16
.18
s--ol-716
88.
100 •
.IJ
. 11
.8•
091
092
09)
09'
091
096
097
098
21 ·
100 .
CALA HAGA:OSTIS IHTERHEOIA, Rell'dQriiSS, lntennediil
2- 11--QI2
-aerial pilrt, fresh
1-11--QI]
-nay, sun- c ured
CALAHAGROSTIS VIClltARUH. Reedgr•ss, .. !c\.l'lar...,
l-11-<l11
-hilly, sun-c:Uf'ed
36.
100.
90.fl
IOO.fl
. 61
·"
·"
lo-07-958
099
100
-seeds
101
102
-seeds, meal
103
10,
-seeds, me•l solventeJO.triiCted
lOS
•ech~icill
v.triiCted
CAS E IN
-acid pr ec i pitated dehydrated
s--ot.-109
5-<llo-110
S--QI-162
106
007
108
109
110
CECROPIA SPP. PUIIp;.ood
-aeri•l p~~rt , fresn
-le1ves, fresh
2-11)-lo 77
2-10-11]8
-
.l)
91. fl
100 . fl
- 33
. ;6
93 •
100.
. 2\
91 .
100.
.21.•
.26•
·"
"·
.]lo•
100 .
.36 •
91.•
100. •
.It]•
.SI+
2) .
.28
100.
1.25
"·
.2)
100 .
.96
.20
CARTHAHUS TINCTOAIUS. Safflower
.so
.JI.·
2.19+
-
.os
·"
·""
.os
-97•
1.10•
.OJ •
.OJ•
-
.02
.07
.)2
.JS
...
.7}•
.06• .06•
·'9
- 19 •
.06•
-11•
.]8·
-72•
.)6•
.05•
.05•
.05•
.06+
.Js•
-69•
-71 •
.JS +
.8] +
.OS+
.OS +
.I]+
.1/o +
.,.,.
• 01•
. )It •
. )6 •
.n•
.JS.
-79 +
.06+
-
10. •
11.•
10 . •
-
...,..
-
.01+
-
·"
...
.os .20
20.
.o8
.os
J7.
. 19
1]0 .
. 82•
·"
s.
279
Vita-
ManEntry
dioe
(mgl
(mgl
kO)
ko)
g~
Sele-
nese
ni...a
(mg/
(mg/
ko)
kg)
(mg/
kO)
Zinc
A
(IU/
g)
VItamin
VIta-
,,
"'"
81~
( I U/
(..,/
(mg/
<ol
,,, '"
kg)
Ch~
''"
(mg/
line
kO)
Folic
Acid
(Fola- Nia.cin)
cin
( mg /
kO)
(mg/
kg )
Pan t o-
"~
Vita- Qibo-
A<:id
( mg/
(mg/
"~
vi
n
(mg/
kg)
kg)
kg )
8.0 +
].2 +
s.a.
nic
'6
Thlamine
( mg /
kg)
"'
076
077
078
079
oSo
"'
"'
1.09 +
1.19 +
662] . +
7278 . +
-97+
1 . 0] +
52]. +
]5, .. 2.18 + 14]. •
SJI, ;.
}9 .• 2.]8+ 160 .+
-
14] .+
l bl.+
122, +
.18•
]II), +
.IS+
13),+
.20+
)]98.•
.I]+
ss. •
60.+
8 . S. 8 . 0+ 6 . /o+
8.6+
C).lo+
] , ]+
1+
~ .
4.8 +
5.]+
1.6+
1.]+
...
.6•
08)
0..
oss
2.6 +
086
o87
088
7- 7•
112.
~
10.
o89
090
"'
"'
"'
"'
09J
1.0+
] , 1+
..
"·
,8 +
.
79.
- "·
- so.
2k .
1.6•
27.
1 .8+
.0+
.0+
s.
''·
096
097
098
099
"0
'"
"'
"''"
"'
"6
]16 . +
]40 .•
4 ] 1.+
5 15 . + 20.+
]0 ,+
)2. +
-
~0. +
I!"··
48] . +
18.+
1, ) ,+
528.+
20.+
44 ...
1] ,+
19.+
"7
"8
SJ .
2)5.
"9
22 .
'"
..
18 .+
76 .
'·· '··
11 0.
485.
"·
320 .
-
1.]9+
163"· ·
. 44+
86.+
1.52+
1789 . +
.48•
94 , +
lt . O+
4. 4+
]] . 9+
]6.]+
]2 .+
.04 +
208 . +
35 .+
. OS+
229 . +
.4 ] +
. 52+
. . ,,.
2. ] +
-
,,.
·'·
l ] , lo•
14 . 6 ...
2. ] +
2. 5•
1.5+
I,]+
-
·'·
.,.
280
Table
"·
l'linera.l
'"'
Vitamin Con t ent of Some Conmonly Used Laotln American Feeds (Cont.)
Intern&-
t io na I
Entry
lntern;~tlonill
Fet:CI
Feed Nill'lle
CEIICHRUSCILIAIIIS . 8uffelgrass
-aerial part , fresh, midbloom
'"
"'
"'
"I
"'
"'
"'
"'
2-10-252
-hay, sun-cured
1-IG-353
-leaves, fresh
2- 17-629
,,,
,.,
10)
Chl~n~
,.,
'"
rine
. 00
·"·"
·"
·''
18,A-
. 23+
, J3 + . !J•
. IS +
.16+
.\0•
·II•
·"
. JI
, JJ
·'I
"'
"'
1-Q)-913
.I S•
.OS+
. 06+
CIC[R ARIETINUM. Chickpea
S,-QI-218
CITRUS SPP. Citrus
-pomace without fines, dehydrilted
~-ol-237
lo-Ql-241
-··
cocos
1-10-623
I JJ
,,,
-kernels .. ith coons. me•\ mechanical
5-Qt-572
IJI
-lu:rnels witn coats , meitl 'olvent.
utracted
s-ot-573
-leaves, fresh
2-10-lo\]
IJl
-
.21
kO)
. IS +
J ,•
. \2 +
.6]+
12.+
.08+
22 . +
2~ ...
. 21+
.)0+
.2 3•
. J2 •
•
.20
.OS•
.OS •
. )4 +
. 3] +
,\j +
... . .
. 49+
.08•
., .
.10+
1.9.+
52.•
·"
.0)+
.0 ) +
...
.02
. 02
.69•
.08+
.08+
.0]+
.\ ] +
.08+
. 19•
• 1~+
.09•
. 28•
.16+
. 2}+
.II+
,1) +
. 09+
.llo+
.28+
.61 ·
1.S6+
. 04+
2L+
.65• 1.65+
.0~+
.Jiu
. )6 •
,I )+
. }0 +
.I~
..
2).+
·21
,JJ
,JI
""'
,Qio+
,Qio +
.Jio +
, )] •
,\)+
,\4+
10.•
·'I
. II
, SJ
,IJ
J,SJ
4.22
·"
.oa
1.86
6]. +
100.+
\,18+
l.]b+
. 15 •
.82 +
.89+
~]+
, OJ
.18
.28+ 1.20+
. }0 + 1.}3 +
.)9+
100.
. 0] +
.]8+
.lol+
.\]+
I·•
13- •
.16+ 108 . +
"·
''·
''· .·"IJ
,,,
.20+
100 .
-
.21+
100.
1-QCJ-13'-
"·
100.
lkO
-fruit without seeds , fresh
2-QCJ-648
23. *
100.*
-fruit witt>out setods . fresh
2-o9-{1~8
2).*
100 . •
tOUTAR£A HEXA NO RA. touta r eiil, hexandra
part . fresh , mldbloom
'"
'""'
'• l '""'
.OJ•
.09+
.0)+
.O J+
. 28
1.75
100.
-aerio~l
Coo-
boil It
'"'
ltl
100.
e~~tr.cted
COFfEA SPP. Coffee
- fr uit without seeds , dehyd r ated
t'l
.18
'" ·"" ·"
• 15+
100.
NUC lrERA. Coconut
-fruit,
•I'!Chanical e:w.vac::ted
"I
. 08
.}f.,+
100.
1)0
"'
"'
"'
)2 .
,. ·"
,,
100.
Ill
'"
"'
·"·
·''
·"
.JO+
9\.
100.
c~
Sodi ....
.00
.00
.oo
92. +
100 .+
2-Q}-916
'"
'"
. 0]
5-<12-1 ,.~
-hay , sun-cured
")
·"
·" -·"
. OS +
·''
-diniller5grains , dehydr;oted
-aerial part, fresh
sium
·"
100 . •
Ill
Ill
(%)
s-oz-1 ~~
'"
'"
··~
9J,
22.
CHLORIS C.AYANA. Rhooesgrass
,,,
Phos- Po-
-brewers grains, dehydrated
>20
"'
"'
"'
"'
si um
100.
100 .
CEREALS
1'\ag-
CalMatter c iU'IO
2-13~"9
,,,
100.
2.S1
,JI
•··
281
...
Man-
·-
Entry
I r on
,.
"·
Ill
112
IIJ
'"
line
ncle
\<] ,+
8].+
-
2211.+
2lo4,+
)7 ,.
40,+
-
269 -•
36 .+
284 . +
)8 .•
22.
.
VIta-
Sele-
,.,,
,.,,
,,, "'~
,,,
,,, '""'
,,, '""'
,,, '""'
aine
... ;,
(IU/
g)
vlu-
8io-
,.,.,..
tin
line
Vit01-
Foli c
Pan to-
Ac i d
<h~
(Fol.- Nl1cin)
nic
Vi tOI- Albo-
(IU/
"''"
,..,,
Acid
vin
11.+
loC). +
2/ .
"'
"'
117
118
119
120
121
122
,,.
ill
"'"'
. 07+
. 0] +
2}.+
.6)+
]0.•
.68+
-
. 22 +
lo ] ,+
.24•
4].+
8.9+
\,\+
1.6+
-7•
...
.2) +
lo],+
11 .5 •
6. ] +
2.5•
2584.+
.2 5+
lo9.+
12 .2•
S-7 •
6 . 0•
] ,h
2.6 ..
1. 2+
1.) ..
1.]+
2. 1+
2.)+
1 ,6+
8. 2•
1.0+
1.4•
21 .
....,.
71.+
7].+
]21.+
)60 .+
129
) 42,+
soa ••
... 7-·
26.+
]8,+
-
\], +
IS. •
]0 . +]) .+
773- •
86].+
-
22 . •
211 • •
2] .•
40.+
92. +
137. +
1].}+
IS,Io+
12 .} +
18.8+
-
6.2<-
69 .•
73.*
68.+
1) 4
IJI
681o,+
65.•
136
750 . .. 7Z.+
iJ7
1)8
139
"'
I"
142
I'J
"'
"'
"'
so.•
SJ.+
]2 . +
-
979 -•
10) 6,+
1085,+
1189. +
\ , lol+
J. SQ +
25. •
6. 5+
26.+
6.8·
.]0+
26,+
6.]+
,JJ+
28.+
6.9+
.
-
......
...
2.5+
I,~ ..
-
9.2+
I) I
1)2
IJJ
...
1618. •
1757 -•
2~'-5·
"·
127
128
IJO
Thia111ine
"''" """
,,, '",,, ,.,,
,,, '""
,,, ,.,,
,,, ""
,,, ,.,,
,,, ,.,,
,,,
,,, f~,
'""',,, '""'
02
),2 +
], 4+
].lo+
).7+
......
...
-7•
282
hblel'J. l'llneral aod Vit..,in Col'ltent of Some Cormonly Und Lonin American fee<ls (Cont.)
...
Entry
,,_
tiona I
,,, ,,,_
Feed
~ltter
chm
'"
(\)
Intern.-
International
FeedN-
CROTALAIHA SPP. Crotalar ia
"'"'
"''"
lSI
152
,,,
'"
ISJ
'"
,,'"
'"
-aerial part, fresh
-aerial part, fresh, milk suge
CYNOOOH DACTYLOH. Ber111\ld~riU
-aerlt~l part, fresh
-aerial part, fresh, late vegetative
2~1~80
2-<)1--679
2-<J0-712
2-lo-1)1
-aeri1L part. fresh. early bloom
2-Q0-707
2-Q9-1JO
,,,
'",,,
161
2-IG- 2)2
,,,
'"
,,,
,,,
,,,
'"
"''"
'"
'"
,,,
>79
'"
'"
·"
.0]
100 .
·"
.21.+
CYPE AUSFLAVESC[NS. Flo~tsellge. flo~vucet'ls
-aerial part, fresh, mldbloom
2-t3-•U4
OAtTYLlS IOLOf1UATo\, Orchardgrau
-aerial part, fresh
put, fresh. 111idb\ooon, cut I
2-G3-4SI
2-tG486
..~.
. 211+2,1)+
.,.
.os
.18•
• I]
-
. II
t-o) - 438
OAIJCUSSPf' . Co~rrot
-roots, fresh
lo-ot-14S
100.
·''
12 ...
too ...
• 0~+
. 40+
·"
·"
·"
.]9•
2-tG-497
2].
100.
IS.*
100.*
01GITAA1A OEClt18[NS . Pango l lg rau
-aerio~l part , fresh
-aer ial pa r t ,
si\o~ge
2-G]-49)
22 .
100.
3-DJ-lj9S
''·
100 •
-hay , sun-cured
-ne.os, Jun-curt'<l
1-D9-'<S9
1-1)-4]4
.27+
• SO•
88.
.)1
100.
.JI
'' ·
100.
. 07
-
·" .os
·"
...
·'' ·"
. 18
.41 +
.JJ
.)1
. 06•
. 02•
·"'
. so•
.78•
2.88+
.IS+
• ~lo·
Coo-
,.,
,.,, ,..,,
b•lt
>g)
. 0)+
.08•
.OJ
.08
>g )
'·'
...
20 .
"·
.06•
.01•
. 0) +
·"·
·"·
.1]+
.21+
,..
J. •
10.•
,.
1.84
.OJ
.10
-
1.86
.16
.2S+
. II
1.97
·''
.20 +
. 12
"·
JJ.
.02 +
.17+
-
10.•
.I]
.)2+ .12+
. J S• 2.8o+ 1.04+
·"... ·"
·"
.os
1.42
·''·"
.,.
j . JO•
-
.22
.2)
OESP1001~
2-10499
·''
.,
·"'
·'' ·"
. IS
''· ·"
·"
''· ·"
-te1ves. fres h
..
.J]
-
51'9. Tickclover
-aerlo~1 po~rt, fresh
.)2•
.I)
·"
"· ·''
·"
100.
sun-cured
-ho~y,
....
.sa.
·"
Sui-
") '"1\l
1.92•
·"
100.
-aerio~l
·"
·"
·''
.JI 1.]6
·"· . OJ + .
''· ·"
21.
100.
. ]2
·"
·"
·"
100.
'"
'"'"
.JS•
28.
·~
di~.m
.,. '·"
. 08•
]I.
·'~
(\)
.n -
-
2.1o6
• BJ
100 •
ClliODOH SPP. Doqtootn9rau
-aerial part , hesh, eiilrly vegetative
~\i
.01
100.
CYNOOOH PUCTOSTACHYUS. Sur gran
-aeri1L part, fresh
'"~
J].
]I.
c~
Phos- Po-
100 .
100.
160
'"
·''
"· ·"
20.
100.
,.,..
Chlo- nerine
·'~
(\)
<>l
2.
...
1.14
~.98
.JO
-
·"'
·"' ·''
.16
.02•
.0]+
·'' ·"
·"
·''
.17
. )8
.JO
1. )}
.I}+
,2]+
-
·"'
·''
.OJ
.II
,.'·
283
Mam-
Entry
'~
dlru:
g~
Iron
Sel~
"'~
line
kg)
kg)
'""' '""' '""' '""' '""'
kg)
kg)
kg)
.
Fol lc
Vitamin
Vitamin
(IU/
( IU/
g)
kg)
o,
VIa-
""
P•ntoVit~
"'"
"~
(ug/
kg )
'""' '""' '""' '""' '""'
'" ''"kol
'~
line
kg)
(Foi..-Ni•c!n)
ko)
''"
kol
nit
o\c:id
kg)
min
~~/
kg)
26. •
1)2.+
"7
"'
Albo-
Thle"~ mi
ne
Yin
'""' '""'
kg)
ko l
10.1 + ) . ] +
50.5+ 18.)+
"9
ISO
16.
3J, +
100.• -
151
IS2
79·
1SJ
11'
-
12 .
-
)9 ,
JO.
97-
111
116
IS]
26,
2),+
-
1],+
ISS
9•·
81.+
-
61.•
26.+
)0,+
-
6.•
2.0+
21.+
],)t
119
160
161
162
"'
16'
911.• 110 . +
161
166
....
167
JloO .
!]8 .
]7.
168
360.
189.
39-
1b9
1 ~-·
120.•
17<)
llo1.
171
172
177
178
!]~
1Bo
181
182
... -
153·
70).
11 ~ 523.
6. 5+
6.8+
-
)1.•
'·
17J
17'
171
176
,.
17 .
-
1].
108 .
.01+
. 0]+
.14+
1.2h
I·•
S8.+
) . S+ !,lot
)O . t• 12.D-+
.6 •
'·9-
2. ] +
1.9-7·
s.s.
284
Table 19. Mineral and Vitillllin Content of Somoe C01m10nly Used Latin American Feeds (Cont. )
Intern..-
tiona!
Entry
Feed
International
feedNillme
Nl,lllber
,,,
Call'latter c ium
"'
1%1
MagCillo- l'le-
rine
1*1
·'~
1%1
Pl'los- Po-
··~
('j
DtGtTAR I ADECUt1BENS. (Cont .)
18)
'"
•••'"
'"
'"
189
'"
191
'"
19]
"'
"''"
"'
-leaves ,
fn~sh
2-Q'T-595
1- 1)-4)5
-stems , suo-cured
l-1]-lo36
201
202
lD)
'"
lOS
206
DIGITAIIIA[IIIo\NTHA. finge r- grass, woolly
-aerial part, fresh
2- lo-lo84
Viii
ida
2- 11-<lSS
.I]
.1 8
.19
,,...
bait
-
.2]
-
·"
"·
"·
"·
"·
"·
.or
. os
.oo
.oo
26 . *
. 10
100 •
-hay , $uti-cured
1-11-Q63
OISSANTH ELIUM SPP . Catalinl!lran
-aerial pa r t, fresh
2-11-61o9
. JI
OOLICHOS UBLAB. Ool ichos, hyacinth
-aerial part . fresh
2-<19-703
OO LICHOS li01JNG AI . Oo1 ichos , roungai
-aerial part, fr esh
2-1
7- 4S~
.0]
·"
.oo
.OD
-
. OJ
.04
·"
.II
].
II.
18.
100 .
"·
100.
tCHINOCHLOA POLYSTACH"I'A. Cockspur. 1frlcan wonder
2-11-ISS
-aerhll part. fre sh
19.
100.
'"
1-13-lo 38
"·
·"
·"
.or
--
ERACROSTIS CH LOROMELAS. LoYegrns . boer
-ae r ial part, fresh
2-<12-652
91.
2-J2~77
FESTUCA OOLIC.t+OPHYLLA . Fescue. dollchophylla
-aerial part, fresh
2- lo-91':1
.os
.lS
-
.20
100.
·"
]9 .
.04
. 0/
.18
. ICJ+
- 32 +
.II+
.18+
.06
. 02
.09
S9·
100 .
zs.•
100 . *
-
.DO
.lD
100.
ERACROSTIS CURVUL A. LoYegrass , weepir>g
-aerial part, fresh
.10
.ss
.oo
100.
210
liS
·"
·"
·''
'~
Sui,.,,
'"
'"
1%1
'""',,, ,,,
100.
OIGIHRIA VALIDA. Crabgran,
-aerl1l part , frestl
-le<JYes. sun-cured
"'
.D]
I>)
100.
OIC.ITARIA rtACRO(;LOSSA. traograss , maocroglona
- aerial part, fresh
2-11-o57
1-11-1~5
21]
.10
·". ,,
·~
di~
100.
OIGITARIA LONCLfLORA. traDgrus, long I flora
2-11-Q61
-aerial part, fresh
-hay.lun-cured ·
'"
"·
100.
201
208
"'
9).
100.
198
199
200
19 . •
100. •
-leaves , s...,-cured
·'~
I>)
. lS
·"
. 02
.09
..
I.
285
,_
[ntry
'"
Se le-
nii.O'II
dine
Zinc
'""' '""' '""' '""' '""'
kg)
kg)
kg)
kg )
kg )
183
184
"'
"'
186
188
189
190
191
192
193
19'
195
2} .
1%
89.
197
70.
•98
76-
199
8.
200
)].
201
202
20)
'"
205
206
It].
23).
207
220.
233 .
208
"'
210
211
92.
212
2]5 .
213
'"
"'
2\S
-
26 .
-
10] .
.
\l ite-
nan~
g~
7-05
18.22
8.
]2 .
(IU/
g)
,, ,..,,
., ,..,, ,...,..
Vita-
1/itit-
Bio-
mlo
tin
{IU/
kg)
kg)
kg)
line
Fol ic
Ac::i d
Pan to-
(Fo\ 11-Hia-
nic
Ac::id
ci n)
''"
'""' '""' '""' '""'
kg)
kg)
kg)
kg )
1/itlt- AiboTh iamin
fl~
mine
(mgl
(mg/
•• ,.,,
kg)
kg)
kg)
286
Table29 . "lner al •nd Yitilllli n Content o f SOllie COI'nO<'II y Used lnin Amer ican feeds (Cont. )
El'ltry
,,_
217
"'
,.
"'
"'
"'
"'
'"
225
"'
m
tiona I
,,,
lnternttlonal
reed
l'lltter cl i.A'n
Feedtlc.ne
Nunber
ffSTUCA DOLICHOPHVLLA . (Cont , )
-~erial part, fresh. mature
2-IG-918
GLYCINE 1\U, So)'tlean
-h<~y ,
1-(1~-558
sun-cured
S-olo-610
5-<llo-fl()lo
-seeds witho"'t hulls , mead solvent
s-oto-612
131
"'
"'
2JJ
-flour
S-Ql-f.,12
- hulls
1-()1-599
S-QI~B
-seeds,
lJ7
-seed s.-•1 solvent extr.cted,
~ro~d
pro te i n
'"
"'
"5
'"
"'
"'
"'
"'
-stems, sun- cured, pOSt ripe
S-QI-621
. 02
.Ok
"·
1.19
1. )3
91.
"·
91 .
...
...
.I )+
.IS +
.]6 ..
.85+
-55
. 61
·"
. Jl
1%)
....
·'5
.1 ..
. 51
-59
1.22
.OJ +
. 20
.03•
. 0] •
·"
.29 •
. 08+
.29 •
• Oio+
.2] ..
. ]Q ..-
.65
.72
,Ql..
. }0 +
.64 • 2.13+
. Jh 2.]6 •
-35
.)9
100 .
.16•
.29•
.....
. 26+
. OS •
.n ..
.I )+
-23•
. 26•
-97•
• 26+
,.,
,,,
,,, lmg/
"' '"
... .•··
. 15
-3'
top-
lmg/
Iii
1.15•
1.27•
·"
'~
bait
...
. ]0
100 .
94 .•
...
. 0~ +
.09•
.
. 09 •
. 12 ..
I.
'·
..
16 . +
18. +
"·''·
,II +
.12+
.22•
.21o+
. 61 .. 1.80·
.2]+
,3)+
. 18•
1.98•
.)0 •
. J7 •
.20 •
H.•
1,')1)+
. Jlu
.38•
. ~3 ·
. 09•
, 10 ..
21 . •
·""•
_qg .
.O J•
20. •
.07•
1) .•
....
1,}]
2.20 •
.19+
·"' ..
22.+
23 · •
l-1l~91o
. 22+
100 . •
. 2)+
·''
·"
• 02+
100 .
100 . +
.1 5+
"·
• I]+
. 19 +
....
92.•
100.
• 1~ .
. lit +
.OS+
. )2 •
.JS•
...
.10
.]8•
.87·
. 6]+1.11 •
. ]3 .. 1.20+
. Sio+L12•1.38•
-59•
1.22+ 1.51 •
.02+
. 02+
_,,.
. ]\+
.....
.05•
.08+
. 09 +
.02 •
.02+
12.•
I ], +
so .•
. 2.1.+
. 26+
55- •
- 25+
,J,q •
.2/ +
-53 •
91.11
c oom~on
lo -ID- 101
"·
100.
140110Et.v. VULGARE. h r l ey
-.erial l)lrt, fresh
2-oo-511
''·
11-oo-5119
-Qrlln
.II
... ...
100.
.08
-mil1t sprouu. dehydrilted
Hl0-5/oS
q lo,+
100.+
. 22 +
.2h
1,
·•7
.\2•
, I ]+
·"
-35
. I] +
. IS •
.)9
. )6 +
.)9+
. 18 +
,]I +
.]5+
.)6
100.
-'-6•
- 52 •
.0) +
. 0] +
. 21+ 1,\8+
. 2) + 1.2 6 +
.IS+
. IJ •
. 1] +
.19+
....
....'·.
.85+
HYPARAHEHIA RUfA, J aragua
-aer I ill part, fr esh
2-Q9-Io0 7
31.
100 .
250
tPO,OEA l.lTATAS.
151
251
,.,
Sui-
ol~
100.•
H[LIANTHUSAKNUUS. Sunflower,
"'
'"
It>
So-
,,~
GOSSVPIUI'I SPP. Co tt on
2J5
236
"'
"'
'"
I >I
.07
100.
-seeds, meal solvent e•tr .c ted
,,~
si ~
.20
100.
S-olo-600
Pllos- Po-
n~
)6.•
100.
-•eeds , seal ,.e;;h;anical e"tracted
"'
Mag -
Ctllor ine
100 . *
100.
1-(1~-560
218
'"
"'
"'
Cal-
-tul:lers, fresh
Sw~tpotiltO
t.-olo-]88
"·
100.
.13
·"
...·"
.02-!.06+
.os
-•5
.OS•
.IIi•
·" ·" ·"
·"
·" -73 ·".oa
....n
.}lo• • .02•
1.07+ .05+
.Oio+
,\) +
.07
.21
-
"·'·
1.•
'··
287
Seleni..n Zinc
{mg/
.
kg)
g)
\/ita-
·-'"
Entry
I~
g~
dine
{mg/
Iron
nesc
{mg/
{mg/
kg)
kg)
kg)
217
218
"'
220
,.,,
kg)
21 .
.2h
.24+
m
)IS,+
82.•
93.+
291t.•
10.+
280.+
'2
(IU/
kg )
Folic
Acid
VIta-
.,
min
Bio-
40 .
224
22S
226
16),+
!So.+
)2,+
•s.
Vi ta- Rib~
{mg/
nic
Acid
{mg/
kg)
kg)
25.+
2] ....
18.
IS.Io•
(u!l/
{mg/
kg)
kg )
kg)
kg)
590 . +
61t9 . +
-
' I"
Pan to-
cin
{mg/
(Fa Ia- Ni i-
l i ne
{mg/
-
c in)
fl~
,.,,
Till•-
vin
mine
{mg/
kg)
•ol
kg)
13. 5+
1.5+
14.8+
1.}+
).6•
4.0•
1.8+
2.6
).8
) .0
'·'
'6
•o.
.12+
•s.
-
.10•
58.+
64 .+
-
,II+
JS.+
- 37+
282}.+
• .1.2+
)184.•
,]3+
.)6+
2642.+
&.lolo+
2916.+
].10+
sa .•
. ) )+-
261}.+
l] . lo+
)I,+
)4,+
llo.li+
6.5•
J.S•
15.8+
}.2+
) . 8•
4 , )+
5.9+
2. 9+
).2•
&.S+
2.9+
j.]+
].t..
227
29.+-
.66+
"'
.IS+
120.•
1)3,T
)I.
32 .1'
. Sh 61t . t
.)6+
2896 .+
,]]+
. II+
1)1.+
]],+
,10+
57 - •
. ) 2+
2755.+
. ]4+
''·
2)0
.12+
145 ....
1.1 ....
&~ .
• ]& ...
3051. ....
.82 ...
+
16.5 +
18.)+
&.S•
22.•
14.8•
4.9+
2~ .
1&. ~ ...
s.5 ...
...
n ...
2)1
2)2
2).
2JS
2)6
1]9.+
151.+
2J1
189.•
2o6.+
"'
Ho
"'
-
•··
-
21. +
-
20.•
22.+
61.+
b].+
-
5-9•
),1+
).]+
lo.1•
--
10.+
2].•
VJ•
9. 3• 9.5+
9.8+ 10.1+
82 . •
118.+ 108.+
1]1.+1 19. •
1.6+
21.
,lob+
2J)
(mg/
754 . +
22 . •
.1 )+-
"'
min
6}1.+
2lo ...
2lo.+
19}.
222.
"~
6.
}21..+
22]
(IU/
Vi amin
2.
"·
221
min
1],8+
15.1+
s....
5 - ~·
t..8•
5.2+
,...
/I.
79 •
a.o ..
.....
&.I+
&.8+
1.6
1./
2.6
2.9
51.+
54.+
8.9+ 10 . 2 +
9.5.. 10.9+
] . 0+
].2+
8 . 1o+
8.9+
.89+
.97•
28o0.•
JOSS.+
l.lo]+
~ 1..
1.&1+
loS.+
• 16•
. I ]+
1050. +
11]1.+
·57+
,61,+
lo . l]+
lt.loO+
1607 . +
1 ]13 . +
6.9+
HI
2'>
..
,..
"'
24S
246
"'
"'
"'
.Oio+
. OS•
...
SJ.
1&.+
18,+
.IS+
. I]+
loO.+
lolo, +
181 ...
193 . +
]].+
35.+
• ItS+
.48+
]b ...
82.+
,.
250
68.
251
)).
102 .
lS2
6•
21.
)l .
-
6) .
'"'·
... -
a.
"·
.,.
2.0.
1,1+
), 4+
288
hble29 . l'linel"al otnd Vitamin Content of
S~
COf!IIIOnly Used Lnin Alrw::ricoon feeds (Cont.)
InterneEntry
'"
253
21'
211
"'
lnternation•l
reedN-
LINU1'1USITATISS1t1UI'I, Fl.u.,com'I'IOn
-seeds, llleill 111e:::homical extr.cted
Caltlatterci..,
Chlo- n ~
rine
si1.111
Nl.lllber
<*l
1>1
l>l
5~2-olo~
s-o2-o .. a
I'IANIHOT ESCULEHU . Cass•va , conmon
217
-•rill
"'
"'
'""'
-leaves, fresh
2-QI-15)
•l eav es, SUI'I-curi!'d
1-1)-552
-peelings , dehydrated
-tubers , rresn
"'
pert,~a l
I-QHS2
26\
266
267
"'
. Oio +
"'· ·''...
"· ...
- 59+
.61o +
....
....
2-o0-1
17
-hly, SU"O- C:ured
1-oo-o78
-hay, s...,_curo:d, eMly bloom
1-o0-os9
J-o0-212
-le•ves, sun-cw-ed
I --()I)-I lob
278
HELIN IS HINUTIFLOAA .
-Mrlll part, fres h
2-o]-1)0
281
282
-hay, sun-cured
1-o9-1o56
.lol+
1.53+
.IS•
.]9+
.lo ) +
.sq •
·"
·"
...
.22
.10
1.55
"· ·"
1. 6~
·"
-
1.11
... ...
2. 81,
.)2
. 28
·"
2(, ••
.2h
29.•
...
).
·"
1.07
. II
.jJ
...
. Oio +
],61o+
.18+
. 40+
1.80 +
-09•
• 08+
.06+
. lo l+
.JS•
.2]•2. ]0 +
87.
1.6)
.}2+
. Sh
·"
-
.21o+
.61+
.10
.27
1.13
. OJ
.89+
"·
...
.
..
. 2\
.
.OJ+
. 16+
. ) 1+
·"
·"
.21..
. 28+
·"
-
1.89
.3]•
91.+
!,loB•
.]lo+
·" ·"
·"
.]1+
.20..2.]2•
• llo +
100 . +
1.64 +
.27+
.u...
. ]8+
. )lo .
.22•2. 57 +
.IS+
.}0+
. lCJ•
.lol+
·"
2.11•
. 28
l . ]O+
-
:~l
. JO
"·
-97
1.06
-
...
-
8•
• 16
-
100 .
1.93
27 .
100.
.)I
.)0
.liS•
·"
.JJ
27.•
29 -•
-
.16
, lj
.lo2+
.lob+
••l
.19+
-
. )b
...
...
••l
-
J7 .
.12
. llo+
. )6 +
.J7+
• llo+
1.11
~lanesgrau
219
,II+
.12•
2.50
...
'"
-%• l.)lo+
1.06
·"
'"
1.,1 1.,1
.81+1 ,)8+
2-35
J9 .
to.-
bolt
Ill
.88+ 1.23+
. )2
100.
280
Ill
lo . 2]
100.
276
Ill
88.
100.
100 .
27'
dium
100.
. 02
c~
Sui-
So-
,;...,.
. IJ
100.
s ll ~e
..,
"""
""
l>l
1.61
100 .
2-Q0-181.
-
.12
Pnos- Po-
2. 90
100 .
HEDI CAOO SATIVA. llhlr•
-~ r ial part, rr esh,e arlyv ~e9etatlve
27l
1.95
2.25
1,\)
"·
.II
10 .
"·
'·
18.
2. +
11.+
10.
.10
.02
·"
'·
10 .
. 07
1]. •
'·
20 •
100.
/'\USA SPP. hn1n a
-..erial p•n., fresh
HJO-It8]
2"
290
• lo]+
1o-o9-599
-aerhd part,
287
. Oio +
11-11-917
27 1
272
"'
"'
"'
"'
-39+
2.62
'"
28)
90. +
100.+
...
-at:rlitl part, tresn, e01rly bl oom
277
. 04 +
.04+
100 .
270
271
. 42+
. loS+
100.
260
261
<*l
92 ·
100 .
-seeds, /Ile al solvent extracted
H•g-
o,,
tlonel
Feed
OAYZA SATIVA. Aic r
-br..., wi th germs
~-o ]-928
"·
,.
,. ·"
100.
-br..., with grr•s wit h hul l$
1+(1)-9)1
-hulls
1-o8-<I]S
. 0] +
.0]+
· '7
100.
.)0
100.
• )2
.01
.\0
.0]+
• 08 +
. 86+ l,lt6+ 1. 73 +
. 91t + I. S9 + 1.88+
.0) +
-
·"
.)2
1.08
.0]•
. 08 +
. I)
.I\
.20
·"'·"
... ...
.......
.IJ
.21
. o~
• 12
·"
•
.1 8+ I , ~0+
. 20+ I,S)+
12,+
28) •
)12.
.08+ 2.02+ 230 .
. 09• 2.22 • 2Sit.
289
·-..
Entry
,
253
"'
"'
"'
"'
"'
2S6
nese
·~
Sele-
,..,,
,.,,
,,, ,.,,
,,, '"''
,,, "'~
,,, ,,,
dine
.0]+
. 0]+
tron
1]8.•
I'Jlt.+
]9 . +
lt2.+
]20 .+
]8 .+
354 . + 42.•
line
I ,.I
.82•
.89+
.
\lit•min
(IU/
g)
vlumin
Vita111in
"~
,..,._
line
. ])+
.]6+
·"·
1801.+
1961. +
1)94.+
ISH ••
.9\t-
,,,
10 . ]
359.
39 - 5
1 . 8] +
),1]+
l.l6<t
1.1.0•
26S
266
267
268
]8.+
41.+
14 . 5+
5. 6•
15.8+
6.1+
) . 5+
]],+
3],+
1 ~., ...
16 . ]•
].8+
2.9+
8 . 6+
].2 +
2.8
•8.
"·
''·
8,
'"'· ''·
,,
)9.
]8, +
) 16 . •
38.
61.+
2]] .+
)0.•
10 . ]
184.
"·
SJ,
...
''·
,...
..
-
1962. •
·'-9• 27.•
-
1808 . ..
-
....
It I,+
-
1]08,+
-
,I]•
-
.20•
-
16.]+
41.]+
.
25-7•
,.... "·..
2.96+
"'
276
lOS. +
3),+
216.+
)6,t
"'
278
179-
]lo, +
].
'9S·
81.+
8.
21).
28o
802.
"·
8•.
,.
).]+
mine
( /
....
4. 2+
].5 +
8.1t+
..,
L2
20.
62.
"'
"'"'
Thi1-
vin
t .,l
,. ,,
1]9.
269
270
l]:i
Ribo-
.,;n
Acid
"·
26•
263
26'
Vit~
nie
t.,l
-
260
Pa•to--
Acid
(IU/
3}.•
]6.+
258
rollc
(Fol..- Nl•cln)
"~
''",,, ,.,,
'",,, ,.,,
,,, '"''
,,, ''"
,,, ,..,,
,,, '"''
,,, ••,,, ,,, ...,,,
'"''
02
)0.+
22.·11+
-
-
-
"' ,..
2••
8.'
1996.•
1\,]
u.s
2.0
'·'
"·''·
,.,
'"
..."'
'"
"'
"'
...
288
'""
] 1] . +]111 . +
346.+ 372 . +
607.
'"'·
....
lSI.
--
]8, +
41.+
-
,li]+
.4]+
124], +
1}57.+
2.22+ )0].+
2.42+ )30.+
2].1+ 1],4+
25.2 + 14.6+
28f, ,
316 •
412.
•s4 •
22. +
2.11,+
"·
''·
] . 8+
8.6+
2.6+22.6+
2.8+ 24.]+
,,.
.6+
2,2 +
2 • .1!+
290
hbl e 29 .
~lneul
andV it ilftl intontent o f
SOllie Conmonl y Used Luin America n Feeds (t:ont.)
tiona\
Entry
"-
lnternilltioroal
Fee d Nlll!le
Feed
,,,
Magt al-
Matter ci l.lll
{%)
<>l
Cillorine
191
191
-pollshings
~-() ) -91o )
H JJ-925
193
19'
89.
.10
,1\ +
• 1]
.12+
us-
"''
<>l
·ltl
' ~ "~
ttl 1%1
·"
-
.... ·"·"
.s..
1>5
2-o2-3lo5
196
1.,
198
,.,.,
2-())-lo'fl
1-())-lo%
301
301
)OJ
'"
lOS
PASPALUH HOT.HlJH. 8ahiagrass
-aer ioil part, fresh
2-()0-Io64
sun-c ured
1-<JO._Io62
.11
,.
.OJ
.08+
.OJ
,loS+
.2S+
.08
1.4 S+
91.
.6)
• 17+
"·
PASPALUI'I PL \ CATULU/'1 . P;upal .m,brownseed
-aerial part, frestl, Inc veqctatl"e
2-10-221
2-IG-220
'"
)09
-hay, Sl.ft-Curcd
1-1 1-$]9
PENMISETU.. IOLAUCUt1 . Pearl.,illet
-aerial part , fresh
2 ~ ] - 115,
·"
JO.
100 •
·"
• 7J
lJ.
.10
100.
·"
. sJ
91 •
1).
100.
311
·"
100.
310
.19+
PUAPIJREUM . Mapiergrass
-aerial part, fresh
2~]-166
'"
) 15
317
) 18
)19
310
311
J11
J1J
'"
ko l
8.•
9-•
...
.01
"·'·
·" ·"
.01
1.16
-
·"'
·''
. 18
·''
-
.sa
·"
• 18
10.
10 0 .
PHASEOLUS'o'lJLIOAAIS . Bean, kidney
.OJ
.1)
...
PISIJMSPP •
-pods, silage
s~o-6oo
....
100.
]-11-97 1
.06
.06
·"
.18
.10
·"
-
·"
. 06
.11
PENtllSET~
,,,
.1)
,.,
,.,,
,)\+
.10
92.•
100.
-hay ,
-aer i al part, frcsh,"" ldbloom
313
. 28+
,,,..
100.+
,,,"'
) 11
\ .\]+
l.]h
.os
100.
-hay, sun-ciM'"ed
)00
. 1]+ ) . 85+
.19+ lo, 31+
. 18
-51
...
<ol
.1 0 +
·"·"
"·
100 •
PANICU1'1SPP. PaniC Ill!
-.erl1\ part , fresh
{mg/
. 09+
.os
.10
• Js
'"
Cobait
l.lol+
·"
·"
. 19
Sui-
1.26+
.10+
89.
100 .
PANIC~ 1'\AXIr~UM .
Cu i neagran
-Aerial part. fresh
...
ph.-
sh.,.
"' '"
Cl'IYZA SATIVA, (Cont.)
Phos- Po-
n~
.
.
.15
.os
-
. 51
2.22
·"
..
1.
.01
.09
-15
1. ]8
.0]
. 18
-91
·'9
-95+
1.05+
.01+
• S2+
.S7•
.... ·"
.01
s.
15 -
...,..
lJ .
100.
POA SPP. 811Je9 r iSS
-aer ial par t , f resh
-hay, Sl.ft-cured
POUL TRY
- feathe rs, meal hydrolyzed
2~0- 7 56
1~0-]lo,.
5~l-79S
100 .
. )0
.98
C)l.+
100.+
)1.
· 39•
. )6+
91-
• 10
100 .
.11
-
. 28+
.)0+
....
.06
.19
.21+
. 25+ 1.57•
.2 ] + \ ,] h
. 1..
. 10
.22+
.11
.28•
.]1+
.69+ l.loS.
.]6+ 1.61 +
9- •
10.+
.... ...,..
.OS•
291
l'!an·
I~
Entry
'"
(""/
(""l/
nese
·~
(""/
ko)
kg )
kg)
dine
291
292
293
29A
291
296
297
"'
10] .
125 . +
115.
litO . +
-
]08 , +
Seleni1,111 Zinc
(""/
(mg/
ko)
ko)
-
]0 . +
Vlt.-
VIta-
mlo
A
mlo
(IU/
(IU/
g)
kg)
02
Vit.mlo
.,...
(
Folic
Pan to-
""
nic
111 in
Acid
(mg/
"~
,.;"
~ni n e
(""/
(.,/
( ""/
kg)
kg)
ko)
kol
line
(Foi.-Nlacin)
ci n
Ch~
/
(""/
(""/
(""/
(mg/
kO)
kg)
ko)
kg)
k g)
-
6].+
,,,
"~
....
.&1+
11J io , +
1]8], +
-
lo 2] .
lo ]lo .
"~
Vita-Rib~
.,
loS.9+ 27 . 6•
51 . ~ +
]0.9+
Thia-
1. 8+ 19.7+
2.0+ 22.1+
Jlo6, +
91 ·
"·
195.
-
18.
162.
12.
-
.,.
"·
299
300
"·
)01
2/o].
)02
II· •
)OJ
60. +
'"
lOS
306
,,,
307
309
310
"· "·..
'"
)26.
312
19.
JIJ
'"
9}.
..."·
,,,
,,,
311
'·
''·
as.
n.
I], +
. ]6 +
25.•
19. •
.AO•
2].+
-
2.
10 •
...
·'·
6]].1 1\Q, ]
12S. 06C)Io . lt
I I.
16.
2 ••
2.6
..,'·'
) 18
319
20 . +
320
66 . +
237. +
260 . ... 93 ....
,,.
. Oio +
75- •
.OS+
8 1.+
-
81o . +
321
)22
Jl]
....
]
11.0+
,....
1]. +
.8]+
.90•
68 .+
]lt.+
82. +
90. +
.Oil+
.05+
882 .+
962. +
.2 1+
.2) +
21. +
8. 9+
2). +
9-7•
2.9 +
] . 2+
10 . 1+
11. 0+
2. 0+
2. 2+
2. ] +
8. 8+
-
292
Table 29.
1'\ir~er;r.l
and Vitamin Content of SOllie t01m10nly Used L.ltln Alrlcri c <~n Fee ds (Co nt. )
tiona I
,,,
International
Feed
1'\ilttercil.lll
Feed Name
H~er
"' "' '"
2....()2-'+82
28. +
100 .+
Intern.-
Ent ry
,_
l'la9-
C•l-
Chlo--n~
rine
sh.m
(%)
ph~
liiS-
So-
'~
,,~
diiMI'I
"'
1%1
'"
,.,
,,, '""'
,,,
'" '""'
Co-
Phos- Po-
Sui-
Cop-
b;r.lt
(\)
PUERARIASPP . Kudzu
325
'"
Jl7
-aerial part, fresh
1-o2-l.o78
-Mi y , sun - cured
)l8
329
SACCHAIIU110fFICINARUt1 .
-hay, sun-cured
1-o~o~as
~-1
3-251
-fii01Uu:s
)))
-mol uses, 1110re thiln lo6t inver t sugars lo....()lo-696
mare than 79-5 de<Jrees brill
-top o r aerial part with leaves, fresh 2....()4-692
'"
'"'",,,
'"
,.,,,,
J'l
'"
,,,
7J.
7'-··
100,+
2-1]-()01
"'
)55
)56
J57
JIB
J59
)60
·"
• 74+ 2. 2&+
·"·" ·"·""
.99 ... J.Oh
.89
-
"· ·"
·'I
'-60
6. } 4
...
·"
8.
.08+ 2.98+
,16•
. ]5+ 1.18+
.lo2+
.11+ 1,,01•
.22 +
.4/+
49. •
1.59• 66 . •
·"
.I)
,7J +
. 51
2.96 •
8.-
.Jh
. 9)
"· ·''
·"
. 07
100.
SEC ALE CE~EALE,
-grain
'"
~-Qio-(llo
7
9J .
100 .
SESA1'1Uf'1 INOICUI'\. Sesame
-seeO$, meal mechanical extrac::teO
-seeds, me"1 solventextracteO
s-o~o-no
s-o9-906
SETARIA SPP. f'1 i 11et
-grain
SOLANUI'1 TUBE~OSU/1.
-leaves. fresh
~-o J -o98
Potato
2-11-]28
2-o4-]14
-aerial part, sun-cured
1-Q]-q6a
SOIIbHUH 81COLOII SUBGLA8RESCENS. Sorgl\...n,m ilo
4-Q4-4~1o
-grain
SORGHUI'1 HALEPENSE. Sorgh<~n, johnsongrus
-aerial part, fresh
-hay. sun- cUO"ed
.loB•
.52•
.02+
.0)+
. '-6•l. )S
.SO• 1.46
1.2]•
1. ]) •
.10+
.]3+
,))
1.75
1.89
·"
J,] l
4.01
.0]+
. 0]+
"·
2.1o]
2.67
-
.)6
.14 ...
.16+
.1 8 t
90.+
100.+
...
1),
• OS+
.OS•
.lb•
.10
- 13
89.•
88.
.0]+
.04+
2...04-lo\2
2 ~. +
100.•
.22+
.91+
1-Qio-loO]
91.+
100. +
.89·
.80•
. 4]+
, loB+
.20
-
242.
262.
.04+
.Oio•
.1 ] +
.llo't
.0'- •
.OS •
.)9+
,]4+
. )8 +
.OS+
,I] +
.]1+
,JS+
.Ob•
.1 6+
.18•
.1]+
,11o+
. ]0+
, ]lo+
.Js• .oh
,]1+
.04+
,11•
.IS+
.08+
.O'j+
.JS•
.1)
-
.16
.1 1
.)0
.04+
.OS+
.29•
. ]2 t
•··
,I]+
·"
·"
.. ,
·"
.• 8
·"
100 .
1.47
1.S9
1.47
"· ·"
100.
SOIIbHUH 81COLOR tAFFIIORU H, Sort;Jh.., , keflr
4-()4-428
-grain
.. "12
,lb•
.0) •
9J,
100 .
SOR!'.HU/1 BICOLOA. Sorgh...n
-.te r lal p"rt, fresh, dou.gh stage
·"·"
·'I
.I ) +
.llo+
.0] +
100.
100 .
)52
J5J
. JS•
100 .
S INENSE. Sweetcane, japanc$e
-aeri al part, fre$ h
)50
"'
.}2+
.80•
SACCHA~U/1
))8
JJ9
. 7J +
2.35+
88 .
100.
J)1
3J7
. 2]+
2.15+
100.
"'
lJ5
. 0&+
Sugarc¥~e
))0
"'
'"
'}I.+
100. •
.87+
] . 14+
"·
"·
8.•
,\21'
. ~7+
. SJ+
'··
5·•
.09+
.10+
-
·""' .,.. .]s.
.2S•
. 26• ).1 2+
• ]I+
.l]+ 1.22+
. JO• 1.JS+
.]S•
.01+
.01+
I·•
.43•
.
-
22.•
llo.•
293
.. .. .,, ...,,
Vi til-
l't;tn•
·-
Entry
dine
·~
Ir on
(.,/
kg)
g~
Sele-
roi~o~~~
( .,/
nese
( /
kg )
kg)
kg)
(.,/
Viu-
Z i nc
(
/
kg )
(IU/
(IU/
kg )
... ''"..
'"
c~
fo lic
Acid
( fo l.- N l.-
cln)
cin
nic
Acid
111in
lh1e
/
( .,/
( ..,/
( .,/
(.,/
( .,/
kg)
kg )
kg)
kg )
kg )
kg)
Vita-
"~
("'/
kg )
(
P•nto-
.....
VitrRib~
,,
"~ 111Thl1ine
/ (..,/
(
kg )
kg)
325
"'
] . 6 ..
B.h
J27
'"
'"
'·'
'·'
10.
JJO
Jll
2)3.
)20.
Jl2
"·
'"'·
)I.
llJ
1.56 +-
11)6. +
~4.+
"'
"'
"'
'"
2.10+
261<.+
59. +
JJS
112.
-
16.+
21.+
.69+
.92t-
756.+
,lh
}7. •
)7.4+
lo,2+
2.1:1•
·9•
101],+
.IS+
49.•
SO.]+
S-7•
].8+
1.2+
'·
20 .
II ·
66.+
JJ9
72 .+
'"
'"
JkJ
9] . +
48 . •
100.+
52.+
9.•
10 . *
'"
'"
'"
J4S
]6.+
82.+-
6).+
]0,+
-
-
-
....
)O ,t)2 .+
.06 +
\00 . +
\08.+
44 ] . +
4]9.+
-
.66+
15.+
.]1+
16.+
a.s.. -
19.+
20.+
5-9•12.5+
] . ]•
6.)+ 1). 4+
). 6+
1541 ,+
166).+
..
,I
,k
).
"·"·
ll1
J,l
J.s
7-9 •
1.8+
1. 9•
4. 4+
1o . r~
1.8+
).0+
"·
6),
]0 . +
]],•
Ill.+
7) 9 . +
.2 2+
48 . +
9.0+
1. 5+
6. 6+
IS ,t-
822 . •
. 25•
Slo.+
10 . 1+
1.6+
],] +
]8. +
12 . 0+
1].1t+
IJ,
Jkl
526.
J49
JSO
JSI
lSl
197·
21],
JSJ
JSI
JSS
JS6
16. +
18. +
....
.89+
15.+
48 . +
5lt.+
16.+
18,+
.20 +
.2)+
1].+
19. +
lSI
JS8
359
)60
•so. -
]I.+
6).+
.06+
.0]+
408.
5)1o.+
590·•
-
.211 +
4]9.+
. 2]+
'-9J . +
.20+
.22+
It].+
15.+
- 71•
H ·•
.81+
6]6.+
720.+
.11 +
. 1)+
lt 2.+
111.+
J].+
11. 0 +
12.1.+
6.]+
1.2+
],8+
7 - 5+
Lit+
lt.J+
....
1.1+
1. ) +
~- 1+
lt.]•
) .5+
29~
Table 29. ,inenl ilr>d Vit-in Content o f SOifle to-oonly U11ed LUin Alr>ericiln Feeds (Cont. )
...
,._
Intern.t lon~d
Entry
reed
lnternuionill
reedNime
2-IG-906
-..erl011l pilrt, fresfl,lllature
362
STIPA SPP.
363
-h•Y·
Heedl~rus
1~3-202
s~.n-cw-ed
""'9-
Chlo- ne-
r!ne
tl)
·'~
(l)
TORULOPSIS UTILIS . Yeast, torulil
Pllos- Po-
·~
(l)
48 . •
.06
100.•
.12
-
7~S-SJ4
-dehydrated
-a.::rl.ll pilrt, fresh
2...CI-lt]4
369
370
-hay ,slol\-cure<l
1-<11-lt!S
...
.SJ•
.02+
-59+
.Oh
28.
100 .
"·
"·
100.
TAIPSACI»>LUUH. Ca~ugr;us, guaterula
-aeriil part, fresh
2~2~91
.19
.&6
.22•
1./o]
.29•
1.56
.)2+
.02
. 07
,J7•
-
100 .
·"
~~S-203
88.•
100 . •
.OS•
. 06•
S~S-HB
88.·
100.•
~~S-190
l7J
37'
-flourby-prOdiM:t, 1en thif1
~\
f i ber
37&
m
-9er•s. ground
379
- vr•in
lo~S-211
-vr•i"
lo~S-211
378
J8o
J8J
1~S-17S
J"
)86
UREA
-loS\ nitrogen 281\ protein eq11lYalent
VIGNA SINENSIS.
J87
toWJ~ei,
s-os-o70
"·
"·
....
.78
s-o1-f16l
lEA 1'\AYS. 1'\a l :e
-aerial part, rresh, midbloom
. .
,~
,16+
.OS•
. 11
·'l
. 09•
. 11
.08+
100 .
.1]
. 0':1•
100.•
.16•
.18•
.29•
.Jh
(l)
.. '"..
billt
'"
(
(l)
Cop-
,,)/ ( '')/
...
. 16
. lh 1.55+ 1.06+
.IS+ 1.1)• 2.06 •
8CJ.•
100.+
2-13-763
2S.*
-aerial par t, f resh, d0119h s tage
2-(12-80]
36. •
393
39'
-aerial part, sil19e, 111ilk suge
3~2-318
21·
391
396
-aerl•l p•rt,
1~2-775
100 .
8].
100.
·'' ·"
. 1]
.16
.Jl
. ]6
.0')•
.1 0 +
.J7
2.
'·
.01+
.5]+
.0)+
12.•
.01•
-59•
.0)•
\], •
. OS•
.20+
.17•
.....
.... ....
2 . ]) +
. 16 ·
....
.06+
.22+
. 2S+
....
.S2+
.s9•
.08+
.09+
. 2~·
.2]•
,\2+
,IJ+
·"·
.0}+
. Oio+
.28•
• ] I+
.12•
• I~ •
12.1)
·"
1.02
.6S+ I.IS
1.22•
1.38 +
,,,..
,18•
.21•
·"'·
.OS•
.so•
.sJ•
.2'-• .9lo•
. 28• \ .OJ• I. OJ•
. llo+
.IS•
.14+
.IS•
.12•
.....
.llo+
.0 7
.08
·"
·" ·"'·''
. 00•
.00•
99 . •
100 . •
391
392
s~n-eurt'd
• OS+
.06+
....... ....
....
e cmnon
-~eeds
]88
]89
390
88.
100.
]82
38>
(\)
Sui-
. IS +
.22
TAIT"Itll" AE!.TIWI'\ . \lhen
]81
ditMn
eo.
100.
J67
)68
m
SoSi\111
.OJ
.06
TRIFOLIUtt PRATENSE. Clo11er , red
371
J72
,_
,,_
100.
]6'
361
]66
Cidl'latter ci..,...
(l)
(l)
br~hypllylla
STIPA!JRACHYPHYLLA . Needlegr.us.
361
,,,
....
.10+
7.
"·
12 .
1].
'·
22 •
II,+
12 . •
6. •
7-•
9. •
10.•
]
. lo]•
.18•
.20•
.62•
.0]+
.69•
6.•
6. •
·'l
.4}+
.1!8•
.0&•
. 07•
.18+
.20•
. 62•
.69•
6.•
6.•
.OS• 1.20..
.OS• l.lol+
,I)•
. llo•
, 1]+
.Oio•
.OS•
].•
·"
.~os.
. 1'J•
'··
,..
-
7-·
.26•
.29 •
.lolo+ 1.16•
.so+ 1.3o•
. IS+
.II•
.OJ•
,lo]•
. 2'-+ 1.57•
.00•
.n•
.0}•
.0}+
,IJ+
.25•
.28•
-
..
'··
,
-
.... -.28+
. ]1
. ]8
.H,.
. ICJ •
.lol+
.2h
.29•
·"
.17
.9]+
.12+
• I~ •
6.•
8. •
295
·-...
[ntty
...".
dlroe
·~
lro!'l
(.,/
(.,/
-
363
36'
2 . lro2+
2.69•
10).+
115 . +
(
/
371)0.
"'
J70
..."·
371
372
16.
...
6.
...
. ]8+
.42 ..
52.+
59- •
68. + llo1: . •
.... ......
.... ..
141.+
15] . +
Thl•Mine
2880. • H.Bo• loCJS. + 103 . 9• Jl . J • 116 . 1•
320lt. + 2J.S8+ SSO.+ 115.6• J7,1+ SI.J t-
)Cj, +
lo ), +
1 1.2+
6.6+
7-3•
..
1.9+
19.2+
6.6•
16.)+
1] . 8+
2.0+
s.~o
10.)+
,.....
-
.lro&+ 119.+
• 51:• 1)5. +
-
,]2 +
.)]+
65.+
2.h
1110. +
1)71,+
1.77+ 18 ],+
2.00+ 2 12. +
1].]+ 10. 1+
) ! . lo+ ll.lo+
. 82 +
16118.+
,CJ) +
.2 H
.llo•
JOSS. + 2.12+ 68 . + J8. 1o+ 9-9• 5-5+1:).1+
)lo6).+ 1:.1to+ 77·• 1:0 . 9+ 1\,)• 6.)• 1:6.1:•
lol.+
loS ....
1) . ) +
] . Z+
15.1+
].6+
]2. +
JS.+
-
.10•
869 . +
965. •
....
,lo] •
77-
11 .6•
12.8+
]2. •
}So i-
-
.10+
, II+
869. +
965.+
,lo] +
,\8<t
77-
11.6+
12. 81-
]]
-
\1.+
209.•
2)5 . +
1.0.•
loS.•
8).•
100. •
56. +
68.+
6. •
6.•
a.....
,_,.
llo SJ.+
.28+
. ] 1+
.1:8+
),]+
lro.l+
.11+
.1 2+
,] h
387
388
2 .1+ 21 . 8+
2.l• H.]+
3 ...
.1
.1
J . S•
.1
].5•
3 ...
592.+
662. +
..
....
·' ·'
-
1:.2+
2 . .. ,
7-•
7- •
-
24.•
27 . +
"'
3,.
)91
"'
3'3
"'
(
U .+
\9 .+
179- +
18 1. •
396
( .,/
lo9.+
Slo. •
54. •
nic
Acid
(.,J
.10+
Cjlo . +
.O<J •
.10.
( Fola- Niacln)
2} ...
81.+
26 .
28 .
. 72+ 106. +
-09 •
line
1S.
"·
.6)+
38S
386
"'
1.15+
... .. 1, 28+
10].+
156 . + 129 , +
60. + 125.+
"'
("'/
(.,J
. 0] ..
. 10•
Vita- Rlbo-
At;id
"~
"·
J77
378
383
,,
( I U/
\lit.-
.,
"'"
1)8.+ I I~ ...
SO.+
56.+
]81
382
'(IU/
,,
.0] +
J7S
376
""
(.,/
,_
"~
'6
(.,/
.,/ (.,/ ''"
,,, ,,I
,,, (.,/
,,, (.,/
,,,
,,I ,,, "",,, ,,, ,,) ''"
VItamin
. . -- ....
81.
379
(.,/
10.+
• 23 • 327 •
. 25+ 356 .
373
37.
Zinc
16.
3'·
289.
367
368
Pat~ to-
Folic
Vita-
min
Sel~
,..;....,
,,, ,,, ,,, ,,, ,,,
361
362
J6S
366
..
·~
-
1095.+
1]2].+
15.5 •
17.]+
-
2.)• 9 - l+
2.5+ 10.4+
296
hble29. "lner.1l and Vitamin Content of Some COIIW'IOfll., Used latin Alnerlc;an Feeds (Cont . )
Entry
lnternll lon•l
feed Name
tion•l
Feed
,,,
Mag-
Phos- Po-
ne--
ph~
"•tter ci \111
rlne
siU'II
ltl
I>)
(\)
"'
I>)
C1l-
(\)
Chlo-
Shill
(\)
c~
Cop-
.. ..
''"
"- '"' ,.,,, '""'
,
So-
Sul-
(\)
I>)
bilt
ZU ~A Y S. (Cont.)
397
398
,,,
'02
'"
399
'03
'"
,,.
"'
-aerl•l pa r t ,.ithout ears without
1-1)-325
husks,~~~eal
-coos. grol6td
1~2-782
100.
·"
88 .
.36
88.
100.
-e1rs, gro...,d
lo-o2-8lo9
-gr1ln
ll-o2~79
-stems, fresh
2-Ql-8\lo
·"
"·
"· ·"
100.
.17
. 19
100.
.o8
18.
100.
·''
. 16
·''
.06•
.07 +
.Oh
.05+
.I ] ...
,\1.+
-
·"
. 26
. 16
·''
. 26
·"
.)2
.36
,..
.]6•
.87 ·
.lil+
,1.1+
.11+
6. •
. ~7·
.lo]+
.1)+
.I+]+
.02+
.llo+
-53+
.02+
. 16 •
.28+
. )1 •
..,...
./1
,)0
,\)+
,II.+
• 02 +
. 02+
.eo
·3'
. 02+
. 09+
20 •
22.
297
.,,
Ylt.-
...·-
Entry
.~
,.,,
,,,
,,, ,.,,
,,, ,,, '""
,,, ,..,,
<li n e
Iron
J97
398
.."'...,
101.
11 6 .
399
."'••••••,
Se leni1.11 Zinc:
. 02 +
.0) +
62.
"·
nese
(og/
""'"
( IU/
(IU/
20. +
2) .+
ss.
....
.08+
12 . +
11ri . +
.29 +
)1 .
.n•
JS.
Folic
Acid
{ fol.- Hia-
Vlt.-
Pan toVit.- Rlbo-
"- "- ,..,, ,.,,
,.,, "'"
•• "'"~" ,.,,
'",,, ""
,,, ,.,.,
'",,," '"",,, ,,, ''",,, "",,, '"",,, ,,, ,,,
""'n
li ne
fill a"" i ne
nic:
c:in)
( og/
...,.. --
"· ...
ss .
Vlt.-
,,
"'"
-
.....
.OJ +
}65.+
~ 12. +
.25+
.28+
...
].•
].7 •
4.2+
17 .+
20 . +
4,) +
lo .8+
2].
)0 •
28 . 2
)1.6
-
1.0 +
1.1 •
....- ...
6.1 +
..
.
1. 0.
}.0+
J. ]+
54 6 .1 9]1 . /o
612.7 289.0
298
Table
30.
Proximate Composition and Energy Content of Some C001110n ly Used Middle East
Oiljlutlble Protein
...,_
....
tnternr
Entry
tlon1ol
Inte r national
feed N..-e
-browse, fresh
00]
-pods v lth seeds, fresh
Crude
I'IAtter tractNf'E
fiber
N~er
"'
(t)
2-2s-on
)6.
100.
ACACIA ALIIIOA. Ac«.:la, 1nuree
001
002
.,_
Ether
O•y
'--28-oll
001
91 .
100.
(t)
.a
(t)
4.5 21.7
2. ]
12.5
59.7
.5
.5
5).6
21.5
5].0
22-9
·'·'
62.t;.
66.]
1] .1.
...'"
Toul
tein
··~
(>)
007
ooa
009
010
011
012
01]
-pods with seeds,
..-21kl25
fr~nh
2-27-767
017
018
019
020
021
2-17-765
ACACIA RADOIANA . Acacl1, rMidi~•
-pods, fresh , steoo cured
2-28-o79
"-28-())5
ACHILLEA FRAIOAANTISSiriA , Y•rrow, fr•llrMtlss l lll•
-stems, fresh,lll•ture
1-11-917
ACAOP'fROH ELOtiCATUrl, Whe•tgrus, Ull
-aerl•l p•rt , fresh
ALHAIOI PSEUOALHACI
-b rowse , fresh
CMELOA~ .
2-13-351
C-lthorn
ANDAOPOCON IOAYANUS. llueste.~, 'iJ•yaous
-Mrlll plrt , fresh
2-1fr}4S
2-11~22
ARACHIS H't'POCA[A, Pe.,..ut
-•rill P.Jrt, fre sh,1111ture
1~)-6]7
025
026
1-<18-028
027
5~1-650
028
-seeds without cons, 1110!11 soiYent
extr«:ted
029
0]0
-seeds without cons, noecl'lolnical
extr~eted caked
5-DJ-648
\],\
4 , ]* ~ . S* "·5* t..s•
12.9* 12.5* 12.4* 12.1!•
] . 9 1'-.6
• . 1 15.6
10.8• 10.8• 9-7* 9-7•
11 . 5• 11.5* 10.]* 10 . ]*
5.2
5.5
8.9
9·'
].0
6.2
"'
p•rt, fresh,,.idb100111
2-27-818
2-17-819
2.2
lo8.2
2. 5 56.1
11. ~
1).2
5.8
6.8
18. ~
21.1.
1~.6· 14.2• 1).8• 1] . 8•
16.9•16 .5•16.1 •16.1*
2. 1 7.5
6 . 8 21. ~
5.9• 5.9• 5.5• 5 - 5•
16.8•16.8• IS . ]* 15.7•
1.6
~7 .]
]8.
100.
1.1
2.8
44,]
11.6
]0.11
100.
12 ,6
loJ.5
100.
7·5
1·'
... 8• "·7* ... &• lo.&•
16.7* 16.)• 15.9* 15-9*
5 . 1•
8.5•
4.8•
8.0•
5.o•
8.)•
s.o•
8.)*
2. 2
11.5
...
11.0
27.2
2.8
9.7
16.1
57.6
9.8
)).9
5·9
1.] -1.8• -l.2* -1.01 -1.01
·1
20 . 8
55.8
9·9
].7
2.2
26.5
10.0
5.9
L5 1
2.1*
1.6
1.8
17 . 2
19.6
56.4
64.)
5.5
6.2
...
).4•
].8•
] .6•
4 . 11
1.0 26.1
1.1 18.]
5.2
5. 7
6.8 51.9
7-'
57.1
9 . 8 26.8
29. ~
1· '
6.7
40.)
lo4.}
'·'
100.
10 . 8
26.
·5
2. 0
"·
21.2
...'·'
"· ,•...o
"· '·l·'
100 .
"·"*
lo.&•
12.]
1 ~- 6
35.7
100.
-~oerl•l
4.6•
2.8
1. 6
1.]
].2
91.
lo,lofl
18.9
]1.]
"·
100.
5·9*
28 . 2
46.]
2
6.1
5·9*
'·5.1'
5.5
100.
91.
......
s.s• s.s•
1'~.
1].6
1].2
]],+
lufhlo
(t l
lo],]
1).0
J7,1
88.
"'
(ti
1.0
].5
21.5
100.
AAISTIOA 11UTABILIS. Three•wn, mutabllls
-~oerl•l part, fresh, 1ne "'e!JetatiYe
tB.Io
]5.
100.
100.+
-pods
0}]
...
100 .
ACACIA TOATILIS. Aeacl•, tortllls
-pods with seeds, fresh
OZI
0]1
0)2
60.
100.
022
.,
,..
100.
ACAC lA rl[lANOJCYLOfl. .t.cacl•. bl«:kwood
-browse, fresh
OH
015
016
91.
100.
ACACIA CVAMOPHVLLA . Ace Ia , orilll'lgewattle
-browse, fresh
Goat
(>)
'·'
ACACIA ARAIICA. Acxia, g-w;lllic tree
005
006
CatS~ep
(>)
..
1.5
1].0
16.]
19.4
7.9
8.1
1.7
'·'
'·'
..,
'-7
..
7.1
.8•
2 .0•
1.6•
· 1'
1.0•
2.5•
1. 0*
1.5*
2.8•
].2•
2.6•
6.8•
1.8•
1.8•
].1•
2.1
7.2
-.s•
·9'
) . ]• ) , )* }.)•
11.6 • 11.5* 11.5*
-.6•
.8•
37-5
41 .2
37-51
41.21
...
ll,lo
9.1
Jlo ,S
3·7
1· ...
loJ,J
14.0
5.5
2.11
1.7•
··9
2.7
.8
].2
-.o•
-.1•
-.5•
11.7
"7-7
)6.5
11.1
.6•
-.o~
].2•
-.)• -.)•
'·'*
1.1*
2.9*
).)•
).5•
4.01
1.9•
4.0•
lo2.8+ 42.8+
~7, 1+ 47 .I+
·I'
·1'
2.6•
2.6•
.1•
.1•
. 6•
...
299
Feeds.
Data Expressed on an As-Fed and Dr y Basis (Moist ure Free)
Energy f or Sheep
·-'"
" ""
l>l
. 88•
Unit
(FU
/ kg }
" " ""
m
(ttcoll (Heal
/kg) /kg)
....
....
"'I
6....
6a ••
. 86• 2.a3• 2. 1.h 64 . •
.92• J . oo• 2.ss• 68.•
.86•
20.1
. 281 .90• .78• ...a• .)0* · "7*
.961 3.1h 2. ]2• L67* 1.06• 1.62•
20 . •
]1.•
.28• .90• .]8•
.9]*].1"*2 .]2•
.28•
.97*
, 1.91 1.]1.• 1,1.8• ·90'
.a,, 2,88• 2.lt6• 1.1.8•
39.•
65.•
.sJ.- I , Jh 1.U• 39·*
.a7•2.Sa•2 . lo6• 65.•
n.,
.26# .]6*
.}1J2 , 09* 1, 66•
1.63• 1.]7* 3].•
2.70* 2.2]* 61 . •
'"
2.89• 2.54•
],3]'1' 2.95*
66.• .90* 2.891 2.51> 1 66.1 .901 2.88• 2.52* 1.5(,* 1.02* 1. 50*
76.• 1.05• ) . 3]1 2. 951 76.1 1. 05 1 ).35•2.93* 1.82• 1. 191' 1. ]1.•
Oil
1.1a• 1.0)*
).37* 2. 95•
2].• .)]• 1. 11111.031
]6.• 1. 05* ) . 371 2.95 1
OIS
.92 * ,] I.•
2.21.• \ ,81•
21.•
51.•
.26* .921 .71.1
.&It• 2.21.1 !.8\J
1.00* .au
2.6U 2, 18•
59.•
n.•
.)0* 1.00/ . a4, U. l
.n• 2. 61 1 2.1a1 59. 1
''·"·
.1 8* .621
.6t•Z.IIil l.JII
!],*
.22* . ]4 1 .621
.]6•2.5 ]12, \ lol
sa.,
....
22.1
60.1
·"9* 1.631 1.371 37·1
.81• 2.]01 2.2] 1 61. 1
.so.
/k g)
.92• 1."6*
.97• 1.55*
20. #
55-1
010
018
/kg)
.871 2.a3 • 2. '-" * 1.1.9•
. 93 1 J.oo• 2.58• 1.57*
. 2a• .901 .]al
.96* 3.1312.]21
Oil
Unit
(FU
/k g )
(t'cal ( Me al
65. 1
69 .1
·90• .]8*
).13* 2.]2*
"'
Feed
" " ""
m
61.•
65.•
.aJ• 2.861 2. 461
·93* ] . 031 2. 611
"'
Un it
( FU
/kg)
.8)• 1.)8•
.88• 1, 4]*
2.86• 2. '-6* 65 . •
).0)* 2.6 1* 69.•
012
""
m
2.29• 1.)8*
.851 2. 86•2.4 1. • l,lo]•
oos
008
/kg)
NEg
(Kcal (I'Cal (f1cal
/kg) /kg) / kiJ)
.ao, z.&CJ•
.SO• 2.66/ 2.26 # 60 .#
.85" 2. 831 2.40# 64. #
,,,
/kg)
fol( 111
-59*2.09* 1. 66•
60.•
61o . •
20 . •
]1.•
(11coll
1] . *
lo] . *
2.66• 2.26*
2.83• 2.40*
00)
( 1~:.1 1
.12• .)8•
003
006
" "
.)]• 1.04*
.26*
.]21
.]1 •2 .421 1.991
OO'
(FU
/kg)
. 88•
ss.•
20.*
Unit
Feed
.)2*
2.42• 1.99*
-72 •
Energy for Bufr• l o
C.;~ttle
Feed
001
001
Energy for
Energy for Goats
Feed
EntryOE
( 11coil (t1coi1
/kg ) /kg)
.sA.• .89•
.89• 1.118•
. 60•
1/.•
*
.21*
~7 .
-59*
. 81•2.69•2 .29* 61.*
.87* 2.86• 2.Ut 65.•
. 81*
.87*
. 21*
.]&•
20.•
]I.•
.92*
.53*
, 8]•
....
65.• .a9• 2.8h 2.52*
76.• 1.ott• J.Js• 2. 91•
65 .•
76 . • 1.04•
2].1 .J7t 1.30* 1.15*
.119•
]6.1 1.051 ].70• ) . 29"' 2.06• t.I.Ot 1. 91.•
29.• .lo 1•1.30•1.t5•
81. .• 1. 17* ).]0* ) . 29•
29.• . lit •
a4.•1. 17*
21. 1
51. 1
so.•
.n•
....
. )9*
·95*
,I. I• 1.10*
.)01 . 98• . 81* .It]•
,J7J l.SS•2. 12• 1.2 )•
.26•
.6 ]* 1. 29•
11. . 1
1.9.1
.lal . 81• .69* .lou
.61 1 2.80• 2.)]* '·'-2*
I],J
.221 .n• .61* .Js•
.]61 2.53•2.11*1.22*
.261 .90• . 72*
. 61.1 2.19• 1.]6•
20. •
. 26* ·90'
.62•2.19* 1. 76*
.n•
20.•
so.•
.26•
.62*
sa .•
22.•
.29* .98• . Bit
. 7s• z.ss• 2.12•
22.•
sa .•
.29*
.Js•
.21o• , 42*
. Sh 1.'-3*
18. •
63 . *
. 2h .al• . 69•
.81.• 2.80• 2.3]•
18 . •
63 . •
.24•
.84•
. 19* ,J]•
.66• 1.29*
1].•
57.*
.22* . 7)• .61•
·75*2 . SJ•l . ll*
17.•
57 · *
.22*
·75*
.!]*
·'-5*
.so•
'"
'"
. 62• .so•
2.11.• 1.71*
'"
"'
. ]4• . 62•
2.57* 2. 11o•
01]
.a)•
2.65• 2.23•
60.*
. a31
.]9*2.65#2 . 231
1.]9* J. lol*
2.04• 1.6 1•
l.!,il
lo6. •
.so• 1.]9/1.411 41. 1
.57•2.041 1.611 1.6.1
018
"'
3.2)• 2.86•
].5 6* J,l lo•
73.• 1.01• ).23 1 2.861
81. * 1.11 •).561 ) . 141
73 .1 1.011 ) . 26* 2.89* !. SO• 1.21* 1.]0*
81. 1 1.111 ).59• ).Ia• 1.99* !. ))• 1. 88•
74. • 1.02• ) . 26• 2.89•
8 1.• 1.13* 3.59*J . 18*
]lo.•l.02*
8 1. *1. 1]•
"'
J.6s• ) .1St
lo.Ol* ] . 60*
91.
1. 16•) . 651 3. 281
1.28• 4,0 11 }. 601
8].J1.161 3.49•] .11• 1.96• 1.]1.• 1,8]*
91.,1.281 }.8)•].1. 2•2 . 15*1 ,1.7• 2.01*
19·* 1.10• ).49* ] ,II*
87 . • 1.2 1* 3.83* ].42•
79 . • 1. 10*
87.* 1.21 *
OJ I
.6 1*
.. . 35~ 1.92*
"'
,,
"'
OJO
"'
....
.so-
Oll
.59•
'"
2.)9~
.118•
1.96•
sa . •
22.• .29•
8).
.so.
14.t
SJ . •
.1St
. 62t 2.}51 1.921
SJ . I
1],t
Sl. . t
.17* .591 . 481
·70<11 2.)91 1.961
1). ,
54.1
.611
'"·'
,loS•
.26•
. ]91 2. 61• 2.18• 1.2a ..
·1'*
. 291
.97*
. a I•
.so.
1. 6)• 1. 25*
.5]1 1.86tl.lo]il
.sa•
. 60•
. 68•
.26•
.181
· "'*
. 681 2. 22* '· lJ*
• 98.~
.loS•
. 2s •
·'" .,..
. ]01 2.27• t.Sh 1.02•
,I)*
.ts•
22 .• .29* · 97* .81• 22.•
·"9*
1.31*
59 . •
. SO•
)J.•
.91*
.11•
1.2.•
.n•
.u.
.29*
2.6t• 2.1a•
59.•
·11*
1, 6)• 1.25•
. 51* J.a6• L'- 3*
)J . •
.lolo *
lo2 . •
.51•
.sa•
.29*
·"3* 1.12*
1) . •
.1]*
·"''
.64• 2.22• 1.79*
1].*
)0 ...
.I]*
so ...
.12• • 28•
.117*1.14•
1) . •
51.*
. liS•
.16*
.65• 2.27* 1.81.t
1).•
St.•
. 16*
. 6S•
.,..
.04•
300
"hble JO, Proxinoate t~sition o1n d Energy Cootent of Some tomnonly Used Hidd le East Feeds (Cont.)
Dige5tlble Protein
...,_
Intern.-
Entry
035
0)6
OJ]
0)8
039
o•o
lnternatlon•l
Feed Name
ARISTIOA f'IUTAB ILlS. (Collt. )
-hay, SUI-cured , late vegeu.tive
O•y
feed
H!.l!lber
(')
1-27-821
~'Witter
··-
Cr!XIe
triiiCt NFE
m
(%)
... . ,
1.8
100.
1-27-822
-hay , sun-cured, midbl00111
ARTEHISIA ATLANTICA. S~ebrush
-~erial part , fresh
,
,,...
Toul
Ether
tiona I
39.2
l.o l. l
Fiber -'sh
tein
043
0"
o•5
046
0'7
0"
o••
050
051
052
053
05'
055
056
057
058
059
060
f iiO
IS.Io
u
'-6
llo . lo
1.3 - 2.2* -2.2* -1.9* -1.9*
1.3 -2 . }* -2 . 2* -1.9* -1.9*
100.
"·
2.8
6.3
1'}.0
42.':1
28.6
)8 .
1.2
3.1
16 . 1
lo2.J
10.1
•.o
26.6
10.6
1.3
4.0
15.8
t.9.5
21.5
1).5
41.8
5-9
6.3
18.]
19.6
ilo.2
39.5
18.8
19.8
'·'
19.2
15.9
lolo.2
8.1
22.4
llo.'}
m
m
.]
.8
.8•
.8•
m
... ...
.8•
. 8•
Ul¥~tlc
-browse . freliih
2-27-739
2-28-092
100.
ARTEI'IISIA SCOPARIA. lolonr!WOOd, orlenu1
-browse, fresh, 1;ne veget<Jtlve
2-27-510
"·
100 .
ATRIPLEXCANESC ENS. Saltbush, fou r wing
-b r owse, fresh
2~1o-160
ATRIPLEXHALHtUS. S<Jitbush, medite r ranean
-browse , f resh
2-27-132
Jl .
2.0
100.
'·'
"·
•6
2-7
100.
ATR IPLEX LEUCOCLAOA . S•ltbush, leucocl ada
-browse, fresh
2-27-610
ATR IPlEX NUM11ULARIA. 5•1tbush,olcMI.,
-browse, fresh, regrowth ear ly
vegetiltlve
ATRI PL[X SEMIBACCATA. Saltbush, c reep i ng
-bro wse, fresh
ATR IPLEX ~ESICARIA. S•ltbush, b1ildder
-browse, fresh
AVENA SA TIVA. Ons
-aer hd part, fresh
2-27-539
)6.
100.
2~4-158
2-27-730
2~3-292
1~]-28o
-3
"· ..,
1.2
12.]
3·8 6. I
8. 5 13 . 7
2-o0-650
-leaves, s\lfl- cured
1-Q0-61ol
06]
068
-moliiSses, 1110re than 48\ invert sugar
more than 79.5 degrees br i •
4-oo~8
8.5
'-5
'-'
"·'*
lo.2*
4.2•
'}.} *
9 -5*
9-5*
s.o•
lo.'}•
lo.S•
4.8•
6.6
17. ~
1) .2 * 12 . 8• 12.7* 12.7*
).1
9- 7 15 . 3
),6t J .5t
).5.. J .5*
11.) .. 10 .9 .. 10.9t 10.9*
...
'-'
).]*
10.2 *
'-'
].6• ) . St 3. ~ t ].lot
14.9t 14 . 5t \ ~ .2t 1 lo. 2*
5-7
6.0
15.8
16.8
1!,5t 1!.4t lo,lot ~!.lot
12.6* 12.2 '11 12 . \t 12,1*
5.6
2].2
'-'
3. 2
l] . lo
].2• ] . 2* ].2*
!}.8• 10.0* 10 . 0*
] . 1.. ] . It ).1*
12.9* 12.8• 12.8t
19 . 0
1.2
3-6
15.2
lolo.)
7-0
6. 0
•• 8
20.6
17.5
llo . O
).lo ..
10.0 ..
).)*
9.6*
Jl .
100.
1.)
4.0
1),1
40.5
1).)
•.o
12 . 2
2.7*
8.1ot
2 . 6 ..
7 ·9 *
8.)*
2.7•
8.3*
16.
..,
'·'
1.6
2.0
lo6. 2
26.]
10.]
12.5
1.5
9 -2
1.]*
8.2•
1 . 4•
8.5*
s.s ..
39·5
J3 . 8
J7.6
7-2
8. o
7-'
7-9
],]t
~lo.O
J.5t
J,9t
].4•
] .8•
2.0
)6 . 6
39 . 8
4 1. 6
45 . ]
7-7
8. •
'-'
.6•
. 6•
.2
1. 6
4. 0
2. •
2. 3
3.2
100.
3) . 2
20 . 1
19 . 0
26.1
91,+
100 . +
6.5 + 25 . 2+
7 . 2+ 2].8+
]9.
.2+61.6
.z... 77.9
"·
.8
"'·
,_,
"·
100.
065
066
...
6.9
lo.J*
'}.8•
35.1!
100.
1-o]-28]
BET AVU LGA RISAL TI SSI /'IA. Beet, s ug a r
-1e ilv e s, fresh
.
100 .
100.
- hay, sun-cur ed
"'
062
06)
064
8uf-
16.1
}6.6
3].8
AATUUSJA HERBA ALBA . SA9ebrush. white
0"
0"
"•
m
)4,8
}6.1o
m
2
H.]
~).
en-
m
1.3
1.3
9] .
Sheep Goat
m
"·
100.
2.3
2.6
'·3
'-'
,_,
)0.0
17.5
' -5
],6t
.]•
.8 •
),Jt
9 . 8 ..
2.7 ..
) . )t
9 . 8•
\,lot
) , lot
].8•
... ...
. 8•
.8•
2.6t 2.5 .. 2.1.* 2.4•
2\,)t 20 . 9* 20.1 * 20 . I t
6. 1+ 29.8+ 2).2+ 17 . 75 18 . Sii 17. ]li I],Jto
6 . ]+ ]2.8+ 25 . 5 • 19 . 4' 20.Io& 19.0& 19.0&
6.6 11.1
8. 3 14.0
8.o• 8.o•
10.1* 10.1 *
].0*
8.9•
].0*
8.9*
30 I
Energy f or
EntryO£
'"
Energy for Cioats
Sheep
" ""
!Mc: al (l'k;al
/kg) /IICJ) (>I
Feed
Unit
(fU
/ kg)
"' T'"
DE
( t\c~d (t\c•l
/kg)
/kg)
0]1
0)6
1.81111 1.4Q1t
OJ7
1.8]•1.4211
"·
''·
42. •
0)8
1. 90• 1.4 6•
lo] . t
....
.sz•
o•o
0)9
l,llot - 95*
2.57* 2.14•
26.•
sa.•
041
0"
1.09* .9] * 2S. •
2.86• 2. 44• 65 . •
O'J
04<
.91* .]8•
2.86• 2. 1o]t
041
0'6
.64V 18 . •
2.40* 1.9811' sto.•
047
048
.66• .so•
2.7&* 2. )4*
0'9
oso
1,0io* .89•
2.90* 2. 4]*
051
012
.55* ,44 •
2.2]• 1.84•
05]
os•
.89* - 75*
2.00* 2.18*
20.•
59 . •
.n•
015
056
-72* -59*
2.2]* 1.81•
16.•
51.*
,21' -121 .591
.6h2.231 1.811
057
058
. loS * .]8*
z.Bo• 2.38•
...
059
060
1.0]* 1.69*
..
2. ]1* 1.88•
,..
061
062
.,
1.89• 1,46•
.)0111 1.81jl,40#
m
Unit
(FU
/kQ)
DE
"''"'''
(11c:al
/k.gl /l(g)
NE "~
(t~al
/kg)
1.89# 1.46#
41.1'
4)./
.sn
. SO# 1. 8]• l,l.o2 •
1. 92* 1.49•
.]0*
,]3*
1.83/
'-21
42.1
.SOl 1.]8• 1.)6•
1.90# \,46#
4}./
.)21 1.8h 1.4111
.65•
. 67*
, ]4• 1. 14# -95#
.]6* 2.57/ 2.11oj
26./
sa.,
. ]4#1.25• l.o6• . 6]•
.]61 z.ao• 2.)8• 1.4 ]•
.)) •
1.091 . 'HI
.86• 2.8612.441
25-1
65.1
.28• -911 . ]81
. 86• 2.861 2.4]1
.2 ]*
.sz•
I.
Energy for lluffalo
Energy for Cattle
reed
"'' mT'"
NE g
(11cal (11cal
/kg) /k.g)
.19"'
,,..
.zo•
-95*
.t4•
.8] •
. 90*
42.*
""·*
40.•
Feed
Unit
(FU
/kg)
DE
(~\cal
/kg)
"' T'm"
(l'lc:al
/kg)
.so•
1.8)* 1,42111
-53* 1.92* t . lo9•
.lo811 1.]811 I,J6•
1. 8 ... 1. 41*
~2 ·*
u .•
1oo.•
Feed
Unit
(FU
/kg)
.so•
.53*
.48 •
lo2.•
.so•
42.t
.so•
-Jl* .6...
.8h !.lolo•
28.•
64.•
. J8•1.2S* 1.06* 2a . •
.au 2.80• 2.38• 61o . t
.St.•
. )]1 1.06•
. st.•
.8612-79* 2.37• 1.42•
. )2* .s~ot
.81!• 1.4)•
2lo . •
6) . *
. )2* 1.06•
.84• 2.79* 2.H*
2lo.•
6). •
.)2 *
.a ...
21.1
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Table ) 0 . Pro..:i1ute Composition and Energy Content of Some COI!I!IOnly Used 11iddle East Feeds ( Cont. )
Di gest i ble Pr o te i n
..
Intern~
,_
International
,,
Feed Name
NLM~ber
tlonal
Entr y
'"
8ETA VU LGAR ISALTISS UtA, (Cont.)
"'
-pulp, dehydrated
~-oo-669
013
07'
075
0)6
077
078
079
080
081
082
08)
0"
-pulp witt\ 1110iasses, dehyd rated
8ETA WLGARIS CRASSA, 8eet, C0ft1910n, red
-.eri•l pilrt , fresh
4-Q0-671
2...00-6}1
-s kl 11111 lllr., dellydr•ted
5-ol-168
5-o1-175
(%)
")
''· . ,
L2
2-Ql-Qio 7
2-o5-o63
.IRICH. Call igon....,, a r lch
-b r o wse , fresh
5-26-288
53 - 5
59.~
21.]
2].]
,.6
6.2
'"'
10 . 8
48.5
1],1
12.1
54.4
19.2
"· ·'
8. >
1] .
J.>
5- J
100.
2].4
4 1. 5
8).
.2
.2
45.'52.5
...
).1
"·
11.
100.
BUBAL USBUBALIS. Buffa1o, water
-milk, fresh
(%)
89.
100.
BRAS S ICARAPARAPA. Turnip
-.Jeri a! pa.rt, fresh
) . 1 60. )
.6
·'
•.o
08)
088
089
090
091
092
09)
09'
2-27-726
CANNA81SSAT1VA. Hoelnp, true
-seeds , eea1 .,echilllic•l vo.trac te d
5-o2-161
.....
CAR EXSP9 •
-h•y , sun-cured
5-o2-128
1-Qit-19)
2-27-802
095
096
-seeds
'--D7-9S8
097
098
-seeds , mea.l sol v cnteJr.tr ac ted
s-o1o-110
099
100
- seeds without hulh, meiil m«:hi!nical
101
102
s-o&-499
CASUAJIINA Cl.»>NINGHAHI.I NA . 8eefwood, cr..nnlngh.,..
-browse, fresh
2-27-72}
).]
4.2*
4.2 *
] .2 *
] . 2*
8.2
4.7*
4.7 •
] . 5*
] .5*
1. )
2.0
111.5
2. 1
49 . 4
19 . 1
11.5
14 . 5
1.511' '·" * •.s a L S*
10.5 * 10.1 * 10.2 * 10.2 *
'·'
2. 0
2. 2
18 . 1
20 . 5
1;:!
1.5* 1.4• 1.4* 1.4*
1) .6 * 1).2 * 1] . 0 * 1) . 0*
)9 . 6
·'
.8
u
,.,
6. 1
21 . 9
!}.It
1].0
19.1
6.6
)lo.2
)O.Io
,..
·'
)7 . ]
2.9
8. )
) 1.1
3 ~-9
5.0
o.o
)8 . 5
5-'
25. ]
...
0.0
2.1
42.8
48 . 1
2].0
25.9
10.6
11.9
10. 7
12.0
3 ~- 71
) ,)+
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-
1.7 *
4.} •
1. 5•
lo. J•
2 7 .6
) 1.1
2].61
6.1
6.8
6.9•
7.8•
lo.l •
9-9 *
}.9•
9.5•
1. }*
fo.9 •
1. } ..
~ - 9•
) I. II
).)
\00 .
).)
20.0
lo8.9
10.5
25-7
8.2
13.'3
100.
26 . 0
27.2
21.9
2 3.0
29 .1
)0.5
2.6
2. )
15.9
16.7
1.5
1.6
)0 . 8
)lo .2
19 . 1
21.)
6.5
).2
32.0
90 .
11 . 6
22 . 2
100.
12.9
2 4.8
).8
8.)
1] . ]
15. 3
]4, ]
J8. )
2.5
5-'
21.6
47 . 2
llo.4
). 6
31. ~
,.,
8.1
"·
3-21
]0.01
•. o
•.o
,..
) . 2+
2) . 7
)0 . 8
100.
1.U 1.4 • 1.4•
10 . 5* 10.1 * 10. 2* 10.2 *
1.5*
1.8
·' '·'
1].
90 .
3*
4. 8•
~.
6.1
100.
100.
4. 8•
2. )
2. 1 50.3
u
4, ]*
6. 0*
) 0.0
3 '-. 7
17.6
"·
5. 4•
, .1
8.6
25.4+ 25 . 41 2 5. 6 + 2 5 .6+
·'
...
m
) 2.6
5-'
,_,
Burhlo
1 6. ]
]2.0
100.
CARTHAHUS TINCTORIUS. Safflowe r
-~oerl•1 partwltl'loutheolds , fresh,
llllture
"'
ltl
5. J
6. )
... ,.,...
ltl
8.0
..2
39·9
100.
CAPRA HIRCUS. Goat
-milk, fresl'l
.., ...
Cit!'.oa t
.]
1/.
JS .
tein Sheep
··~
1%)
m
11. 8
100.
100.
'"'
( %)
10. )
CA LLI GO NU~
085
086
fi b er Ash
1%)
100.
100.
BRASS ItA OLERACEA CAP! UTA. Cabbi91!
-outside leaves, fresh
Crude
1'\iotter tract NF£
100.
80S TAURUS. Cntle
-nlllk , fr esh
Tota l
Ether
100.
070
071
072
,,, ,,_
5-7
6.5•
J, J•
to.o•
9.7 •
6.5..
7 - J•
4. o •
9-7 •
12.0* 12.0*10 . 8•10.8 •
12.5*12.5 * 11.3 * 11.3*
JS.J
).)
2.1 •
1. . 511
1. 9*
lo.1•
2.2•
lo.8•
2.2*
lo.8•
303
Energ~
...·-
Entry DE
for Sheep
Energy for Goats
Feed
Urdt
'" '" " " ""
" ltl
ltl
( Mc.p,l ( Meal
/kg ) /kg)
/kt;J)
(r\c al (Mea l
/k.g) /kg)
Energy for Butf1to
Ener9y for Ctttle
Feed
Unit
(FU
/kq)
" "'
( Ileal (11<:11
/kg) /kg)
NE ,.,
N[ q
tKc•l ( Mc~d
/kg)
/ kg )
"'I ""
ltl
(~'~coil
I
/kg)
Feed
Unit
( FU
DE
ME
(Meal (1'\cal
TON
fecll
Unit
( FU
/k g )
/kg)
(\)
/kg)
/kg)
0"
070
2.]4fl. 2.36•·
) . 04<1 2.62"
62 . •
69 . •
. 'B"' ; . o4,. 2.&2* 69 . "'
,SJ, .:r 2.£!1* 2.2)* 1 .