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Weather & Climate
This form of rain is
common in the east of
England during the
1. The sun heats the ground and warm air rises.
2. As the air rises it cools and water vapour
condenses to form water droplets.
3. Water droplets join together to form clouds.
4. Heavy rain storms occur.
Relief rainfall
Relief rain is formed
when air is forced to
cool as it rises over
relief (height) features
in the landscape (hills or
1. Air is forced to rise and cools by 1°C per 100m.
2. As the water vapour in the air condenses, it forms
clouds and rains.
3. The air starts to descend and begins to warm up
4. As air warms up, it can hold more water vapour clouds disappear and rain stops. This side is known as
Frontal Rainfall
1. An area of warm air meets and area of cold air.
2. The warm air is forced over the cold air
3. Where the air meets the warm air is cooled and
water vapour condenses.
4. Clouds form and precipitation occurs.
Year 7 topic 7 – Weather and Climate
What are the OLAWS of climate?
Learning objectives:
1. Identify the factors that affect climate.
2. Explain how the different factors affect climate.
Ocean currents
Prevailing Winds
Distance from
the Sea
Ocean Currents
The effect that ocean
currents have on the
temperature depends on
whether the ocean current is
hot or cold. Britain is on the
same latitude (distance from
Equator) as Siberia and parts of
Russia, yet it does not suffer
the same long, harsh winters.
Britain’s mild climate is partly
due to the Gulf Stream, a large
Atlantic Ocean current of warm
water from the Gulf of Mexico.
Distance from the Equator
Imaginary lines around the globe
Locations that are further
North/South receive less heat
energy from the Sun.
The equator lies directly underneath
the Sun and so countries that fall
on the equator receive more solar
(heat) energy.
Challenge: How do you
think this affects
Height above sea level (metres)
Temperatures decrease with altitude. There is a 1°C drop in
temperature for every increase of 100 m in height. This is
because the air is less dense in higher altitudes, so it isn’t as
good as holding heat.
Challenge: Will it be
colder at the top or
bottom of a mountain?
Do you know what
mountain this is?
Prevailing Winds
The temperature of
the wind and the
amount of rainfall
partly depend on
where the air has
come from. Looking
at where the air has
come from helps to
explain the
characteristics of
the weather. A large
body of air with
characteristics is
called an air mass.
Prevailing winds are the
dominant (main) wind direction
in an area.
Distance from the Sea
Coastal areas are most
affected by the sea. The sea
takes longer to heat up and
cool down than land. So in the
winter the sea keeps coastal
areas warm and in summer, it
cools them down.
Typhoon Hagibis
Effects of the typhoon:
Look at the different sources and complete your sheet with
Go further…..
Categorise your effects
into primary and
secondary. Also
economic, social and
2) Examine the effects of the typhoon.'s%20Typhoon%20Hag
Many households in Chiba and
other areas were left without
power for many days (around
Around 425, 000 homes lost power
on the night of the typhoon.
Damage to more than 85, 000
homes (clean up is expected to
take a few years!).
Roads were flooded and
bridges broken by the
flood waters (300 rivers
850 mudslide incidents.
A large proportion of
people living in Tokyo –
Chiba, Kawasaki city etc.
- are elderly.
Trains were cancelled and
delayed for many hours.
Many were late for work or had
to take paid leave as they were
unable to travel.
10 of the Shinkansen (10 bullet
trains) were badly damaged.
To be scrapped completely, the
damage could amount up
to ¥30 billion (S$377 million).
It took around 2 weeks for the
Shinkansen to run normally
following the typhoon.
At least 91 people were killed in
Typhoon Hagibis with another 15
missing and 186 injured.
Hagibis’s wind
speed was 112
mph near its
center and
has gusts of
up to 156 mph.
Hagibis brought record-breaking rainfall to many
areas. For example, the popular resort of Hakone,
received 37 inches of rain over 24 hours.
Many tourists were
confused and unsure
how to stay safe during
the typhoon.
Some services used
English announcements
and simple hiragana to
help foreign residents
and tourists.
Note: Autumn is one of Japans most
popular tourist seasons
On Saturday 12th
October the Rugby
World Cup matches
between New
Zealand and Italy,
and England and
France were
It would have been
unsafe to allow
players and fans to
The heavy rain caused
Chikuma river in Nagano
prefecture, northwest of
Tokyo, to flood its banks.
Some houses along the river
were nearly fully submerged
in water and at least one
person was rescued from
the roof of a house by
Many houses in the flooded
areas are traditional,
wooden houses.
What have we learnt?
• We know that plastic we throw
away often finds its way into
the sea.
• It becomes a major problem
throughout the world because it
does not biodegrade quickly.
• It kills lots of wildlife and has
risks to humans.
• All oceans are affected but
specific areas are badly
affected – coasts, inland seas,
2. Identify areas of the world where plastic accumulates.
1. Colour code your
sheet to show the
causes and effects
of desertification.
2. Which cause do
you think is the most
severe and why?
3. Which effect do
you think is the most
severe and why?
Go further…. What
do you think will
happen in the
future? Explain
your ideas.
Crops fail and cows and
sheep die
People do not have enough
food and are starving
Decrease in the amount of
food produced
Too many cows - means that
there is not enough for them
to eat. They eat all of the
plants from the ground and
the soil is exposed.
Soil is exposed, there are no
plants covering it
Damage to trees as the
branches are removed for
firewood- these die.
The population has grown
Climate change leads to less
rain. No plants will grow.
More people means more
firewood is needed
Soil is blown away by the wind
and leaves bare rock behind
Land is abandoned as people
move to the cities
The soil has blown away and
there are fewer places to
grow food crops or grass for
the cows.
Desertification example: Sahel, Northern Africa.